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Science Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847876/overcoming-a-nucleosomal-barrier-to-replication
#1
Han-Wen Chang, Manjula Pandey, Olga I Kulaeva, Smita S Patel, Vasily M Studitsky
Efficient overcoming and accurate maintenance of chromatin structure and associated histone marks during DNA replication are essential for normal functioning of the daughter cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of replication through chromatin are unknown. We have studied traversal of uniquely positioned mononucleosomes by T7 replisome in vitro. Nucleosomes present a strong, sequence-dependent barrier for replication, with particularly strong pausing of DNA polymerase at the +(31-40) and +(41-65) regions of the nucleosomal DNA...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847875/all-printed-magnetically-self-healing-electrochemical-devices
#2
Amay J Bandodkar, Cristian S López, Allibai Mohanan Vinu Mohan, Lu Yin, Rajan Kumar, Joseph Wang
The present work demonstrates the synthesis and application of permanent magnetic Nd2Fe14B microparticle (NMP)-loaded graphitic inks for realizing rapidly self-healing inexpensive printed electrochemical devices. The incorporation of NMPs into the printable ink imparts impressive self-healing ability to the printed conducting trace, with rapid (~50 ms) recovery of repeated large (3 mm) damages at the same or different locations without any user intervention or external trigger. The permanent and surrounding-insensitive magnetic properties of the NMPs thus result in long-lasting ability to repair extreme levels of damage, independent of ambient conditions...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847874/critical-enhancement-of-thermopower-in-a-chemically-tuned-polar-semimetal-mote2
#3
Hideaki Sakai, Koji Ikeura, Mohammad Saeed Bahramy, Naoki Ogawa, Daisuke Hashizume, Jun Fujioka, Yoshinori Tokura, Shintaro Ishiwata
Ferroelectrics with spontaneous electric polarization play an essential role in today's device engineering, such as capacitors and memories. Their physical properties are further enriched by suppressing the long-range polar order, as exemplified by quantum paraelectrics with giant piezoelectric and dielectric responses at low temperatures. Likewise in metals, a polar lattice distortion has been theoretically predicted to give rise to various unusual physical properties. However, to date, a "ferroelectric"-like transition in metals has seldom been controlled, and hence, its possible impacts on transport phenomena remain unexplored...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847873/chemical-delivery-array-with-millisecond-neurotransmitter-release
#4
Amanda Jonsson, Theresia Arbring Sjöström, Klas Tybrandt, Magnus Berggren, Daniel T Simon
Technologies that restore or augment dysfunctional neural signaling represent a promising route to deeper understanding and new therapies for neurological disorders. Because of the chemical specificity and subsecond signaling of the nervous system, these technologies should be able to release specific neurotransmitters at specific locations with millisecond resolution. We have previously demonstrated an organic electronic lateral electrophoresis technology capable of precise delivery of charged compounds, such as neurotransmitters...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847872/blind-protein-structure-prediction-using-accelerated-free-energy-simulations
#5
Alberto Perez, Joseph A Morrone, Emiliano Brini, Justin L MacCallum, Ken A Dill
We report a key proof of principle of a new acceleration method [Modeling Employing Limited Data (MELD)] for predicting protein structures by molecular dynamics simulation. It shows that such Boltzmann-satisfying techniques are now sufficiently fast and accurate to predict native protein structures in a limited test within the Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction (CASP) community-wide blind competition.
