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Science Advances

Eric A Riddell, Jonathan P Odom, Jason D Damm, Michael W Sears
Extinction rates are predicted to rise exponentially under climate warming, but many of these predictions ignore physiological and behavioral plasticity that might buffer species from extinction. We evaluated the potential for physiological acclimatization and behavioral avoidance of poor climatic conditions to lower extinction risk under climate change in the global hotspot of salamander diversity, a region currently predicted to lose most of the salamander habitat due to warming. Our approach integrated experimental physiology and behavior into a mechanistic species distribution model to predict extinction risk based on an individual's capacity to maintain energy balance with and without plasticity...
July 2018: Science Advances
Noah J Kessler, Robert A Waterland, Andrew M Prentice, Matt J Silver
The molecular mechanisms responsible for the developmental origins of later disease are currently unknown. We previously demonstrated that women's periconceptional nutrition predicts their offspring's DNA methylation at metastable epialleles (MEs). We present a genome-wide screen yielding 687 MEs and track their trajectories across nine developmental stages in human in vitro fertilization embryos. MEs exhibit highly unusual methylation dynamics across the implantation-gastrulation transition, producing a large excess of intermediate methylation states, suggesting the potential for differential programming in response to external signals...
July 2018: Science Advances
Takashi Matsushita, Tadahiro Kobayashi, Kie Mizumaki, Miyu Kano, Tomoyo Sawada, Momoko Tennichi, Ai Okamura, Yasuhito Hamaguchi, Yoichiro Iwakura, Minoru Hasegawa, Manabu Fujimoto, Kazuhiko Takehara
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by skin and lung fibrosis. More than 90% of patients with SSc are positive for autoantibodies. In addition, serum B cell activating factor (BAFF) level is correlated with SSc severity and activity. Thus, B cells are considered to play a pathogenic role in SSc. However, there are two opposing subsets: regulatory B cells (Bregs) and effector B cells (Beffs). Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing Bregs negatively regulate the immune response, while IL-6-producing Beffs positively regulate it...
July 2018: Science Advances
Chen Gu, Jillian Ramos, Ulrike Begley, Peter C Dedon, Dragony Fu, Thomas J Begley
The human transfer RNA methyltransferase 9-like gene (TRM9L, also known as KIAA1456) encodes a negative regulator of tumor growth that is frequently silenced in many forms of cancer. While TRM9L can inhibit tumor cell growth in vivo, the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor inhibition activity of TRM9L are unknown. We show that oxidative stress induces the rapid and dose-dependent phosphorylation of TRM9L within an intrinsically disordered domain that is necessary for tumor growth suppression. Multiple serine residues are hyperphosphorylated in response to oxidative stress...
July 2018: Science Advances
Sune G Nielsen, Tristan J Horner, Helena V Pryer, Jerzy Blusztajn, Yunchao Shu, Mark D Kurz, Véronique Le Roux
The upper mantle, as sampled by mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs), exhibits significant chemical variability unrelated to mechanisms of melt extraction at ridges. We show that barium isotope variations in global MORBs vary systematically with radiogenic isotopes and trace element ratios, which reflects mixing between depleted and enriched MORB melts. In addition, modern sediments and enriched MORBs share similar Ba isotope signatures. Using modeling, we show that addition of ~0.1% by weight of sediment components into the depleted mantle in subduction zones must impart a sedimentary Ba signature to the overlying mantle and induce low-degree melting that produces the enriched MORB reservoir...
July 2018: Science Advances
Sebastian Ocklenburg, Patrick Friedrich, Christoph Fraenz, Caroline Schlüter, Christian Beste, Onur Güntürkün, Erhan Genç
The left hemispheric advantage in speech perception is reflected in faster neurophysiological processing. On the basis of postmortem data, it has been suggested that asymmetries in the organization of the intrinsic microcircuitry of the posterior temporal lobe may produce this leftward timing advantage. However, whether this hypothetical structure-function relationship exists in vivo has never been empirically validated. To test this assumption, we used in vivo neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging to quantify microcircuitry in terms of axon and dendrite complexity of the left and right planum temporale in 98 individuals...
