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Journal of Virus Eradication

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781109/highlights-of-the-global-hiv-1-csf-escape-consortium-meeting-9-june-2016-bethesda-md-usa
#1
EDITORIAL
Jeymohan Joseph, Paola Cinque, Deborah Colosi, Ameet Dravid, Luminita Ene, Howard Fox, Dana Gabuzda, Magnus Gisslen, Sarah Beth Joseph, Scott Letendre, Shibani S Mukerji, Avindra Nath, Ignacio Perez-Valero, Deborah Persaud, Richard W Price, Vasudev R Rao, Ned Sacktor, Ronald Swanstrom, Alan Winston, Valerie Wojna, Edwina Wright, Serena Spudich
CSF HIV escape is a recently recognised phenomenon that suggests that despite suppressive treatment, HIV RNA may be detected in the CNS compartment in some individuals. In rare cases this is associated with clinical neurological disease, while in most cases, neurological consequences are not apparent. Attempts at characterising the biological substrates of CSF escape and further investigating the neurological consequences need to be made to better understand the implications of this condition for the HIV cure agenda as well as for clinical outcomes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781108/hiv-persistence-in-the-cns-the-final-frontier-for-a-cure
#2
EDITORIAL
Sharon R Lewin, John W Mellors
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781107/the-latest-science-from-the-ias-towards-an-hiv-cure-symposium-16-17-july-2016-durban-south-africa
#3
EDITORIAL
Jaclyn Mann, Alexander O Pasternak, Ann Chahroudi, Jerome A Singh, Anna Laura Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781106/twin-pregnancy-in-a-liver-transplant-recipient-with-hiv-infection
#4
EDITORIAL
McI Van Schalkwyk, R H Westbrook, J O'Beirne, A Wright, A Gonzalez, M A Johnson, S Kinloch-de Loës
We are not aware of a report detailing the complex obstetrical and medical management of twin pregnancy in the context of HIV infection and early post-liver transplantation period. Here we describe the successful outcome of a twin pregnancy in a 28-year-old HIV-positive female receiving antiretroviral therapy and immunosuppressive therapy who was the recipient of a liver transplant for previous drug-induced liver failure.
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781105/impact-of-orphan-status-on-hiv-treatment-outcomes-and-retention-in-care-of-children-and-adolescents-in-asia
#5
EDITORIAL
Bui Vu Huy, Sirinya Teeraananchai, Le Ngoc Oanh, John Tucker, Nia Kurniati, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Khanh Huu Truong, Vohith Khol, Lam Van Nguyen, Viet Chau Do, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Nantaka Kongstan, Torsak Bunupuradah, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Kamarul Azahar Mohd Razali, Dewi Kumara Wati, Moy Siew Fong, Revathy Nallusamy, Azar Kariminia, Annette H Sohn
An analysis of the impact of orphanhood at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on HIV outcomes in Asia included 4300 children; 51% were male. At ART initiation, 1805 (42%) were non-orphans (median age: 3 years), 1437 (33%) were single orphans (6 years) and 1058 (25%) were double orphans (7 years). Ten-year post-ART survival was 93.4-95.2% across orphan categories. Clinic transfers were higher among single and double orphans than non-orphans (41% vs 11%, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, children ≥3 years at ART initiation (hazard ratio 1...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781104/quantifying-integrated-siv-dna-by-repetitive-sampling-alu-gag-pcr
#6
EDITORIAL
Maud Mavigner, S Thera Lee, Jakob Habib, Cameron Robinson, Guido Silvestri, Una O'Doherty, Ann Chahroudi
OBJECTIVES: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively suppresses HIV-1 replication, it does not eradicate the virus and ART interruption consistently results in rebound of viraemia, demonstrating the persistence of a long-lived viral reservoir. Several approaches aimed at reducing virus persistence are being developed, and accurate measurements of the latent reservoir (LR) are necessary to assess the effectiveness of anti-latency interventions. We sought to measure the LR in SIV/SHIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs) by quantifying integrated SIV-DNA...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781103/ageing-and-menopause-considerations-for-women-with-hiv-in-the-uk
#7
EDITORIAL
L Sherr, A Molloy, A Macedo, N Croome, M A Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Treatment rollout has dramatically improved life expectancy for people with HIV and AIDS. Women represent a substantial proportion of patients in the UK (approximately one-third of patients in care are female according to the HIV Annual Report 2014). This study examines psychosocial and biomedical issues for women diagnosed with HIV in the UK, comparing those above and below 45 years of age to examine menopause and ageing issues. METHODS: Consecutive clinic attenders in a large outpatient London HIV clinic were invited to participate in the study...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781102/cytomegalovirus-and-paediatric-hiv-infection
