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Health Security

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023139/sheltering-haitian-humanitarian-parolees-in-san-diego-a-local-health-department-s-response-to-an-international-crisis
#1
Catherine L Blaser, Christine Murto
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations. Readers may submit topics of interest to the column's editor, Meghan McGinty, PhD, MPH, MBA, at mmcginty@naccho...
October 12, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016219/emerging-zoonotic-influenza-a-virus-detection-in-myanmar-surveillance-practices-and-findings
#2
Ye Tun Win, Emma Gardner, David Hadrill, Cho Cho Su Mon, Maung Maung Kyin, Min Thein Maw, Filip Claes, Sophie von Dobschuetz, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Kachen Wongsathapornchai, Hla Hla Mon, Win Win Myint, Wai Zin Thein, Pont Pont Mon
We describe 2-season, risk-based, virological surveillance for zoonotic avian influenza in Myanmar and report the first detection of influenza A subtypes H5N6 and H9N2 in Myanmar. The study focused mainly on the live bird markets in border townships, where illegal poultry importation from China usually takes place. The objective was to enhance early warning for low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) incursion. The study followed the guidelines of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations for influenza A(H7N9) surveillance in uninfected countries...
October 10, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994617/an-interim-examination-of-the-us-public-health-response-to-ebola
#3
Katherine Schemm Dwyer, Heather Misner, Sara Chang, Neyling Fajardo
From the summer of 2014 to the spring of 2016, the United States was involved in the Ebola response on both the national and international levels. The United States received 2 imported cases from West Africa and had 2 locally hospital-acquired cases, which spurred a massive and unprecedented public health response. As the domestic response stabilized and the epidemic in West Africa slowed, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) and the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), led an in-progress review to assess the national public health response to Ebola...
October 10, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945117/assessment-of-closed-point-of-dispensing-pod-preparedness-in-st-louis-county-missouri-2012-2016
#4
Terri Rebmann, John Anthony, Travis M Loux, Julia Mulroy, Rikki Sitzes
Little is known about closed point-of-dispensing (POD) site preparedness-especially how these entities progress in their preparedness efforts over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the preparedness of a closed POD network. Between 2012 and 2016, 30% to 50% of POD entities in the St. Louis County region were assessed each year, for a total of 138 site evaluations from 62 entities. The assessment tool included 41 components of closed POD preparedness, each scored either 0 = not met or 1 = met...
September 25, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937795/using-mystery-patient-drills-to-assess-hospital-ebola-preparedness-in-new-york-city-2014-2015
#5
Mary Foote, Roshni Daver, Celia Quinn
In response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, rapid measures were taken to ensure readiness at frontline New York City (NYC) healthcare facilities, including mandating monthly EVD mystery patient drills to test screening protocols. This study analyzed after-action reports to describe the use of mystery patient drills to test rapid identification and isolation of potential EVD cases in NYC emergency departments. NYC hospitals were required to develop protocols for EVD screening and isolation, and to conduct drills with an actor presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of EVD...
September 22, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937792/timeliness-of-measles-laboratory-reporting-and-factors-associated-with-delays-zhejiang-province-china-2009-2015
#6
Hanqing He, Rui Yan, Chunhong Fan, Fangyuan Jing, Ye Ding
In 2006, China targeted measles for elimination by 2012, but the goal was not achieved. In line with this goal, the timeliness of measles laboratory reporting should be evaluated to improve efficiency in implementing control measures. Laboratory-confirmed suspected measles cases reported to the measles surveillance system in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2009 to 2015 were collected. Three reporting periods were defined: transport duration (period from serum collected to serum received in lab), analysis duration (period from serum received to the result being reported), and total reporting duration...
September 22, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937791/web-based-surveillance-of-illness-in-childcare-centers
#7
Natalie Schellpfeffer, Abaigeal Collins, David C Brousseau, Emily T Martin, Andrew Hashikawa
School absenteeism is an inefficient and unspecific metric for measuring community illness and does not provide surveillance during summertime. Web-based biosurveillance of childcare centers may represent a novel way to efficiently monitor illness outbreaks year-round. A web-based biosurveillance program ( sickchildcare.org ) was created and implemented in 4 childcare centers in a single Michigan county. Childcare providers were trained to report sick children who required exclusion or had parent-reported absences due to illness...
September 22, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836863/the-de-novo-synthesis-of-horsepox-virus-implications-for-biosecurity-and-recommendations-for-preventing-the-reemergence-of-smallpox
#8
Gregory D Koblentz
In March 2017, the American biotech company Tonix announced that a Canadian scientist had synthesized horsepox virus as part of a project to develop a safer vaccine against smallpox. The first de novo synthesis of an orthopoxvirus, a closely related group of viruses that includes horsepox and the variola virus that causes smallpox, crosses an important Rubicon in the field of biosecurity. The synthesis of horsepox virus takes the world one step closer to the reemergence of smallpox as a threat to global health security...
August 24, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806106/the-authors-respond
#9
Ryan Van Meer, Karin Hohenadel, Alanna Fitzgerald-Husek, Bryna Warshawsky, Doug Sider, Brian Schwartz, Mark P Nelder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805465/what-we-are-watching-top-global-infectious-disease-threats-2013-2016-an-update-from-cdc-s-global-disease-detection-operations-center
#10
Kira A Christian, A Danielle Iuliano, Timothy M Uyeki, Eric D Mintz, Stuart T Nichol, Pierre Rollin, J Erin Staples, Ray R Arthur
To better track public health events in areas where the public health system is unable or unwilling to report the event to appropriate public health authorities, agencies can conduct event-based surveillance, which is defined as the organized collection, monitoring, assessment, and interpretation of unstructured information regarding public health events that may represent an acute risk to public health. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Global Disease Detection Operations Center (GDDOC) was created in 2007 to serve as CDC's platform dedicated to conducting worldwide event-based surveillance, which is now highlighted as part of the "detect" element of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA)...
