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Tobacco Regulatory Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250577/cigarette-design-features-effects-on-emission-levels-user-perception-and-behavior
#1
Reinskje Talhout, Patricia A Richter, Irina Stepanov, Christina V Watson, Clifford H Watson
Objectives: This paper describes the effects of non-tobacco, physical cigarette design features on smoke emissions, product appeal, and smoking behaviors - 3 factors that determine smoker's exposure and related health risks. Methods: We reviewed available evidence for the impact of filter ventilation, new filter types, and cigarettes dimensions on toxic emissions, smoker's perceptions, and behavior. For evidence sources we used scientific literature and websites providing product characteristics and marketing information...
January 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242819/effects-of-e-cigarette-advertising-messages-and-cues-on-cessation-outcomes
#2
Catherine L Jo, Shelley D Golden, Seth M Noar, Christine Rini, Kurt M Ribisl
Objectives: We examined effects of e-cigarette ad messages and visual cues on outcomes related to combustible cigarette smoking cessation: smoking cessation intention, smoking urges, and immediate smoking behavior. Methods: US adult smokers (N = 3293) were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk and randomized to condition in a 3 (message: e-cigarette use anywhere, harm reduction, control) × 2 (e-cigarette cue presence or absence) between-subjects experiment. Stimuli were print ads for cigarette-like e-cigarettes ("cigalikes") that were manipulated for the experimental conditions...
January 1, 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220149/chemical-characterization-of-mainstream-smoke-from-spectrum-variable-nicotine-research-cigarettes
#3
Yan S Ding, Patricia Richter, Bryan Hearn, Liqin Zhang, Roberto Bravo, Xizheng Yan, Jose J Perez, Michele Chan, Jared Hughes, Patrick Chen, Wayne Chen, Joshua Wong, Sydney Holmberg, Shakia Smith, Morgan Larango, Liza Valentín-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. METHODS: Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods...
December 1, 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204463/effect-of-flavors-and-modified-risk-messages-on-e-cigarette-abuse-liability
#4
Andrew J Barnes, Rose S Bono, Rebecca C Lester, Thomas E Eissenberg, Caroline O Cobb
Objectives: To measure e-cigarettes' abuse liability compared to conventional tobacco cigarettes under flavor and message conditions amenable to regulation. Methods: Two studies used 2×2 within-subjects designs with factors of e-cigarette flavor (Study 1: tobacco vs. menthol; Study 2: cherry vs. unflavored) and message (Study 1: reduced harm vs. no message; Study 2: reduced exposure to carcinogens vs. no message) with cigarette smokers (N(total) = 36). Linear mixed effects models assessed abuse liability for tobacco products...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104902/internet-based-advertising-claims-and-consumer-reasons-for-using-electronic-cigarettes-by-device-type-in-the-us
#5
Kim Pulvers, Jessica Y Sun, Yue-Lin Zhuang, Gabriel Holguin, Shu-Hong Zhu
Objectives: Important differences exist between closed-system and open-system e-cigarettes, but it is unknown whether online companies are marketing these devices differently and whether consumer reasons for using e-cigarettes vary by device type. This paper compares Internet-based advertising claims of closed- versus open-system products, and evaluates US consumers' reasons for using closed- versus open-system e-cigarettes. Methods: Internet sites selling exclusively closed (N = 130) or open (N = 129) e-cigarettes in December 2013-January 2014 were coded for advertising claims...
