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Science Advances

Zhi Li, Keren Jiang, Faheem Khan, Ankur Goswami, Jun Liu, Ali Passian, Thomas Thundat
Although the generation of mechanical stress in the anode material is suggested as a possible reason for electrode degradation and fading of storage capacity in batteries, only limited knowledge of the electrode stress and its evolution is available at present. Here, we show real-time monitoring of the interfacial stress of a few-layer MoS2 system under the sodiation/desodiation process using microcantilever electrodes. During the first sodiation with a voltage plateau of 1.0 to 0.85 V, the MoS2 exhibits a compressive stress (2...
January 2019: Science Advances
C Skonieczny, D McGee, G Winckler, A Bory, L I Bradtmiller, C W Kinsley, P J Polissar, R De Pol-Holz, L Rossignol, B Malaizé
Reconstructions of past Saharan dust deposition in marine sediments provide foundational records of North African climate over time scales of 103 to 106 years. Previous dust records show primarily glacial-interglacial variability in the Pleistocene, in contrast to other monsoon records showing strong precessional variability. Here, we present the first Saharan dust record spanning multiple glacial cycles obtained using 230 Th normalization, an improved method of calculating fluxes. Contrary to previous data, our record from the West African margin demonstrates high correlation with summer insolation and limited glacial-interglacial changes, indicating coherent variability in the African monsoon belt throughout the late Pleistocene...
January 2019: Science Advances
Netanel Tzarum, Erick Giang, Leopold Kong, Linling He, Jannick Prentoe, Elias Augestad, Yuanzi Hua, Shaun Castillo, Georg M Lauer, Jens Bukh, Jiang Zhu, Ian A Wilson, Mansun Law
An effective vaccine to the antigenically diverse hepatitis C virus (HCV) must target conserved immune epitopes. Here, we investigate cross-neutralization of HCV genotypes by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) encoded by the relatively abundant human gene family V H 1-69 . We have deciphered the molecular requirements for cross-neutralization by this unique class of human antibodies from crystal structures of HCV E2 in complex with bNAbs. An unusually high binding affinity is found for germ line-reverted versions of VH 1-69 precursor antibodies, and neutralization breadth is acquired during affinity maturation...
January 2019: Science Advances
D Knebel, A Ayali, M Guershon, G Ariel
Animal collective motion arises from the intricate interactions between the natural variability among individuals, and the homogenizing effect of the group, working to generate synchronization and maintain coherence. Here, these interactions were studied using marching locust nymphs under controlled laboratory settings. A novel experimental approach compared single animals, small groups, and virtual groups composed of randomly shuffled real members. We found that the locust groups developed unique, group-specific behavioral characteristics, reflected in large intergroup and small intragroup variance (compared with the shuffled groups)...
January 2019: Science Advances
Hyungmin Jun, Fei Zhang, Tyson Shepherd, Sakul Ratanalert, Xiaodong Qi, Hao Yan, Mark Bathe
Scaffolded DNA origami offers the unique ability to organize molecules in nearly arbitrary spatial patterns at the nanometer scale, with wireframe designs further enabling complex 2D and 3D geometries with irregular boundaries and internal structures. The sequence design of the DNA staple strands needed to fold the long scaffold strand to the target geometry is typically performed manually, limiting the broad application of this materials design paradigm. Here, we present a fully autonomous procedure to design all DNA staple sequences needed to fold any free-form 2D scaffolded DNA origami wireframe object...
January 2019: Science Advances
Mohammad Arifuzzaman, Yuvon R Mobley, Hae Woong Choi, Pradeep Bist, Cristina A Salinas, Zachary D Brown, Swaine L Chen, Herman F Staats, Soman N Abraham
Mast cells (MCs) are strategically distributed at barrier sites and prestore various immunocyte-recruiting cytokines, making them ideal targets for selective activation to treat peripheral infections. Here, we report that topical treatment with mastoparan, a peptide MC activator (MCA), enhances clearance of Staphylococcus aureus from infected mouse skins and accelerates healing of dermonecrotic lesions. Mastoparan functions by activating connective tissue MCs (CTMCs) via the MRGPRX2 (Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor member X2) receptor...
January 2019: Science Advances
Jihyun Kim, Dongsu Ryu, Hyesung Kang, Suk Kim, Soo-Chang Rey
Ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are known to come from outside of our Galaxy, but their origin still remains unknown. The Telescope Array (TA) experiment recently identified a hotspot, that is, a high concentration of anisotropic arrival directions of UHECRs with energies above 5.7 Å ~ 1019 eV. We report here the presence of filaments of galaxies, connected to the Virgo Cluster, in the sky around the hotspot and a statistically significant correlation between hotspot events and the filaments. With 5-year TA data, the maximum significance of binomial statistics for the correlation is estimated to be 6...
