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ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering

Lisa A Sawicki, Leila H Choe, Katherine L Wiley, Kelvin H Lee, April M Kloxin
Cells interact with and remodel their microenvironment, degrading large extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g., fibronectin, collagens) and secreting new ECM proteins and small soluble factors (e.g., growth factors, cytokines). Synthetic mimics of the ECM have been developed as controlled cell culture platforms for use in both fundamental and applied studies. However, how cells broadly remodel these initially well-defined matrices remains poorly understood and difficult to probe. In this work, we have established methods for widely examining both large and small proteins that are secreted by cells within synthetic matrices...
March 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Maria F Gencoglu, Lauren E Barney, Christopher L Hall, Elizabeth A Brooks, Alyssa D Schwartz, Daniel C Corbett, Kelly R Stevens, Shelly R Peyton
Improved in vitro models are needed to better understand cancer progression and bridge the gap between in vitro proof-of-concept studies, in vivo validation, and clinical application. Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) are a popular method for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture, because they capture some aspects of the dimensionality, cell-cell contact, and cell-matrix interactions seen in vivo. Many approaches exist to create MCTS from cell lines, and they have been used to study tumor cell invasion, growth, and how cells respond to drugs in physiologically relevant 3D microenvironments...
February 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Andrea Malandrino, Roger D Kamm, Emad Moeendarbary
In addition to a multitude of genetic and biochemical alterations, abnormal morphological, structural, and mechanical changes in cells and their extracellular environment are key features of tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, it is now evident that mechanical cues alongside biochemical signals contribute to critical steps of cancer initiation, progression, and spread. Despite its importance, it is very challenging to study mechanics of different steps of metastasis in the clinic or even in animal models...
February 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Srishti Bhutani, Aline L Y Nachlas, Milton E Brown, Tionne Pete, Christopher T Johnson, Andres J García, Michael E Davis
Cell therapy is an emerging paradigm for the treatment of heart disease. In spite of the exciting and promising preclinical results, the benefits of cell therapy for cardiac repair in patients have been modest at best. Biomaterials-based approaches may overcome the barriers of poor differentiation and retention of transplanted cells. In this study, we prepared and tested hydrogels presenting extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived adhesion peptides as delivery vehicles for c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs)...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Wenda Zhou, Ying Chen, Terrence Roh, Yinan Lin, Shengjie Ling, Siwei Zhao, James D Lin, Noor Khalil, Dana M Cairns, Eleana Manousiouthakis, Megan Tse, David L Kaplan
The three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of intestinal cells and tissues in dynamic bioreactor systems to represent in vivo intestinal microenvironments is essential for developing regenerative medicine treatments for intestinal diseases. We have previously developed in vitro human intestinal tissue systems using a 3D porous silk scaffold system with intestinal architectures and topographical features for the adhesion, growth, and differentiation of intestinal cells under static culture conditions. In this study, we designed and fabricated a multifunctional bioreactor system that incorporates pre-epithelialized 3D silk scaffolds in a dynamic culture environment for in vitro engineering of human intestine tissues...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Yeongseon Jang, Won Tae Choi, Christopher T Johnson, Andrés J García, Preet M Singh, Victor Breedveld, Dennis W Hess, Julie A Champion
Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel 316L (SS316L), which is an alloy typically used in many medical devices and food processing equipment, can cause serious infections along with substantial healthcare costs. This work demonstrates that nanotextured SS316L surfaces produced by electrochemical etching effectively inhibit bacterial adhesion of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, but exhibit cytocompatibility and no toxicity toward mammalian cells in vitro. Additionally, the electrochemical surface modification on SS316L results in formation of superior passive layer at the surface, improving corrosion resistance...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Della S Shin, Emi Y Tokuda, Jennifer L Leight, Connor E Miksch, Tobin E Brown, Kristi S Anseth
Proteases are involved in almost every important cellular activity, from embryonic morphogenesis to apoptosis. To study protease activity in situ , hydrogels provide a synthetic mimic of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and have utility as a platform to study activity, such as those related to cell migration, in three-dimensions. While 3-dimensional visualization of protease activity could prove quite useful to elucidate the proteolytic interaction at the interface between cells and their surrounding environment, there has been no versatile tool to visualize local proteolytic activity in real time...