#8
EDITORIAL
Jennifer A Slyker
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was among the most common AIDS-defining illnesses prior to the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the ART era, CMV disease remains a significant public health threat among HIV-infected adults and children with delayed HIV diagnosis. CMV co-infection may additionally contribute to accelerated HIV progression, development of inflammation-related comorbidities, immune senescence and developmental deficits. Elimination of CMV would have tremendous public health significance and is an important priority; however, current vaccine strategies are not targeted at HIV-infected individuals...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781101/cytomegalovirus-vaccines-under-clinical-development
#9
EDITORIAL
Mark R Schleiss
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common infectious cause of disability in newborn infants. CMV also causes serious disease in solid organ (SOT) and haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In otherwise healthy children and adults, primary CMV infection rarely causes illness. However, even asymptomatic CMV infections may predispose an individual towards an increased risk of atherosclerosis, cancer and immune senescence over the life course, although such associations remain controversial...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781100/how-can-we-achieve-universal-access-to-low-cost-treatment-for-hiv
#10
EDITORIAL
Andrew M Hill, Anton L Pozniak
Mass production of low-cost antiretrovirals (ARVs) has already allowed over 17 million individuals to access treatment for HIV infection, mainly in low-income countries. It is possible to manufacture combination ARVs for $110 per person-year, using tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). New combinations of ARVs costing as little as $60 per person-year will be available in the near future. Pre-exposure prophylaxis using TDF in combination with either 3TC or emtricitabine (FTC) could also be provided for less than $90 per person-year...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482461/highlights-from-the-2016-international-symposium-on-hiv-emerging-infectious-diseases-isheid-25-27-may-marseille-france
#11
Jean-Pierre Routy, Christina Psomas, Vicente Soriano, Patrick Philibert, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Alain Lafeuillade
For three days in May 2016, the International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious Diseases gathered participants from all over the world around the theme 'Fighting deadly viruses'. HIV infection remained the main topic of the meeting but hepatitis, Ebola and Zika viruses as well as other emergent pathogens were also extensively covered. In this article we have tried to summarise what was presented during the plenary lectures, the two keynote lectures, and some of the work accepted for oral presentation. However, all abstracts can be found on the Journal of Virus Eradication website ( viruseradication...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482460/immune-checkpoints-and-the-hiv-1-reservoir-proceed-with-caution
#12
Rikke Olesen, Steffen Leth, Rasmus Nymann, Lars Østergaard, Ole S Søgaard, Paul W Denton, Martin Tolstrup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482459/the-difficulties-of-living-while-girl
#13
Judith Bruce
In this Viewpoint, Judith Bruce answers questions from Journal of Virus Eradication Editor, Sabine Kinloch-de Loës, on the importance of fulfilling the basic human rights of adolescent girls and their relationship with viral epidemics such as HIV. Judith Bruce is a graduate of Harvard University and a Senior Associate and Policy Analyst at the Population Council, New York, USA, whose work is aimed at building the health, social and cognitive assets of girls in the poorest communities in the developing world...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482458/the-use-of-hiv-1-integration-site-analysis-information-in-clinical-studies-aiming-at-hiv-cure
#14
Maja Kiselinova, Ward De Spiegelaere, Linos Vandekerckhove
The mechanisms for the establishment and the persistence of the latent HIV-1 reservoir remain to be completely defined. HIV-1 infection is characterised by the integration of the reverse transcribed proviral DNA into the host's genome. This integrated proviral DNA can remain replication silent, but a small part of it is fully competent to restart viral replication when treatment is interrupted. Hence, this replication-competent provirus is the cause of viral rebound and is called the viral reservoir. The exact site of proviral integration within the host's cellular chromosome may affect the transcriptional activity of HIV...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482457/-i-can-coexist-with-hiv-a-qualitative-study-of-perceptions-of-hiv-cure-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-guangzhou-china
#15
Qingyan Ma, Feng Wu, Gail Henderson, Stuart Rennie, Zachary C Rich, Yu Cheng, Fengyu Hu, Weiping Cai, Joseph D Tucker