October 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082302/adolescent-and-young-adult-perceptions-on-cigar-packaging-a-qualitative-study
#6
Grace Kong, Dana A Cavallo, Krysten W Bold, Heather LaVallee, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
OBJECTIVE: To identify the appealing components of cigar packaging among youth. METHODS: We conducted 8 focus groups among cigar users, separated by sex and age group (ie, adolescents, young adults) in Connecticut between February and July, 2016. Participants were shown cigar packages and instructed to circle aspects of the images on the packages that appealed to them independently and a group discussion followed. RESULTS: The appealing components identified were flavors (46...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798947/international-organization-of-standardization-iso-and-cambridge-filter-test-cft-smoking-regimen-data-comparisons-in-tobacco-product-marketing-applications
#7
Changyu Chae, Matthew J Walters, Matthew R Holman
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. METHODS: Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. RESULTS: Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R2 > 0...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781992/perceived-flavored-smokeless-tobacco-ease-of-use-and-youth-susceptibility
#8
Benjamin W Chaffee, Janelle Urata, Elizabeth T Couch, Stuart A Gansky
OBJECTIVES: Beliefs that flavored smokeless tobacco (ST) is more pleasant, less potent, or otherwise easier to use could contribute to youth initiation. We evaluated associations between perceived ease-of-use of flavored ST (moist snuff and chewing tobacco) and ST initiation susceptibility in a representative sample of US youth. METHODS: Among 7,718 tobacco never-users in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study (age: 12-17; collected: 2013-2014), we compared 4 ST susceptibility items (curiosity, expectation, willingness to try, and a composite) according to whether participants reported flavored ST to be "easier to use" than unflavored ST...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758143/mentoring-for-success-in-tobacco-regulatory-science-a-qualitative-study
#9
Abigail R Russo, Amy C Solis, Andrea C Villanti, Heather L Wipfli, Teresa T Kern, Rachel K Lawley, Lauren K Collins, Haneen S Abudayyeh, Melanie C Chansky, Stanton A Glantz, Jonathan M Samet, Emelia J Benjamin
OBJECTIVES: Our study explores the experiences of early career and senior scientists regarding mentorship and career trajectories in tobacco regulatory science (TRS). METHODS: We conducted 22 phone interviews with early career and senior tobacco regulatory scientists from July 2015 to January 2016. All interviews were conducted using a structured interview guide and analyzed using a thematic approach by 2 independent coders. RESULTS: TRS presents specific opportunities and challenges to scientists due to its focused goal of informing tobacco regulation...
July 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226195/consequences-of-inconsistency-in-air-force-tobacco-control-policy
#10
Elizabeth A Lando-King, Ruth E Malone, Christopher K Haddock, Walker S Carlos Poston, Harry A Lando, Sara A Jahnke, Nita Hawk, Elizabeth A Smith
Objectives: Although the United States Air Force (USAF) has been a leader in efforts to reduce tobacco use among service members, tobacco continues to be a problem and initiatives to decrease tobacco use further require buy-in from leadership. We explored line leaderships' perspectives on tobacco. Methods: A diverse group of 10 senior commissioned and 10 non-commissioned personnel were interviewed. Results: Respondents reported substantial changes in the culture of tobacco use during their years of service, from near ubiquity to restricted use areas...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201950/using-the-vape-shop-standardized-tobacco-assessment-for-retail-settings-v-stars-to-assess-product-availability-price-promotions-and-messaging-in-new-hampshire-vape-shop-retailers
#11
Amanda Y Kong, Jessica L Eaddy, Susan L Morrison, Donna Asbury, Kristine M Lindell, Kurt M Ribisl
Objectives: This is the first statewide census of the product availability, price promotions, and product messaging of vape shops. Methods: A comprehensive list of New Hampshire vape shops was developed through a previously validated online search method. Store audits were conducted in 55 stores between January and February 2016 using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS). Results: Modifiable devices and cig-alikes were sold in 92...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104901/recall-of-e-cigarette-advertisements-and-adolescent-e-cigarette-use
#12
Nicole E Nicksic, Melissa B Harrell, Adriana Pérez, Keryn E Pasch, Cheryl L Perry
Objective: We examined the impact of e-cigarette advertising on e-cigarette use behaviors among youth over time. Methods: At baseline, 3907 students participated in a youth tobacco surveillance study from 2014-2015 and 2488 students completed a 6-month follow-up. Weighted logistic regression models investigated the recall of e-cigarette advertisements (TV/radio/billboards/retail/Internet) as a risk factor for e-cigarette perceived harm, use, and susceptibility. Results: The odds of ever e-cigarette use was 3 times higher (AOR=2...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098172/texas-adolescent-tobacco-and-marketing-surveillance-system-s-design
#13
Adriana Pérez, Melissa B Harrell, Raja I Malkani, Christian D Jackson, Joanne Delk, Prince A Allotey, Krystin J Matthews, Pablo Martinez, Cheryl L Perry
Objectives: To provide a full methodological description of the design of the wave I and II (6-month follow-up) surveys of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS), a longitudinal surveillance study of 6(th), 8(th), and 10(th) grade students who attended schools in Bexar, Dallas, Tarrant, Harris, or Travis counties, where the 4 largest cities in Texas (San Antonio, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, and Austin, respectively) are located. Methods: TATAMS used a complex probability design, yielding representative estimates of these students in these counties during the 2014-2015 academic year...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085867/reasons-for-cigarillo-initiation-and-cigarillo-manipulation-methods-among-adolescents
