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Tobacco Regulatory Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220149/chemical-characterization-of-mainstream-smoke-from-spectrum-variable-nicotine-research-cigarettes
#1
Yan S Ding, Patricia Richter, Bryan Hearn, Liqin Zhang, Roberto Bravo, Xizheng Yan, Jose J Perez, Michele Chan, Jared Hughes, Patrick Chen, Wayne Chen, Joshua Wong, Sydney Holmberg, Shakia Smith, Morgan Larango, Liza Valentín-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. METHODS: Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods...
December 1, 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798947/international-organization-of-standardization-iso-and-cambridge-filter-test-cft-smoking-regimen-data-comparisons-in-tobacco-product-marketing-applications
#2
Changyu Chae, Matthew J Walters, Matthew R Holman
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. METHODS: Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. RESULTS: Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R(2) > 0...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781992/perceived-flavored-smokeless-tobacco-ease-of-use-and-youth-susceptibility
#3
Benjamin W Chaffee, Janelle Urata, Elizabeth T Couch, Stuart A Gansky
OBJECTIVES: Beliefs that flavored smokeless tobacco (ST) is more pleasant, less potent, or otherwise easier to use could contribute to youth initiation. We evaluated associations between perceived ease-of-use of flavored ST (moist snuff and chewing tobacco) and ST initiation susceptibility in a representative sample of US youth. METHODS: Among 7,718 tobacco never-users in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study (age: 12-17; collected: 2013-2014), we compared 4 ST susceptibility items (curiosity, expectation, willingness to try, and a composite) according to whether participants reported flavored ST to be "easier to use" than unflavored ST...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758143/mentoring-for-success-in-tobacco-regulatory-science-a-qualitative-study
#4
Abigail R Russo, Amy C Solis, Andrea C Villanti, Heather L Wipfli, Teresa T Kern, Rachel K Lawley, Lauren K Collins, Haneen S Abudayyeh, Melanie C Chansky, Stanton A Glantz, Jonathan M Samet, Emelia J Benjamin
OBJECTIVES: Our study explores the experiences of early career and senior scientists regarding mentorship and career trajectories in tobacco regulatory science (TRS). METHODS: We conducted 22 phone interviews with early career and senior tobacco regulatory scientists from July 2015 to January 2016. All interviews were conducted using a structured interview guide and analyzed using a thematic approach by 2 independent coders. RESULTS: TRS presents specific opportunities and challenges to scientists due to its focused goal of informing tobacco regulation...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824938/initial-development-of-an-e-cigarette-purchase-task-a-mixed-methods-study
#5
Rachel N Cassidy, Jennifer W Tidey, Suzanne M Colby, Victoria Long, Stephen T Higgins
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral economic purchase tasks, which estimate demand for drugs, have been successfully developed for cigarettes and are widely used. However, a validated purchase task does not yet exist for e-cigarettes. The aim of this project was to identify the relevant units for an e-cigarette purchase task (E-CPT). METHODS: Focus groups (N=28 participants in 7 groups, 2-7 participants per group) consisting of current e-cigarette users were conducted. Participants discussed their daily use patterns, completed a preliminary E-CPT which asked how many puffs of their e-cigarette they would consume per day at escalating prices, and discussed the extent to which the task accurately reflected their real-world behavior...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345014/the-cigarette-and-smokeless-tobacco-markets-in-texas-relative-to-the-united-states
#6
Erin J Miller Lo, Daniel P Giovenco, Olivia A Wackowski, Melissa B Harrell, Cheryl L Perry, Cristine D Delnevo
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the cigarette and smokeless tobacco (SLT) markets in Texas and the United States (US) as a whole. METHODS: Nielsen convenience store sales data from 2014 were obtained for Dallas, Houston, San Antonio/Austin, and the total US. Descriptive statistics highlighted market share differences in Texas compared to the US overall. RESULTS: Marlboro and Copenhagen dominated the cigarette (58.9%) and SLT markets (44.8%) in Texas and had substantially higher relative market shares in Texas than nationally (46...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317004/changes-in-the-mass-merchandise-cigar-market-since-the-tobacco-control-act
#7
Cristine D Delnevo, Daniel P Giovenco, Erin J Miller Lo
OBJECTIVES: This study identifies the specific product characteristics driving mass-merchandise cigar sales in the context of the changing regulatory environment. METHODS: Cigar sales data in US convenience stores during 2008-2015 were purchased from Nielsen's Convenience Track system. Descriptive statistics highlight changes in the cigar market over time. RESULTS: Sales of flavored cigars increased by nearly 50% since 2008 and now make up over half of the cigar market...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653023/electronic-cigarette-expectancies-in-smokers-with-psychological-distress
#8
Mollie E Miller, Jennifer W Tidey, Damaris J Rohsenow, Stephen T Higgins
OBJECTIVES: Very few studies have evaluated perceptions of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) among smokers with mental illness. This study assessed expectancies about the effects of smoking combustible cigarettes or using ENDS among current smokers with and without severe psychological distress (SPD). METHODS: We used a crowdsourcing system to survey 268 smokers on their expectancies for the effects of combustible cigarettes and ENDS. Positive expectancies assessed included negative affect reduction, stimulation, positive social effects and weight control, and negative expectancies included negative physical effects, negative psychosocial effects and future health concerns...
