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Science Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630936/pushing-the-boundaries-science-advances
#1
EDITORIAL
Jeremy Berg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630935/response-to-hohenlohe-et-al
#2
Bridgett M vonHoldt, James A Cahill, Ilan Gronau, Beth Shapiro, Jeff Wall, Robert K Wayne
A response to Hohenlohe et al.
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630934/ligand-binding-to-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-captured-in-a-mass-spectrometer
#3
Hsin-Yung Yen, Jonathan T S Hopper, Idlir Liko, Timothy M Allison, Ya Zhu, Dejian Wang, Monika Stegmann, Shabaz Mohammed, Beili Wu, Carol V Robinson
G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors belong to the largest family of membrane-embedded cell surface proteins and are involved in a diverse array of physiological processes. Despite progress in the mass spectrometry of membrane protein complexes, G protein-coupled receptors have remained intractable because of their low yield and instability after extraction from cell membranes. We established conditions in the mass spectrometer that preserve noncovalent ligand binding to the human purinergic receptor P2Y1...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630933/statistical-thinking-for-21st-century-scientists
#4
REVIEW
D R Cox, Bradley Efron
Statistical science provides a wide range of concepts and methods for studying situations subject to unexplained variability. Such considerations enter fields ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to genetics, sociology and economics, and beyond; to associated areas of application such as engineering, agriculture, and medicine, in particular in clinical trials. Successful application hinges on absorption of statistical thinking into the subject matter and, hence, depends strongly on the field in question and on the individual investigators...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630932/differential-intron-retention-in-jumonji-chromatin-modifier-genes-is-implicated-in-reptile-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#5
Ira W Deveson, Clare E Holleley, James Blackburn, Jennifer A Marshall Graves, John S Mattick, Paul D Waters, Arthur Georges
In many vertebrates, sex of offspring is determined by external environmental cues rather than by sex chromosomes. In reptiles, for instance, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common. Despite decades of work, the mechanism by which temperature is converted into a sex-determining signal remains mysterious. This is partly because it is difficult to distinguish the primary molecular events of TSD from the confounding downstream signatures of sexual differentiation. We use the Australian central bearded dragon, in which chromosomal sex determination is overridden at high temperatures to produce sex-reversed female offspring, as a unique model to identify TSD-specific features of the transcriptome...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630931/morphology-controls-the-thermoelectric-power-factor-of-a-doped-semiconducting-polymer
#6
Shrayesh N Patel, Anne M Glaudell, Kelly A Peterson, Elayne M Thomas, Kathryn A O'Hara, Eunhee Lim, Michael L Chabinyc
The electrical performance of doped semiconducting polymers is strongly governed by processing methods and underlying thin-film microstructure. We report on the influence of different doping methods (solution versus vapor) on the thermoelectric power factor (PF) of PBTTT molecularly p-doped with F n TCNQ (n = 2 or 4). The vapor-doped films have more than two orders of magnitude higher electronic conductivity (σ) relative to solution-doped films. On the basis of resonant soft x-ray scattering, vapor-doped samples are shown to have a large orientational correlation length (OCL) (that is, length scale of aligned backbones) that correlates to a high apparent charge carrier mobility (μ)...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630930/real-time-quantitative-analysis-of-metabolic-flux-in-live-cells-using-a-hyperpolarized-micromagnetic-resonance-spectrometer
#7
Sangmoo Jeong, Roozbeh Eskandari, Sun Mi Park, Julio Alvarez, Sui Seng Tee, Ralph Weissleder, Michael G Kharas, Hakho Lee, Kayvan R Keshari
Metabolic reprogramming is widely considered a hallmark of cancer, and understanding metabolic dynamics described by the conversion rates or "fluxes" of metabolites can shed light onto biological processes of tumorigenesis and response to therapy. For real-time analysis of metabolic flux in intact cells or organisms, magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and imaging methods have been developed in conjunction with hyperpolarization of nuclear spins. These approaches enable noninvasive monitoring of tumor progression and treatment efficacy and are being tested in multiple clinical trials...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630929/splitting-of-the-o-o-bond-at-the-heme-copper-catalytic-site-of-respiratory-oxidases
#8
Federica Poiana, Christoph von Ballmoos, Nathalie Gonska, Margareta R A Blomberg, Pia Ädelroth, Peter Brzezinski