#14
Grace Kong, Krysten W Bold, Patricia Simon, Deepa R Camenga, Dana A Cavallo, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
OBJECTIVE: To understand reasons for cigarillo initiation and cigarillo manipulation methods among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted surveys in 8 Connecticut high schools to assess reasons for trying a cigarillo and cigarillo manipulation methods. We used multivariable logistic regressions to assess associations with demographics and tobacco use status. RESULTS: Among ever cigarillo users (N = 697, 33.6% girls, 16.7 years old [SD = 1.14], 62...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051917/perceptions-of-the-food-and-drug-administration-as-a-tobacco-regulator
#15
Kristen L Jarman, Leah M Ranney, Hannah M Baker, Quirina M Vallejos, Adam O Goldstein
OBJECTIVES: The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now has regulatory authority over all tobacco products. Little is known about public awareness and perceptions of FDA in their new role as a tobacco regulator. This research utilizes focus groups to examine perceptions of FDA as a tobacco regulator so that FDA can better communicate with the public about this role. METHODS: We conducted 6 focus groups in 2014 among a diverse sample of smokers and non-smokers...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989950/surveillance-of-nicotine-and-ph-in-cigarette-and-cigar-filler
#16
Tameka S Lawler, Stephen B Stanfill, B Rey deCastro, Joseph G Lisko, Bryce W Duncan, Patricia Richter, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: We examined differences between nicotine concentrations and pH in cigarette and cigar tobacco filler. METHODS: Nicotine and pH levels for 50 cigarette and 75 cigar brands were measured. Non-mentholated and mentholated cigarette products were included in the analysis along with several cigar types as identified by the manufacturer: large cigars, pipe tobacco cigars, cigarillos, mini cigarillos, and little cigars. RESULTS: There were significant differences found between pH and nicotine for cigarette and cigar tobacco products...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983497/cigar-use-symposium-epidemiology-toxicant-exposure-health-and-policy-implications
#17
Wallace B Pickworth, Meridith Hill Thanner
OBJECTIVE: Domestic cigar use has increased over the past 2 decades perhaps partially in response to cigarette restrictions and partially because cigars are used as vehicles for the delivery of marijuana. Although there is ample epidemiologic data to verify use and use patterns, there are relatively few studies that have looked at other aspects of current cigar use, advertising, toxicant exposure, and health effects. METHODS: Gaps in knowledge prompted a research symposium entitled Cigar Use: Epidemiology, Toxicant Exposure, Health and Policy Implications in 2016...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966952/dual-use-of-cigarettes-little-cigars-cigarillos-and-large-cigars-smoking-topography-and-toxicant-exposure
#18
Wallace B Pickworth, Zachary R Rosenberry, Kevin E O'Grady, Bartosz Koszowski
OBJECTIVE: Smoking topography variables and toxicant exposure (plasma nicotine and exhaled CO) were examined in 3 groups of study participants that smoked both cigarettes and either filtered little cigars (Winchester), cigarillos (Black & Mild), or large cigars (Phillies Blunt). METHODS: Laboratory ad lib smoking of the cigar products was collected with a smoking puff analyzer; plasma levels of nicotine and exhaled CO were collected before and after smoking. RESULTS: Although there were no statistically significant differences in demographic and cigarette smoking topography among the groups, there were significant differences in how the different cigar products were smoked...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944278/smoking-behavior-and-smoke-constituents-from-cigarillos-and-little-cigars
#19
Bartosz Koszowski, Zachary R Rosenberry, Daniel Yi, Sean Stewart, Wallace B Pickworth
OBJECTIVE: Although most cigarillos and little cigars smokers also smoke cigarettes (dual use), there are few studies comparing toxicant exposure and smoking behavior in cigars and cigarettes. METHODS: Two groups of dual users smoked their usual brand of cigarette and either a Winchester unflavored little cigar (N = 21) or a Black & Mild cigarillo (N = 23). Acute exposure of nicotine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) and puffing topography parameters were collected...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944277/secondhand-smoke-exposure-and-smoke-free-policy-in-philadelphia-public-housing
#20
Ann C Klassen, Nora L Lee, Aaron Pankiewicz, Rikki Ward, Michelle Shuster, Bethany Townsend Ogbenna, Anita Wade, Maxwell Boamah, Olufunlayo Osayameh, Ana M Rule, Dorota Szymkowiak, Ryan Coffman, Virginius Bragg, Giridhar Mallya
OBJECTIVES: Multi-unit housing environments remain significant sources of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, especially for vulnerable populations in subsidized housing. In Philadelphia, the largest US housing authority to implement smoke-free policies, we measured baseline resident smoking-related behaviors and attitudes, and longitudinal exposures to airborne nicotine, during policy development and implementation. METHODS: In 4 communities, we collected data in 2013, 2014, and 2016, before and after introduction of comprehensive smoke-free policies, interviewing persons in 172 households, and monitoring air-borne nicotine in non-smoking homes and public areas...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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