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Science Advances

Min Su, Emily Z Guo, Xinqiang Ding, Yan Li, Jeffrey T Tarrasch, Charles L Brooks, Zhaohui Xu, Georgios Skiniotis
Vps4 is a member of AAA(+) ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase associated with diverse cellular activities) that operates as an oligomer to disassemble ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III) filaments, thereby catalyzing the final step in multiple ESCRT-dependent membrane remodeling events. We used electron cryo-microscopy to visualize oligomers of a hydrolysis-deficient Vps4 (vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4) mutant in the presence of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). We show that Vps4 subunits assemble into an asymmetric hexameric ring following an approximate helical path that sequentially stacks substrate-binding loops along the central pore...
April 2017: Science Advances
Jungbum Yoon, Seo-Won Lee, Jae Hyun Kwon, Jong Min Lee, Jaesung Son, Xuepeng Qiu, Kyung-Jin Lee, Hyunsoo Yang
Spin-orbit torques (SOTs) allow the electrical control of magnetic states. Current-induced SOT switching of the perpendicular magnetization is of particular technological importance. The SOT consists of damping-like and field-like torques, and understanding the combined effects of these two torque components is required for efficient SOT switching. Previous quasi-static measurements have reported an increased switching probability with the width of current pulses, as predicted considering the damping-like torque alone...
April 2017: Science Advances
Chin-Fei Lee, Zhi-Yun Li, Paul T P Ho, Naomi Hirano, Qizhou Zhang, Hsien Shang
In the earliest (so-called "Class 0") phase of Sun-like (low-mass) star formation, circumstellar disks are expected to form, feeding the protostars. However, these disks are difficult to resolve spatially because of their small sizes. Moreover, there are theoretical difficulties in producing these disks in the earliest phase because of the retarding effects of magnetic fields on the rotating, collapsing material (so-called "magnetic braking"). With the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), it becomes possible to uncover these disks and study them in detail...
April 2017: Science Advances
Zhen Ding, Chao Yuan, Xirui Peng, Tiejun Wang, H Jerry Qi, Martin L Dunn
We describe an approach to print composite polymers in high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) architectures that can be rapidly transformed to a new permanent configuration directly by heating. The permanent shape of a component results from the programmed time evolution of the printed shape upon heating via the design of the architecture and process parameters of a composite consisting of a glassy shape memory polymer and an elastomer that is programmed with a built-in compressive strain during photopolymerization...
April 2017: Science Advances
Rui Zhang, Michihisa Murata, Atsushi Wakamiya, Takafumi Shimoaka, Takeshi Hasegawa, Yasujiro Murata
Dissociation of an acid molecule in aqueous media is one of the most fundamental solvation processes but its details remain poorly understood at the distinct molecular level. Conducting high-pressure treatments of an open-cage fullerene C70 derivative with hydrogen fluoride (HF) in the presence of H2O, we achieved an unprecedented encapsulation of H2O·HF and H2O. Restoration of the opening yielded the endohedral C70s, that is, (H2O·HF)@C70, H2O@C70, and HF@C70 in macroscopic scales. Putting an H2O·HF complex into the fullerene cage was a crucial step, and it would proceed by the synergistic effects of "pushing from outside" and "pulling from inside...
April 2017: Science Advances
Yu Zhang, Chengzu Long, Hui Li, John R McAnally, Kedryn K Baskin, John M Shelton, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene (DMD), is characterized by fatal degeneration of striated muscles. Dilated cardiomyopathy is one of the most common lethal features of the disease. We deployed Cpf1, a unique class 2 CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) effector, to correct DMD mutations in patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and mdx mice, an animal model of DMD. Cpf1-mediated genomic editing of human iPSCs, either by skipping of an out-of-frame DMD exon or by correcting a nonsense mutation, restored dystrophin expression after differentiation to cardiomyocytes and enhanced contractile function...
April 2017: Science Advances
Snehashis Choudhury, Charles Tai-Chieh Wan, Wajdi I Al Sadat, Zhengyuan Tu, Sampson Lau, Michael J Zachman, Lena F Kourkoutis, Lynden A Archer
An electrochemical cell based on the reversible oxygen reduction reaction: 2Li(+) + 2e (-) + O2↔ Li2O2, provides among the most energy dense platforms for portable electrical energy storage. Such Lithium-Oxygen (Li-O2) cells offer specific energies competitive with fossil fuels and are considered promising for electrified transportation. Multiple, fundamental challenges with the cathode, anode, and electrolyte have limited practical interest in Li-O2 cells because these problems lead to as many practical shortcomings, including poor rechargeability, high overpotentials, and specific energies well below theoretical expectations...
