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Health Security

Tara Kirk Sell, Special Feature Editor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Health Security
Thomas J Hipper, Renee Davis, Philip M Massey, Renee M Turchi, Keri M Lubell, Laura E Pechta, Dale A Rose, Amy Wolkin, Lisa Briseño, Jessica L Franks, Esther Chernak
Families with children who have access and mobility challenges, chronic illness, or intellectual or developmental disabilities require targeted messages before, during, and after disasters to ensure that they understand risks to their children's health and can take measures to avoid harm and build resilience. A scoping review was conducted to assess current evidence for optimal ways to address the disaster information needs and communication preferences of families with children and youth with special healthcare needs...
June 8, 2018: Health Security
Mark L Maiello, Jessica Cole, Elaine Vernetti
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. Typically, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. This month's column features a submission from the New York City health department that describes their experience in setting up a radiological advisory committee. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations...
June 8, 2018: Health Security
Yotam Ophir
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) framework has been used by the organization during recent outbreaks of infectious diseases. However, the dissemination of the organization's crisis messages depends largely on mass media coverage. This study analyzed 5,006 articles from leading American newspapers covering 3 epidemics: H1N1, Ebola, and Zika. Using a mixed method of automated and manual content analysis, it identified 3 distinct themes used to cover the diseases: pandemic, scientific, and social...
June 5, 2018: Health Security
Matthew W Seeger, Laura E Pechta, Simani M Price, Keri M Lubell, Dale A Rose, Saloni Sapru, Melanie C Chansky, Belinda J Smith
Public health threats, such as emerging infectious diseases, terrorism, environmental catastrophes, and natural disasters, all require effective communication. Emergency risk communication is a critical component of public health emergency planning and response. It is a complex process involving a variety of constructs that interact in dynamic ways over time. While emergency risk communication is generally recognized as an important tool for risk management and emergency response, the specific elements, processes, and outcomes are not well described and have not been systematically assessed...
May 2018: Health Security
Rebecca Lis, Aaron T Resnick
Infectious disease response, particularly high-consequence acute infectious disease and special pathogen response, requires the coordination of numerous public and private entities to ensure the safety and appropriate care for patients, healthcare and EMS staff, and the public. The Northwest Healthcare Response Network, an independent 501(c)(3) healthcare coalition, has partnered with the local health departments in the Puget Sound area of Washington State to develop a communication and decision-making structure to support coordinated information sharing, patient care, patient transportation, laboratory testing, contact monitoring, and healthcare and EMS staff safety in events involving suspected or diagnosed acute infectious disease patients...
May 2018: Health Security
Rachael Piltch-Loeb, Alexis A Merdjanoff, David M Abramson
Emerging disease threats like Zika pose a risk to naïve populations. In comparison to chronic diseases, there is scientific uncertainty surrounding emerging diseases because of the lack of medical and public health information available as the threat emerges. Further complicating this are the multiple, diverse channels through which people get information. This article used bivariate and multivariate analysis to first describe the breadth of information sources individuals accessed about the Zika virus, and then describe individuals' primary sources of information for Zika using a nationally representative pooled cross-sectional data set collected at 3 time points in 2016 (N = 3,698)...
May 2018: Health Security
Scott Deitchman, Cham E Dallas, Frederick Burkle
On January 13, 2018, Hawaii experienced an erroneous alert that falsely warned of an imminent ballistic missile strike. Rather than focus on the inconvenience caused by the false alert, we used reporting of the event to identify the missing elements that would characterize a system that could save lives by alerting and informing the public in a nuclear detonation. These include warnings that contain essential information rather than directing recipients to secondary sources; a system that issues alerts directly from federal agencies that will have the earliest warning; a robust multimodal alerting system that can deliver messages before and after the detonation; and swift activation of federal agencies immediately upon warning...
March 20, 2018: Health Security
David G Drewry, Lauren M Sauer, Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, Jennifer Therkorn, Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, Thomas Pilholski, Brian T Garibaldi
The Johns Hopkins Hospital created a biocontainment unit (BCU) to care for patients with highly infectious diseases while assuring healthcare worker safety. Research to date for BCU protocols and practices are based on case reports and lessons learned from patient care and exercises. This study seeks to be the first to explore the influences of healthcare worker movement and personal protective equipment (PPE) doffing on the transport of simulant pathogen particles in a BCU. A cough device released 1 μm fluorescent polystyrene beads (PSLs) in the patient room...
