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Health Security

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199867/relevance-of-global-health-security-to-the-us-export-economy
#1
Cynthia H Cassell, Zoe Bambery, Kakoli Roy, Martin I Meltzer, Zara Ahmed, Rebecca L Payne, Rebecca E Bunnell
To reduce the health security risk and impact of outbreaks around the world, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its partners are building capabilities to prevent, detect, and contain outbreaks in 49 global health security priority countries. We examine the extent of economic vulnerability to the US export economy posed by trade disruptions in these 49 countries. Using 2015 US Department of Commerce data, we assessed the value of US exports and the number of US jobs supported by those exports...
December 4, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193983/characterization-of-departures-from-regulatory-requirements-identified-during-inspections-conducted-by-the-us-federal-select-agent-program-2014-15
#2
Adam Bjork, Daniel M Sosin
We studied departures from regulatory requirements identified on US Federal Select Agent Program (FSAP) inspections to increase transparency regarding biosafety and security risk at FSAP-regulated entities and identify areas for programmatic improvement. Regulatory departures from inspections led by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inspectors during 2014-15 were grouped into "biosafety," "security," and "other" observation categories and assigned a risk level and score reflecting perceived severity...
December 1, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193982/biodosimetry-a-future-tool-for-medical-management-of-radiological-emergencies
#3
Mary T Sproull, Kevin A Camphausen, Gregory D Koblentz
With the threat of future radiological or nuclear events, there is a need to model and develop new medical countermeasures for managing large-scale population exposures to radiation. The field of radiation biodosimetry has advanced far beyond its original objectives to identify new methodologies to quantitate unknown levels of radiation exposure that may be applied in a mass screening setting. New research in the areas of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) applications have identified novel biological indicators of radiation injury from a diverse array of biological sample materials, and studies continue to develop more advanced models of radiation exposure and injury...
December 1, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182480/evaluation-of-state-plans-and-the-livestock-emergency-response-plan-lerp
#4
Amy M Schaffer, Kenneth R Burton
The Livestock Emergency Response Plan (LERP) was published in 2014 as a toolkit to assist state agricultural emergency planners in writing or modifying state foreign animal disease/high-consequence disease (FAD/HCD) plans. This research serves as a follow-up to and expands on an initial survey conducted in 2011 by the Department of Homeland Security Office of Health Affairs, Food, Ag, and Veterinary Defense Branch. The purpose of this project is to describe the status of current state animal disease response plans in relation to how closely their content, order, and terminology relate to that described in the LERP template...
November 28, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178814/natural-hazards-preparedness-in-taiwan-a-comparison-between-households-with-and-without-disabled-members
#5
Ziqiang Han, Hong Wang, Qingyue Du, Yongyi Zeng
People with disabilities are one of the most vulnerable groups to natural hazards. Preparedness is critical to protect life and reduce disaster impact. This article discusses the knowledge of the disaster preparedness behaviors of people with disabilities using updated, representative data from Taiwan (2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey), with a comparison to households without disabled members. The adoption of 6 preparedness activities-relocating vehicles or valuable things to a safer place, purchasing insurance, securing furniture, preparing an emergency kit, planning evacuation, and participating in drills-are used separately as dependent variables...
November 27, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178813/the-threat-of-synthetic-smallpox-european-perspectives
#6
Giulia Impelluso, Filippa Lentzos
This article explores how advances in synthetic biology, and the potential threat of deliberately recreating and spreading smallpox, are affecting the multilateral debate on the remaining variola virus stocks. It draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 high-profile, European-based experts in biosecurity and synthetic biology. Four overarching themes affecting the retention or destruction debate are discussed, relating to biosecurity, dangerous knowledge, accidental releases, and eradication. We conclude that while synthetic biology seems to affect all the main discourses in the variola stocks debate, a range of views is present and it is not apparent that advances in synthetic biology are causing a shift toward either retention or destruction of the stocks...