January 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638857/development-of-the-fda-tobacco-credibility-scale-fda-tcs
#9
Allison M Schmidt, Leah M Ranney, Seth M Noar, Adam O Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: Messages from organizations with high, compared to low, credibility may be more persuasive. Whereas the tobacco industry has long recognized the importance of credibility in promoting its messages and public image, the source credibility of key tobacco control organizations has gone largely unmeasured. To assess credibility of a key tobacco regulator, we developed a scale of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco-related credibility. METHODS: We developed and tested 30 items reflective of the dimensions of source credibility (trust, expertise, and public interest) and FDA's tobacco regulatory roles in a sample of 1353 US adults and assessed reliability and validity...
January 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083545/youth-targeted-e-cigarette-marketing-in-the-us
#10
Alisa A Padon, Erin K Maloney, Joseph N Cappella
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this project was to explore the extent to which e-cigarette advertisements use youth-appealing content. METHODS: A sample of e-cigarette video ads (N = 154) were coded by 3 independent coders using the content appealing to youth (CAY) index, which measures over 40 youth-appealing features. To calculate a total CAY score for each ad, scores were normalized and summed such that a higher score represented the presence of more youth-appealing elements...
January 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890914/effect-of-menthol-preferring-status-on-response-to-intravenous-nicotine
#11
Elise E DeVito, Gerald W Valentine, Aryeh I Herman, Kevin P Jensen, Mehmet Sofuoglu
OBJECTIVES: Menthol, a flavoring agent, is found in approximately 90% of cigarettes, but at much higher levels in menthol than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol is reportedly included in cigarettes for its cooling and soothing effects, but also additional actions that affect smokers' receipt and processing of nicotine. In this study we investigated the response to short-term abstinence and acute nicotine delivery in menthol-preferring and non-menthol-preferring smokers. METHODS: Nicotine dependent participants (N = 134) participated in an intravenous nicotine delivery session following overnight smoking abstinence...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819633/clinical-laboratory-evaluation-of-electronic-cigarettes-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-methodological-challenges
#12
Melissa D Blank, Alison B Breland, Caroline O Cobb, Tory Spindle, Carolina Ramôa, Thomas Eissenberg
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) in the clinical laboratory is critical to understanding their effects. However, laboratory evaluation of ECIGs can be challenging, as they are a novel, varied, and evolving class of products. The objective of this paper is to describe some methodological challenges to the clinical laboratory evaluation of ECIGs. METHODS: The authors gathered information about challenges involved in the laboratory evaluation of ECIGs...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670606/variability-in-puff-topography-and-exhaled-co-in-waterpipe-tobacco-smoking
#13
Hyoshin Kim, Marielle C Brinkman, Eva Sharma, Sydney M Gordon, Pamela I Clark
OBJECTIVES: We examined intra-individual variability in puff topography and CO measures collected during laboratory waterpipe (WP) tobacco smoking using a research-grade waterpipe (RWP). METHODS: WP smoking topography and exhaled CO measures were obtained from 10 established WP smokers in a single-blind, crossover design. Using a previously validated RWP, each participant smoked "Two Apples" WP tobacco ad libitum with a single quick-light charcoal to satiation in 3 laboratory sessions spaced at least one week apart...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580378/behavioral-economic-laboratory-research-in-tobacco-regulatory-science
#14
Jennifer W Tidey, Rachel N Cassidy, Mollie E Miller, Tracy T Smith