2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Yung-Ching Chien, Jinhui Tao, Kuniko Saeki, Alexander F Chin, Jolene L Lau, Chun-Long Chen, Ronald N Zuckermann, Sally J Marshall, Grayson W Marshall, James J De Yoreo
In calcified tissues such as bones and teeth, mineralization is regulated by an extracellular matrix, which includes non-collagenous proteins (NCP). This natural process has been adapted or mimicked to restore tissues following physical damage or demineralization by using polyanionic acids in place of NCPs, but the remineralized tissues fail to fully recover their mechanical properties. Here we show that pre-treatment with certain amphiphilic peptoids, a class of peptide-like polymers consisting of N-substituted glycines that have defined monomer sequences, enhances ordering and mineralization of collagen and induces functional remineralization of dentin lesions in vitro ...
December 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Christopher Poon, Sampreeti Chowdhuri, Cheng-Hsiang Kuo, Yun Fang, Francis J Alenghat, Danielle Hyatt, Kian Kani, Mitchell E Gross, Eun Ji Chung
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) stimulates the migration of monocytes to inflammatory sites, leading to the progression of many diseases. Recently, we described a monocyte-targeting peptide amphiphile micelle (MCP-1 PAM) incorporated with the chemokine receptor CCR2 binding motif of MCP-1, which has a high affinity for monocytes in atherosclerotic plaques. We further report here the biomimetic components of MCP-1 PAMs and the influence of the nanoparticle upon binding to monocytes. We report that MCP-1 PAMs have enhanced secondary structure compared to the MCP-1 peptide...
December 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Nowsheen Goonoo, Archana Bhaw-Luximon, Ulrich Jonas, Dhanjay Jhurry, Holger Schönherr
The viability and differentiation of SaOS-2 preosteoblasts on fiber mats of blends comprising of the biodegradable poly(ester-ether) polydioxanone (PDX) and the sulfate-containing anionic polysaccharides kappa-carrageenan (KCG) and fucoidan (FUC) were investigated for a range of different blend compositions. The detailed analysis of the blend nanofiber properties revealed a different degree of miscibility of PDX and the polysaccharide leading to a different enrichment at the surface of the blend nanofibers, which were observed to be stable in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) for up to 5 weeks...
December 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Darin Edwards, Frank Sommerhage, Bonnie Berry, Hanna Nummer, Martina Raquet, Brad Clymer, Maria Stancescu, James J Hickman
Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are innovative tools used to perform electrophysiological experiments for the study of electrical activity and connectivity in populations of neurons from dissociated cultures. Reliance upon neurons derived from embryonic tissue is a common limitation of neuronal/MEA hybrid systems and perhaps of neuroscience research in general, and the use of adult neurons could model fully functional in vivo parameters more closely. Spontaneous network activity was concurrently recorded from both embryonic and adult rat neurons cultured on MEAs for up to 10 weeks in vitro to characterize the synaptic connections between cell types...
December 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Kelly R Fernandes, Yang Zhang, Angela M P Magri, Ana C M Renno, Jeroen J J P van den Beucken
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface properties of bone implants coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on platelets and macrophages upon implant installation and compare them to grit-blasted Ti and Thermanox used as a control. Surface properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, crystallography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and coating stability. For platelets, platelet adherence and morphology were assessed...
December 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Minna H Chen, Leo L Wang, Jennifer J Chung, Young-Hun Kim, Pavan Atluri, Jason A Burdick
Injectable hydrogels have gained popularity as a vehicle for the delivery of cells, growth factors, and other molecules to localize and improve their retention at the injection site, as well as for the mechanical bulking of tissues. However, there are many factors, such as viscosity, storage and loss moduli, and injection force, to consider when evaluating hydrogels for such applications. There are now numerous tools that can be used to quantitatively assess these factors, including for shear-thinning hydrogels because their properties change under mechanical load...
