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Tobacco Regulatory Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30417034/reduced-nicotine-content-cigarettes-and-cannabis-use-in-vulnerable-populations
#1
Maria A Parker, Joanna M Streck, Cecilia L Bergeria, Janice Y Bunn, Diann E Gaalema, Danielle R Davis, Anthony J Barrows, Stacey C Sigmon, Jennifer W Tidey, Sarah H Heil, Stephen T Higgins
Objective: We estimated whether recent cannabis use moderates response to cigarettes varying in nicotine content (0.4, 2.4, 5.2, 15.8 mg/g) among smokers with concurrent affective disorders, opioid dependence, or socioeconomic disadvantage. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of a multi-site, double-blind, laboratory study examining acute response to reduced nicotine content cigarettes (RNCC) in 169 adult smokers with co-morbid conditions. Participants positive for recent cannabis use or self-reported past 30-day cannabis use at baseline were categorized as current cannabis users (N = 63)...
September 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128332/cigarette-and-smokeless-tobacco-perception-differences-of-rural-male-youth
#2
Benjamin W Chaffee, Jing Cheng
Objectives: Compare cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) perceptions within a youth population where ST use is common. Methods: Male baseball players (N = 594) at 36 rural high schools in California rated separately 20 potential risks or benefits associated with cigarettes or ST, along with global harm ratings. Informed by principal components analysis, 3 composite categories were created: oral/rule-breaking risks (eg, mouth cancer, getting in trouble), systemic risks (eg, heart attack), and benefits (eg, relaxation)...
July 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009217/warning-size-affects-what-adolescents-recall-from-tobacco-advertisements
#3
Abigail T Evans, Ellen Peters, Brittney Keller-Hamilton, Christopher Loiewski, Michael D Slater, Bo Lu, Megan E Roberts, Amy K Ferketich
Objectives: In the U.S., print advertisements for smokeless tobacco (SLT) feature a large black-and-white text warning covering 20% of the advertisement space. Cigarette and e-cigarette advertisements feature a small warning covering approximately 4% of advertisement space. We explored how warning size affects adolescent boys' spontaneous recollection of the warning, brand-relevant advertisement features, and product risks. Methods: 1,220 adolescent males (ages 11-16) viewed SLT, cigarette, and e-cigarette advertisements...
May 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288395/effective-formats-for-communicating-risks-from-cigarette-smoke-chemicals
#4
M Justin Byron, Allison J Lazard, Ellen Peters, Huyen Vu, Annie Schmidt, Noel T Brewer
Objective: The US government requires the public display of information about toxic chemicals in cigarettes and smoke by brand in a way that is understandable and not misleading. We sought to identify risk communication formats that meet these goals. Methods: We conducted 3 online experiments with US adult convenience samples (total N = 1866). Participants viewed a webpage displaying information about chemicals in the smoke of a cigarette brand. Experiment 1 varied the chemicals listed and format for their health effects...
March 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862311/characteristics-of-the-tobacco-user-adult-cohort-in-urban-and-rural-ohio
#5
Theodore M Brasky, Alice Hinton, Nathan J Doogan, Sarah E Cooper, Haikady N Nagaraja, Wenna Xi, Peter G Shields, Mary Ellen Wewers
Objectives: Identifying characteristics associated with the use of new and emerging tobacco products is a priority. The enumeration and baseline characteristics of a new cohort of adult tobacco users are described. Methods: Residents, ≥18 years of age, in urban Franklin County, or one of 6 rural Appalachian counties, and who were exclusive users of combustible, smokeless (SLT), or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) tobacco products, or were dual users, were targeted for recruitment...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516029/use-behaviors-dependence-and-nicotine-exposure-associated-with-ad-libitum-cigar-smoking
#6
Eric D Claus, Benjamin C Moeller, Darlene Harbour, Philip J Kuehl, Michael McGuire, Juan C Vivar, Megan J Schroeder
Objectives: To examine factors important to cigar smoking and subsequent nicotine exposure, we evaluated the impact of cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and inhalation behaviors on nicotine dependence, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure in current exclusive cigar smokers. Methods: Adult, exclusive cigar smokers (N = 77) were recruited based on cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and self-reported inhalation behaviors. Participants smoked their own brand product ad libitum for up to one hour; dependence symptoms, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure were assessed...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503825/real-time-assessment-of-young-adults-attitudes-toward-tobacco-messages
#7
