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Tobacco Regulatory Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220149/chemical-characterization-of-mainstream-smoke-from-spectrum-variable-nicotine-research-cigarettes
#1
Yan S Ding, Patricia Richter, Bryan Hearn, Liqin Zhang, Roberto Bravo, Xizheng Yan, Jose J Perez, Michele Chan, Jared Hughes, Patrick Chen, Wayne Chen, Joshua Wong, Sydney Holmberg, Shakia Smith, Morgan Larango, Liza Valentín-Blasini, Clifford H Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. METHODS: Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods...
December 1, 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345014/the-cigarette-and-smokeless-tobacco-markets-in-texas-relative-to-the-united-states
#2
Erin J Miller Lo, Daniel P Giovenco, Olivia A Wackowski, Melissa B Harrell, Cheryl L Perry, Cristine D Delnevo
OBJECTIVE: This study compares the cigarette and smokeless tobacco (SLT) markets in Texas and the United States (US) as a whole. METHODS: Nielsen convenience store sales data from 2014 were obtained for Dallas, Houston, San Antonio/Austin, and the total US. Descriptive statistics highlighted market share differences in Texas compared to the US overall. RESULTS: Marlboro and Copenhagen dominated the cigarette (58.9%) and SLT markets (44.8%) in Texas and had substantially higher relative market shares in Texas than nationally (46...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317004/changes-in-the-mass-merchandise-cigar-market-since-the-tobacco-control-act
#3
Cristine D Delnevo, Daniel P Giovenco, Erin J Miller Lo
OBJECTIVES: This study identifies the specific product characteristics driving mass-merchandise cigar sales in the context of the changing regulatory environment. METHODS: Cigar sales data in US convenience stores during 2008-2015 were purchased from Nielsen's Convenience Track system. Descriptive statistics highlight changes in the cigar market over time. RESULTS: Sales of flavored cigars increased by nearly 50% since 2008 and now make up over half of the cigar market...
April 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083545/youth-targeted-e-cigarette-marketing-in-the-us
#4
Alisa A Padon, Erin K Maloney, Joseph N Cappella
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this project was to explore the extent to which e-cigarette advertisements use youth-appealing content. METHODS: A sample of e-cigarette video ads (N = 154) were coded by 3 independent coders using the content appealing to youth (CAY) index, which measures over 40 youth-appealing features. To calculate a total CAY score for each ad, scores were normalized and summed such that a higher score represented the presence of more youth-appealing elements...
January 2017: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393086/nicotine-delivery-and-vaping-behavior-during-ad-libitum-e-cigarette-access
#5
Gideon St Helen, Kathryn C Ross, Delia A Dempsey, Christopher M Havel, Peyton Jacob, Neal L Benowitz
OBJECTIVE: To characterize vaping behavior and nicotine intake during ad libitum e-cigarette access. METHODS: Thirteen adult e-cigarette users had 90 minutes of videotaped ad libitum access to their usual e-cigarette. Plasma nicotine was measured before and every 15 minutes after the first puff; subjective effects were measured before and after the session. RESULTS: Average puff duration and interpuff interval were 3.5±1.4 seconds (±SD) and 118±141 seconds, respectively...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239627/self-administration-of-smokeless-tobacco-products-in-rats
#6
Mark G LeSage, Danielle Burroughs, Peter Muelken, Andrew C Harris
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical abuse liability assessment is an essential component of tobacco regulatory science. The goal of this project was to evaluate the relative abuse liability of smokeless tobacco products in rats using aqueous extracts of those products. These extracts provide exposure to an extensive range of nicotine and non-nicotine tobacco constituents as occurs in humans. METHODS: Rats were trained to self-administer either nicotine alone or extracts of Camel Snus or Kodiak smokeless tobacco at an equivalent nicotine unit dose...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942543/nicotine-replacement-topography-and-smoking-phenotypes-of-e-cigarettes
#7
Andrew A Strasser, Valentina Souprountchouk, Amanda Kaufmann, Sonja Blazekovic, Frank Leone, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the degree of nicotine replacement across first-generation e-cigarette brands, how e-cigarettes are used, and if there is variation across brands in relevant smoking phenotypes. The objective of this project was to collect data that are critical to better understanding, use, and exposure when using e-cigarettes, which may then inform clinical trials and tobacco regulatory policy. METHODS: Twenty-eight cigarette smokers were randomized to use one of 5 popular brands of e-cigarettes for a 10-day study...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917397/reduced-nicotine-content-expectancies-affect-initial-responses-to-smoking
