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Health Security

Diana Pacheco Barzallo, Andrea Pacheco Barzallo, Eulalia Narvaez
The objective of this work was to examine the spread of the Zika virus after the destructive impact of the earthquake of April 2016 along the coast of Ecuador. Using a difference-in-difference estimation method and a unique dataset to track Zika cases at the national level, we estimated the impact of the earthquake on the reported cases of Zika in the affected region. Our results suggest that the earthquake increased the reported cases of Zika by 0.509 per epidemiologic week (data per 10,000 population), and we argue that the destroyed built environment along with other factors created a disease focus, where the virus spread easily...
March 29, 2018: Health Security
Tammy R Beckham, David A Brake, Joshua B Fine
There are links among agriculture and zoonotic diseases, transboundary diseases in domesticated and wild animals, climate patterns, and human population migrations. A natural or intentionally occurring high-consequence infectious disease ("biothreat") often has no geographic boundaries and has the potential to result in disease epidemics in humans, animals, or both. Although significant strides have been made globally in preparing for a natural or intentional introduction of an emerging and/or zoonotic disease, much remains to be accomplished...
March 27, 2018: Health Security
Gillian K SteelFisher, John M Benson, Hannah Caporello, Lisa M Koonin, Anita Patel, Eran Ben-Porath, Robert J Blendon
Antiviral drugs are likely to be a frontline countermeasure needed to minimize disease impact during an influenza pandemic. As part of pandemic influenza preparedness efforts, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in coordination with state health departments, has plans in place to distribute and dispense antiviral drugs from public stockpiles. These plans are currently under review and include evaluation of the benefits of commercial distribution and dispensing through community pharmacies. To ensure this alternative distribution and dispensing system is viable, it is critical to assess pharmacist acceptability and to understand the pharmacist perspective on dispensing these antivirals during a response...
March 23, 2018: Health Security
Terri Rebmann, Kyle McPhee, Gabriel A Haas, Leslie Osborne, Alex McPhillips, Steven Rose, Sanya Vatwani
Stockpiles can aid with healthcare surge that occurs after a disaster, and experts recommend that these caches be assessed at least annually to ensure supply integrity. The purpose of this study was to assess a regional stockpile to determine its viability and readiness. An assessment was performed in the summer and fall of 2016 on a regionally funded stockpile that was decentralized through a regional network of 15 local hospitals. Each supply was assessed to determine whether the correct amount was present, if it was in a safe and usable condition (ie, deployable), and whether it had expired...
March 23, 2018: Health Security
Scott Deitchman, Cham E Dallas, Frederick Burkle
On January 13, 2018, Hawaii experienced an erroneous alert that falsely warned of an imminent ballistic missile strike. Rather than focus on the inconvenience caused by the false alert, we used reporting of the event to identify the missing elements that would characterize a system that could save lives by alerting and informing the public in a nuclear detonation. These include warnings that contain essential information rather than directing recipients to secondary sources; a system that issues alerts directly from federal agencies that will have the earliest warning; a robust multimodal alerting system that can deliver messages before and after the detonation; and swift activation of federal agencies immediately upon warning...
March 20, 2018: Health Security
Dalia Samhouri, Kashef Ijaz, Michel Thieren, Antoine Flahault, Suzanne M Babich, Hamid Jafari, Jaouad Mahjour
By 2014, only 33% of countries had self-reported compliance with the International Health Regulations (2005), including 8 countries from the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). During the Ebola epidemic, the discovery of a gap between objective assessment and self-reports for certain IHR capacities prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to review and update the IHR monitoring and evaluation framework to include a voluntary objective review process, called Joint External Evaluation (JEE), that did not exist before...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
Manish Anand
This article highlights the importance of systems approaches in addressing agricultural biosecurity threats. On the basis of documentary analysis and stakeholder interaction, a brief survey of agricultural biosecurity threats and vulnerabilities from global and Indian perspectives is provided, followed by an exploration of technological and institutional capabilities. Finally, a perspective on the agricultural disease diagnostic networks is provided, drawing instances from global developments. Technical barriers to agroterrorism are lower than those to human-targeted bioterrorism, and the sector is unique as even a very small disease outbreak could prompt international export restrictions...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
Alhaji Saffa, Anna Tate, Ifeoma Ezeoke, Jasmine Jacobs-Wingo, Maryam Iqbal, Jennifer Baumgartner, Anne Fine, Bianca R Perri, Natasha McIntosh, Natalie Levy Stennis, Kristen Lee, Eric Peterson, Lucretia Jones, Lisa Helburn, Caroline Heindrichs, Seth Guthartz, Shadi Chamany, David Starr, Allison Scaccia, Marisa Raphael, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