March 2018: Health Security
Rex D Archer, Abby Edsall
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. Typically, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations...
March 2018: Health Security
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Security
Gene G Olinger, Kenneth B Yeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Security
Jennifer Snow, James Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Security
Diana Pacheco Barzallo, Andrea Pacheco Barzallo, Eulalia Narvaez
The objective of this work was to examine the spread of the Zika virus after the destructive impact of the earthquake of April 2016 along the coast of Ecuador. Using a difference-in-difference estimation method and a unique dataset to track Zika cases at the national level, we estimated the impact of the earthquake on the reported cases of Zika in the affected region. Our results suggest that the earthquake increased the reported cases of Zika by 0.509 per epidemiologic week (data per 10,000 population), and we argue that the destroyed built environment along with other factors created a disease focus, where the virus spread easily...
March 2018: Health Security
Tammy R Beckham, David A Brake, Joshua B Fine
There are links among agriculture and zoonotic diseases, transboundary diseases in domesticated and wild animals, climate patterns, and human population migrations. A natural or intentionally occurring high-consequence infectious disease ("biothreat") often has no geographic boundaries and has the potential to result in disease epidemics in humans, animals, or both. Although significant strides have been made globally in preparing for a natural or intentional introduction of an emerging and/or zoonotic disease, much remains to be accomplished...
March 2018: Health Security
Gillian K SteelFisher, John M Benson, Hannah Caporello, Lisa M Koonin, Anita Patel, Eran Ben-Porath, Robert J Blendon
Antiviral drugs are likely to be a frontline countermeasure needed to minimize disease impact during an influenza pandemic. As part of pandemic influenza preparedness efforts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in coordination with state health departments, has plans in place to distribute and dispense antiviral drugs from public stockpiles. These plans are currently under review and include evaluation of the benefits of commercial distribution and dispensing through community pharmacies. To ensure this alternative distribution and dispensing system is viable, it is critical to assess pharmacist acceptability and to understand the pharmacist perspective on dispensing these antivirals during a response...
March 2018: Health Security
Terri Rebmann, Kyle McPhee, Gabriel A Haas, Leslie Osborne, Alex McPhillips, Steven Rose, Sanya Vatwani
Stockpiles can aid with healthcare surge that occurs after a disaster, and experts recommend that these caches be assessed at least annually to ensure supply integrity. The purpose of this study was to assess a regional stockpile to determine its viability and readiness. An assessment was performed in the summer and fall of 2016 on a regionally funded stockpile that was decentralized through a regional network of 15 local hospitals. Each supply was assessed to determine whether the correct amount was present, if it was in a safe and usable condition (ie, deployable), and whether it had expired...
March 2018: Health Security
Kristin Post
The unprecedented scale of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014-15 caught the world by surprise. Zaire Ebolavirus had not previously been documented in Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. However, since this strain of filovirus was first identified in 1976, scientists have been studying the disease and its origins. They have identified forest-dwelling animals that carry the virus, and some that die from it, but have yet to isolate how it is transmitted from animals to humans. During the height of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, some public health messages addressed the link among Ebola, wild animals, and humans...
January 2018: Health Security
Dalia Samhouri, Kashef Ijaz, Michel Thieren, Antoine Flahault, Suzanne M Babich, Hamid Jafari, Jaouad Mahjour
By 2014, only 33% of countries had self-reported compliance with the International Health Regulations (2005), including 8 countries from the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). During the Ebola epidemic, the discovery of a gap between objective assessment and self-reports for certain IHR capacities prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to review and update the IHR monitoring and evaluation framework to include a voluntary objective review process, called Joint External Evaluation (JEE), that did not exist before...
January 2018: Health Security
Manish Anand
This article highlights the importance of systems approaches in addressing agricultural biosecurity threats. On the basis of documentary analysis and stakeholder interaction, a brief survey of agricultural biosecurity threats and vulnerabilities from global and Indian perspectives is provided, followed by an exploration of technological and institutional capabilities. Finally, a perspective on the agricultural disease diagnostic networks is provided, drawing instances from global developments. Technical barriers to agroterrorism are lower than those to human-targeted bioterrorism, and the sector is unique as even a very small disease outbreak could prompt international export restrictions...
January 2018: Health Security
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