#8
Melissa Mercincavage, Joshua M Smyth, Andrew A Strasser, Steven A Branstetter
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine if negative responses to reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes during open-label trials result from smokers' (negative) expectancies. We examined the effects of nicotine content description - independent of actual nicotine content - on subjective responses (craving reduction, withdrawal suppression, mood changes, and sensory ratings) and smoking behaviors (topography measures and carbon monoxide [CO] boost). METHODS: Thirty-six 12-hour-abstinent daily smokers completed a 3-session crossover trial...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668270/eye-tracking-outcomes-in-tobacco-control-regulation-and-communication-a-systematic-review
#9
Clare Meernik, Kristen Jarman, Sarah Towner Wright, Elizabeth G Klein, Adam O Goldstein, Leah Ranney
OBJECTIVE: In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. METHODS: We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. RESULTS: Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217721/point-of-sale-tobacco-advertising-remains-prominent-in-mumbai-india
#10
Samir S Khariwala, Apurva Garg, Irina Stepanov, Prakash C Gupta, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Vikram Gota, Pankaj Chaturvedi
OBJECTIVES: In India, a 2003 law ("COPTA") banned tobacco advertising with the exception of "point of sale" and "on-pack" advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. METHODS: A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042597/the-effect-of-comparatively-framed-versus-similarity-framed-e-cigarette-and-snus-print-ads-on-young-adults-ad-and-product-perceptions
#11
Smita C Banerjee, Kathryn Greene, Yuelin Li, Jamie S Ostroff
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of comparative-framing [C-F; ads highlighting differences between the advertised product and conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products] versus similarity-framing (S-F; ads highlighting congruence with conventional cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products) in e-cigarette and snus ads on young adult smokers' and non-smokers' ad- and product-related perceptions. METHODS: One thousand fifty one (1,051) young adults (18-24 years; 76% women; 50% smokers) from existing consumer panels were recruited in a within-subjects quasi-experiment...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722185/flavorings-and-perceived-harm-and-addictiveness-of-e-cigarettes-among-youth
#12
Maria Cooper, Melissa B Harrell, Adriana Pérez, Joanne Delk, Cheryl L Perry
OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing trend in use of electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") among youth, it is crucial to understand how these products are perceived and how these perceptions are associated with their decision whether or not to use them. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a rapid response surveillance system of 6th, 8th and 10th grade students' tobacco use behaviors (sample [n] = 3704 from a population of students [N] = 434,601)...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446984/online-e-cigarette-marketing-claims-a-systematic-content-and-legal-analysis
#13
Elizabeth G Klein, Micah Berman, Natalie Hemmerich, Cristen Carlson, SuSandi Htut, Michael Slater
OBJECTIVES: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are heavily marketed online. The purpose of our study was to perform a systematic identification and evaluation of claims made within ENDS retailer and manufacturer websites, and the legal status of such claims. METHODS: We employed a systematic search protocol with popular search engines using 6 terms: (1) e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigs; (3) e-juice; (4) e-liquid; (5) e-hookah; and (6) vape pen...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430008/smoke-and-vapor-exploring-the-terminology-landscape-among-electronic-cigarette-users
#14
Jennifer P Alexander, Blair N Coleman, Sarah E Johnson, Greta K Tessman, Cindy Tworek, Denise M Dickinson
OBJECTIVE: We explored the terminology of adult e-cigarette users in describing e-cigarette products and their use. We report how users discuss and differentiate these products and the language and culture surrounding them. METHODS: Focus groups (N = 12) were held in 5 locations in the United States between March and May, 2014. Participants (N = 99) included young adults or adults who were either exclusive or nonexclusive e-cigarette users. We gathered data on how users identify various types of e-cigarettes and how users understand and describe specific terms...
