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Health Security

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406822/world-health-organization-joint-external-evaluations-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-2016-17
#1
Dalia Samhouri, Kashef Ijaz, Michel Thieren, Antoine Flahault, Suzanne M Babich, Hamid Jafari, Jaouad Mahjour
By 2014, only 33% of countries had self-reported compliance with the International Health Regulations (2005), including 8 countries from the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). During the Ebola epidemic, the discovery of a gap between objective assessment and self-reports for certain IHR capacities prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to review and update the IHR monitoring and evaluation framework to include a voluntary objective review process, called Joint External Evaluation (JEE), that did not exist before...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406805/a-systems-approach-to-agricultural-biosecurity
#2
Manish Anand
This article highlights the importance of systems approaches in addressing agricultural biosecurity threats. On the basis of documentary analysis and stakeholder interaction, a brief survey of agricultural biosecurity threats and vulnerabilities from global and Indian perspectives is provided, followed by an exploration of technological and institutional capabilities. Finally, a perspective on the agricultural disease diagnostic networks is provided, drawing instances from global developments. Technical barriers to agroterrorism are lower than those to human-targeted bioterrorism, and the sector is unique as even a very small disease outbreak could prompt international export restrictions...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406796/active-monitoring-of-travelers-for-ebola-virus-disease-new-york-city-october-25-2014-december-29-2015
#3
Alhaji Saffa, Anna Tate, Ifeoma Ezeoke, Jasmine Jacobs-Wingo, Maryam Iqbal, Jennifer Baumgartner, Anne Fine, Bianca R Perri, Natasha McIntosh, Natalie Levy Stennis, Kristen Lee, Eric Peterson, Lucretia Jones, Lisa Helburn, Caroline Heindrichs, Seth Guthartz, Shadi Chamany, David Starr, Allison Scaccia, Marisa Raphael, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
The CDC recommended active monitoring of travelers potentially exposed to Ebola virus during the 2014 West African Ebola virus disease outbreak, which involved daily contact between travelers and health authorities to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for 21 days after the travelers' last potential Ebola virus exposure. From October 25, 2014, to December 29, 2015, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) monitored 5,359 persons for Ebola virus disease, corresponding to 5,793 active monitoring events...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405775/impact-of-a-hypothetical-infectious-disease-outbreak-on-us-exports-and-export-based-jobs
#4
Zoe Bambery, Cynthia H Cassell, Rebecca E Bunnell, Kakoli Roy, Zara Ahmed, Rebecca L Payne, Martin I Meltzer
We estimated the impact on the US export economy of an illustrative infectious disease outbreak scenario in Southeast Asia that has 3 stages starting in 1 country and, if uncontained, spreads to 9 countries. We used 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic-related World Bank estimates of 3.3% and 16.1% reductions in gross domestic product (GDP). We also used US Department of Commerce job data to calculate export-related jobs at risk to any outbreak-related disruption in US exports. Assuming a direct correlation between GDP reductions and reduced demand for US exports, we estimated that the illustrative outbreak would cost from $16 million to $27 million (1 country) to $10 million to $18 billion (9 countries) and place 1,500 to almost 1...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376758/responsible-life-science-research-the-pakistani-leadership-model
#5
David R Franz, Anwar Nasim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355393/burden-and-management-of-noncommunicable-diseases-after-earthquakes-and-tsunamis
#6
Amit Suneja, Maxim Gakh, Lainie Rutkow
This integrative review examines extant literature assessing the burden and management of noncommunicable diseases 6 months or more after earthquakes and tsunamis. We conducted an integrative review to identify and characterize the strength of published studies about noncommunicable disease-specific outcomes and interventions at least 6 months after an earthquake and/or tsunami. We included disasters that occurred from 2004 to 2016. We focused primarily on the World Health Organization noncommunicable disease designations to define chronic disease, but we also included chronic renal disease, risk factors for noncommunicable diseases, and other chronic diseases or symptoms...