Heme-copper oxidases catalyze the four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O at a catalytic site that is composed of a heme group, a copper ion (CuB), and a tyrosine residue. Results from earlier experimental studies have shown that the O-O bond is cleaved simultaneously with electron transfer from a low-spin heme (heme a/b), forming a ferryl state (PR ; Fe(4+)=O(2-), CuB(2+)-OH(-)). We show that with the Thermus thermophilus ba3 oxidase, at low temperature (10°C, pH 7), electron transfer from the low-spin heme b to the catalytic site is faster by a factor of ~10 (τ ≅ 11 μs) than the formation of the PR ferryl (τ ≅110 μs), which indicates that O2 is reduced before the splitting of the O-O bond...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630928/novel-phase-diagram-behavior-and-materials-design-in-heterostructural-semiconductor-alloys
#9
Aaron M Holder, Sebastian Siol, Paul F Ndione, Haowei Peng, Ann M Deml, Bethany E Matthews, Laura T Schelhas, Michael F Toney, Roy G Gordon, William Tumas, John D Perkins, David S Ginley, Brian P Gorman, Janet Tate, Andriy Zakutayev, Stephan Lany
Structure and composition control the behavior of materials. Isostructural alloying is historically an extremely successful approach for tuning materials properties, but it is often limited by binodal and spinodal decomposition, which correspond to the thermodynamic solubility limit and the stability against composition fluctuations, respectively. We show that heterostructural alloys can exhibit a markedly increased range of metastable alloy compositions between the binodal and spinodal lines, thereby opening up a vast phase space for novel homogeneous single-phase alloys...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630927/welding-of-3d-printed-carbon-nanotube-polymer-composites-by-locally-induced-microwave-heating
#10
Charles B Sweeney, Blake A Lackey, Martin J Pospisil, Thomas C Achee, Victoria K Hicks, Aaron G Moran, Blake R Teipel, Mohammad A Saed, Micah J Green
Additive manufacturing through material extrusion, often termed three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a burgeoning method for manufacturing thermoplastic components. However, a key obstacle facing 3D-printed plastic parts in engineering applications is the weak weld between successive filament traces, which often leads to delamination and mechanical failure. This is the chief obstacle to the use of thermoplastic additive manufacturing. We report a novel concept for welding 3D-printed thermoplastic interfaces using intense localized heating of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by microwave irradiation...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630926/vasculogenic-hydrogel-enhances-islet-survival-engraftment-and-function-in-leading-extrahepatic-sites
#11
Jessica D Weaver, Devon M Headen, Jahizreal Aquart, Christopher T Johnson, Lonnie D Shea, Haval Shirwan, Andrés J García
Islet transplantation is a promising alternative therapy for insulin-dependent patients, with the potential to eliminate life-threatening hypoglycemic episodes and secondary complications of long-term diabetes. However, widespread application of this therapy has been limited by inadequate graft function and longevity, in part due to the loss of up to 60% of the graft in the hostile intrahepatic transplant site. We report a proteolytically degradable synthetic hydrogel, functionalized with vasculogenic factors for localized delivery, engineered to deliver islet grafts to extrahepatic transplant sites via in situ gelation under physiological conditions...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630925/buckyball-sandwiches
#12
Rasim Mirzayev, Kimmo Mustonen, Mohammad R A Monazam, Andreas Mittelberger, Timothy J Pennycook, Clemens Mangler, Toma Susi, Jani Kotakoski, Jannik C Meyer
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have considerably expanded the field of materials science in the past decade. Even more recently, various 2D materials have been assembled into vertical van der Waals heterostacks, and it has been proposed to combine them with other low-dimensional structures to create new materials with hybridized properties. We demonstrate the first direct images of a suspended 0D/2D heterostructure that incorporates C60 molecules between two graphene layers in a buckyball sandwich structure...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630924/capturing-the-radical-ion-pair-intermediate-in-dna-guanine-oxidation
#13
Jialong Jie, Kunhui Liu, Lidan Wu, Hongmei Zhao, Di Song, Hongmei Su
Although the radical ion pair has been frequently invoked as a key intermediate in DNA oxidative damage reactions and photoinduced electron transfer processes, the unambiguous detection and characterization of this species remain formidable and unresolved due to its extremely unstable nature and low concentration. We use the strategy that, at cryogenic temperatures, the transient species could be sufficiently stabilized to be detectable spectroscopically. By coupling the two techniques (the cryogenic stabilization and the time-resolved laser flash photolysis spectroscopy) together, we are able to capture the ion-pair transient G(+•)⋯Cl(-) in the chlorine radical-initiated DNA guanine (G) oxidation reaction, and provide direct evidence to ascertain the intricate type of addition/charge separation mechanism underlying guanine oxidation...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630923/ribosome-rearrangements-at-the-onset-of-translational-bypassing
#14
Xabier Agirrezabala, Ekaterina Samatova, Mariia Klimova, Miguel Zamora, David Gil-Carton, Marina V Rodnina, Mikel Valle