January 2019: Science Advances
Midya Parto, Helena Lopez-Aviles, Jose E Antonio-Lopez, Mercedeh Khajavikhan, Rodrigo Amezcua-Correa, Demetrios N Christodoulides
Geometric phases appear ubiquitously in many and diverse areas of the physical sciences, ranging from classical and molecular dynamics to quantum mechanics and solid-state physics. In the realm of optics, similar phenomena are known to emerge in the form of a Pancharatnam-Berry phase whenever the polarization state traces a closed contour on the Poincaré sphere. While this class of geometric phases has been extensively investigated in both free-space and guided wave systems, the observation of similar effects in photon tunneling arrangements has so far remained largely unexplored...
January 2019: Science Advances
Papri Chakraborty, Abhijit Nag, Ganapati Natarajan, Nayanika Bandyopadhyay, Ganesan Paramasivam, Manoj Kumar Panwar, Jaydeb Chakrabarti, Thalappil Pradeep
Rapid solution-state exchange dynamics in nanoscale pieces of matter is revealed, taking isotopically pure atomically precise clusters as examples. As two isotopically pure silver clusters made of 107 Ag and 109 Ag are mixed, an isotopically mixed cluster of the same entity results, similar to the formation of HDO, from H2 O and D2 O. This spontaneous process is driven by the entropy of mixing and involves events at multiple time scales.
January 2019: Science Advances
Johan Vande Voorde, Tobias Ackermann, Nadja Pfetzer, David Sumpton, Gillian Mackay, Gabriela Kalna, Colin Nixon, Karen Blyth, Eyal Gottlieb, Saverio Tardito
Currently available cell culture media may not reproduce the in vivo metabolic environment of tumors. To demonstrate this, we compared the effects of a new physiological medium, Plasmax, with commercial media. We prove that the disproportionate nutrient composition of commercial media imposes metabolic artifacts on cancer cells. Their supraphysiological concentrations of pyruvate stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor 1α in normoxia, thereby inducing a pseudohypoxic transcriptional program. In addition, their arginine concentrations reverse the urea cycle reaction catalyzed by argininosuccinate lyase, an effect not observed in vivo, and prevented by Plasmax in vitro...
January 2019: Science Advances
Lewi Stone
Operation Reinhard (1942-1943) was the largest single murder campaign of the Holocaust, during which some 1.7 million Jews from German-occupied Poland were murdered by the Nazis. Most perished in gas chambers at the death camps Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. However, the tempo, kill rates, and spatial dynamics of these events were poorly documented. Using an unusual dataset originating from railway transportation records, this study identifies an extreme phase of hyperintense killing when >1.47 million Jews-more than 25% of the Jews killed in all 6 years of World War II-were murdered by the Nazis in an intense,100-day (~3-month) surge...
January 2019: Science Advances
Guang Li, Jianke Gong, Jie Liu, Jinzhi Liu, Huahua Li, Ao-Lin Hsu, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu
As animals and humans age, the motor system undergoes a progressive functional decline, leading to frailty. Age-dependent functional deteriorations at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) contribute to this motor aging. However, it is unclear whether one can intervene in this process to slow motor aging. The Caenorhabditis elegans BK channel SLO-1 dampens synaptic transmission at NMJs by repressing synaptic release from motor neurons. Here, we show that genetic ablation of SLO-1 not only reduces the rate of age-dependent motor activity decline to slow motor aging but also surprisingly extends life span...
January 2019: Science Advances
Hyungjin Kim, Geun Ho Ahn, Joy Cho, Matin Amani, James P Mastandrea, Catherine K Groschner, Der-Hsien Lien, Yingbo Zhao, Joel W Ager, Mary C Scott, Daryl C Chrzan, Ali Javey
In recent years, there have been tremendous advancements in the growth of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). However, obtaining high photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY), which is the key figure of merit for optoelectronics, is still challenging in the grown monolayers. Specifically, the as-grown monolayers often exhibit lower PL QY than their mechanically exfoliated counterparts. In this work, we demonstrate synthetic tungsten diselenide (WSe2 ) monolayers with PL QY exceeding that of exfoliated crystals by over an order of magnitude...