November 27, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135312/rethinking-the-biological-and-toxin-weapons-convention
#7
Daniel Gerstein, James Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135306/a-calculation-tool-and-process-to-pre-position-pharmaceuticals-for-anthrax-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#8
Gary D Peksa, Michael J Robbins, Alexis R Beyer, Elisabeth K Weber, Keneatha Johnson
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is considered a severe bioterrorism threat because of its high mortality rate. The Chicago Healthcare System Coalition for Preparedness and Response (CHSCPR) aims to pre-position antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCMs) at healthcare facilities in order to provide on-site anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis. Pharmacists proposed moving toward a new process that involved the development of a standardized calculation methodology for acquiring supply drugs. This was an interventional quality improvement project aimed at optimizing inventory, acquisition, and distribution of antibiotic MCMs for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis at Chicago hospitals for hospital personnel, associated first responders, and their families...
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091742/biosecurity-implications-for-the-synthesis-of-horsepox-an-orthopoxvirus
#9
Diane DiEuliis, Kavita Berger, Gigi Gronvall
This article examines the biosecurity and biodefense implications resulting from the recent creation of horsepox virus, a noncirculating (extinct) species of orthopoxvirus. Here we examine the technical aspects of the horsepox virus synthesis and conclude that orthopox synthesis experiments currently remain technically challenging-and will continue to be so, even once this work is published in the scientific literature. This limits potential misuse by some types of nefarious actors. We also examine the implications of one stated purpose for the recreation of horsepox virus: the development of a smallpox vaccine...
November 1, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058969/public-health-and-the-pope-s-visit-to-philadelphia-2015
#10
James W Buehler, Jessica Caum, Steven J Alles
Pope Francis visited Philadelphia for 2 days during September 2015. Preparedness functions managed by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) were similar to those of other mass gatherings but also required accommodation of special security arrangements and the location of public events in central areas of the city. Public health planning involved collaborations with multiple city, state, and federal agencies and neighboring jurisdictions. PDPH preparations encompassed incident command procedures, contingency planning, disease surveillance and prevention, food safety, vector control, BioWatch air sampling, volunteer management for first-aid services, and continuity of operations...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058968/reporting-of-false-data-during-ebola-virus-disease-active-monitoring-new-york-city-january-1-2015-december-29-2015
#11
Anna Tate, Ifeoma Ezeoke, David E Lucero, Chaorui C Huang, Alhaji Saffa, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) began to actively monitor people potentially exposed to Ebola virus on October 25, 2014. Active monitoring was critical to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) response and mitigated risk without restricting individual liberties. Noncompliance with active monitoring procedures has been reported. We conducted a survey of 4,075 eligible persons to evaluate (1) the frequency of reporting of false data during active monitoring, and (2) factors associated with reporting of false temperature data...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058967/a-public-health-preparedness-logic-model-assessing-preparedness-for-cross-border-threats-in-the-european-region
#12
Michael A Stoto, Christopher Nelson, Elena Savoia, Irina Ljungqvist, Massimo Ciotti
Improving preparedness in the European region requires a clear understanding of what European Union (EU) member states should be able to do, whether acting internally or in cooperation with each other or the EU and other multilateral organizations. We have developed a preparedness logic model that specifies the aims and objectives of public health preparedness, as well as the response capabilities and preparedness capacities needed to achieve them. The capabilities, which describe the ability to effectively use capacities to identify, characterize, and respond to emergencies, are organized into 5 categories...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058966/high-level-isolation-unit-infection-control-procedures
#13
Jocelyn J Herstein, Paul D Biddinger, Shawn G Gibbs, Aurora B Le, Katelyn C Jelden, Angela L Hewlett, John J Lowe
The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa prompted a select group of US hospitals to establish high-level isolation units equipped with advanced engineering controls, trained staff, and stringent protocols to safely treat highly infectious disease patients. This survey details the comprehensive infection control protocols developed by these units, including for decontamination of units, post-mortem management, liquid waste disposal, and personal protective equipment (PPE) use. In spring 2016, a survey was electronically distributed to the 56 original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-designated high-level isolation units...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023139/sheltering-haitian-humanitarian-parolees-in-san-diego-a-local-health-department-s-response-to-an-international-crisis