July 1, 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413772/little-cigars-and-cigarillos-users-perceptions-and-reasons-for-use
#15
Amy L Nyman, Kymberle L Sterling, Scott R Weaver, Ban A Majeed, Michael P Eriksen
OBJECTIVE: This study examines little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) adult user characteristics, perceived addictiveness, use and importance of flavors, intentions to continue use, and reasons for use to inform prevention efforts and regulatory policy. METHODS: Data come from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a national probability sample of 5717 US adults, conducted online, June-November, 2014. The analytic sample consisted of 141 current LCC users...
July 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435848/multiple-levels-of-influence-that-impact-youth-tobacco-use
#16
Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg, Melissa J Krauss, Shaina J Sowles, Edward L Spitznagel, Richard Grucza, Frank J Chaloupka, Laura J Bierut
OBJECTIVE: Multiple levels of influence interplay to impact youth tobacco use. We work towards understanding important policy and environmental strategies that are associated with youth tobacco use behaviors. METHODS: We utilized data from participants of the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study and linked national data from multiple sources to assess correlates of youth tobacco use behaviors across individual, family, school, community, and state-level policy influences...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090560/perceptions-of-secondhand-e-cigarette-aerosol-among-twitter-users
#17
Jennifer B Unger, Patricia Escobedo, Jon-Patrick Allem, Daniel W Soto, Kar-Hai Chu, Tess Cruz
OBJECTIVES: There is considerable debate among the public health community about the health risks of secondhand exposure to the aerosol from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Despite mounting scientific evidence on the chemical content of e-cigarette aerosol, public perceptions of the relative safety of secondhand e-cigarette aerosol have not been well characterized. METHOD: This study collected tweets, or messages sent using Twitter, about exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol over a 6-week period in 2015...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617273/the-age-related-positivity-effect-and-tobacco-warning-labels
#18
Megan E Roberts, Ellen Peters, Amy K Ferketich, Elizabeth G Klein
OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether age is a factor in viewing time for tobacco warning labels. The approach drew from previous work demonstrating an age-related positivity effect, whereby older adults show preferences toward positive and away from negative stimuli. METHODS: Participants were 295 daily smokers from Appalachian Ohio (age range: 21-68). All participants took part in an eye-tracking paradigm that captured the attention paid to elements of health warning labels in the context of magazine advertisements...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517061/the-reach-and-impact-of-direct-marketing-via-brand-websites-of-moist-snuff
#19
David S Timberlake, Tim A Bruckner, Vyvian Ngo, Dmitriy Nikitin
OBJECTIVE: Restricting tobacco marketing is a key element in the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) public health framework for regulating tobacco. Given the dearth of empirical data on direct marketing, the objective of this study was to assess the reach and impact of promotions on sales through snuff websites. METHODS: Nine brands of snuff, representing more than 90% of market share, were monitored for content of coupons, sweepstakes, contests, and other promotions on their respective websites...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042688/smokers-early-e-cigarette-experiences-reasons-for-use-and-use-intentions
#20
Olivia A Wackowski, Michelle T Bover Manderski, Cristine D Delnevo, Daniel P Giovenco, M Jane Lewis
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the context of smokers' first e-cigarette experiences, reasons for trying e-cigarettes, not continuing their use, and future use intentions. METHODS: We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 519 current cigarette smokers in the United States (classified as never, current, or former e-cigarette users/triers) in April 2014 about their e-cigarette experiences and use intentions. RESULTS: Among ever e-cigarette users/triers, 43% purchased an e-cigarette on their own as their first method of trial...
April 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
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