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Tobacco Regulatory Science

Clare Meernik, Kristen Jarman, Sarah Towner Wright, Elizabeth G Klein, Adam O Goldstein, Leah Ranney
OBJECTIVE: In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. METHODS: We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. RESULTS: Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Maria Cooper, Melissa B Harrell, Adriana PĂ©rez, Joanne Delk, Cheryl L Perry
OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing trend in use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") among youth, it is crucial to understand how these products are perceived and how these perceptions are associated with their decision whether or not to use them. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a rapid response surveillance system of 6th, 8th and 10th grade students' tobacco use behaviors (sample [n] = 3704 from a population of students [N] = 434,601)...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Elizabeth G Klein, Micah Berman, Natalie Hemmerich, Cristen Carlson, SuSandi Htut, Michael Slater
OBJECTIVES: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are heavily marketed online. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic identification and evaluation of claims made within ENDS retailer and manufacturer websites, and the legal status of such claims. METHODS: We employed a systematic search protocol with popular search engines using 6 terms: (1) e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigs; (3) e-juice; (4) e-liquid; (5) e-hookah; and (6) vape pen...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Jennifer P Alexander, Blair N Coleman, Sarah E Johnson, Greta K Tessman, Cindy Tworek, Denise M Dickinson
OBJECTIVE: We explored the terminology of adult e-cigarette users in describing e-cigarette products and their use. We report how users discuss and differentiate these products and the language and culture surrounding them. METHODS: Focus groups (N = 12) were held in 5 locations in the United States between March and May, 2014. Participants (N = 99) included young adults or adults who were either exclusive or nonexclusive e-cigarette users. We gathered data on how users identify various types of e-cigarettes and how users understand and describe specific terms...
July 1, 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Amy L Nyman, Kymberle L Sterling, Scott R Weaver, Ban A Majeed, Michael P Eriksen
OBJECTIVE: This study examines little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) adult user characteristics, perceived addictiveness, use and importance of flavors, intentions to continue use, and reasons for use to inform prevention efforts and regulatory policy. METHODS: Data come from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a national probability sample of 5717 US adults, conducted online, June-November, 2014. The analytic sample consisted of 141 current LCC users...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Megan E Roberts, Ellen Peters, Amy K Ferketich, Elizabeth G Klein
OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether age is a factor in viewing time for tobacco warning labels. The approach drew from previous work demonstrating an age-related positivity effect, whereby older adults show preferences toward positive and away from negative stimuli. METHODS: Participants were 295 daily smokers from Appalachian Ohio (age range: 21-68). All participants took part in an eye-tracking paradigm that captured the attention paid to elements of health warning labels in the context of magazine advertisements...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
David S Timberlake, Tim A Bruckner, Vyvian Ngo, Dmitriy Nikitin
OBJECTIVE: Restricting tobacco marketing is a key element in the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) public health framework for regulating tobacco. Given the dearth of empirical data on direct marketing, the objective of this study was to assess the reach and impact of promotions on sales through snuff websites. METHODS: Nine brands of snuff, representing more than 90% of market share, were monitored for content of coupons, sweepstakes, contests, and other promotions on their respective websites...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Olivia A Wackowski, Michelle T Bover Manderski, Cristine D Delnevo, Daniel P Giovenco, M Jane Lewis
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the context of smokers' first e-cigarette experiences, reasons for trying e-cigarettes, not continuing their use, and future use intentions. METHODS: We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 519 current cigarette smokers in the United States (classified as never, current, or former e-cigarette users/triers) in April 2014 about their e-cigarette experiences and use intentions. RESULTS: Among ever e-cigarette users/triers, 43% purchased an e-cigarette on their own as their first method of trial...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Allison M Schmidt, Leah M Ranney, Jessica K Pepper, Adam O Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: Perceived credibility of a message's source can affect persuasion. This paper reviews how beliefs about the source of tobacco control messages may encourage attitude and behavior change. METHODS: We conducted a series of searches of the peer-reviewed literature using terms from communication and public health fields. We reviewed research on source credibility, its underlying concepts, and its relation to the persuasiveness of tobacco control messages...
January 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Kia J Jackson, Megan J Schroeder, Allison C Hoffman
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review was to evaluate which standard machine-smoking regimen may be most appropriate to inform tobacco product regulation based on the fraction of cigarette smoke yields that best represents the range of human smoke exposures. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed studies that reported percentages of smokers who smoked more or less like a particular machine-smoking regimen based on human mouth level exposure (MLE) tobacco constituent yields...
January 1, 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Olivia A Wackowski, Michelle T Bover Manderski, Cristine D Delnevo
OBJECTIVES: Risk perception measures of tobacco products relative to cigarettes are commonly used and important to tobacco research given that they may be associated with and predict tobacco use. However, results may differ based on measures used. This study compares direct and indirect approaches to measuring e-cigarette/cigarette risk perceptions. METHODS: We compared the responses of 519 current smokers on a nationally representative 2014 survey that gauged perceptions of e-cigarettes' harm relative to cigarettes in two ways: 1) a single-item direct measure of comparative harm and a two-item indirect measure (which measured perceived levels of harm from e-cigarettes and cigarettes independently in two parallel questions)...
