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Tobacco Regulatory Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083545/youth-targeted-e-cigarette-marketing-in-the-us
#1
Alisa A Padon, Erin K Maloney, Joseph N Cappella
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this project was to explore the extent to which e-cigarette advertisements use youth-appealing content. METHODS: A sample of e-cigarette video ads (N = 154) were coded by 3 independent coders using the content appealing to youth (CAY) index, which measures over 40 youth-appealing features. To calculate a total CAY score for each ad, scores were normalized and summed such that a higher score represented the presence of more youth-appealing elements...
January 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942543/nicotine-replacement-topography-and-smoking-phenotypes-of-e-cigarettes
#2
Andrew A Strasser, Valentina Souprountchouk, Amanda Kaufmann, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank Leone, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the degree of nicotine replacement across first-generation e-cigarette brands, how e-cigarettes are used, and if there is variation across brands in relevant smoking phenotypes. The objective of this project was to collect data that are critical to better understanding, use, and exposure when using e-cigarettes, which may then inform clinical trials and tobacco regulatory policy. METHODS: Twenty-eight cigarette smokers were randomized to use one of 5 popular brands of e-cigarettes for a 10-day study...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917397/reduced-nicotine-content-expectancies-affect-initial-responses-to-smoking
#3
Melissa Mercincavage, Joshua M Smyth, Andrew A Strasser, Steven A Branstetter
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine if negative responses to reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes during open-label trials result from smokers' (negative) expectancies. We examined the effects of nicotine content description - independent of actual nicotine content - on subjective responses (craving reduction, withdrawal suppression, mood changes, and sensory ratings) and smoking behaviors (topography measures and carbon monoxide [CO] boost). METHODS: Thirty-six 12-hour-abstinent daily smokers completed a 3-session crossover trial...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668270/eye-tracking-outcomes-in-tobacco-control-regulation-and-communication-a-systematic-review
#4
Clare Meernik, Kristen Jarman, Sarah Towner Wright, Elizabeth G Klein, Adam O Goldstein, Leah Ranney
OBJECTIVE: In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. METHODS: We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. RESULTS: Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042597/the-effect-of-comparatively-framed-versus-similarity-framed-e-cigarette-and-snus-print-ads-on-young-adults-ad-and-product-perceptions
#5
Smita C Banerjee, Kathryn Greene, Yuelin Li, Jamie S Ostroff
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of comparative-framing [C-F; ads highlighting differences between the advertised product and conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products] versus similarity-framing (S-F; ads highlighting congruence with conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products) in e-cigarette and snus ads on young adult smokers' and non-smokers' ad- and product-related perceptions. METHODS: One thousand fifty one (1,051) young adults (18-24 years; 76% women; 50% smokers) from existing consumer panels were recruited in a within-subjects quasi-experiment...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722185/flavorings-and-perceived-harm-and-addictiveness-of-e-cigarettes-among-youth
#6
Maria Cooper, Melissa B Harrell, Adriana PĂ©rez, Joanne Delk, Cheryl L Perry
OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing trend in use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") among youth, it is crucial to understand how these products are perceived and how these perceptions are associated with their decision whether or not to use them. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a rapid response surveillance system of 6th, 8th and 10th grade students' tobacco use behaviors (sample [n] = 3704 from a population of students [N] = 434,601)...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446984/online-e-cigarette-marketing-claims-a-systematic-content-and-legal-analysis
#7
Elizabeth G Klein, Micah Berman, Natalie Hemmerich, Cristen Carlson, SuSandi Htut, Michael Slater
OBJECTIVES: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are heavily marketed online. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic identification and evaluation of claims made within ENDS retailer and manufacturer websites, and the legal status of such claims. METHODS: We employed a systematic search protocol with popular search engines using 6 terms: (1) e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigs; (3) e-juice; (4) e-liquid; (5) e-hookah; and (6) vape pen...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430008/smoke-and-vapor-exploring-the-terminology-landscape-among-electronic-cigarette-users
#8
Jennifer P Alexander, Blair N Coleman, Sarah E Johnson, Greta K Tessman, Cindy Tworek, Denise M Dickinson
OBJECTIVE: We explored the terminology of adult e-cigarette users in describing e-cigarette products and their use. We report how users discuss and differentiate these products and the language and culture surrounding them. METHODS: Focus groups (N = 12) were held in 5 locations in the United States between March and May, 2014. Participants (N = 99) included young adults or adults who were either exclusive or nonexclusive e-cigarette users. We gathered data on how users identify various types of e-cigarettes and how users understand and describe specific terms...
