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Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014034/understanding-hallucinations-in-probable-alzheimer-s-disease-very-low-prevalence-rates-in-a-tertiary-memory-clinic
#1
Mascha M J Linszen, Afina W Lemstra, Meenakshi Dauwan, Rachel M Brouwer, Philip Scheltens, Iris E C Sommer
Introduction: Averaging at 13.4%, current literature reports widely varying prevalence rates of hallucinations in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is still inconclusive on contributive factors to hallucinations in AD. Methods: This study assessed prevalence, associated factors and clinical characteristics of hallucinations in 1227 patients with probable AD, derived from a tertiary memory clinic specialized in early diagnosis of dementia. Hallucinations were assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014033/retinal-oxygen-metabolism-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Hrafnhildur Sif Saevarsdottir, Sveinn Hakon Hardarson, Kristin Hanna Hannesdottir, Valgerdur Dora Traustadottir, Robert Arnar Karlsson, Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Katrin Dilja Jonsdottir, Einar Stefansson, Jon Snaedal
Introduction: We have previously reported that retinal vessel oxygen saturation is increased in mild-to-moderate dementia of Alzheimer's type when compared with healthy individuals. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the predementia stage of the disease. The main purpose was to investigate if these changes are seen in MCI. Methods: Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in 42 patients with MCI and 42 healthy individuals with a noninvasive retinal oximeter, Oxymap T1...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014032/the-use-of-centiloids-for-applying-11-c-pib-classification-cutoffs-across-region-of-interest-delineation-methods
#3
Dana L Tudorascu, Davneet S Minhas, Patrick J Lao, Tobey J Betthauser, Zheming Yu, Charles M Laymon, Brian J Lopresti, Chet A Mathis, William E Klunk, Benjamin L Handen, Bradley T Christian, Ann D Cohen
Introduction: Centiloid standardization was developed to establish a quantitative outcome measure of amyloid burden that could accommodate the integration of different amyloid positron emission tomography radiotracers or different methods of quantifying the same tracer. The goal of this study was to examine the use of Centiloids for establishing amyloid classification cutoffs for differing region-of-interest (ROI) delineation schemes. Methods: Using ROIs from hand-drawn delineation in native space as the gold standard, we compared standard uptake value ratios obtained from the 6 hand-drawn ROIs that determine amyloid-positivity classification with standard uptake value ratio obtained from 3 different automated techniques (FreeSurfer, Statistical Parametric Mapping, and superimposed hand-drawn ROIs in Pittsburgh Compound B template space)...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003138/underdiagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-consequence-of-ignoring-practice-effects
#4
Jeremy A Elman, Amy J Jak, Matthew S Panizzon, Xin M Tu, Tian Chen, Chandra A Reynolds, Daniel E Gustavson, Carol E Franz, Sean N Hatton, Kristen C Jacobson, Rosemary Toomey, Ruth McKenzie, Hong Xian, Michael J Lyons, William S Kremen
Introduction: Longitudinal testing is necessary to accurately measure cognitive change. However, repeated testing is susceptible to practice effects, which may obscure true cognitive decline and delay detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We retested 995 late-middle-aged men in a ∼6-year follow-up of the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. In addition, 170 age-matched replacements were tested for the first time at study wave 2. Group differences were used to calculate practice effects after controlling for attrition effects...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003137/apraxia-profiles-a-single-cognitive-marker-to-discriminate-all-variants-of-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Andreas Johnen, Sophia Reul, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Duning
Introduction: Apraxia is common in neurodegenerative dementias but underrepresented in clinical workup for differential diagnoses. Methods: Praxis-profiles were assessed with the Dementia Apraxia Test in 93 patients with early stages of biologically supported Alzheimer's disease or frontotemporal lobar degeneration: semantic primary-progressive aphasia, nonfluent primary-progressive aphasia, and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Associations with core cognitive deficits of the dementia subtypes (i...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984299/staging-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-t-tau-regional-atrophy-rates-and-cognitive-change-in-a-nondemented-cohort-results-of-serial-mediation-analyses
#6
Evan Fletcher, Teresa Jenica Filshtein, Danielle Harvey, Alice Renaud, Dan Mungas, Charles DeCarli
Introduction: Current models posit a sequence of amyloid β (Aβ), tau, atrophy, and cognitive change leading to Alzheimer's disease, but ambiguities remain. We examined these sequences via serial mediations. Methods: We studied normal controls, early mild cognitive impairment, and late mild cognitive impairment individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 database for the mediation of baseline cerebrospinal fluid Aβ effects on 2-year cognitive change via regional longitudinal atrophy rate (AR) alone or AR and tau...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780876/memory-concerns-in-the-early-alzheimer-s-disease-prodrome-regional-association-with-tau-deposition
#7
Cecily G Swinford, Shannon L Risacher, Arnaud Charil, Adam J Schwarz, Andrew J Saykin
