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Tobacco Regulatory Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128332/cigarette-and-smokeless-tobacco-perception-differences-of-rural-male-youth
#1
Benjamin W Chaffee, Jing Cheng
Objectives: Compare cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) perceptions within a youth population where ST use is common. Methods: Male baseball players (N = 594) at 36 rural high schools in California rated separately 20 potential risks or benefits associated with cigarettes or ST, along with global harm ratings. Informed by principal components analysis, 3 composite categories were created: oral/rule-breaking risks (eg, mouth cancer, getting in trouble), systemic risks (eg, heart attack), and benefits (eg, relaxation)...
July 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009217/warning-size-affects-what-adolescents-recall-from-tobacco-advertisements
#2
Abigail T Evans, Ellen Peters, Brittney Keller-Hamilton, Christopher Loiewski, Michael D Slater, Bo Lu, Megan E Roberts, Amy K Ferketich
Objectives: In the U.S., print advertisements for smokeless tobacco (SLT) feature a large black-and-white text warning covering 20% of the advertisement space. Cigarette and e-cigarette advertisements feature a small warning covering approximately 4% of advertisement space. We explored how warning size affects adolescent boys' spontaneous recollection of the warning, brand-relevant advertisement features, and product risks. Methods: 1,220 adolescent males (ages 11-16) viewed SLT, cigarette, and e-cigarette advertisements...
May 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862311/characteristics-of-the-tobacco-user-adult-cohort-in-urban-and-rural-ohio
#3
Theodore M Brasky, Alice Hinton, Nathan J Doogan, Sarah E Cooper, Haikady N Nagaraja, Wenna Xi, Peter G Shields, Mary Ellen Wewers
Objectives: Identifying characteristics associated with the use of new and emerging tobacco products is a priority. The enumeration and baseline characteristics of a new cohort of adult tobacco users are described. Methods: Residents, ≥18 years of age, in urban Franklin County, or one of 6 rural Appalachian counties, and who were exclusive users of combustible, smokeless (SLT), or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) tobacco products, or were dual users, were targeted for recruitment...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516029/use-behaviors-dependence-and-nicotine-exposure-associated-with-ad-libitum-cigar-smoking
#4
Eric D Claus, Benjamin C Moeller, Darlene Harbour, Philip J Kuehl, Michael McGuire, Juan C Vivar, Megan J Schroeder
Objectives: To examine factors important to cigar smoking and subsequent nicotine exposure, we evaluated the impact of cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and inhalation behaviors on nicotine dependence, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure in current exclusive cigar smokers. Methods: Adult, exclusive cigar smokers (N = 77) were recruited based on cigar type, cigarette smoking history, and self-reported inhalation behaviors. Participants smoked their own brand product ad libitum for up to one hour; dependence symptoms, smoking topography, and biomarkers of exposure were assessed...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503825/real-time-assessment-of-young-adults-attitudes-toward-tobacco-messages
#5
Emily T Hébert, Elizabeth A Vandewater, Michael S Businelle, Melissa B Harrell, Steven H Kelder, Cheryl L Perry
Objectives: We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults' attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Methods: Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479558/plasma-menthol-glucuronide-as-a-biomarker-of-acute-menthol-inhalation
#6
Peter Jatlow, Gerald Valentine, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Haleh Nadim, Ran Wu, Stephanie S O'Malley, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Objectives: Menthol is often added to cigarettes and e-cigarette solutions for its cooling and anti-irritant effects, and may contribute to development of nicotine dependence, particularly in vulnerable populations such as adolescents, and among African Americans. Menthol is rapidly metabolized to menthol glucuronide (MG) with little or no unconjugated menthol measurable in venous blood. Human challenge studies of the effects of inhaled menthol, and of its interactions with nicotine, would benefit from a quantitative measure of acute menthol exposure...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250577/cigarette-design-features-effects-on-emission-levels-user-perception-and-behavior
#7
Reinskje Talhout, Patricia A Richter, Irina Stepanov, Christina V Watson, Clifford H Watson
Objectives: This paper describes the effects of non-tobacco, physical cigarette design features on smoke emissions, product appeal, and smoking behaviors - 3 factors that determine smoker's exposure and related health risks. Methods: We reviewed available evidence for the impact of filter ventilation, new filter types, and cigarettes dimensions on toxic emissions, smoker's perceptions, and behavior. For evidence sources we used scientific literature and websites providing product characteristics and marketing information...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242819/effects-of-e-cigarette-advertising-messages-and-cues-on-cessation-outcomes
#8
Catherine L Jo, Shelley D Golden, Seth M Noar, Christine Rini, Kurt M Ribisl
Objectives: We examined effects of e-cigarette ad messages and visual cues on outcomes related to combustible cigarette smoking cessation: smoking cessation intention, smoking urges, and immediate smoking behavior. Methods: US adult smokers (N = 3293) were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk and randomized to condition in a 3 (message: e-cigarette use anywhere, harm reduction, control) × 2 (e-cigarette cue presence or absence) between-subjects experiment. Stimuli were print ads for cigarette-like e-cigarettes ("cigalikes") that were manipulated for the experimental conditions...