July 1, 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413772/little-cigars-and-cigarillos-users-perceptions-and-reasons-for-use
#9
Amy L Nyman, Kymberle L Sterling, Scott R Weaver, Ban A Majeed, Michael P Eriksen
OBJECTIVE: This study examines little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) adult user characteristics, perceived addictiveness, use and importance of flavors, intentions to continue use, and reasons for use to inform prevention efforts and regulatory policy. METHODS: Data come from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a national probability sample of 5717 US adults, conducted online, June-November, 2014. The analytic sample consisted of 141 current LCC users...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090560/perceptions-of-secondhand-e-cigarette-aerosol-among-twitter-users
#10
Jennifer B Unger, Patricia Escobedo, Jon-Patrick Allem, Daniel W Soto, Kar-Hai Chu, Tess Cruz
OBJECTIVES: There is considerable debate among the public health community about the health risks of secondhand exposure to the aerosol from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Despite mounting scientific evidence on the chemical content of e-cigarette aerosol, public perceptions of the relative safety of secondhand e-cigarette aerosol have not been well characterized. METHOD: This study collected tweets, or messages sent using Twitter, about exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol over a 6-week period in 2015...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617273/the-age-related-positivity-effect-and-tobacco-warning-labels
#11
Megan E Roberts, Ellen Peters, Amy K Ferketich, Elizabeth G Klein
OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether age is a factor in viewing time for tobacco warning labels. The approach drew from previous work demonstrating an age-related positivity effect, whereby older adults show preferences toward positive and away from negative stimuli. METHODS: Participants were 295 daily smokers from Appalachian Ohio (age range: 21-68). All participants took part in an eye-tracking paradigm that captured the attention paid to elements of health warning labels in the context of magazine advertisements...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517061/the-reach-and-impact-of-direct-marketing-via-brand-websites-of-moist-snuff
#12
David S Timberlake, Tim A Bruckner, Vyvian Ngo, Dmitriy Nikitin
OBJECTIVE: Restricting tobacco marketing is a key element in the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) public health framework for regulating tobacco. Given the dearth of empirical data on direct marketing, the objective of this study was to assess the reach and impact of promotions on sales through snuff websites. METHODS: Nine brands of snuff, representing more than 90% of market share, were monitored for content of coupons, sweepstakes, contests, and other promotions on their respective websites...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042688/smokers-early-e-cigarette-experiences-reasons-for-use-and-use-intentions
#13
Olivia A Wackowski, Michelle T Bover Manderski, Cristine D Delnevo, Daniel P Giovenco, M Jane Lewis
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the context of smokers' first e-cigarette experiences, reasons for trying e-cigarettes, not continuing their use, and future use intentions. METHODS: We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 519 current cigarette smokers in the United States (classified as never, current, or former e-cigarette users/triers) in April 2014 about their e-cigarette experiences and use intentions. RESULTS: Among ever e-cigarette users/triers, 43% purchased an e-cigarette on their own as their first method of trial...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525298/source-credibility-in-tobacco-control-messaging
#14
Allison M Schmidt, Leah M Ranney, Jessica K Pepper, Adam O Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: Perceived credibility of a message's source can affect persuasion. This paper reviews how beliefs about the source of tobacco control messages may encourage attitude and behavior change. METHODS: We conducted a series of searches of the peer-reviewed literature using terms from communication and public health fields. We reviewed research on source credibility, its underlying concepts, and its relation to the persuasiveness of tobacco control messages...