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847871/strigoquant-a-genetically-encoded-biosensor-for-quantifying-strigolactone-activity-and-specificity
#6
Sophia L Samodelov, Hannes M Beyer, Xiujie Guo, Maximilian Augustin, Kun-Peng Jia, Lina Baz, Oliver Ebenhöh, Peter Beyer, Wilfried Weber, Salim Al-Babili, Matias D Zurbriggen
Strigolactones are key regulators of plant development and interaction with symbiotic fungi; however, quantitative tools for strigolactone signaling analysis are lacking. We introduce a genetically encoded hormone biosensor used to analyze strigolactone-mediated processes, including the study of the components involved in the hormone perception/signaling complex and the structural specificity and sensitivity of natural and synthetic strigolactones in Arabidopsis, providing quantitative insights into the stereoselectivity of strigolactone perception...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847870/computational-multiheterodyne-spectroscopy
#7
David Burghoff, Yang Yang, Qing Hu
Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for high-resolution spectra to be measured over broad bandwidths, but an essential requirement for coherent integration is the availability of a phase reference. Usually, this means that the combs' phase and timing errors must be measured and either minimized by stabilization or removed by correction, limiting the technique's applicability. We demonstrate that it is possible to extract the phase and timing signals of a multiheterodyne spectrum completely computationally, without any extra measurements or optical elements...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847869/dysfunctional-mnsod-leads-to-redox-dysregulation-and-activation-of-prosurvival-akt-signaling-in-uterine-leiomyomas
#8
Vania Vidimar, David Gius, Debabrata Chakravarti, Serdar E Bulun, Jian-Jun Wei, J Julie Kim
AKT signaling promotes cell growth and survival and is often dysregulated via multiple mechanisms in different types of cancer, including uterine leiomyomas (ULMs). ULMs are highly prevalent fibrotic tumors that arise from the smooth muscular layer of the uterus, the myometrium (MM). ULMs pose a major public health issue because they can cause severe morbidity and poor pregnancy outcomes. ‬We investigate the mechanisms driving ULM growth and survival via aberrant activation of AKT. We demonstrate that an acetylation-mediated impairment of the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity is prevalent in ULM cells compared to the normal-matched MM from the same patients...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847868/photosymbiosis-and-the-expansion-of-shallow-water-corals
#9
Katarzyna Frankowiak, Xingchen T Wang, Daniel M Sigman, Anne M Gothmann, Marcelo V Kitahara, Maciej Mazur, Anders Meibom, Jarosław Stolarski
Roughly 240 million years ago (Ma), scleractinian corals rapidly expanded and diversified across shallow marine environments. The main driver behind this evolution is uncertain, but the ecological success of modern reef-building corals is attributed to their nutritional symbiosis with photosynthesizing dinoflagellate algae. We show that a suite of exceptionally preserved Late Triassic (ca. 212 Ma) coral skeletons from Antalya (Turkey) have microstructures, carbonate (13)C/(12)C and (18)O/(16)O, and intracrystalline skeletal organic matter (15)N/(14)N all indicating symbiosis...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847867/multicolor-3d-meta-holography-by-broadband-plasmonic-modulation
#10
Xiong Li, Lianwei Chen, Yang Li, Xiaohu Zhang, Mingbo Pu, Zeyu Zhao, Xiaoliang Ma, Yanqin Wang, Minghui Hong, Xiangang Luo
As nanofabrication technology progresses, the emerging metasurface has offered unique opportunities for holography, such as an increased data capacity and the realization of polarization-sensitive functionality. Multicolor three-dimensional (3D) meta-hologram imaging is one of the most pursued applications for meta-hologram not yet realized. How to reduce the cross-talk among different colors in broad bandwidth designs is a critical question. On the basis of the off-axis illumination method, we develop a novel way to overcome the cross-talk limitation and achieve multicolor meta-holography with a single type of plasmonic pixel...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847866/carbon-emissions-from-land-use-change-and-management-in-china-between-1990-and-2010
#11
Li Lai, Xianjin Huang, Hong Yang, Xiaowei Chuai, Mei Zhang, Taiyang Zhong, Zhigang Chen, Yi Chen, Xiao Wang, Julian R Thompson
China has experienced enormous changes in land use in recent decades, which are largely driven by its unparalleled economic development. We analyze changes in vegetation and soil carbon storage between 1990 and 2010 resulting from combinations of land-use category conversion and management. Results demonstrate a major decline in grasslands (-6.85%; 20.83 × 10(6) ha) and large increases in urban areas (+43.73%; 6.87 × 10(6) ha), farmlands (+0.84%; 1.48 × 10(6) ha), and forests (+0.67%; 1.52 × 10(6) ha). The total soil organic carbon pool has been reduced by approximately 11...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847865/in-vivo-characterization-of-distinct-modality-specific-subsets-of-somatosensory-neurons-using-gcamp
#12
Edward C Emery, Ana P Luiz, Shafaq Sikandar, Rán Magnúsdóttir, Xinzhong Dong, John N Wood
Mechanistic insights into pain pathways are essential for a rational approach to treating this vast and increasing clinical problem. Sensory neurons that respond to tissue damage (nociceptors) may evoke pain sensations and are typically classified on the basis of action potential velocity. Electrophysiological studies have suggested that most of the C-fiber nociceptors are polymodal, responding to a variety of insults. In contrast, gene deletion studies in the sensory neurons of transgenic mice have frequently resulted in modality-specific deficits...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847864/smart-optical-coherence-tomography-for-ultra-deep-imaging-through-highly-scattering-media
