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Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology

Elizabeth V Asztalos, Alex Kiss, Orlando P da Silva, Marsha Campbell-Yeo, Shinya Ito, David Knoppert
Background: Preterm birth alters the normal sequence of lactogenesis. Lactogenesis I may not yet have started when mothers of very preterm infants (≤ 29 weeks gestation) have given birth. Preterm infants are too small or too ill to initiate suckling in the immediate postpartum period thus altering the normal cascade of event for lactogenesis II. With an increasing demand for mother's own milk as a primary source of nutritional support in the care of very small and preterm infants, mothers of these infants are often at risk of expressing inadequate amounts of milk...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Albertina Ngomah Moraes, Rosemary Ndonyo Likwa, Selestine H Nzala
Background: About three in ten young women aged 15-19 have begun childbearing among the Zambian population, with adolescent pregnancy levels as high as 35% in rural areas. In 2009, Luapula reported 32.1% adolescent pregnancies. The study sought to investigate obstetric and perinatal outcomes among adolescents compared to mothers aged 20-24 years delivering at selected health facilities in Kawambwa and Mansa districts of Luapula. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out of all deliveries to mothers aged between 10 and 24 years for the period January 2012 to January 2013...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Asmare Talie, Abere Yekoye, Megbaru Alemu, Belsity Temesgen, Yibeltal Aschale
Background: Postpartum maternal morbidity is maternal illness that occurs after one hour of expulsion of placenta up to six weeks of childbirth. Though the true burden of this problem is not well known estimates of WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA showed that 1.4 million women experience acute obstetric morbidity annually. Knowledge of magnitude and predicting factors postpartum morbidity is central to understand the extent of the problem and will help as a cornerstone in designing and implementing better preventive strategies...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Israel Macedo, Luis Pereira-da-Silva, Manuela Cardoso
Background: To achieve recommended nutrient intakes in preterm infants, the target fortification method of human milk (HM) was proposed as an alternative to standard fortification method. We aimed to compare assumed energy and macronutrient intakes based on standard fortified HM with actual intakes relying on measured composition of human milk (HM), in a cohort of HM-fed very preterm infants. Methods: This study is a secondary retrospective analysis, in which assumed energy and macronutrient contents of daily pools of own mother's milk (OMM) from 33 mothers and donated HM (DHM) delivered to infants were compared with the measured values using a mid-infrared HM analyzer...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Gemechu Kumera, Dereje Gedle, Animut Alebel, Fetuma Feyera, Setegn Eshetie
Background: Under nutrition is a worldwide public health problem affecting the well-being of millions of pregnant women in the developing world. Only limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and determinants of maternal nutritional status in Ethiopia. Particularly, data on the nutritional status of pregnant women are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of undernutrition among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Edward Kwabena Ameyaw
Background: Unintended pregnancies increase levels of stress, adoption of risky behaviours and impact on women's general quality of life. In Ghana, in spite of the paucity of literature on unintended pregnancies, the phenomenon is high especially among women in the early years of their reproductive health. This study therefore sought to investigate the prevalence and correlates of unintended pregnancies in Ghana. Methods: This study made use of data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Anura W G Ratnasiri, Steven S Parry, Vivi N Arief, Ian H DeLacy, Laura A Halliday, Ralph J DiLibero, Kaye E Basford
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is a leading risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality in the United States. There are large disparities in the prevalence of LBW by race and ethnicity, especially between African American and White women. Despite extensive research, the practice of clinical and public health, and policies devoted to reducing the number of LBW infants, the prevalence of LBW has remained unacceptably and consistently high. There have been few detailed studies identifying the factors associated with LBW in California, which is home to a highly diverse population...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Kwamena Sekyi Dickson, Eugene Kofuor Maafo Darteh, Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme, Bright Opoku Ahinkorah
Background: The International Safe Motherhood initiative provides a focus for programmes and research to improve maternal health in low - income countries. Antenatal care is one of the key pillars of the initiative. This study sought to examine the association between background characteristics and choice of skilled providers of antenatal care services in Ghana. Methods: The study used data from the six rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Binary logistic regression models were applied to analyse the data...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Caroline J Chantry, Aubrey Blanton, Véronique Taché, Laurel Finta, Daniel Tancredi
Background: Delayed cord clamping (DCC) results in decreased iron deficiency in infancy. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology has called for research on the optimal time to clamp the cord during cesarean deliveries (CD). Our objective was to conduct a pilot trial examining the safety of delayed cord clamping (DCC) for maternal-infant dyads during elective cesarean delivery (CD). Methods: We enrolled 39 dyads [23 at 90 s, 16 at 120 s; (DCC Pilot)] between 10/2013 and 9/2014...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Ryan M McAdams, Carl H Backes, Omid Fathi, David J R Hutchon
Delayed cord clamping, the common term used to denote placental-to-newborn transfusion at birth, is a practice now endorsed by the major governing bodies affiliated with maternal-newborn care. Despite considerable evidence, delayed cord clamping, not early cord clamping, continues to be viewed as the "experimental" intervention category when discussed in research studies. We provide a brief overview of placental-to-newborn transfusion in relation to birth transitional physiology and discuss areas where we may need to modify our interpretation of "normal" vital signs and laboratory values as delayed cord clamping becomes standardized...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Richard Kalisa, Patrick Smeele, Marianne van Elteren, Thomas van den Akker, Jos van Roosmalen
Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR) comprise a strategy to make women plan for birth and encourage them to seek professional care in order to reduce poor pregnancy outcome. We aimed to understand the facilitators and barriers to BP/CR among community health workers (CHWs) and community members in rural Rwanda. Methods: Eight focus group discussions were conducted with 88 participants comprising of CHWs, elderly women aged 45-68 and men aged 18-59, as well as two key informant interviews in Musanze district, Rwanda, between November and December 2015...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Hajar Mazahery, Pamela R von Hurst, Christopher J D McKinlay, Barbara E Cormack, Cathryn A Conlon
Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) has been widely utilised to track body composition because it is considered to be practical, reliable, and valid. Pea Pod is the infant version of ADP that accommodates infants up to the age of 6 months and has been widely utilised to assess the body composition of full-term infants, and more recently pre-term infants. The primary goal of this comprehensive review is to 1) discuss the accuracy/reproducibility of Pea Pod in both full- and pre-term infants, 2) highlight and discuss practical challenges and potential sources of measurement errors in relation to Pea Pod operating principles, and 3) make suggestions for future research direction to overcome the identified limitations...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Jessica L Thomson, Lisa M Tussing-Humphreys, Melissa H Goodman, Alicia S Landry
Background: Physical inactivity and inadequate amounts of sleep are two potential causes for excessive weight gain in infancy. Thus, parents and caregivers of infants need to be educated about decreasing infant sedentary behavior, increasing infant unrestrained floor time, as well as age specific recommended amounts of sleep for infants. The aims of this study were to determine if maternal knowledge about infant activity and sleep changed over time and to evaluate maternal compliance rates with expert recommendations for infant sleep in a two-arm, randomized, controlled, comparative impact trial...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Marzieh Araban, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Khadije Makhouli
Background: Delivery is a critical event in every woman's life. Under some medical conditions, women sometimes undergo a cesarean section to save the life of themselves and their infant. Understanding the factors associated with choosing the type of delivery leads to more effective health interventions and the promotion of maternal and newborn health. The aim of this study is to determine contributing factors in pregnant women's beliefs toward the mode of delivery in a sample of women referring to Hojatieh Hospital in Isfahan, Iran...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Adrien Lokangaka, Melissa Bauserman, Yves Coppieters, Cyril Engmann, Shamim Qazi, Antoinette Tshefu, Carl Bose
Background: One-quarter of neonatal and infant deaths are due to infection, and the majority of these deaths occur in developing countries. Standard treatment for infection, which includes parenteral treatment only, is often not available in low-resource settings. Infant mortality will not be reduced in developing countries without a reduction in deaths due to infection. We participated in a multi-site trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of three simplified antibiotic regimens compared to standard treatment (The AFRINEST Trial: parent study)...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Eugene Tuyishime, Paul H Park, Dominique Rouleau, Patricia Livingston, Paulin Ruhato Banguti, Rex Wong
Background: Worldwide maternal mortality remains high, with approximately 830 maternal deaths occurring each day. About 90% of these deaths occur in low-income countries. Evidenced-based essential birth practices administered during routine obstetrical care and childbirth are key to reducing maternal and neonatal deaths. The WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC) is a low-cost tool designed to ensure birth attendants perform 29 essential birth practices (EBP) at four critical periods in the birth continuum...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Mekdes Mengesha Jemberia, Elsa Tesfa Berhe, Hawi Bersisa Mirkena, Destaw Molla Gishen, Abera Endale Tegegne, Melese Abate Reta
Background: Neonatal mortality has persisted high in Ethiopia in spite of many efforts being applied to decrease this adverse trend. Early detection of neonatal illness is an important step towards improving newborn survival. Toward this end, there is a need for the mothers to be able to identify signs in neonates that signify severe illnesses. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge about neonatal danger signs and its associated factors among postnatal mothers attending at Woldia general hospital, Ethiopian...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Hellen Namusoke, Maria Musoke Nannyonga, Robert Ssebunya, Victoria Kirabira Nakibuuka, Edison Mworozi
Background: Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy carries high case fatality rates ranging between 10-60%, with 25% of survivors have an adverse long-term neurodevelopment outcome. Despite the above, there is paucity of data regarding its magnitude and short term outcomes in a low resource setting like Uganda. Therefore we set out to determine the incidence and short term outcomes of Newborns with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy at St.Francis Hospital, Nsambya. Methods: This was a Prospective Cohort study conducted between October 2015 and January 2016 at St...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Ebenezer Owusu Darkwa, Robert Djagbletey, Daniel Sottie, Christian Owoo, Naa Martekuor Vanderpuye, Raymond Essuman, George Aryee
Background: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in maternal cardiovascular system which regulates oxygen and nutrient supply to the growing foetus. Nitric oxide, a physiologic vascular smooth muscle relaxant regulates blood flow and therefore may play a role in the cardiovascular changes in pregnancy. The study aimed to determine the levels and changes in maternal serum nitric oxide levels during healthy pregnancy. Methods: A case-control study was conducted among 32 healthy non-pregnant women as controls and 100 healthy pregnant women (consisting of 33 first trimester, 37 s trimester, and 30 third trimester) as cases...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
Kotomi Yamaguchi, Kazutomo Ohashi
Background: Per the 2014 Japanese Midwives Association (JMA) guidelines, midwives were allowed to manage the deliveries for group B streptococcus (GBS)-positive pregnant women in labour at maternity homes without the supervision of a medical doctor if they complied with the guidelines of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG), wherein midwives working for maternity homes are expected to cooperate with commissioned obstetricians and paediatricians in cooperative medical facilities...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
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