#14
Catherine L Blaser, Christine Murto
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations. Readers may submit topics of interest to the column's editor, Meghan McGinty, PhD, MPH, MBA, at mmcginty@naccho...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016219/emerging-zoonotic-influenza-a-virus-detection-in-myanmar-surveillance-practices-and-findings
#15
Ye Tun Win, Emma Gardner, David Hadrill, Cho Cho Su Mon, Maung Maung Kyin, Min Thein Maw, Filip Claes, Sophie von Dobschuetz, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Kachen Wongsathapornchai, Hla Hla Mon, Win Win Myint, Wai Zin Thein, Pont Pont Mon
We describe 2-season, risk-based, virological surveillance for zoonotic avian influenza in Myanmar and report the first detection of influenza A subtypes H5N6 and H9N2 in Myanmar. The study focused mainly on the live bird markets in border townships, where illegal poultry importation from China usually takes place. The objective was to enhance early warning for low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) incursion. The study followed the guidelines of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for influenza A(H7N9) surveillance in uninfected countries...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994617/an-interim-examination-of-the-us-public-health-response-to-ebola
#16
Katherine Schemm Dwyer, Heather Misner, Sara Chang, Neyling Fajardo
From the summer of 2014 to the spring of 2016, the United States was involved in the Ebola response on both the national and international levels. The United States received 2 imported cases from West Africa and had 2 locally hospital-acquired cases, which spurred a massive and unprecedented public health response. As the domestic response stabilized and the epidemic in West Africa slowed, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) and the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), led an in-progress review to assess the national public health response to Ebola...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945117/assessment-of-closed-point-of-dispensing-pod-preparedness-in-st-louis-county-missouri-2012-2016
#17
Terri Rebmann, John Anthony, Travis M Loux, Julia Mulroy, Rikki Sitzes
Little is known about closed point-of-dispensing (POD) site preparedness-especially how these entities progress in their preparedness efforts over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the preparedness of a closed POD network. Between 2012 and 2016, 30% to 50% of POD entities in the St. Louis County region were assessed each year, for a total of 138 site evaluations from 62 entities. The assessment tool included 41 components of closed POD preparedness, each scored either 0 = not met or 1 = met...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937795/using-mystery-patient-drills-to-assess-hospital-ebola-preparedness-in-new-york-city-2014-2015
#18
Mary Foote, Roshni Daver, Celia Quinn
In response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, rapid measures were taken to ensure readiness at frontline New York City (NYC) healthcare facilities, including mandating monthly EVD mystery patient drills to test screening protocols. This study analyzed after-action reports to describe the use of mystery patient drills to test rapid identification and isolation of potential EVD cases in NYC emergency departments. NYC hospitals were required to develop protocols for EVD screening and isolation, and to conduct drills with an actor presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of EVD...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937792/timeliness-of-measles-laboratory-reporting-and-factors-associated-with-delays-zhejiang-province-china-2009-2015
#19
Hanqing He, Rui Yan, Chunhong Fan, Fangyuan Jing, Ye Ding
In 2006, China targeted measles for elimination by 2012, but the goal was not achieved. In line with this goal, the timeliness of measles laboratory reporting should be evaluated to improve efficiency in implementing control measures. Laboratory-confirmed suspected measles cases reported to the measles surveillance system in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2009 to 2015 were collected. Three reporting periods were defined: transport duration (period from serum collected to serum received in lab), analysis duration (period from serum received to the result being reported), and total reporting duration...
September 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937791/web-based-surveillance-of-illness-in-childcare-centers
#20
Natalie Schellpfeffer, Abaigeal Collins, David C Brousseau, Emily T Martin, Andrew Hashikawa
School absenteeism is an inefficient and unspecific metric for measuring community illness and does not provide surveillance during summertime. Web-based biosurveillance of childcare centers may represent a novel way to efficiently monitor illness outbreaks year-round. A web-based biosurveillance program ( sickchildcare.org ) was created and implemented in 4 childcare centers in a single Michigan county. Childcare providers were trained to report sick children who required exclusion or had parent-reported absences due to illness...
September 2017: Health Security
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