April 2017: Science Advances
Anton Kuzyk, Maximilian J Urban, Andrea Idili, Francesco Ricci, Na Liu
Selective configuration control of plasmonic nanostructures using either top-down or bottom-up approaches has remained challenging in the field of active plasmonics. We demonstrate the realization of DNA-assembled reconfigurable plasmonic metamolecules, which can respond to a wide range of pH changes in a programmable manner. This programmability allows for selective reconfiguration of different plasmonic metamolecule species coexisting in solution through simple pH tuning. This approach enables discrimination of chiral plasmonic quasi-enantiomers and arbitrary tuning of chiroptical effects with unprecedented degrees of freedom...
April 2017: Science Advances
Catherine L Deatherage, Zhenwei Lu, Brett M Kroncke, Sirui Ma, Jarrod A Smith, Markus W Voehler, Robert L McFeeters, Charles R Sanders
γ-Secretase cleavage of the Notch receptor transmembrane domain is a critical signaling event for various cellular processes. Efforts to develop inhibitors of γ-secretase cleavage of the amyloid-β precursor C99 protein as potential Alzheimer's disease therapeutics have been confounded by toxicity resulting from the inhibition of normal cleavage of Notch. We present biochemical and structural data for the combined transmembrane and juxtamembrane Notch domains (Notch-TMD) that illuminate Notch signaling and that can be compared and contrasted with the corresponding traits of C99...
April 2017: Science Advances
Dongil Chu, Young Hee Lee, Eun Kyu Kim
Recent discoveries in the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials have led to the demonstration of exotic devices. Although they have new potential applications in electronics, thermally activated transport over a metal/semiconductor barrier sets physical subthermionic limitations. The challenge of realizing an innovative transistor geometry that exploits this concern remains. A new class of 2D assembly (namely, "carristor") with a configuration similar to the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure is introduced in this work...
April 2017: Science Advances
Tongyu Wang, David Torres, Félix E Fernández, Chuan Wang, Nelson Sepúlveda
The search for higher-performance photothermal microactuators has typically involved unavoidable trade-offs that hinder the demonstration of ubiquitous devices with high energy density, speed, flexibility, efficiency, sensitivity, and multifunctionality. Improving some of these parameters often implies deterioration of others. Photothermal actuators are driven by the conversion of absorbed optical energy into thermal energy, which, by different mechanisms, can produce mechanical displacement of a structure...
April 2017: Science Advances
Fangzhao Alex An, Eric J Meier, Bryce Gadway
The prospect of studying topological matter with the precision and control of atomic physics has driven the development of many techniques for engineering artificial magnetic fields and spin-orbit interactions. Recently, the idea of introducing nontrivial topology through the use of internal (or external) atomic states as effective "synthetic dimensions" has garnered attraction for its versatility and possible immunity from heating. We engineer tunable gauge fields through the local control of tunneling phases in an effective two-dimensional manifold of discrete atomic momentum states...
April 2017: Science Advances
Pengzhan Sun, Renzhi Ma, Xueyin Bai, Kunlin Wang, Hongwei Zhu, Takayoshi Sasaki
When the dimensionality of layered materials is reduced to the physical limit, an ultimate two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy and/or confinement effect may bring about extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), bearing abundant hydroxyl groups covalently bonded within 2D host layers, have been proposed as inorganic anion conductors. However, typical hydroxyl ion conductivities for bulk or lamellar LDHs, generally up to 10(-3) S cm(-1), are considered not high enough for practical applications...
April 2017: Science Advances
Jason Holloway, Yicheng Wu, Manoj K Sharma, Oliver Cossairt, Ashok Veeraraghavan
Synthetic aperture radar is a well-known technique for improving resolution in radio imaging. Extending these synthetic aperture techniques to the visible light domain is not straightforward because optical receivers cannot measure phase information. We propose to use macroscopic Fourier ptychography (FP) as a practical means of creating a synthetic aperture for visible imaging to achieve subdiffraction-limited resolution. We demonstrate the first working prototype for macroscopic FP in a reflection imaging geometry that is capable of imaging optically rough objects...