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806130/existential-risk-and-cost-effective-biosecurity
#11
Piers Millett, Andrew Snyder-Beattie
In the decades to come, advanced bioweapons could threaten human existence. Although the probability of human extinction from bioweapons may be low, the expected value of reducing the risk could still be large, since such risks jeopardize the existence of all future generations. We provide an overview of biotechnological extinction risk, make some rough initial estimates for how severe the risks might be, and compare the cost-effectiveness of reducing these extinction-level risks with existing biosecurity work...
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806109/reflections-on-leadership-and-governance-from-the-incident-manager-of-liberia-s-ebola-response
#12
Tolbert Nyenswah
The 2014-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease occurred in a region with a recent history of civil war, unstable health systems, and widespread poverty. Despite these contextual challenges, the national Ebola response in Liberia controlled transmission under strong leadership that was able to rapidly coordinate activities, to manage local and international players, and to adapt upon recognizing missteps. Such leadership has persisted to improve public health capacity in post-Ebola Liberia. This article highlights the progress made toward developing a resilient health security system with capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to disease threats before they reach epidemic level...
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806105/zika-virus-in-ontario-evaluating-a-rapid-risk-assessment-tool
#13
Sim Sai Tin, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806098/social-media-monitoring-2016-zika-response-in-nyc
#14
Tamer Hadi, Jennifer MacGregor, Lauren Mann
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations. Readers may submit topics of interest to the column's editor, Meghan McGinty, PhD, MPH, MBA, at mmcginty@naccho...
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805472/network-experiences-from-a-cross-sector-biosafety-level-3-laboratory-collaboration-a-swedish-forum-for-biopreparedness-diagnostics
#15
Johanna Thelaus, Anna Lindberg, Susanne Thisted Lambertz, Mona Byström, Mats Forsman, Hans Lindmark, Rickard Knutsson, Viveca Båverud, Andreas Bråve, Pontus Jureen, Annelie Lundin Zumpe, Öjar Melefors
The Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics (FBD) is a network that fosters collaboration among the 4 agencies with responsibility for the laboratory diagnostics of high-consequence pathogens, covering animal health and feed safety, food safety, public health and biodefense, and security. The aim of the network is to strengthen capabilities and capacities for diagnostics at the national biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratories to improve Sweden's biopreparedness, in line with recommendations from the EU and WHO...
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805466/the-critical-need-for-rapid-influenza-serology-testing-for-avian-influenza-pandemic-preparedness
#16
Joshua Powell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805464/advancing-preparedness-for-highly-hazardous-contagious-diseases-admitting-10-simulated-patients-with-mers-cov
#17
Angela Vasa, Philip W Smith, Michelle Schwedhelm, Theodore J Cieslak, John Lowe, Christopher J Kratochvil, Elizabeth L Beam, Kate Boulter, Angela Hewlett
The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016 highlighted the need for the development of a more robust healthcare infrastructure in the United States to provide isolation care for patients infected with a highly hazardous contagious disease. Routine exercises and skills practice are required to effectively and safely prepare care teams to confidently treat this special population of patients. The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU) at Nebraska Medicine in Omaha has been conducting exercises since 2005 when the unit was opened...
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767309/best-practices-for-healthcare-facility-and-regional-stockpile-maintenance-and-sustainment-a-literature-review
#18
Terri Rebmann, Kyle McPhee, Leslie Osborne, Daniel P Gillen, Gabriel A Haas
Preparing for mass casualty incidents is essential to maximizing community resilience. Many US-based organizations and regions have developed stockpiles of medications, supplies, and equipment for mass casualty incident preparedness. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assess and manage federally stockpiled materials, but hospitals, healthcare systems, and regional organizations are responsible for maintaining locally owned caches. The CDC has protocols for assessing and managing the Strategic National Stockpile, but no such guidance exists for local or geographical/regional stockpiles...
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767286/defining-the-synthetic-biology-supply-chain
#19
Sarah L Frazar, Gretchen E Hund, George T Bonheyo, James Diggans, Rachel A Bartholomew, Lindsey Gehrig, Mark Greaves
Several recent articles have described risks posed by synthetic biology and spurred vigorous discussion in the scientific, commercial, and government communities about how to best detect, prevent, regulate, and respond to these risks. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) deep experience working with dual-use technologies for the nuclear industry has shown that analysis of supply chains can reveal security vulnerabilities and ways to mitigate security risk without hindering beneficial research and commerce...
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767274/pricing-externalities-to-balance-public-risks-and-benefits-of-research
#20
Sebastian Farquhar, Owen Cotton-Barratt, Andrew Snyder-Beattie
How should scientific funders evaluate research with public health risks? Some risky work is valuable, but accepting too much risk may be ethically neglectful. Recent controversy over H5N1 influenza experiments has highlighted the difficulty of this problem. Advocates of the research claim the work is needed to understand pandemics, while opponents claim that accidents or misuse could release the very pandemic the work is meant to prevent. In an attempt to resolve the debate, the US government sponsored an independent evaluation that successfully produced a quantitative estimate of the risks involved, but only a qualitative estimate of the benefits...
July 2017: Health Security
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