July 2018: Science Advances
Thomas J Williams, Michael B Collins, Kathleen Rodrigues, William Jack Rink, Nancy Velchoff, Amanda Keen-Zebert, Anastasia Gilmer, Charles D Frederick, Sergio J Ayala, Elton R Prewitt
American archeology has long been polarized over the issue of a human presence in the Western Hemisphere earlier than Clovis. As evidence of early sites across North and South America continues to emerge, stone tool assemblages appear more geographically and temporally diverse than traditionally assumed. Within this new framework, the prevailing models of Clovis origins and the peopling of the Americas are being reevaluated. This paper presents age estimates from a series of alluvial sedimentary samples from the earliest cultural assemblage at the Gault Site, Central Texas...
July 2018: Science Advances
Guy Libourel, Marc Portail
Chondrules, millimeter-sized igneous spherules comprising the major component of most chondritic meteorites, formed during the first 4 million to 5 million years of the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk and, therefore, can potentially offer important constraints on the conditions in the disk, provided that the processes that led to their formation can be understood. High-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) survey of chondrules from various chondrite groups revealed changes of CL activator concentrations of magnesium-rich olivines...
July 2018: Science Advances
Su-Jong Jeong, A Anthony Bloom, David Schimel, Colm Sweeney, Nicholas C Parazoo, David Medvigy, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Chunmiao Zheng, Christopher R Schwalm, Deborah N Huntzinger, Anna M Michalak, Charles E Miller
The contemporary Arctic carbon balance is uncertain, and the potential for a permafrost carbon feedback of anywhere from 50 to 200 petagrams of carbon (Schuur et al ., 2015) compromises accurate 21st-century global climate system projections. The 42-year record of atmospheric CO2 measurements at Barrow, Alaska (71.29 N, 156.79 W), reveals significant trends in regional land-surface CO2 anomalies (ΔCO2 ), indicating long-term changes in seasonal carbon uptake and respiration. Using a carbon balance model constrained by ΔCO2 , we find a 13...
July 2018: Science Advances
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700342.].
July 2018: Science Advances
Xin Gao, Yihan Zhu, Ding Yi, Jingyuan Zhou, Shishu Zhang, Chen Yin, Feng Ding, Shuqing Zhang, Xiaohui Yi, Jizheng Wang, Lianming Tong, Yu Han, Zhongfan Liu, Jin Zhang
Graphdiyne (GDY) is an ordered two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope comprising sp- and sp2 -hybridized carbon atoms with high degrees of π-conjugation, which features a natural band gap and superior electric properties. However, the synthesis of one- or few-layer GDY remains challenging because of the free rotation around alkyne-aryl single bonds and the lack of thickness control. We report the facile synthesis of an ultrathin single-crystalline GDY film on graphene through a solution-phase van der Waals epitaxial strategy...
July 2018: Science Advances
Zhiguang Liu, Huifeng Du, Jiafang Li, Ling Lu, Zhi-Yuan Li, Nicholas X Fang
Kirigami enables versatile shape transformation from two-dimensional (2D) precursors to 3D architectures with simplified fabrication complexity and unconventional structural geometries. We demonstrate a one-step and on-site nano-kirigami method that avoids the prescribed multistep procedures in traditional mesoscopic kirigami or origami techniques. The nano-kirigami is readily implemented by in situ cutting and buckling a suspended gold film with programmed ion beam irradiation. By using the topography-guided stress equilibrium, rich 3D shape transformation such as buckling, rotation, and twisting of nanostructures is precisely achieved, which can be predicted by our mechanical modeling...
July 2018: Science Advances
Lu You, Fan Zheng, Liang Fang, Yang Zhou, Liang Z Tan, Zeyu Zhang, Guohong Ma, Daniel Schmidt, Andrivo Rusydi, Le Wang, Lei Chang, Andrew M Rappe, Junling Wang
Ferroelectric materials for photovoltaics have sparked great interest because of their switchable photoelectric responses and above-bandgap photovoltages that violate conventional photovoltaic theory. However, their relatively low photocurrent and power conversion efficiency limit their potential application in solar cells. To improve performance, conventional strategies focus mainly on narrowing the bandgap to better match the solar spectrum, leaving the fundamental connection between polar order and photovoltaic effect largely overlooked...
