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Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring

Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Juan D Gispert, Karine Fauria, José Luis Molinuevo, Nina Gramunt
INTRODUCTION: Repetitive administration of neuropsychological tests can lead to performance improvement merely due to previous exposure. The magnitude of such practice effects (PEs) may be used as a marker of subtle cognitive impairment because they are diminished in healthy individuals subsequently developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: To explore the relationship between sociodemographic factors, AD family history (FH), and APOE ε4 status, and the magnitude of PE, four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV were administered twice to 400 middle-aged healthy individuals, most of them first-degree descendants of AD patients...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Jordan Elliott-King, Sarah Shaw, Stephan Bandelow, Rajal Devshi, Shelina Kassam, Eef Hogervorst
INTRODUCTION: Currently, there is no consensus on dementia diagnostics in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). There are three types of assessments available: direct cognitive tests, test batteries, and informant reports. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in four databases yielding 9840 records. Relevant studies were identified and selected using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and then coded and classified according to assessment type...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Eero Vuoksimaa, Juha O Rinne, Noora Lindgren, Kauko Heikkilä, Markku Koskenvuo, Jaakko Kaprio
INTRODUCTION: On the basis of the proxy measures of cognitive reserve, we created a middle age self-report risk score for early prediction of dementia. METHODS: We used a longitudinal population-based study of 2602 individuals with a replication sample (N = 1011). Risk score at a mean age of 47 years was based on questions on educational and occupational attainments. Cognitive status at a mean age of 74 was determined via two validated telephone instruments. RESULTS: The prevalence of dementia was 10% after a mean follow-up of 28 years...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Francis Mawanda, Robert B Wallace, Kimberly McCoy, Thad E Abrams
INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence indicates associations between extra-central nervous system (CNS) bacterial infections and an increased risk for dementia; however, epidemiological evidence is still very limited. METHODS: This study involved a retrospective cohort of a national sample of US veterans (N = 417,172) aged ≥56 years. Extended Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for demographic characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities determined the associations between systemic and localized extra-CNS bacterial infections occurring >2 years before the initial dementia diagnosis and the risk for dementia...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Yassar Alamri, Robert Vogel, Michael MacAskill, Tim Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Meenakshi Dauwan, Jessica J van der Zande, Edwin van Dellen, Iris E C Sommer, Philip Scheltens, Afina W Lemstra, Cornelis J Stam
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to build a random forest classifier to improve the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to quantify the relevance of multimodal diagnostic measures, with a focus on electroencephalography (EEG). METHODS: A total of 66 DLB, 66 AD patients, and 66 controls were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures were combined with clinical, neuropsychological, visual EEG, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid data...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Dilini Jayalath, Kunle Ashaye, Lia Kvavilashvili
INTRODUCTION: Carers' diaries have been used in very few instances in dementia to assist with gathering information about persons with dementia in the community. The main aim of this study was to compare problems identified using diaries kept by family carers for a week with carers' oral recollection of problems. METHOD: Carers were randomly allocated into two groups, diary and control groups. In the diary group, carers received a diary and instructions on how to complete it for 7 days...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Brianna Knoll, Joseph Simonett, Nicholas J Volpe, Sina Farsiu, Mallory Ward, Alfred Rademaker, Sandra Weintraub, Amani A Fawzi
INTRODUCTION: Retinal structural changes in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remain a subject of controversy. METHODS: We investigated the correlation between optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the retinal sublayers, including the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and cognitive function in subjects with amnestic MCI and compared the OCT findings with matched controls. We also performed a meta-analysis of the world literature using a random-effects model...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Philip S Insel, Sebastian Palmqvist, R Scott Mackin, Rachel L Nosheny, Oskar Hansson, Michael W Weiner, Niklas Mattsson
INTRODUCTION: Clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease are aimed at early stages of disease, including preclinical Alzheimer's disease. The high cost and time required to screen large numbers of participants for Aβ pathology impede the development of novel drugs. This study's objective was to evaluate the extent to which inexpensive and easily obtainable information can reduce the number of screen failures by increasing the proportion of Aβ+ participants identified for screening. METHODS: We used random forest models to evaluate the positive predictive value of demographics, APOE, and longitudinal cognitive rates in the prediction of amyloid pathology, measured by florbetapir PET or cerebrospinal fluid...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Sean A P Clouston, Roman Kotov, Robert H Pietrzak, Benjamin J Luft, Adam Gonzalez, Marcus Richards, Camilo J Ruggero, Avron Spiro, Evelyn J Bromet
INTRODUCTION: During the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, responders who helped in search, rescue, and recovery endured multiple traumatic and toxic exposures. One-fifth subsequently developed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD has been linked to dementia in veterans. This study examined the association between WTC-related PTSD and cognitive impairment (CI) in WTC responders. METHODS: A one-third sample of responders (N = 818) reporting for annual monitoring visits were screened for cognitive impairment and dementia using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment from January 2014-April 2015...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Eric McDade, Zhaowen Sun, Ching-Wen Lee, Beth Snitz, Tiffany Hughes, Chung-Chou H Chang, Mary Ganguli
