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Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology

Kwamena Sekyi Dickson, Eugene Kofuor Maafo Darteh, Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah
Background: The International Safe Motherhood initiative provides a focus for programmes and research to improve maternal health in low - income countries. Antenatal care is one of the key pillars of the initiative. This study sought to examine the association between background characteristics and choice of skilled providers of antenatal care services in Ghana. Methods: The study used data from the six rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Binary logistic regression models were applied to analyse the data...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Caroline J Chantry, Aubrey Blanton, Véronique Taché, Laurel Finta, Daniel Tancredi
Background: Delayed cord clamping (DCC) results in decreased iron deficiency in infancy. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology has called for research on the optimal time to clamp the cord during cesarean deliveries (CD). Our objective was to conduct a pilot trial examining the safety of delayed cord clamping (DCC) for maternal-infant dyads during elective cesarean delivery (CD). Methods: We enrolled 39 dyads [23 at 90 s, 16 at 120 s; (DCC Pilot)] between 10/2013 and 9/2014...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Ryan M McAdams, Carl H Backes, Omid Fathi, David J R Hutchon
Delayed cord clamping, the common term used to denote placental-to-newborn transfusion at birth, is a practice now endorsed by the major governing bodies affiliated with maternal-newborn care. Despite considerable evidence, delayed cord clamping, not early cord clamping, continues to be viewed as the "experimental" intervention category when discussed in research studies. We provide a brief overview of placental-to-newborn transfusion in relation to birth transitional physiology and discuss areas where we may need to modify our interpretation of "normal" vital signs and laboratory values as delayed cord clamping becomes standardized...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Richard Kalisa, Patrick Smeele, Marianne van Elteren, Thomas van den Akker, Jos van Roosmalen
Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) comprise a strategy to make women plan for birth and encourage them to seek professional care in order to reduce poor pregnancy outcome. We aimed to understand the facilitators and barriers to BP/CR among community health workers (CHWs) and community members in rural Rwanda. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were conducted with 88 participants comprising of CHWs, elderly women aged 45-68 and men aged 18-59, as well as two key informant interviews in Musanze district, Rwanda, between November and December 2015...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Hajar Mazahery, Pamela R von Hurst, Christopher J D McKinlay, Barbara E Cormack, Cathryn A Conlon
Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) has been widely utilised to track body composition because it is considered to be practical, reliable, and valid. Pea Pod is the infant version of ADP that accommodates infants up to the age of 6 months and has been widely utilised to assess the body composition of full-term infants, and more recently pre-term infants. The primary goal of this comprehensive review is to 1) discuss the accuracy/reproducibility of Pea Pod in both full- and pre-term infants, 2) highlight and discuss practical challenges and potential sources of measurement errors in relation to Pea Pod operating principles, and 3) make suggestions for future research direction to overcome the identified limitations...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Jessica L Thomson, Lisa M Tussing-Humphreys, Melissa H Goodman, Alicia S Landry
Background: Physical inactivity and inadequate amounts of sleep are two potential causes for excessive weight gain in infancy. Thus, parents and caregivers of infants need to be educated about decreasing infant sedentary behavior, increasing infant unrestrained floor time, as well as age specific recommended amounts of sleep for infants. The aims of this study were to determine if maternal knowledge about infant activity and sleep changed over time and to evaluate maternal compliance rates with expert recommendations for infant sleep in a two-arm, randomized, controlled, comparative impact trial...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Marzieh Araban, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Khadije Makhouli
Background: Delivery is a critical event in every woman's life. Under some medical conditions, women sometimes undergo a cesarean section to save the life of themselves and their infant. Understanding the factors associated with choosing the type of delivery leads to more effective health interventions and the promotion of maternal and newborn health. The aim of this study is to determine contributing factors in pregnant women's beliefs toward the mode of delivery in a sample of women referring to Hojatieh Hospital in Isfahan, Iran...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Adrien Lokangaka, Melissa Bauserman, Yves Coppieters, Cyril Engmann, Shamim Qazi, Antoinette Tshefu, Carl Bose
Background: One-quarter of neonatal and infant deaths are due to infection, and the majority of these deaths occur in developing countries. Standard treatment for infection, which includes parenteral treatment only, is often not available in low-resource settings. Infant mortality will not be reduced in developing countries without a reduction in deaths due to infection. We participated in a multi-site trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of three simplified antibiotic regimens compared to standard treatment (The AFRINEST Trial: parent study)...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Eugene Tuyishime, Paul H Park, Dominique Rouleau, Patricia Livingston, Paulin Ruhato Banguti, Rex Wong
Background: Worldwide maternal mortality remains high, with approximately 830 maternal deaths occurring each day. About 90% of these deaths occur in low-income countries. Evidenced-based essential birth practices administered during routine obstetrical care and childbirth are key to reducing maternal and neonatal deaths. The WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC) is a low-cost tool designed to ensure birth attendants perform 29 essential birth practices (EBP) at four critical periods in the birth continuum...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Mekdes Mengesha Jemberia, Elsa Tesfa Berhe, Hawi Bersisa Mirkena, Destaw Molla Gishen, Abera Endale Tegegne, Melese Abate Reta
Background: Neonatal mortality has persisted high in Ethiopia in spite of many efforts being applied to decrease this adverse trend. Early detection of neonatal illness is an important step towards improving newborn survival. Toward this end, there is a need for the mothers to be able to identify signs in neonates that signify severe illnesses. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about neonatal danger signs and its associated factors among postnatal mothers attending at Woldia general hospital, Ethiopian...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Hellen Namusoke, Maria Musoke Nannyonga, Robert Ssebunya, Victoria Kirabira Nakibuuka, Edison Mworozi