Introduction: Relationship between self- and informant memory concerns and tau aggregation was assessed in adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Regional mean standardized uptake value ratios were extracted from [18 F]flortaucipir positron emission tomography (PET) scans of 82 at-risk adults in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. Associations between self- and informant ECog memory scores and tau aggregation were analyzed on both regional and voxelwise bases...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780875/amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-are-differentially-vulnerable-to-preanalytical-surface-exposure-an-effect-incompletely-mitigated-by-the-use-of-ratios
#8
Jamie Toombs, Martha S Foiani, Henrietta Wellington, Ross W Paterson, Charles Arber, Amanda Heslegrave, Michael P Lunn, Jonathan M Schott, Selina Wray, Henrik Zetterberg
Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide ratios are more stable than Aβ42 alone when biofluids are exposed to two preanalytical conditions known to modify measurable Aβ concentration. Methods: Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and culture media (CM) from human cortical neurons were exposed to a series of volumes and polypropylene surfaces. Aβ42 , Aβ40 , and Aβ38 peptide concentrations were measured using a multiplexed electrochemiluminescence immunoassay...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780874/the-personalized-alzheimer-s-disease-cortical-thickness-index-predicts-likely-pathology-and-clinical-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Annie M Racine, Michael Brickhouse, David A Wolk, Bradford C Dickerson
Introduction: An Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker adjusted for age-related brain changes should improve specificity for AD-related pathological burden. Methods: We calculated a brain-age-adjusted "personalized AD cortical thickness index" (pADi) in mild cognitive impairment patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We performed receiver operating characteristic analysis for discrimination between patients with and without cerebrospinal fluid evidence of AD and logistic regression in an independent sample to determine if a dichotomized pADi predicted conversion to AD dementia...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780873/advances-in-alzheimer-s-imaging-are-changing-the-experience-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Shana D Stites, Richard Milne, Jason Karlawish
Neuroimaging is advancing a new definition of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using imaging biomarkers, clinicians may begin to diagnose the disease by identifying pathology and neurodegeneration in either cognitively impaired or unimpaired adults. This "biomarker-based" diagnosis may allow clinicians novel opportunities to use interventions that either delay the onset or slow the progression of cognitive decline, but it will also bring novel challenges. How will changing the definition of AD from a clinical to a biomarker construct change the experience of living with the disease? Knowledge of AD biomarker status can affect how individuals feel about themselves (internalized stigma) and how others judge them (public stigma)...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780872/neuropsychology-and-neuroimaging-profiles-of-amyloid-positive-versus-amyloid-negative-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients
#11
Clémence Tomadesso, Vincent de La Sayette, Robin de Flores, Pierrick Bourgeat, Victor L Villemagne, Stéphanie Egret, Francis Eustache, Gaël Chételat
Introduction: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are heterogeneous as regard to their amyloid status. The present study aimed at highlighting the neuropsychological, brain atrophy, and hypometabolism profiles of amyloid-positive (Aβpos) versus amyloid-negative (Aβneg) aMCI patients. Methods: Forty-four aMCI patients and 24 Aβneg healthy controls underwent neuropsychological, structural magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780871/computer-based-evaluation-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-during-a-picture-description-task
#12
Laura Hernández-Domínguez, Sylvie Ratté, Gerardo Sierra-Martínez, Andrés Roche-Bergua
Introduction: We present a methodology to automatically evaluate the performance of patients during picture description tasks. Methods: Transcriptions and audio recordings of the Cookie Theft picture description task were used. With 25 healthy elderly control (HC) samples and an information coverage measure, we automatically generated a population-specific referent. We then assessed 517 transcriptions (257 Alzheimer's disease [AD], 217 HC, and 43 mild cognitively impaired samples) according to their informativeness and pertinence against this referent...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780870/similar-pattern-of-atrophy-in-early-and-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Carl Eckerström, Niklas Klasson, Erik Olsson, Per Selnes, Sindre Rolstad, Anders Wallin
Introduction: Previous research on structural changes in early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) have reported inconsistent findings. Methods: In the present substudy of the Gothenburg MCI study, 1.5 T scans were used to estimate lobar and hippocampal volumes using FreeSurfer. Study participants (N = 145) included 63 patients with AD, (24 patients with EOAD [aged ≤65 years], 39 patients with LOAD [aged >65 years]), 25 healthy controls aged ≤65 years, and 57 healthy controls aged >65 years...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780869/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-atrophy-is-preferentially-associated-with-tau-rather-than-amyloid-%C3%AE-positron-emission-tomography-pathology
#14
Brian A Gordon, Austin McCullough, Shruti Mishra, Tyler M Blazey, Yi Su, John Christensen, Aylin Dincer, Kelley Jackson, Russ C Hornbeck, John C Morris, Beau M Ances, Tammie L S Benzinger