Little is known about perceptions of HIV cure among people living with HIV (PLHIV), despite them being crucial stakeholders in ongoing HIV cure research. A qualitative research study was conducted in Guangzhou, China, to explore the perceptions of HIV cure among PLHIV in relation to their views on HIV treatment, stigma and social identity. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 PLHIV from September 2014 to June 2015. Our qualitative data revealed three major themes: (1) Representations of HIV cure: PLHIV generally thought HIV cure was distant from them; (2) Possibility of HIV cure: ideas about the possibility of HIV cure ranged from optimism to scepticism and pessimism; and (3) Life without HIV cure: some participants had adjusted well to the chronic condition of HIV and ART adherence...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482456/diagnostic-utility-of-droplet-digital-pcr-for-hiv-reservoir-quantification
#16
Wim Trypsteen, Maja Kiselinova, Linos Vandekerckhove, Ward De Spiegelaere
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is implemented in many molecular laboratories worldwide for the quantification of viral nucleic acids. However, over the last two decades, there has been renewed interest in the concept of digital PCR (dPCR) as this platform offers direct quantification without the need for standard curves, a simplified workflow and the possibility to extend the current detection limit. These benefits are of great interest in terms of the quantification of low viral levels in HIV reservoir research because changes in the dynamics of residual HIV reservoirs will be important to monitor HIV cure efforts...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482455/the-growing-hiv-epidemic-in-central-europe-a-neglected-issue
#17
Deniz Gökengin, Cristiana Oprea, Serhat Uysal, Josip Begovac
The number of new cases of HIV infection has been decreasing in some parts of the world (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa) with the highest burden of disease in recent years. However, other regions are showing a different trend, such as Eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia. This trend seems also to apply to the Central European region. This article analyses HIV data for Central Europe derived from annual surveillance reports of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and gives an overview of the recent status of the epidemic in this specific region...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482454/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-women
#18
Anandi N Sheth, Charlotte P Rolle, Monica Gandhi
Women and girls comprise nearly half of HIV-infected individuals globally and 20% of new infections in the United States, indicating an urgent need to optimise HIV prevention options in this population. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) - where antiretrovirals are administered to HIV-non-infected individuals at risk of HIV acquisition - is a promising, female-controlled HIV prevention strategy but has so far been underutilised in women. Clinical trial data demonstrate efficacy of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for reduction of HIV acquisition among women when used consistently...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482453/human-cytomegalovirus-and-transplantation-drug-development-and-regulatory-issues
#19
Megan McIntosh, Benjamin Hauschild, Veronica Miller
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is highly prevalent worldwide and can cause serious disease among immunocompromised individuals, including persons with HIV and transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapies. It can also result in congenital cytomegalovirus when women are infected during pregnancy. Treatment and prevention of CMV in solid organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients is accomplished in one of three ways: (1) prophylactic therapy to prevent CMV viraemia; (2) pre-emptive therapy for those with low levels of replicating virus; and (3) treatment for established disease...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482452/human-cytomegalovirus-cmv-in-africa-a-neglected-but-important-pathogen
#20
Matthew Bates, Arne Broch Brantsaeter
In Africa, human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in a diverse range of patient groups. Congenital CMV infection is common, and most children undergo primary infection during the first year of life. Preliminary studies suggest that these early primary CMV infections could have population-wide effects on growth and development. In most studies of adults, CMV seroprevalence is close to 100%, but some studies have found that significant minorities of adults are seronegative. CMV is a common cause of pneumonia and meningitis in hospitalised immunosuppressed patient groups, and CMV DNAemia may be an important marker of rapid progression and poor outcomes of HIV infection, despite roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
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