The CDC recommended active monitoring of travelers potentially exposed to Ebola virus during the 2014 West African Ebola virus disease outbreak, which involved daily contact between travelers and health authorities to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for 21 days after the travelers' last potential Ebola virus exposure. From October 25, 2014, to December 29, 2015, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) monitored 5,359 persons for Ebola virus disease, corresponding to 5,793 active monitoring events...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
Zoe Bambery, Cynthia H Cassell, Rebecca E Bunnell, Kakoli Roy, Zara Ahmed, Rebecca L Payne, Martin I Meltzer
We estimated the impact on the US export economy of an illustrative infectious disease outbreak scenario in Southeast Asia that has 3 stages starting in 1 country and, if uncontained, spreads to 9 countries. We used 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic-related World Bank estimates of 3.3% and 16.1% reductions in gross domestic product (GDP). We also used US Department of Commerce job data to calculate export-related jobs at risk to any outbreak-related disruption in US exports. Assuming a direct correlation between GDP reductions and reduced demand for US exports, we estimated that the illustrative outbreak would cost from $16 million to $27 million (1 country) to $10 million to $18 billion (9 countries) and place 1,500 to almost 1...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
David R Franz, Anwar Nasim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: Health Security
Amit Suneja, Maxim Gakh, Lainie Rutkow
This integrative review examines extant literature assessing the burden and management of noncommunicable diseases 6 months or more after earthquakes and tsunamis. We conducted an integrative review to identify and characterize the strength of published studies about noncommunicable disease-specific outcomes and interventions at least 6 months after an earthquake and/or tsunami. We included disasters that occurred from 2004 to 2016. We focused primarily on the World Health Organization noncommunicable disease designations to define chronic disease, but we also included chronic renal disease, risk factors for noncommunicable diseases, and other chronic diseases or symptoms...
January 22, 2018: Health Security
David G Drewry, Lauren M Sauer, Kathryn Shaw-Saliba, Jennifer Therkorn, Kaitlin Rainwater-Lovett, Thomas Pilholski, Brian T Garibaldi
The Johns Hopkins Hospital created a biocontainment unit (BCU) to care for patients with highly infectious diseases while assuring healthcare worker safety. Research to date for BCU protocols and practices are based on case reports and lessons learned from patient care and exercises. This study seeks to be the first to explore the influences of healthcare worker movement and personal protective equipment (PPE) doffing on the transport of simulant pathogen particles in a BCU. A cough device released 1 μm fluorescent polystyrene beads (PSLs) in the patient room...
March 2018: Health Security
Rex D Archer, Abby Edsall
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. Typically, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations...
March 2018: Health Security
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Security
Gene G Olinger, Kenneth B Yeh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Security
Jennifer Snow, James Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Health Security
Kristin Post
The unprecedented scale of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014-15 caught the world by surprise. Zaire Ebolavirus had not previously been documented in Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. However, since this strain of filovirus was first identified in 1976, scientists have been studying the disease and its origins. They have identified forest-dwelling animals that carry the virus, and some that die from it, but have yet to isolate how it is transmitted from animals to humans. During the height of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, some public health messages addressed the link among Ebola, wild animals, and humans...
January 2018: Health Security
Vladimir G Dedkov, N'Faly Magassouba, Marina V Safonova, Sergey A Bodnev, Oleg V Pyankov, Jacob Camara, Bakary Sylla, Alexander P Agafonov, Victor V Maleev, German A Shipulin
Filoviruses are important etiological agents of emergent diseases with high mortality rates. Traditionally, filovirus fever diseases have primarily been a burden of African countries; however, global interconnectedness has increased the probability of the worldwide spread of filoviruses. Therefore, national healthcare organizations need tools for managing filovirus risk, including diagnostic kits based on real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), as this is the most suitable method for diagnosing filovirus fever diseases...
January 2018: Health Security
Kristin M Omberg, Lyndsey R Franklin, Daniel R Jackson, Karen L Taylor, Karen L Wahl, Ann Lesperance, Ellen M Wynkoop, Jessica A S Gray, Owen P Leiser, Sarah L Frazar, Richard Ozanich, Rachel Bartholomew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Health Security
Arik Eisenkraft, Amichay Afriat, Yechiel Hubary, Ron Lev, Hayim Shaul, Ran D Balicer
Unusual biological events and outbreaks require rapid epidemiologic investigation and contact tracing procedures, allowing optimal handling of resources. Currently, these are resource intensive, time consuming, and extremely complex, requiring large teams of trained and prepared personnel. The goal of this study was to determine whether a technological alternative to the classic systems, based on the use of mobile phones and a unique algorithm, could perform a complete epidemiologic investigation in a setting of a bioterrorism scenario...
January 2018: Health Security
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