Emily T Hébert, Elizabeth A Vandewater, Michael S Businelle, Melissa B Harrell, Steven H Kelder, Cheryl L Perry
Objectives: We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults' attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Methods: Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479558/plasma-menthol-glucuronide-as-a-biomarker-of-acute-menthol-inhalation
#8
Peter Jatlow, Gerald Valentine, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Haleh Nadim, Ran Wu, Stephanie S O'Malley, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Objectives: Menthol is often added to cigarettes and e-cigarette solutions for its cooling and anti-irritant effects, and may contribute to development of nicotine dependence, particularly in vulnerable populations such as adolescents, and among African Americans. Menthol is rapidly metabolized to menthol glucuronide (MG) with little or no unconjugated menthol measurable in venous blood. Human challenge studies of the effects of inhaled menthol, and of its interactions with nicotine, would benefit from a quantitative measure of acute menthol exposure...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250577/cigarette-design-features-effects-on-emission-levels-user-perception-and-behavior
#9
Reinskje Talhout, Patricia A Richter, Irina Stepanov, Christina V Watson, Clifford H Watson
Objectives: This paper describes the effects of non-tobacco, physical cigarette design features on smoke emissions, product appeal, and smoking behaviors - 3 factors that determine smoker's exposure and related health risks. Methods: We reviewed available evidence for the impact of filter ventilation, new filter types, and cigarettes dimensions on toxic emissions, smoker's perceptions, and behavior. For evidence sources we used scientific literature and websites providing product characteristics and marketing information...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242819/effects-of-e-cigarette-advertising-messages-and-cues-on-cessation-outcomes
#10
Catherine L Jo, Shelley D Golden, Seth M Noar, Christine Rini, Kurt M Ribisl
Objectives: We examined effects of e-cigarette ad messages and visual cues on outcomes related to combustible cigarette smoking cessation: smoking cessation intention, smoking urges, and immediate smoking behavior. Methods: US adult smokers (N = 3293) were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk and randomized to condition in a 3 (message: e-cigarette use anywhere, harm reduction, control) × 2 (e-cigarette cue presence or absence) between-subjects experiment. Stimuli were print ads for cigarette-like e-cigarettes ("cigalikes") that were manipulated for the experimental conditions...
January 1, 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220149/chemical-characterization-of-mainstream-smoke-from-spectrum-variable-nicotine-research-cigarettes
#11
Yan S Ding, Patricia Richter, Bryan Hearn, Liqin Zhang, Roberto Bravo, Xizheng Yan, Jose J Perez, Michele Chan, Jared Hughes, Patrick Chen, Wayne Chen, Joshua Wong, Sydney Holmberg, Shakia Smith, Morgan Larango, Liza Valentín-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. METHODS: Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods...
December 1, 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338270/tobacco-related-poison-events-involving-young-children-in-the-us-2001-2016
#12
Baoguang Wang, Brian Rostron
Objective: In this paper, we describe trends in tobacco-related poison exposure calls (calls) involving young children in the US. Methods: Data were from the National Poison Data System between January 1, 2001 and October 31, 2016. We analyzed data on calls involving children younger than 5 years old. We describe trends in calls over time and call frequency by age, tobacco product type, level of care, and other characteristics of calls. Results: During 2001-2016, there were 123,876 calls involving young children...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238022/e-cigarettes-warning-labels-and-modified-risk-statements-tests-of-messages-to-reduce-recreational-use
#13
Sherri Jean Katz, Bruce Lindgren, Dorothy Hatsukami
Objectives: We tested how variations of the warning message on e-cigarette packages influenced risk and ambiguity perceptions, and whether including a modified risk statement on the package influenced how the warning label was perceived. Method: A 4 (warning text) × 2 (modified risk statement), plus control, experiment (N = 451) was conducted. Results: Smoking status, sex, and the language used in the warning statements interacted to influence risk perceptions...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911130/little-cigars-vs-3r4f-cigarette-physical-properties-and-hphc-yields
#14
Samera H Hamad, Nathan M Johnson, Margaret E Tefft, Marielle C Brinkman, Sydney M Gordon, Pamela I Clark, Stephanie S Buehler