January 1, 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Patricia Richter, Pappas R Steven, Roberto Bravo, Joseph G Lisko, Maria Damian, Nathalie Gonzalez-Jimenez, Naudia Gray, Lisa M Keong, Jacob B Kimbrell, Peter Kuklenyik, Tameka S Lawler, Grace E Lee, Magaly Mendez, Jose Perez, Shakia Smith, Hang Tran, Robert Tyx, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: To provide researchers an extensive characterization of the SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes. METHODS: Data on cigarette physical properties, nicotine content, harmful and potentially harmful constituents in the tobacco filler was compiled. RESULTS: Data on physical properties, concentrations of menthol, nicotine and minor alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ammonia, and toxic metals in the filler tobacco for all available varieties of Spectrum research cigarettes are provided...
2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Jiangtao Liu, Xiaoyin Wang, Shilpa Narayan, Stanton A Glantz, Suzaynn F Schick, Matthew L Springer
OBJECTIVES: Little cigars and cigarillos are gaining in popularity as cigarette use wanes, mainly due to relaxed regulatory standards that make them cheaper, easier to buy individually, and available in a variety of flavors not allowed in cigarettes. To address whether they should be regulated as strictly as cigarettes, we investigated whether little cigar secondhand smoke (SHS) decreases vascular endothelial function like that of cigarettes. METHODS: We exposed rats to SHS from little cigars, cigarettes, or chamber air, for 10 minutes and measured the resulting acute impairment of arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
January 1, 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
MeLisa R Creamer, Cheryl L Perry, Melissa B Harrell, Pamela M Diamond
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify trends of tobacco use, among all students and current tobacco users, in a nationally representative sample of high school students from 1999 to 2013. METHODS: Trends in individual and concurrent use of cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) products were tested using 8 repeated cross-sections of the YRBS between 1999 and 2013. Tests for effect modification of race/ethnicity and sex were conducted for each trend...
October 1, 2015: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Joseph N Cappella, Erin Maloney, Yotam Ophir, Emily Brennan
In 2006, the U.S. District Court held that tobacco companies had "falsely and fraudulently" denied: tobacco causes lung cancer; environmental smoke endangers children's respiratory systems; nicotine is highly addictive; low tar cigarettes were less harmful when they were not; they marketed to children; they manipulated nicotine delivery to enhance addiction; and they concealed and destroyed evidence to prevent accurate public knowledge. The courts required the tobacco companies to repair this misinformation...
July 2015: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Elizabeth G Klein, Abigail B Shoben, Sarah Krygowski, Amy Ferketich, Micah Berman, Ellen Peters, Unnava Rao, Mary Ellen Wewers
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attention paid to larger sizes of graphic health warnings (GHWs) embedded within cigarette advertisements so as to assess their impacts on rural smokers. METHODS: Daily smokers (N = 298) were randomly assigned to view a cigarette advertisement with 3 conditions: 2 intervention conditions with GHW comprising 20% or 33% of the ad area, or a text-only control. Eye-tracking software measured attention in milliseconds. Binary outcome mediation was conducted...
July 2015: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Diann E Gaalema, Mollie E Miller, Jennifer W Tidey
OBJECTIVES: In 2009 the FDA acquired the authority to reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes if appropriate for public health, prompting research to evaluate the implications of this policy scientifically. Studies in non-psychiatric populations show that reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to non-addictive levels reduces smoking rates and nicotine dependence. However, few studies have examined this hypothesis in vulnerable populations. METHODS: In this narrative review we examined the extant literature on the effects of nicotine reduction or cessation on symptoms of withdrawal, as well as psychiatric symptoms, among those with affective disorders...
July 2015: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Rachel N Cassidy, Megan E Roberts, Suzanne M Colby
OBJECTIVES: Adolescent smokers experience respiratory symptoms as a consequence of smoking, which may be impacted by harm-reduction products. We sought to validate the American Thoracic Society Questionnaire (ATSQ), a measure of respiratory symptoms, in adolescent smokers. METHODS: Data were drawn from 2 studies of adolescents (ages 14 to 19). Study 1 (N = 118) comprised daily smokers. Study 2 (N = 216) comprised 118 smokers and 98 nonsmokers; a subset of the total sample comprised 70 matched pairs of smokers and non-smokers...
July 2015: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Smita Banerjee, Elyse Shuk, Kathryn Greene, Jamie Ostroff
OBJECTIVES: To provide a descriptive and comparative content analysis of tobacco print magazine ads, with a focus on rhetorical and persuasive themes. METHODS: Print tobacco ads for cigarettes, cigars, e-cigarettes, moist snuff, and snus (N = 171) were content analyzed for the physical composition/ad format (e.g., size of ad, image, setting, branding, warning label) and the content of the ad (e.g., rhetorical themes, persuasive themes). RESULTS: The theme of pathos (that elicits an emotional response) was most frequently utilized for cigarette (61%), cigar (50%), and moist snuff (50%) ads, and the theme of logos (use of logic or facts to support position) was most frequently used for e-cigarette (85%) ads...
July 2015: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Micah L Berman, Greg Connolly, K Michael Cummings, Mirjana V Djordjevic, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Jack E Henningfield, Matthew Myers, Richard J O'Connor, Mark Parascandola, Vaughan Rees, Jerry M Rice, Peter G Shields
OBJECTIVE: Evidence-based tobacco regulation requires a comprehensive scientific framework to guide the evaluation of new tobacco products and health-related claims made by product manufacturers. METHODS: The Tobacco Product Assessment Consortium (TobPRAC) employed an iterative process involving consortia investigators, consultants, a workshop of independent scientists and public health experts, and written reviews in order to develop a conceptual framework for evaluating tobacco products...
April 2015: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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