Introduction: Structural magnetic resonance imaging is a marker of gray matter health and decline that is sensitive to impaired cognition and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Prior work has shown that both amyloid β (Aβ) and tau biomarkers are related to cortical thinning, but it is unclear what unique influences they have on the brain. Methods: Aβ pathology was measured with [18 F] AV-45 (florbetapir) positron emission tomography (PET) and tau was assessed with [18 F] AV-1451 (flortaucipir) PET in a population of 178 older adults, of which 123 had longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging assessments (average of 5...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780868/tau-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-in-tauopathies-the-added-hurdle-of-off-target-binding
#15
Laetitia Lemoine, Antoine Leuzy, Konstantinos Chiotis, Elena Rodriguez-Vieitez, Agneta Nordberg
Ligands targeting tau for use with positron emission tomography have rapidly been developed during the past several years, enabling the in vivo study of tau pathology in patients with Alzheimer's disease and related non-Alzheimer's disease tauopathies. Several candidate compounds have been developed, showing good in vitro characteristics with respect to their ability to bind tau deposits; off-target binding, however, has also been observed. In this short commentary, we briefly summarize the available in vivo and in vitro evidence pertaining to their off-target binding and discuss the different approaches that are needed for the future development of tau positron emission tomography tracers...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780867/topographic-staging-of-tau-positron-emission-tomography-images
#16
Adam J Schwarz, Sergey Shcherbinin, Lawrence J Slieker, Shannon L Risacher, Arnaud Charil, Michael C Irizarry, Adam S Fleisher, Sudeepti Southekal, Abhinay D Joshi, Michael D Devous, Bradley B Miller, Andrew J Saykin
Introduction: It has been proposed that the signal distribution on tau positron emission tomography (PET) images could be used to define pathologic stages similar to those seen in neuropathology. Methods: Three topographic staging schemes for tau PET, two sampling the temporal and occipital subregions only and one sampling cortical gray matter across the major brain lobes, were evaluated on flortaucipir F 18 PET images in a test-retest scenario and from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780866/molecular-imaging-what-is-right-and-what-is-an-illusion
#17
William E Klunk
Over the past 40 years, brain molecular imaging has evolved from measuring cerebral metabolism with fluorodeoxyglucose, to neuroreceptor imaging, to imaging pathological protein deposits. In the early going, the characteristics of successful molecular imaging radiotracers were defined, and a detailed "Process" was developed for the collection of basic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data. These data are essential for the interpretation of in vivo imaging data and for defining the strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of new tracers...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780865/elevated-medial-temporal-lobe-and-pervasive-brain-tau-pet-signal-in-normal-participants
#18
Val J Lowe, Tyler J Bruinsma, Hoon-Ki Min, Emily S Lundt, Ping Fang, Matthew L Senjem, Bradley F Boeve, Keith A Josephs, Mukesh K Pandey, Melissa E Murray, Kejal Kantarci, David T Jones, Christopher G Schwarz, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
Introduction: Medial temporal lobe (MTL) uptake on tau-positron emission tomography (PET) is seen not only in Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia but also in the aging population. The relationship of these findings to the development of AD dementia needs to be better understood. Methods: Tau-PET with AV-1451 was performed on 576 cognitively unimpaired (CU) participants aged 50-94 years. The number of CUs with and without abnormal MTL regions and those with or without extra-MTL abnormalities was determined...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780864/change-in-retinal-structural-anatomy-during-the-preclinical-stage-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Cláudia Y Santos, Lenworth N Johnson, Stuart E Sinoff, Elena K Festa, William C Heindel, Peter J Snyder
Introduction: We conducted a 27-month longitudinal study of mid-life adults with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), using spectral domain optical coherence tomography to compare changes in volume and thickness in all retinal neuronal layers to those of age-matched healthy control subjects. Methods: Fifty-six older adults (mean age = 65.36 years) with multiple risk factors for AD completed spectral domain optical coherence tomography retinal imaging and cognitive testing at baseline...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780863/a-novel-cognitive-functional-composite-measure-to-detect-changes-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease-test-retest-reliability-and-feasibility
#20
Roos J Jutten, John Harrison, Philippe R Lee Meeuw Kjoe, Esther M Opmeer, Niki S M Schoonenboom, Frank Jan de Jong, Craig W Ritchie, Philip Scheltens, Sietske A M Sikkes
Introduction: To improve the detection of changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we designed the cognitive-functional composite (CFC). As a first validation step, we investigated its test-retest reliability and feasibility of use. Methods: We performed a test-retest study with 2-3 weeks between assessments, including patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild AD dementia and cognitively healthy participants. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) type absolute agreement for all CFC measures and compared baseline and retest scores using paired-samples t -tests...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
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