Objective: Our objective was to characterize physical properties and semivolatile harmful and potentially harmful constituent yields in the mainstream smoke (MSS) of 4 popular little cigars compared to the 3R4F reference cigarette. Methods: We used the ISO and Canadian Intense Regimen protocols to generate MSS for Cheyenne (Full Flavor and Menthol) and Swisher Sweets (Original and Sweet Cherry) little cigars; and the 3R4F. We examined physical properties such as length, tobacco filler mass, pressure drop, and ventilation for each product...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516028/comparison-of-measures-of-e-cigarette-advertising-exposure-and-receptivity
#15
Pallav Pokhrel, Pebbles Fagan, Thaddeus A Herzog, Simone Schmid, Crissy T Kawamoto, Jennifer B Unger
Objectives: We tested how various measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure and receptivity are related to each other and compare to each other in their associations with e-cigarette use susceptibility and behavior. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from young adult college students (N = 470; Mage = 20.9, SD = 2.1; 65% women). Measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure/receptivity compared included a cued recall measure, measures of marketing receptivity, perceived ad exposure, liking of e-cigarette ads, and frequency of convenience store visit, which is considered a measure of point-of-sale ad exposure...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450218/attitudes-toward-fda-regulation-of-newly-deemed-tobacco-products
#16
Sarah D Kowitt, Adam O Goldstein, Allison M Schmidt, Marissa G Hall, Noel T Brewer
Objective: To examine how smokers perceive FDA oversight of e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigars. Methods: Current US smokers (N = 1,520) participating in a randomized clinical trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings completed a survey that included questions about attitudes toward new FDA regulations covering newly deemed tobacco products (ie, regulation of e-cigarettes, nicotine gels or liquids used in e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigars). Results: Between 47% and 56% of current smokers viewed these new FDA regulations favorably and between 17% - 24% opposed them...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204463/effect-of-flavors-and-modified-risk-messages-on-e-cigarette-abuse-liability
#17
Andrew J Barnes, Rose S Bono, Rebecca C Lester, Thomas E Eissenberg, Caroline O Cobb
Objectives: To measure e-cigarettes' abuse liability compared to conventional tobacco cigarettes under flavor and message conditions amenable to regulation. Methods: Two studies used 2×2 within-subjects designs with factors of e-cigarette flavor (Study 1: tobacco vs. menthol; Study 2: cherry vs. unflavored) and message (Study 1: reduced harm vs. no message; Study 2: reduced exposure to carcinogens vs. no message) with cigarette smokers (N(total) = 36). Linear mixed effects models assessed abuse liability for tobacco products...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104902/internet-based-advertising-claims-and-consumer-reasons-for-using-electronic-cigarettes-by-device-type-in-the-us
#18
Kim Pulvers, Jessica Y Sun, Yue-Lin Zhuang, Gabriel Holguin, Shu-Hong Zhu
Objectives: Important differences exist between closed-system and open-system e-cigarettes, but it is unknown whether online companies are marketing these devices differently and whether consumer reasons for using e-cigarettes vary by device type. This paper compares Internet-based advertising claims of closed- versus open-system products, and evaluates US consumers' reasons for using closed- versus open-system e-cigarettes. Methods: Internet sites selling exclusively closed (N = 130) or open (N = 129) e-cigarettes in December 2013-January 2014 were coded for advertising claims...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30135863/the-importance-of-filter-collection-for-accurate-measurement-of-cigarette-smoking
#19
Megan L Saddleson, E Paul Wileyto, Rahul Darwar, Susan Ware, Andrew A Strasser
Objectives: We examined the impact of cigarette filter collection on reports of cigarettes per day (CPD) versus self-reported CPD and to assess the utility of a pre-intervention baseline period in smoking studies. Methods: Using baseline data from 522 non-treatment seeking smokers, we assessed differences in self-reported CPD via phone screen (CPD PS) and during baseline (CPD BL). We analyzed self-reported cigarette measures to predict carbon monoxide (CO), a measure of smoke exposure...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744375/counterfeit-electronic-cigarette-products-with-mislabeled-nicotine-concentrations
#20
Esther E Omaiye, Iliana Cordova, Barbara Davis, Prue Talbot
Objectives: We compared nicotine concentrations in one brand of refill fluids that were purchased in 4 countries and labeled 0 mg of nicotine/mL. We then identified counterfeit e-cigarette products from these countries. Methods: Overall, 125 e-cigarette refill fluids were purchased in Nigeria, the United States (US), England, and China. Nicotine concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and compared to labeled concentrations. Refill fluids were examined to identify physical differences and grouped into authentic and counterfeit products...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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