January 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034970/mouth-level-exposure-and-similarity-to-machine-smoked-constituent-yields
#15
Kia J Jackson, Megan J Schroeder, Allison C Hoffman
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review was to evaluate which standard machine-smoking regimen may be most appropriate to inform tobacco product regulation based on the fraction of cigarette smoke yields that best represents the range of human smoke exposures. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed studies that reported percentages of smokers who smoked more or less like a particular machine-smoking regimen based on human mouth level exposure (MLE) tobacco constituent yields...
January 1, 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855966/comparison-of-direct-and-indirect-measures-of-e-cigarette-risk-perceptions
#16
Olivia A Wackowski, Michelle T Bover Manderski, Cristine D Delnevo
OBJECTIVES: Risk perception measures of tobacco products relative to cigarettes are commonly used and important to tobacco research given that they may be associated with and predict tobacco use. However, results may differ based on measures used. This study compares direct and indirect approaches to measuring e-cigarette/cigarette risk perceptions. METHODS: We compared the responses of 519 current smokers on a nationally representative 2014 survey that gauged perceptions of e-cigarettes' harm relative to cigarettes in two ways: 1) a single-item direct measure of comparative harm and a two-item indirect measure (which measured perceived levels of harm from e-cigarettes and cigarettes independently in two parallel questions)...
January 1, 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779559/characterization-of-spectrum-variable-nicotine-research-cigarettes
#17
Patricia Richter, Pappas R Steven, Roberto Bravo, Joseph G Lisko, Maria Damian, Nathalie Gonzalez-Jimenez, Naudia Gray, Lisa M Keong, Jacob B Kimbrell, Peter Kuklenyik, Tameka S Lawler, Grace E Lee, Magaly Mendez, Jose Perez, Shakia Smith, Hang Tran, Robert Tyx, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: To provide researchers an extensive characterization of the SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes. METHODS: Data on cigarette physical properties, nicotine content, harmful and potentially harmful constituents in the tobacco filler was compiled. RESULTS: Data on physical properties, concentrations of menthol, nicotine and minor alkaloids, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ammonia, and toxic metals in the filler tobacco for all available varieties of Spectrum research cigarettes are provided...
2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26753171/impairment-of-endothelial-function-by-little-cigar-secondhand-smoke
#18
Jiangtao Liu, Xiaoyin Wang, Shilpa Narayan, Stanton A Glantz, Suzaynn F Schick, Matthew L Springer
OBJECTIVES: Little cigars and cigarillos are gaining in popularity as cigarette use wanes, mainly due to relaxed regulatory standards that make them cheaper, easier to buy individually, and available in a variety of flavors not allowed in cigarettes. To address whether they should be regulated as strictly as cigarettes, we investigated whether little cigar secondhand smoke (SHS) decreases vascular endothelial function like that of cigarettes. METHODS: We exposed rats to SHS from little cigars, cigarettes, or chamber air, for 10 minutes and measured the resulting acute impairment of arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
January 1, 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26478907/trends-in-multiple-tobacco-product-use-among-high-school-students
#19
MeLisa R Creamer, Cheryl L Perry, Melissa B Harrell, Pamela M Diamond
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify trends of tobacco use, among all students and current tobacco users, in a nationally representative sample of high school students from 1999 to 2013. METHODS: Trends in individual and concurrent use of cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco (SLT) products were tested using 8 repeated cross-sections of the YRBS between 1999 and 2013. Tests for effect modification of race/ethnicity and sex were conducted for each trend...
October 1, 2015: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27135046/interventions-to-correct-misinformation-about-tobacco-products
#20
Joseph N Cappella, Erin Maloney, Yotam Ophir, Emily Brennan
In 2006, the U.S. District Court held that tobacco companies had "falsely and fraudulently" denied: tobacco causes lung cancer; environmental smoke endangers children's respiratory systems; nicotine is highly addictive; low tar cigarettes were less harmful when they were not; they marketed to children; they manipulated nicotine delivery to enhance addiction; and they concealed and destroyed evidence to prevent accurate public knowledge. The courts required the tobacco companies to repair this misinformation...
July 2015: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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