January 1, 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220149/chemical-characterization-of-mainstream-smoke-from-spectrum-variable-nicotine-research-cigarettes
#9
Yan S Ding, Patricia Richter, Bryan Hearn, Liqin Zhang, Roberto Bravo, Xizheng Yan, Jose J Perez, Michele Chan, Jared Hughes, Patrick Chen, Wayne Chen, Joshua Wong, Sydney Holmberg, Shakia Smith, Morgan Larango, Liza Valentín-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. METHODS: Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods...
December 1, 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911130/little-cigars-vs-3r4f-cigarette-physical-properties-and-hphc-yields
#10
Samera H Hamad, Nathan M Johnson, Margaret E Tefft, Marielle C Brinkman, Sydney M Gordon, Pamela I Clark, Stephanie S Buehler
Objective: Our objective was to characterize physical properties and semivolatile harmful and potentially harmful constituent yields in the mainstream smoke (MSS) of 4 popular little cigars compared to the 3R4F reference cigarette. Methods: We used the ISO and Canadian Intense Regimen protocols to generate MSS for Cheyenne (Full Flavor and Menthol) and Swisher Sweets (Original and Sweet Cherry) little cigars; and the 3R4F. We examined physical properties such as length, tobacco filler mass, pressure drop, and ventilation for each product...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516028/comparison-of-measures-of-e-cigarette-advertising-exposure-and-receptivity
#11
Pallav Pokhrel, Pebbles Fagan, Thaddeus A Herzog, Simone Schmid, Crissy T Kawamoto, Jennifer B Unger
Objectives: We tested how various measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure and receptivity are related to each other and compare to each other in their associations with e-cigarette use susceptibility and behavior. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from young adult college students (N = 470; Mage = 20.9, SD = 2.1; 65% women). Measures of e-cigarette advertising exposure/receptivity compared included a cued recall measure, measures of marketing receptivity, perceived ad exposure, liking of e-cigarette ads, and frequency of convenience store visit, which is considered a measure of point-of-sale ad exposure...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450218/attitudes-toward-fda-regulation-of-newly-deemed-tobacco-products
#12
Sarah D Kowitt, Adam O Goldstein, Allison M Schmidt, Marissa G Hall, Noel T Brewer
Objective: To examine how smokers perceive FDA oversight of e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigars. Methods: Current US smokers (N = 1,520) participating in a randomized clinical trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings completed a survey that included questions about attitudes toward new FDA regulations covering newly deemed tobacco products (ie, regulation of e-cigarettes, nicotine gels or liquids used in e-cigarettes, hookah, and cigars). Results: Between 47% and 56% of current smokers viewed these new FDA regulations favorably and between 17% - 24% opposed them...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204463/effect-of-flavors-and-modified-risk-messages-on-e-cigarette-abuse-liability
#13
Andrew J Barnes, Rose S Bono, Rebecca C Lester, Thomas E Eissenberg, Caroline O Cobb
Objectives: To measure e-cigarettes' abuse liability compared to conventional tobacco cigarettes under flavor and message conditions amenable to regulation. Methods: Two studies used 2×2 within-subjects designs with factors of e-cigarette flavor (Study 1: tobacco vs. menthol; Study 2: cherry vs. unflavored) and message (Study 1: reduced harm vs. no message; Study 2: reduced exposure to carcinogens vs. no message) with cigarette smokers (N(total) = 36). Linear mixed effects models assessed abuse liability for tobacco products...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104902/internet-based-advertising-claims-and-consumer-reasons-for-using-electronic-cigarettes-by-device-type-in-the-us
#14
Kim Pulvers, Jessica Y Sun, Yue-Lin Zhuang, Gabriel Holguin, Shu-Hong Zhu
Objectives: Important differences exist between closed-system and open-system e-cigarettes, but it is unknown whether online companies are marketing these devices differently and whether consumer reasons for using e-cigarettes vary by device type. This paper compares Internet-based advertising claims of closed- versus open-system products, and evaluates US consumers' reasons for using closed- versus open-system e-cigarettes. Methods: Internet sites selling exclusively closed (N = 130) or open (N = 129) e-cigarettes in December 2013-January 2014 were coded for advertising claims...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30135863/the-importance-of-filter-collection-for-accurate-measurement-of-cigarette-smoking