July 2018: Science Advances
Battulga Munkhbat, Martin Wersäll, Denis G Baranov, Tomasz J Antosiewicz, Timur Shegai
Intermixed light-matter quasi-particles-polaritons-have unique optical properties owing to their compositional nature. These intriguing hybrid states have been extensively studied over the past decades in a wide range of realizations aiming at both basic science and emerging applications. However, recently, it has been demonstrated that not only optical but also material-related properties, such as chemical reactivity and charge transport, may be significantly altered in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interactions...
July 2018: Science Advances
Martin Stei, Eduardo Carrascosa, Alexander Dörfler, Jennifer Meyer, Balázs Olasz, Gábor Czakó, Anyang Li, Hua Guo, Roland Wester
How chemical reactions are influenced by reactant vibrational excitation is a long-standing question at the core of chemical reaction dynamics. In reactions of polyatomic molecules, where the Polanyi rules are not directly applicable, certain vibrational modes can act as spectators. In nucleophilic substitution reactions, CH stretching vibrations have been considered to be such spectators. While this picture has been challenged by some theoretical studies, experimental insight has been lacking. We show that the nucleophilic substitution reaction of F- with CH3 I is minimally influenced by an excitation of the symmetric CH stretching vibration...
July 2018: Science Advances
Qiannan Wang, Jiangwei Wang, Jixue Li, Ze Zhang, Scott X Mao
Plasticity of metallic nanowires is often controlled by the activities of single deformation mode. It remains largely unclear whether multiple deformation modes can be activated in an individual metallic nanowire and how much plasticity they can contribute. In situ nanomechanical testing reveals a superior plastic deformation ability of body-centered cubic (BCC) niobium nanowires, in which a remarkable elongation of more than 269% is achieved before fracture. This superplastic deformation originates from a synergy of consecutively nucleated multiple reorientation processes that occur for more than five times via three distinct mechanisms, that is, stress-activated phase transformation, deformation twinning, and slip-induced crystal rotation...
July 2018: Science Advances
Ruoyu Li, Luca Petit, David P Franke, Juan Pablo Dehollain, Jonas Helsen, Mark Steudtner, Nicole K Thomas, Zachary R Yoscovits, Kanwal J Singh, Stephanie Wehner, Lieven M K Vandersypen, James S Clarke, Menno Veldhorst
The spin states of single electrons in gate-defined quantum dots satisfy crucial requirements for a practical quantum computer. These include extremely long coherence times, high-fidelity quantum operation, and the ability to shuttle electrons as a mechanism for on-chip flying qubits. To increase the number of qubits to the thousands or millions of qubits needed for practical quantum information, we present an architecture based on shared control and a scalable number of lines. Crucially, the control lines define the qubit grid, such that no local components are required...
July 2018: Science Advances
Ali Shilatifard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Science Advances
Battle Karimi, Sébastien Terrat, Samuel Dequiedt, Nicolas P A Saby, Walid Horrigue, Mélanie Lelièvre, Virginie Nowak, Claudy Jolivet, Dominique Arrouays, Patrick Wincker, Corinne Cruaud, Antonio Bispo, Pierre-Alain Maron, Nicolas Chemidlin Prévost Bouré, Lionel Ranjard
Over the last two decades, a considerable effort has been made to decipher the biogeography of soil microbial communities as a whole, from small to broad scales. In contrast, few studies have focused on the taxonomic groups constituting these communities; thus, our knowledge of their ecological attributes and the drivers determining their composition and distribution is limited. We applied a pyrosequencing approach targeting 16 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in soil DNA to a set of 2173 soil samples from France to reach a comprehensive understanding of the spatial distribution of bacteria and archaea and to identify the ecological processes and environmental drivers involved...
July 2018: Science Advances
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