OBJECTIVES: Research that can provide a scientific foundation for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco policy decisions is needed to inform tobacco regulatory policy. One factor that affects the impact of a tobacco product on public health is its intensity of use, which is determined, in part, by its abuse liability or reinforcing efficacy. Behavioral economic tasks have considerable utility for assessing the reinforcing efficacy of current and emerging tobacco products...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393086/nicotine-delivery-and-vaping-behavior-during-ad-libitum-e-cigarette-access
#15
Gideon St Helen, Kathryn C Ross, Delia A Dempsey, Christopher M Havel, Peyton Jacob, Neal L Benowitz
OBJECTIVE: To characterize vaping behavior and nicotine intake during ad libitum e-cigarette access. METHODS: Thirteen adult e-cigarette users had 90 minutes of videotaped ad libitum access to their usual e-cigarette. Plasma nicotine was measured before and every 15 minutes after the first puff; subjective effects were measured before and after the session. RESULTS: Average puff duration and interpuff interval were 3.5±1.4 seconds (±SD) and 118±141 seconds, respectively...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239627/self-administration-of-smokeless-tobacco-products-in-rats
#16
Mark G LeSage, Danielle Burroughs, Peter Muelken, Andrew C Harris
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical abuse liability assessment is an essential component of tobacco regulatory science. The goal of this project was to evaluate the relative abuse liability of smokeless tobacco products in rats using aqueous extracts of those products. These extracts provide exposure to an extensive range of nicotine and non-nicotine tobacco constituents as occurs in humans. METHODS: Rats were trained to self-administer either nicotine alone or extracts of Camel Snus or Kodiak smokeless tobacco at an equivalent nicotine unit dose...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942543/nicotine-replacement-topography-and-smoking-phenotypes-of-e-cigarettes
#17
Andrew A Strasser, Valentina Souprountchouk, Amanda Kaufmann, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank Leone, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the degree of nicotine replacement across first-generation e-cigarette brands, how e-cigarettes are used, and if there is variation across brands in relevant smoking phenotypes. The objective of this project was to collect data that are critical to better understanding, use, and exposure when using e-cigarettes, which may then inform clinical trials and tobacco regulatory policy. METHODS: Twenty-eight cigarette smokers were randomized to use one of 5 popular brands of e-cigarettes for a 10-day study...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917397/reduced-nicotine-content-expectancies-affect-initial-responses-to-smoking
#18
Melissa Mercincavage, Joshua M Smyth, Andrew A Strasser, Steven A Branstetter
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine if negative responses to reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes during open-label trials result from smokers' (negative) expectancies. We examined the effects of nicotine content description - independent of actual nicotine content - on subjective responses (craving reduction, withdrawal suppression, mood changes, and sensory ratings) and smoking behaviors (topography measures and carbon monoxide [CO] boost). METHODS: Thirty-six 12-hour-abstinent daily smokers completed a 3-session crossover trial...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668270/eye-tracking-outcomes-in-tobacco-control-regulation-and-communication-a-systematic-review
#19
Clare Meernik, Kristen Jarman, Sarah Towner Wright, Elizabeth G Klein, Adam O Goldstein, Leah Ranney
OBJECTIVE: In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. METHODS: We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. RESULTS: Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217721/point-of-sale-tobacco-advertising-remains-prominent-in-mumbai-india
#20
Samir S Khariwala, Apurva Garg, Irina Stepanov, Prakash C Gupta, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Vikram Gota, Pankaj Chaturvedi
OBJECTIVES: In India, a 2003 law ("COPTA") banned tobacco advertising with the exception of "point of sale" and "on-pack" advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. METHODS: A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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