INTRODUCTION: Variations across studies in the association between blood pressure (BP) and cognition might be explained partly by duration of exposure to hypertension and partly by nonrandom attrition over time. Pulse pressure (PP) reflects arterial stiffness which may better reflect chronicity of hypertension. METHODS: Over six annual cycles, 1954 individuals aged 65+ years from a prospective population-based cohort underwent BP measurements and cognitive evaluations...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Eric D Anderson, Michelle Wahoske, Mary Huber, Derek Norton, Zhanhai Li, Rebecca L Koscik, Emre Umucu, Sterling C Johnson, Jana Jones, Sanjay Asthana, Carey E Gleason
INTRODUCTION: The potential of intra-individual cognitive variability (IICV) to predict incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) was examined and compared to well-established neuroimaging and genetic predictors. METHODS: IICV was estimated using four neuropsychological measures for n = 1324 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) participants who were cognitively healthy or diagnosed with MCI at baseline. IICV was used to predict time to incident MCI or AD, and compared to hippocampal volume loss and APOE ε4 status via survival analysis...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
January Durant, Gabriel C Leger, Sarah J Banks, Justin B Miller
INTRODUCTION: The Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADL-Q) is an informant report questionnaire assessing functional impairment in daily living skills. Previous research has demonstrated correlations between ADL-Q and cognitive screening measures among patients with dementia. This study examined the relationship between ADL-Q and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a brief cognitive screening. METHODS: Records of 448 individuals from an outpatient neurology clinic were reviewed...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Victor L Villemagne, Nobuyuki Okamura, Christopher C Rowe
In vivo imaging of tau deposits is providing a better understanding of the temporal and spatial tau deposition in the brain, allowing a more comprehensive insight into the causes, diagnoses, and potentially treatment of tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and some variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The assessment of tau deposition in the brain over time will allow a deeper understanding of the relationship between tau and other variables such as cognition, genotype, and neurodegeneration, as well as assessing the role tau plays in ageing...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Carlo Abbate, Pietro Davide Trimarchi, Chiara Maggioni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Ding Ding, Qianhua Zhao, Qihao Guo, Xiaoniu Liang, Jianfeng Luo, Lirong Yu, Li Zheng, Zhen Hong
INTRODUCTION: The Shanghai Aging Study is a community-based study aiming to investigate the incidence and progression of cognitive decline in Chinese elderly, with the operational procedures and diagnostic criteria similar to cohort studies in developed countries. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 362 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosed at baseline through a clinical and neuropsychological interview. Diagnoses of dementia and MCI were made using standard criteria via consensus diagnosis...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Benjamin M Kandel, Brian B Avants, James C Gee, Corey T McMillan, Guray Erus, Jimit Doshi, Christos Davatzikos, David A Wolk
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive tests and nonamyloid imaging biomarkers do not consistently identify preclinical AD. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume, a cerebrovascular disease marker, is more associated with preclinical AD than conventional AD biomarkers and cognitive tests. METHODS: Elderly controls enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI, n = 158) underwent florbetapir-PET scans, psychometric testing, neuroimaging with MRI and PET, and APOE genetic testing...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Ryan J Dougherty, Laura D Ellingson, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Jacob D Meyer, Jacob B Lindheimer, Stephanie Van Riper, Aaron J Stegner, Dorothy F Edwards, Jennifer M Oh, Rebecca L Koscik, Maritza N Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Cynthia M Carlsson, Howard A Rowley, Barbara B Bendlin, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Dane B Cook
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity (PA) is associated with brain health in older adults. However, it is unknown whether the current physical activity recommendations (PAR) impart substantive benefit. The objective of this study was to compare temporal lobe volumes between older adults who met PAR and those who did not. METHODS: Ninety-one enrollees from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify their PA behaviors and underwent a T-1 anatomic magnetic resonance imaging scan...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
James R Burrell, Shelley Forrest, Thomas H Bak, John R Hodges, Glenda M Halliday, Jillian J Kril
INTRODUCTION: Clinicopathologic correlation in non-Alzheimer's tauopathies is variable, despite refinement of pathologic diagnostic criteria. In the present study, the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of globular glial tauopathy (GGT) were examined to determine whether subtyping according to consensus guidelines improves clinicopathologic correlation. METHODS: Confirmed GGT cases (n = 11) were identified from 181 frontotemporal tauopathy cases. Clinical and neuroimaging details were collected, and cases sub-typed according to the consensus criteria for GGT diagnosis...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Raymond Scott Turner, Melanie Chadwick, Wesley A Horton, Gary L Simon, Xiong Jiang, Giuseppe Esposito
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is found in 30%-50% of individuals with HIV infection. To date, no HIV+ individual has been reported to have a positive amyloid PET scan. We report a 71-year-old HIV+ individual with HAND. Clinical and neuropsychologic evaluations confirmed a progressive mild dementia. A routine brain MRI was normal for age. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET revealed mild hypermetabolism in bilateral basal ganglia and hypometabolism of bilateral parietal cortex including the posterior cingulate/precuneus...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
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