January 22, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350545/sensitive-multiplex-real-time-rt-qpcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-filoviruses
#7
Vladimir G Dedkov, N'Faly Magassouba, Marina V Safonova, Sergey A Bodnev, Oleg V Pyankov, Jacob Camara, Bakary Sylla, Alexander P Agafonov, Victor V Maleev, German A Shipulin
Filoviruses are important etiological agents of emergent diseases with high mortality rates. Traditionally, filovirus fever diseases have primarily been a burden of African countries; however, global interconnectedness has increased the probability of the worldwide spread of filoviruses. Therefore, national healthcare organizations need tools for managing filovirus risk, including diagnostic kits based on real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), as this is the most suitable method for diagnosing filovirus fever diseases...
January 19, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350543/a-publicly-available-landscape-analysis-tool-for-biodefense-policy
#8
Kristin M Omberg, Lyndsey R Franklin, Daniel R Jackson, Karen L Taylor, Karen L Wahl, Ann Lesperance, Ellen M Wynkoop, Jessica A S Gray, Owen P Leiser, Sarah L Frazar, Richard Ozanich, Rachel Bartholomew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350541/using-cell-phone-technology-to-investigate-a-deliberate-bacillus-anthracis-release-scenario
#9
Arik Eisenkraft, Amichay Afriat, Yechiel Hubary, Ron Lev, Hayim Shaul, Ran D Balicer
Unusual biological events and outbreaks require rapid epidemiologic investigation and contact tracing procedures, allowing optimal handling of resources. Currently, these are resource intensive, time consuming, and extremely complex, requiring large teams of trained and prepared personnel. The goal of this study was to determine whether a technological alternative to the classic systems, based on the use of mobile phones and a unique algorithm, could perform a complete epidemiologic investigation in a setting of a bioterrorism scenario...
January 19, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199867/relevance-of-global-health-security-to-the-us-export-economy
#10
Cynthia H Cassell, Zoe Bambery, Kakoli Roy, Martin I Meltzer, Zara Ahmed, Rebecca L Payne, Rebecca E Bunnell
To reduce the health security risk and impact of outbreaks around the world, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its partners are building capabilities to prevent, detect, and contain outbreaks in 49 global health security priority countries. We examine the extent of economic vulnerability to the US export economy posed by trade disruptions in these 49 countries. Using 2015 US Department of Commerce data, we assessed the value of US exports and the number of US jobs supported by those exports...
December 4, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193983/characterization-of-departures-from-regulatory-requirements-identified-during-inspections-conducted-by-the-us-federal-select-agent-program-2014-15
#11
Adam Bjork, Daniel M Sosin
We studied departures from regulatory requirements identified on US Federal Select Agent Program (FSAP) inspections to increase transparency regarding biosafety and security risk at FSAP-regulated entities and identify areas for programmatic improvement. Regulatory departures from inspections led by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inspectors during 2014-15 were grouped into "biosafety," "security," and "other" observation categories and assigned a risk level and score reflecting perceived severity...
December 1, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193982/biodosimetry-a-future-tool-for-medical-management-of-radiological-emergencies
#12
Mary T Sproull, Kevin A Camphausen, Gregory D Koblentz
With the threat of future radiological or nuclear events, there is a need to model and develop new medical countermeasures for managing large-scale population exposures to radiation. The field of radiation biodosimetry has advanced far beyond its original objectives to identify new methodologies to quantitate unknown levels of radiation exposure that may be applied in a mass screening setting. New research in the areas of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) applications have identified novel biological indicators of radiation injury from a diverse array of biological sample materials, and studies continue to develop more advanced models of radiation exposure and injury...
December 1, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182480/evaluation-of-state-plans-and-the-livestock-emergency-response-plan-lerp
#13
Amy M Schaffer, Kenneth R Burton
The Livestock Emergency Response Plan (LERP) was published in 2014 as a toolkit to assist state agricultural emergency planners in writing or modifying state foreign animal disease/high-consequence disease (FAD/HCD) plans. This research serves as a follow-up to and expands on an initial survey conducted in 2011 by the Department of Homeland Security Office of Health Affairs, Food, Ag, and Veterinary Defense Branch. The purpose of this project is to describe the status of current state animal disease response plans in relation to how closely their content, order, and terminology relate to that described in the LERP template...