January 2019: Science Advances
Konstantin D Bergmeister, Martin Aman, Silvia Muceli, Ivan Vujaklija, Krisztina Manzano-Szalai, Ewald Unger, Ruth A Byrne, Clemens Scheinecker, Otto Riedl, Stefan Salminger, Florian Frommlet, Gregory H Borschel, Dario Farina, Oskar C Aszmann
Selective nerve transfers surgically rewire motor neurons and are used in extremity reconstruction to restore muscle function or to facilitate intuitive prosthetic control. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rewiring motor axons originating from spinal motor neuron pools into target muscles with lower innervation ratio in a rat model. Following reinnervation, the target muscle's force regenerated almost completely, with the motor unit population increasing to 116% in functional and 172% in histological assessments with subsequently smaller muscle units...
January 2019: Science Advances
H Hotta, H Iijima, K Kusano
The solar convection zone is filled with turbulent convection in highly stratified plasma. Several theoretical and observational studies suggest that the numerical calculations overestimate the convection velocity. Since all deep convection zone calculations exclude the solar surface due to substantial temporal and spatial scale separations, the solar surface, which drives the thermal convection with efficient radiative cooling, has been thought to be the key to solve this discrepancy. Thanks to the recent development in massive supercomputers, we are successful in performing the comprehensive calculation covering the whole solar convection zone...
January 2019: Science Advances
Ryojun Toyoda, Ryota Sakamoto, Naoya Fukui, Ryota Matsuoka, Mizuho Tsuchiya, Hiroshi Nishihara
Few artificial systems can be exfoliated into, and observed as, single wires with lengths of more than several micrometers, and no previous example features a copolymer structure; this is in contrast with biopolymers such as single-strand DNAs. Here, we create a set of one-dimensional coordination copolymers featuring bis(dipyrrinato)zinc complex motifs in the main chain. A series of random copolymers is synthesized from two types of bridging dipyrrin proligand and zinc acetate, with various molar ratios between the proligands...
January 2019: Science Advances
Shanyu Han, Xianfeng Zheng, Steve Ndengué, Yu Song, Richard Dawes, Daiqian Xie, Jingsong Zhang, Hua Guo
First-principles treatments of quantum molecular reaction dynamics have reached the level of quantitative accuracy even in cases with strong non-Born-Oppenheimer effects. This achievement permits the interpretation of puzzling experimental phenomena related to dynamics governed by multiple coupled potential energy surfaces. We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the photodissociation of formyl radical (HCO). Oscillations observed in the distribution of product states are found to arise from the interference of matter waves-a manifestation analogous to Young's double-slit experiment...
January 2019: Science Advances
Kai-Hong Luo, Sebastian Brauner, Christof Eigner, Polina R Sharapova, Raimund Ricken, Torsten Meier, Harald Herrmann, Christine Silberhorn
Future quantum computation and networks require scalable monolithic circuits, which incorporate various advanced functionalities on a single physical substrate. Although substantial progress for various applications has already been demonstrated on different platforms, the range of diversified manipulation of photonic states on demand on a single chip has remained limited, especially dynamic time management. Here, we demonstrate an electro-optic device, including photon pair generation, propagation, electro-optical path routing, as well as a voltage-controllable time delay of up to ~12 ps on a single Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide chip...
January 2019: Science Advances
Jasmine L May, Fotini M Kouri, Lisa A Hurley, Juan Liu, Serena Tommasini-Ghelfi, Yanrong Ji, Peng Gao, Andrea E Calvert, Andrew Lee, Navdeep S Chandel, Ramana V Davuluri, Craig M Horbinski, Jason W Locasale, Alexander H Stegh
Mutation or transcriptional up-regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 ( IDH1 and IDH2 ) promotes cancer progression through metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic deregulation of gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that IDH3α, a subunit of the IDH3 heterotetramer, is elevated in glioblastoma (GBM) patient samples compared to normal brain tissue and promotes GBM progression in orthotopic glioma mouse models. IDH3α loss of function reduces tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle turnover and inhibits oxidative phosphorylation...
January 2019: Science Advances
Robin Faillettaz, Grégory Beaugrand, Eric Goberville, Richard R Kirby
The Atlantic bluefin tuna (hereafter referred to as "bluefin tuna"), one of the world's most valuable and exploited fish species, has been declining in abundance throughout the Atlantic from the 1960s until the mid-2000s. Following the establishment of drastic management measures, the stock has started to recover recently and, as a result, stakeholders have raised catch quotas by 50% for the period 2017-2020. However, stock assessments still omit the natural, long-term variability in the species distribution...
January 2019: Science Advances
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