Background: Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy carries high case fatality rates ranging between 10-60%, with 25% of survivors have an adverse long-term neurodevelopment outcome. Despite the above, there is paucity of data regarding its magnitude and short term outcomes in a low resource setting like Uganda. Therefore we set out to determine the incidence and short term outcomes of Newborns with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy at St.Francis Hospital, Nsambya. Methods: This was a Prospective Cohort study conducted between October 2015 and January 2016 at St...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Ebenezer Owusu Darkwa, Robert Djagbletey, Daniel Sottie, Christian Owoo, Naa Martekuor Vanderpuye, Raymond Essuman, George Aryee
Background: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in maternal cardiovascular system which regulates oxygen and nutrient supply to the growing foetus. Nitric oxide, a physiologic vascular smooth muscle relaxant regulates blood flow and therefore may play a role in the cardiovascular changes in pregnancy. The study aimed to determine the levels and changes in maternal serum nitric oxide levels during healthy pregnancy. Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 32 healthy non-pregnant women as controls and 100 healthy pregnant women (consisting of 33 first trimester, 37 s trimester, and 30 third trimester) as cases...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Kotomi Yamaguchi, Kazutomo Ohashi
Background: Per the 2014 Japanese Midwives Association (JMA) guidelines, midwives were allowed to manage the deliveries for group B streptococcus (GBS)-positive pregnant women in labour at maternity homes without the supervision of a medical doctor if they complied with the guidelines of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG), wherein midwives working for maternity homes are expected to cooperate with commissioned obstetricians and paediatricians in cooperative medical facilities...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Fortress Yayra Aku, Patricia Akweongo, Kofi Nyarko, Samuel Sackey, Fredrick Wurapa, Edwin Andrew Afari, Donne Kofi Ameme, Ernest Kenu
Background: Globally, 4 million neonates die annually, with one-third of such deaths occurring as a result of infections. In 2011, there were 7.2million deaths in children below 5 years globally, and a proportion of 40% of these deaths occurred in neonates. Sepsis was reported to account for one-third of these deaths. Presently, multidrug antibiotic resistance is rapidly increasing in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs), particularly in developing countries and poses a threat to public health...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Gwendoline Lilly Tanyaradzwa Chimhini, Simbarashe Chimhuya, Vasco Chikwasha
Background: Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy in the neonatal period is a major cause of permanent disability. Effective screening and surveillance are essential in the newborn period to enable timely management. Noninvasive transcutaneous bilirubin devices have been successfully used for screening in many settings. We evaluated the accuracy of the Draeger JM 103 (Medical Systems, USA) for estimating serum bilirubin in Zimbabwean newborns. Methods: Paired transcutaneous (forehead and sternum) and serum bilirubin measurements were compared on 283 infants consecutively recruited between 01 August and 30 November 2015 at Harare Hospital Neonatal Unit...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Margo S Harrison, Robert L Goldenberg
Globally, data show that many women of reproductive age desire to use modern family planning methods. Many of these women do not have access to modern contraceptives, which is termed their 'unmet need' for contraception. In low- and middle-income countries where total fertility rates can be high and many women have undesired fertility, or wish to increase their inter-pregnancy intervals, access to modern contraceptives is often inadequate. The puerperium is a unique time for interventions to offer modern contraceptive methods...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Sheila M Gephart, Corrine Hanson, Christine M Wetzel, Michelle Fleiner, Erin Umberger, Laura Martin, Suma Rao, Amit Agrawal, Terri Marin, Khaver Kirmani, Megan Quinn, Jenny Quinn, Katherine M Dudding, Tanya Clay, Jason Sauberan, Yael Eskenazi, Caroline Porter, Amy L Msowoya, Christina Wyles, Melissa Avenado-Ruiz, Shayla Vo, Kristina M Reber, Jennifer Duchon
Background: Although decades have focused on unraveling its etiology, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a chief threat to the health of premature infants. Both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors contribute to varying rates of disease across neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a scoping review with two new meta-analyses, clinical recommendations, and implementation strategies to prevent and foster timely recognition of NEC...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Paul Nkemtendong Tolefac, Gregory Edie Halle-Ekane, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Carlson Barbila Sama, Calypse Ngwasiri, Pierre Marie Tebeu
Background: Early initiation of antenatal care visits is an essential component of services to improving maternal and new born health. The Cameroonian Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2011 indicated that only 34% of pregnant women start antenatal care in the first trimester. However, detailed study to identify factors associated with late initiation of care has not been conducted in Cameroon. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of late booking first ANC visit amongst attendance of first ANC and the determinants of late first ANC in Douala general hospital...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Stephanie L Smith, Christopher A Rouse
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) that has a role in the cognitive and visual development, as well as in the immune function of newborns. Premature infants are typically deficient in DHA for several reasons, to include fetal accretion of DHA that typically occurs during the third trimester. These premature infants are reliant on enteral sources of DHA, most commonly through breast milk. The DHA content in breast milk varies in direct correlation with maternal DHA intake and mothers consuming a Western diet typically have lower levels of DHA in their breast milk...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Morarji Peesay
Nuchal cord occurs when the umbilical cord becomes wrapped around the fetal neck 360 degrees. Nuchal cords occur in about 10-29% of fetuses and the incidence increases with advancing gestation age. Most are not associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality, but a few studies have shown that nuchal cord can affect the outcome of delivery with possible long-term effects on the infants. Nuchal cords are more likely to cause problems when the cord is tightly wrapped around the neck, with effects of a tight nuchal cord conceptually similar to strangulation...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
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