November 28, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178814/natural-hazards-preparedness-in-taiwan-a-comparison-between-households-with-and-without-disabled-members
#14
Ziqiang Han, Hong Wang, Qingyue Du, Yongyi Zeng
People with disabilities are one of the most vulnerable groups to natural hazards. Preparedness is critical to protect life and reduce disaster impact. This article discusses the knowledge of the disaster preparedness behaviors of people with disabilities using updated, representative data from Taiwan (2013 Taiwan Social Change Survey), with a comparison to households without disabled members. The adoption of 6 preparedness activities-relocating vehicles or valuable things to a safer place, purchasing insurance, securing furniture, preparing an emergency kit, planning evacuation, and participating in drills-are used separately as dependent variables...
November 27, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451827/sending-the-right-message-wild-game-and-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak
#15
Kristin Post
The unprecedented scale of the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014-15 caught the world by surprise. Zaire Ebolavirus had not previously been documented in Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. However, since this strain of filovirus was first identified in 1976, scientists have been studying the disease and its origins. They have identified forest-dwelling animals that carry the virus, and some that die from it, but have yet to isolate how it is transmitted from animals to humans. During the height of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, some public health messages addressed the link among Ebola, wild animals, and humans...
January 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135312/rethinking-the-biological-and-toxin-weapons-convention
#16
Daniel Gerstein, James Giordano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135306/a-calculation-tool-and-process-to-pre-position-pharmaceuticals-for-anthrax-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#17
Gary D Peksa, Michael J Robbins, Alexis R Beyer, Elisabeth K Weber, Keneatha Johnson
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is considered a severe bioterrorism threat because of its high mortality rate. The Chicago Healthcare System Coalition for Preparedness and Response (CHSCPR) aims to pre-position antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCMs) at healthcare facilities in order to provide on-site anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis. Pharmacists proposed moving toward a new process that involved the development of a standardized calculation methodology for acquiring supply drugs. This was an interventional quality improvement project aimed at optimizing inventory, acquisition, and distribution of antibiotic MCMs for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis at Chicago hospitals for hospital personnel, associated first responders, and their families...
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251537/public-health-and-law-enforcement-joint-investigation-of-unknown-suspicious-substances-and-potential-threat-evaluations-minnesota-2007-2016
#18
Tory V Whitten, Maureen M Sullivan, Stefan Saravia, Jayne Griffith, Joni M Scheftel, Richard N Danila
From the Field is a semi-regular column that explores what it means to be a local health professional on the front lines of an emergency. Typically, National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) members share their stories of preparing for and responding to disasters, epidemics, and other major health issues. This month's column features a submission from a state health department that describes their experience in investigating white powder incidents. Through exploring the analysis of the challenges faced and the solutions developed, readers can learn how these public health champions keep their communities safe even in extreme situations...
November 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178813/the-threat-of-synthetic-smallpox-european-perspectives
#19
Giulia Impelluso, Filippa Lentzos
This article explores how advances in synthetic biology, and the potential threat of deliberately recreating and spreading smallpox, are affecting the multilateral debate on the remaining variola virus stocks. It draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 high-profile, European-based experts in biosecurity and synthetic biology. Four overarching themes affecting the retention or destruction debate are discussed, relating to biosecurity, dangerous knowledge, accidental releases, and eradication. We conclude that while synthetic biology seems to affect all the main discourses in the variola stocks debate, a range of views is present and it is not apparent that advances in synthetic biology are causing a shift toward either retention or destruction of the stocks...
November 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091742/biosecurity-implications-for-the-synthesis-of-horsepox-an-orthopoxvirus
#20
Diane DiEuliis, Kavita Berger, Gigi Gronvall
This article examines the biosecurity and biodefense implications resulting from the recent creation of horsepox virus, a noncirculating (extinct) species of orthopoxvirus. Here we examine the technical aspects of the horsepox virus synthesis and conclude that orthopox synthesis experiments currently remain technically challenging-and will continue to be so, even once this work is published in the scientific literature. This limits potential misuse by some types of nefarious actors. We also examine the implications of one stated purpose for the recreation of horsepox virus: the development of a smallpox vaccine...
November 1, 2017: Health Security
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