#15
Megan L Saddleson, E Paul Wileyto, Rahul Darwar, Susan Ware, Andrew A Strasser
Objectives: We examined the impact of cigarette filter collection on reports of cigarettes per day (CPD) versus self-reported CPD and to assess the utility of a pre-intervention baseline period in smoking studies. Methods: Using baseline data from 522 non-treatment seeking smokers, we assessed differences in self-reported CPD via phone screen (CPD PS) and during baseline (CPD BL). We analyzed self-reported cigarette measures to predict carbon monoxide (CO), a measure of smoke exposure...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744375/counterfeit-electronic-cigarette-products-with-mislabeled-nicotine-concentrations
#16
Esther E Omaiye, Iliana Cordova, Barbara Davis, Prue Talbot
Objectives: We compared nicotine concentrations in one brand of refill fluids that were purchased in 4 countries and labeled 0 mg of nicotine/mL. We then identified counterfeit e-cigarette products from these countries. Methods: Overall, 125 e-cigarette refill fluids were purchased in Nigeria, the United States (US), England, and China. Nicotine concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and compared to labeled concentrations. Refill fluids were examined to identify physical differences and grouped into authentic and counterfeit products...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082302/adolescent-and-young-adult-perceptions-on-cigar-packaging-a-qualitative-study
#17
Grace Kong, Dana A Cavallo, Krysten W Bold, Heather LaVallee, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
OBJECTIVE: To identify the appealing components of cigar packaging among youth. METHODS: We conducted 8 focus groups among cigar users, separated by sex and age group (ie, adolescents, young adults) in Connecticut between February and July, 2016. Participants were shown cigar packages and instructed to circle aspects of the images on the packages that appealed to them independently and a group discussion followed. RESULTS: The appealing components identified were flavors (46...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798947/international-organization-of-standardization-iso-and-cambridge-filter-test-cft-smoking-regimen-data-comparisons-in-tobacco-product-marketing-applications
#18
Changyu Chae, Matthew J Walters, Matthew R Holman
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. METHODS: Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. RESULTS: Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R2 > 0...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781992/perceived-flavored-smokeless-tobacco-ease-of-use-and-youth-susceptibility
#19
Benjamin W Chaffee, Janelle Urata, Elizabeth T Couch, Stuart A Gansky
OBJECTIVES: Beliefs that flavored smokeless tobacco (ST) is more pleasant, less potent, or otherwise easier to use could contribute to youth initiation. We evaluated associations between perceived ease-of-use of flavored ST (moist snuff and chewing tobacco) and ST initiation susceptibility in a representative sample of US youth. METHODS: Among 7,718 tobacco never-users in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study (age: 12-17; collected: 2013-2014), we compared 4 ST susceptibility items (curiosity, expectation, willingness to try, and a composite) according to whether participants reported flavored ST to be "easier to use" than unflavored ST...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758143/mentoring-for-success-in-tobacco-regulatory-science-a-qualitative-study
#20
Abigail R Russo, Amy C Solis, Andrea C Villanti, Heather L Wipfli, Teresa T Kern, Rachel K Lawley, Lauren K Collins, Haneen S Abudayyeh, Melanie C Chansky, Stanton A Glantz, Jonathan M Samet, Emelia J Benjamin
OBJECTIVES: Our study explores the experiences of early career and senior scientists regarding mentorship and career trajectories in tobacco regulatory science (TRS). METHODS: We conducted 22 phone interviews with early career and senior tobacco regulatory scientists from July 2015 to January 2016. All interviews were conducted using a structured interview guide and analyzed using a thematic approach by 2 independent coders. RESULTS: TRS presents specific opportunities and challenges to scientists due to its focused goal of informing tobacco regulation...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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