December 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Soham Ghosh, James G Cimino, Adrienne K Scott, Frederick W Damen, Evan H Phillips, Alexander I Veress, Corey P Neu, Craig J Goergen
Biological tissues have a complex hierarchical architecture that spans organ to subcellular scales and comprises interconnected biophysical and biochemical machinery. Mechanotransduction, gene regulation, gene protection, and structure-function relationships in tissues depend on how force and strain are modulated from macro to micro scales, and vice versa. Traditionally, computational and experimental techniques have been used in common model systems (e.g., embryos) and simple strain measures were applied. But the hierarchical transfer of mechanical parameters like strain in mammalian systems is largely unexplored in vivo...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Carol Lynn Curchoe, Uri Manor
Intracellular organelles constantly undergo fission to facilitate turnover, transport, and functional changes. The cytoskeleton has long been understood to play a role in these events, and recent work strongly suggests that several conserved molecular players cooperate with the cytoskeleton to mediate the fission process. Membrane curvature-inducing, membrane scission proteins, and force-inducing cytoskeletal proteins all cooperate to drive the fission process. Recent work suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum serves as the linchpin that orchestrates and spatially organizes fission via these curvature-inducing, scission, and force-producing molecules...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Giselle C Yeo, Clair Baldock, Steven G Wise, Anthony S Weiss
Tropoelastin, as the monomer unit of elastin, assembles into elastic fibers that impart strength and resilience to elastic tissues. Tropoelastin is also widely used to manufacture versatile materials with specific mechanical and biological properties. The assembly of tropoelastin into elastic fibers or biomaterials is crucially influenced by key submolecular regions and specific residues within these domains. In this work, we identify the functional contributions of two rarely occurring negatively charged residues, glutamate 345 in domain 19 and glutamate 414 in domain 21, in jointly maintaining the native conformation of the tropoelastin hinge, bridge and foot regions...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Q T Nguyen, T D Jacobsen, N O Chahine
Cells within cartilaginous tissues are mechanosensitive and thus require mechanical loading for regulation of tissue homeostasis and metabolism. Mechanical loading plays critical roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, biosynthesis, and homeostasis. Inflammation is an important event occurring during multiple processes, such as aging, injury, and disease. Inflammation has significant effects on biological processes as well as mechanical function of cells and tissues. These effects are highly dependent on cell/tissue type, timing, and magnitude...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Spencer E Szczesny, Tristan P Driscoll, Hsiao-Yun Tseng, Pang-Ching Liu, Su-Jin Heo, Robert L Mauck, Pen-Hsiu G Chao
To fully recapitulate tissue microstructure and mechanics, fiber crimping must exist within biomaterials used for tendon/ligament engineering. Existing crimped nanofibrous scaffolds produced via electrospinning are dense materials that prevent cellular infiltration into the scaffold interior. In this study, we used a sacrificial fiber population to increase the scaffold porosity and evaluated the effect on fiber crimping. We found that increasing scaffold porosity increased fiber crimping and ensured that the fibers properly uncrimped as the scaffolds were stretched by minimizing fiber-fiber interactions...
November 13, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Chayanon Ngambenjawong, Suzie H Pun
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) display a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from pro-tumoral/anti-inflammatory "M2-like" to anti-tumoral/pro-inflammatory "M1-like" subtypes and, consequently, high intratumoral M2-to-M1 ratios are typically indicative of poor disease prognosis. Cancer immunotherapies that selectively modulate M2-like TAMs, enabling reversal of the M2-to-M1 ratio, represent a promising anti-cancer intervention but are difficult to implement due to the lack of effective targeting systems...
September 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
Jun Mao, Alexander Zaborin, Valeriy Poroyko, David Goldfeld, Nathaniel A Lynd, Wei Chen, Matthew V Tirrell, Olga Zaborina, John C Alverdy
Phosphate is a key and universal "cue" in response to which bacteria either enhance their virulence when local phosphate is scarce or downregulate it when phosphate is adundant. Phosphate becomes depleted in the mammalian gut following physiologic stress and serves as a major trigger for colonizing bacteria to express virulence. This process cannot be reversed with oral supplementation of inorganic phosphate because it is nearly completely absorbed in the proximal small intestine. In the present study, we describe the de novo synthesis of phosphorylated polyethylene glycol compounds with three defined ABA (hydrophilic/-phobic/-philic) structures, ABA-PEG10k-Pi10, ABA-PEG16k-Pi14, and ABA-PEG20k-Pi20, and linear polymer PEG20k-Pi20 absent of the hydrophobic block...
September 11, 2017: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
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