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Journal of Virus Eradication

Jean-Pierre Routy, Christina Psomas, Vicente Soriano, Patrick Philibert, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Alain Lafeuillade
For three days in May 2016, the International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious Diseases gathered participants from all over the world around the theme 'Fighting deadly viruses'. HIV infection remained the main topic of the meeting but hepatitis, Ebola and Zika viruses as well as other emergent pathogens were also extensively covered. In this article we have tried to summarise what was presented during the plenary lectures, the two keynote lectures, and some of the work accepted for oral presentation. However, all abstracts can be found on the Journal of Virus Eradication website ( viruseradication...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Rikke Olesen, Steffen Leth, Rasmus Nymann, Lars Østergaard, Ole S Søgaard, Paul W Denton, Martin Tolstrup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Judith Bruce
In this Viewpoint, Judith Bruce answers questions from Journal of Virus Eradication Editor, Sabine Kinloch-de Loës, on the importance of fulfilling the basic human rights of adolescent girls and their relationship with viral epidemics such as HIV. Judith Bruce is a graduate of Harvard University and a Senior Associate and Policy Analyst at the Population Council, New York, USA, whose work is aimed at building the health, social and cognitive assets of girls in the poorest communities in the developing world...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Maja Kiselinova, Ward De Spiegelaere, Linos Vandekerckhove
The mechanisms for the establishment and the persistence of the latent HIV-1 reservoir remain to be completely defined. HIV-1 infection is characterised by the integration of the reverse transcribed proviral DNA into the host's genome. This integrated proviral DNA can remain replication silent, but a small part of it is fully competent to restart viral replication when treatment is interrupted. Hence, this replication-competent provirus is the cause of viral rebound and is called the viral reservoir. The exact site of proviral integration within the host's cellular chromosome may affect the transcriptional activity of HIV...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Qingyan Ma, Feng Wu, Gail Henderson, Stuart Rennie, Zachary C Rich, Yu Cheng, Fengyu Hu, Weiping Cai, Joseph D Tucker
Little is known about perceptions of HIV cure among people living with HIV (PLHIV), despite them being crucial stakeholders in ongoing HIV cure research. A qualitative research study was conducted in Guangzhou, China, to explore the perceptions of HIV cure among PLHIV in relation to their views on HIV treatment, stigma and social identity. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 PLHIV from September 2014 to June 2015. Our qualitative data revealed three major themes: (1) Representations of HIV cure: PLHIV generally thought HIV cure was distant from them; (2) Possibility of HIV cure: ideas about the possibility of HIV cure ranged from optimism to scepticism and pessimism; and (3) Life without HIV cure: some participants had adjusted well to the chronic condition of HIV and ART adherence...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Wim Trypsteen, Maja Kiselinova, Linos Vandekerckhove, Ward De Spiegelaere
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is implemented in many molecular laboratories worldwide for the quantification of viral nucleic acids. However, over the last two decades, there has been renewed interest in the concept of digital PCR (dPCR) as this platform offers direct quantification without the need for standard curves, a simplified workflow and the possibility to extend the current detection limit. These benefits are of great interest in terms of the quantification of low viral levels in HIV reservoir research because changes in the dynamics of residual HIV reservoirs will be important to monitor HIV cure efforts...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Deniz Gökengin, Cristiana Oprea, Serhat Uysal, Josip Begovac
The number of new cases of HIV infection has been decreasing in some parts of the world (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa) with the highest burden of disease in recent years. However, other regions are showing a different trend, such as Eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia. This trend seems also to apply to the Central European region. This article analyses HIV data for Central Europe derived from annual surveillance reports of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and gives an overview of the recent status of the epidemic in this specific region...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Anandi N Sheth, Charlotte P Rolle, Monica Gandhi
Women and girls comprise nearly half of HIV-infected individuals globally and 20% of new infections in the United States, indicating an urgent need to optimise HIV prevention options in this population. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) - where antiretrovirals are administered to HIV-non-infected individuals at risk of HIV acquisition - is a promising, female-controlled HIV prevention strategy but has so far been underutilised in women. Clinical trial data demonstrate efficacy of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for reduction of HIV acquisition among women when used consistently...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Megan McIntosh, Benjamin Hauschild, Veronica Miller
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is highly prevalent worldwide and can cause serious disease among immunocompromised individuals, including persons with HIV and transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapies. It can also result in congenital cytomegalovirus when women are infected during pregnancy. Treatment and prevention of CMV in solid organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients is accomplished in one of three ways: (1) prophylactic therapy to prevent CMV viraemia; (2) pre-emptive therapy for those with low levels of replicating virus; and (3) treatment for established disease...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Matthew Bates, Arne Broch Brantsaeter