Bypassing is a recoding event that leads to the translation of two distal open reading frames into a single polypeptide chain. We present the structure of a translating ribosome stalled at the bypassing take-off site of gene 60 of bacteriophage T4. The nascent peptide in the exit tunnel anchors the P-site peptidyl-tRNA(Gly) to the ribosome and locks an inactive conformation of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The mRNA forms a short dynamic hairpin in the decoding site. The ribosomal subunits adopt a rolling conformation in which the rotation of the small subunit around its long axis causes the opening of the A-site region...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630922/flexible-ferroelectric-element-based-on-van-der-waals-heteroepitaxy
#15
Jie Jiang, Yugandhar Bitla, Chun-Wei Huang, Thi Hien Do, Heng-Jui Liu, Ying-Hui Hsieh, Chun-Hao Ma, Chi-Yuan Jang, Yu-Hong Lai, Po-Wen Chiu, Wen-Wei Wu, Yi-Chun Chen, Yi-Chun Zhou, Ying-Hao Chu
We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630921/increasing-probability-of-mortality-during-indian-heat-waves
#16
Omid Mazdiyasni, Amir AghaKouchak, Steven J Davis, Shahrbanou Madadgar, Ali Mehran, Elisa Ragno, Mojtaba Sadegh, Ashmita Sengupta, Subimal Ghosh, C T Dhanya, Mohsen Niknejad
Rising global temperatures are causing increases in the frequency and severity of extreme climatic events, such as floods, droughts, and heat waves. We analyze changes in summer temperatures, the frequency, severity, and duration of heat waves, and heat-related mortality in India between 1960 and 2009 using data from the India Meteorological Department. Mean temperatures across India have risen by more than 0.5°C over this period, with statistically significant increases in heat waves. Using a novel probabilistic model, we further show that the increase in summer mean temperatures in India over this period corresponds to a 146% increase in the probability of heat-related mortality events of more than 100 people...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630920/bioinspired-shape-memory-graphene-film-with-tunable-wettability
#17
Jie Wang, Lingyu Sun, Minhan Zou, Wei Gao, Cihui Liu, Luoran Shang, Zhongze Gu, Yuanjin Zhao
Functional materials with specific surface wettability play an important role in a wide variety of areas. Inspired by nature's Nepenthes pitcher plant, we present a novel slippery film with tunable wettability based on a shape-memory graphene sponge. The porous graphene sponge coated with shape-memory polymer was used to lock in inert lubricants and construct slippery surfaces to repel different liquids. The superelasticity and high strength, together with good electrical conductivity, of the graphene sponge imparted the graphene/polymer hybrid films with fast recoverable shape-memory properties...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630919/discovery-of-lorentz-violating-type-ii-weyl-fermions-in-laalge
#18
Su-Yang Xu, Nasser Alidoust, Guoqing Chang, Hong Lu, Bahadur Singh, Ilya Belopolski, Daniel S Sanchez, Xiao Zhang, Guang Bian, Hao Zheng, Marious-Adrian Husanu, Yi Bian, Shin-Ming Huang, Chuang-Han Hsu, Tay-Rong Chang, Horng-Tay Jeng, Arun Bansil, Titus Neupert, Vladimir N Strocov, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia, M Zahid Hasan
In quantum field theory, Weyl fermions are relativistic particles that travel at the speed of light and strictly obey the celebrated Lorentz symmetry. Their low-energy condensed matter analogs are Weyl semimetals, which are conductors whose electronic excitations mimic the Weyl fermion equation of motion. Although the traditional (type I) emergent Weyl fermions observed in TaAs still approximately respect Lorentz symmetry, recently, the so-called type II Weyl semimetal has been proposed, where the emergent Weyl quasiparticles break the Lorentz symmetry so strongly that they cannot be smoothly connected to Lorentz symmetric Weyl particles...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630918/compressed-glassy-carbon-an-ultrastrong-and-elastic-interpenetrating-graphene-network
#19
Meng Hu, Julong He, Zhisheng Zhao, Timothy A Strobel, Wentao Hu, Dongli Yu, Hao Sun, Lingyu Liu, Zihe Li, Mengdong Ma, Yoshio Kono, Jinfu Shu, Ho-Kwang Mao, Yingwei Fei, Guoyin Shen, Yanbin Wang, Stephen J Juhl, Jian Yu Huang, Zhongyuan Liu, Bo Xu, Yongjun Tian
Carbon's unique ability to have both sp(2) and sp(3) bonding states gives rise to a range of physical attributes, including excellent mechanical and electrical properties. We show that a series of lightweight, ultrastrong, hard, elastic, and conductive carbons are recovered after compressing sp(2)-hybridized glassy carbon at various temperatures. Compression induces the local buckling of graphene sheets through sp(3) nodes to form interpenetrating graphene networks with long-range disorder and short-range order on the nanometer scale...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630917/mntio3-driven-low-temperature-oxidative-coupling-of-methane-over-tio2-doped-mn2o3-na2wo4-sio2-catalyst
#20
Pengwei Wang, Guofeng Zhao, Yu Wang, Yong Lu
Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) is a promising method for the direct conversion of methane to ethene and ethane (C2 products). Among the catalysts reported previously, Mn2O3-Na2WO4/SiO2 showed the highest conversion and selectivity, but only at 800° to 900°C, which represents a substantial challenge for commercialization. We report a TiO2-doped Mn2O3-Na2WO4/SiO2 catalyst by using Ti-MWW zeolite as TiO2 dopant as well as SiO2 support, enabling OCM with 26% conversion and 76% C2-C3 selectivity at 720°C because of MnTiO3 formation...
June 2017: Science Advances
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