April 2017: Science Advances
Jifa Tian, Seokmin Hong, Ireneusz Miotkowski, Supriyo Datta, Yong P Chen
Topological insulators (TIs), with their helically spin-momentum-locked topological surface states (TSSs), are considered promising for spintronics applications. Several recent experiments in TIs have demonstrated a current-induced electronic spin polarization that may be used for all-electrical spin generation and injection. We report spin potentiometric measurements in TIs that have revealed a long-lived persistent electron spin polarization even at zero current. Unaffected by a small bias current and persisting for several days at low temperature, the spin polarization can be induced and reversed by a large "writing" current applied for an extended time...
April 2017: Science Advances
Ryohei Wakatsuki, Yu Saito, Shintaro Hoshino, Yuki M Itahashi, Toshiya Ideue, Motohiko Ezawa, Yoshihiro Iwasa, Naoto Nagaosa
Lack of spatial inversion symmetry in crystals offers a rich variety of physical phenomena, such as ferroelectricity and nonlinear optical effects (for example, second harmonic generation). One such phenomenon is magnetochiral anisotropy, where the electrical resistance depends on the current direction under the external magnetic field. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that this magnetochiral anisotropy is markedly enhanced by orders of magnitude once the materials enter into a superconducting state...
April 2017: Science Advances
Shahar Rinott, K B Chashka, Amit Ribak, Emile D L Rienks, Amina Taleb-Ibrahimi, Patrick Le Fevre, François Bertran, Mohit Randeria, Amit Kanigel
The crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is difficult to realize in quantum materials because, unlike in ultracold atoms, one cannot tune the pairing interaction. We realize the BCS-BEC crossover in a nearly compensated semimetal, Fe1+y Se x Te1-x , by tuning the Fermi energy εF via chemical doping, which permits us to systematically change Δ/εF from 0.16 to 0.50, where Δ is the superconducting (SC) gap. We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure the Fermi energy, the SC gap, and characteristic changes in the SC state electronic dispersion as the system evolves from a BCS to a BEC regime...
April 2017: Science Advances
Eunha Kim, Jiyoon Beon, Seulgi Lee, Seung Ju Park, Hyoungjoon Ahn, Min Gyu Kim, Jeong Eun Park, Wooseob Kim, Jae-Min Yuk, Suk-Jo Kang, Seung-Hyo Lee, Eun-Kyeong Jo, Rho Hyun Seong, Seyun Kim
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is tightly controlled to protect hosts from microorganisms while simultaneously preventing uncontrolled immune responses. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a critical mediator of TLR signaling, but the precise mechanism of how TRAF6 protein stability is strictly controlled still remains obscure. We show that myeloid-specific deletion of inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which has both inositol polyphosphate kinase activities and noncatalytic signaling functions, protects mice against polymicrobial sepsis and lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation...
April 2017: Science Advances
Stefano Sanvito, Corey Oses, Junkai Xue, Anurag Tiwari, Mario Zic, Thomas Archer, Pelin Tozman, Munuswamy Venkatesan, Michael Coey, Stefano Curtarolo
Magnetic materials underpin modern technologies, ranging from data storage to energy conversion to contactless sensing. However, the development of a new high-performance magnet is a long and often unpredictable process, and only about two dozen magnets are featured in mainstream applications. We describe a systematic pathway to the design of novel magnetic materials, which demonstrates a high throughput and discovery speed. On the basis of an extensive electronic structure library of Heusler alloys containing 236,115 prototypical compounds, we filtered those displaying magnetic order and established whether they can be fabricated at thermodynamic equilibrium...
April 2017: Science Advances
Omar A Doria Arrieta, Fabio Pammolli, Alexander M Petersen
The 2004/2007 European Union (EU) enlargement by 12 member states offers a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of EU efforts to expand and integrate the scientific competitiveness of the European Research Area (ERA). We apply two causal estimation schemes to cross-border collaboration data extracted from millions of academic publications from 1996 to 2012, which are disaggregated across 14 subject areas and 32 European countries. Our results illustrate the unintended consequences following the 2004/2007 enlargement, namely, its negative impact on cross-border collaboration in science...
April 2017: Science Advances
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