In Africa, human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in a diverse range of patient groups. Congenital CMV infection is common, and most children undergo primary infection during the first year of life. Preliminary studies suggest that these early primary CMV infections could have population-wide effects on growth and development. In most studies of adults, CMV seroprevalence is close to 100%, but some studies have found that significant minorities of adults are seronegative. CMV is a common cause of pneumonia and meningitis in hospitalised immunosuppressed patient groups, and CMV DNAemia may be an important marker of rapid progression and poor outcomes of HIV infection, despite roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Paul D Griffiths, Tabitha Mahungu
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is well-known for the end organ diseases (EODs) it causes following viraemic dissemination in immunocompromised hosts. These are termed the direct effects of CMV, where a diagnosis can be made in an individual patient. In addition, CMV is associated with indirect effects where populations can be seen to be disadvantaged compared to those without CMV. These indirect effects have been described in solid organ transplants, bone marrow transplants, advanced HIV, people admitted to intensive care units, the elderly and the general population...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Sarah Fidler, Jintanat Ananworanich, Linos Vandekerckhove, Maja Kiselinova, Alexandra Schuetz, Jaime H Vera, Ellen Dwyer, Jasmini Alagaratnam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Tomas Doyle
Interferons (IFNs) are a family of pleiotropic cytokines that are released when viral infection is sensed by pattern recognition receptors. They induce an antiviral state in target cells through influencing the expression of hundreds of genes termed IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which interfere with the replication of viruses in wide-ranging ways, and they have stimulatory effects on antiviral cell-mediated immunity. Although the role of therapeutic IFNs in the management of infectious diseases has predominantly been restricted to the treatment of chronic hepatotropic viruses, IFNs have effects on the replication of diverse families of viruses in cell culture models, and the potential to harness our endogenous defence system through therapeutic modulation of IFN pathways remains a tantalising prospect for both the broad-spectrum and tailored treatment of viral infections...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Rowena Johnston, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Jintanat Ananworanich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Shema Tariq, Jane Anderson, Fiona Burns, Valerie Delpech, Richard Gilson, Caroline Sabin
As the life expectancy of people living with HIV improves as a result of antiretroviral therapy, increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) are now reaching menopausal age. The menopause transition in WLHIV remains a relatively overlooked area in clinical HIV research. Whilst there is some evidence to suggest that WLHIV experience menopause at an earlier age and that they have more menopausal symptoms, there is no clear consensus in the literature around an impact of HIV infection on either timing or symptomatology of the menopause...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Paolo Palma
A significant proportion of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV still occurs during breastfeeding in settings where replacement feeding is unsafe and impractical. However, very few babies born to HIV-infected women and breastfed during the first 6 months of life become infected postnatally. The fact that the majority of babies who are breastfed by HIV-infected mothers remain uninfected even after several months of breastfeeding constitutes one of the major enigmas of HIV transmission via breast milk.
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Angelina Namiba, Luisa Orza, Susan Bewley, E Tyler Crone, Marijo Vazquez, Alice Welbourn
End-user involvement in HIV guidelines development is often little, late or absent. Other disciplines have long advocated 'handing over the stick' (i.e. power and control), as both ethical and strategic. Women HIV activists have called this respectful engagement with, and learning from, communities 'MIWA' (meaningful involvement of women living with HIV and AIDS).
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Nittaya Phanuphak, Praphan Phanuphak
Strategies for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV have undergone considerable evolution based on scientific evidence, both at global and local levels. Because of the rapid expansion of the HIV epidemic among the heterosexual population, and the relatively advanced mother and child health infrastructure, Thailand has been the site of international study for more efficacious and cost-effective PMTCT regimens since mid-1990. The example of the Thai Red Cross Society in providing standard PMTCT care through public donations under the patronage of Her Royal Highness Princess Soamsawali is an example that non-governmental organisations in other countries can follow to accelerate access to standard PMTCT care...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Todd M Pollack, Le Thi Thu Trang, Long Ngo, Do Duy Cuong, Pham Thanh Thuy, Donn J Colby
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the rate of response to hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination among HIV-infected adults in Vietnam. METHODS: We retrospectively abstracted data from a cohort of HIV-infected adults who had received HBV vaccine at an HIV clinic in Hanoi. We examined demographic, clinical and laboratory factors for associations with development of a protective antibody (Ab) response following vaccination (defined as 'responders' with anti-HBs >10 IU/L)...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
Suresh Rangarajan, J Colby Donn, Le Truong Giang, Duc Duong Bui, Huu Hung Nguyen, Plui Broh Tou, Tran Tri Danh, Ngoc Bao Chau Tran, Duc Anh Nguyen, Bao Tram Hoang Nguyen, Vu Tuyet Nga Doan, Nhat Quang Nguyen, Van Phuoc Pham, Duc Giang Dao, Mario Chen, Yanwu Zeng, Thi Thu Van Tieu, My Hanh Tran, Thi Hoa Le, Xuan Chien Hoang, Gary West
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on HIV viral suppression rates among men and women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and factors associated with HIV RNA viral load (VL) suppression in Vietnam. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1255 adult patients on ART for at least 1 year across four provinces in Vietnam. Data collection included a standardised questionnaire, routine laboratory testing, and an HIV VL assay. Bivariate and logistic multivariate analyses were conducted to assess viral suppression rates and factors associated with unsuppressed HIV VL...
2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
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