#13
Amaury Badon, Dayan Li, Geoffroy Lerosey, A Claude Boccara, Mathias Fink, Alexandre Aubry
Multiple scattering of waves in disordered media is a nightmare whether it is for detection or imaging purposes. So far, the best approach to get rid of multiple scattering is optical coherence tomography. This basically combines confocal microscopy and coherence time gating to discriminate ballistic photons from a predominant multiple scattering background. Nevertheless, the imaging-depth range remains limited to 1 mm at best in human soft tissues because of aberrations and multiple scattering. We propose a matrix approach of optical imaging to push back this fundamental limit...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847863/direct-proof-of-spontaneous-translocation-of-lipid-covered-hydrophobic-nanoparticles-through-a-phospholipid-bilayer
#14
Yachong Guo, Emmanuel Terazzi, Ralf Seemann, Jean Baptiste Fleury, Vladimir A Baulin
Hydrophobic nanoparticles introduced into living systems may lead to increased toxicity, can activate immune cells, or can be used as nanocarriers for drug or gene delivery. It is generally accepted that small hydrophobic nanoparticles are blocked by lipid bilayers and accumulate in the bilayer core, whereas big nanoparticles can only penetrate cells through slow energy-dependent processes, such as endocytosis, lasting minutes. In contrast to expectations, we demonstrate that lipid-covered hydrophobic nanoparticles may translocate through lipid membranes by direct penetration within milliseconds...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847862/direct-observation-of-individual-dislocation-interaction-processes-with-grain-boundaries
#15
Shun Kondo, Tasuku Mitsuma, Naoya Shibata, Yuichi Ikuhara
In deformation processes, the presence of grain boundaries has a crucial influence on dislocation behavior; these boundaries drastically change the mechanical properties of polycrystalline materials. It has been considered that grain boundaries act as effective barriers for dislocation glide, but the origin of this barrier-like behavior has been a matter of conjecture for many years. We directly observe how the motion of individual dislocations is impeded at well-defined high-angle and low-angle grain boundaries in SrTiO3, via in situ nanoindentation experiments inside a transmission electron microscope...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819055/entropy-driven-structural-transition-and-kinetic-trapping-in-formamidinium-lead-iodide-perovskite
#16
Tianran Chen, Benjamin J Foley, Changwon Park, Craig M Brown, Leland W Harriger, Jooseop Lee, Jacob Ruff, Mina Yoon, Joshua J Choi, Seung-Hun Lee
A challenge of hybrid perovskite solar cells is device instability, which calls for an understanding of the perovskite structural stability and phase transitions. Using neutron diffraction and first-principles calculations on formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3), we show that the entropy contribution to the Gibbs free energy caused by isotropic rotations of the FA(+) cation plays a crucial role in the cubic-to-hexagonal structural phase transition. Furthermore, we observe that the cubic-to-hexagonal phase transition exhibits a large thermal hysteresis...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819054/functional-droplets-that-recognize-collect-and-transport-debris-on-surfaces
#17
Ying Bai, Chia-Chih Chang, Umesh Choudhary, Irem Bolukbasi, Alfred J Crosby, Todd Emrick
We describe polymer-stabilized droplets capable of recognizing and picking up nanoparticles from substrates in experiments designed for transporting hydroxyapatite nanoparticles that represent the principal elemental composition of bone. Our experiments, which are inspired by cells that carry out materials transport in vivo, used oil-in-water droplets that traverse a nanoparticle-coated substrate driven by an imposed fluid flow. Nanoparticle capture is realized by interaction of the particles with chemical functionality embedded within the polymeric stabilizing layer on the droplets...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819053/ultrahigh-efficiency-solution-processed-simplified-small-molecule-organic-light-emitting-diodes-using-universal-host-materials
#18
Tae-Hee Han, Mi-Ri Choi, Chan-Woo Jeon, Yun-Hi Kim, Soon-Ki Kwon, Tae-Woo Lee
Although solution processing of small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has been considered as a promising alternative to standard vacuum deposition requiring high material and processing cost, the devices have suffered from low luminous efficiency and difficulty of multilayer solution processing. Therefore, high efficiency should be achieved in simple-structured small-molecule OLEDs fabricated using a solution process. We report very efficient solution-processed simple-structured small-molecule OLEDs that use novel universal electron-transporting host materials based on tetraphenylsilane with pyridine moieties...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819052/structure-and-mechanism-of-human-primpol-a-dna-polymerase-with-primase-activity
#19
Olga Rechkoblit, Yogesh K Gupta, Radhika Malik, Kanagalaghatta R Rajashankar, Robert E Johnson, Louise Prakash, Satya Prakash, Aneel K Aggarwal
PrimPol is a novel human enzyme that contains both DNA primase and DNA polymerase activities. We present the first structure of human PrimPol in ternary complex with a DNA template-primer and an incoming deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP). The ability of PrimPol to function as a DNA primase stems from a simple but remarkable feature-almost complete lack of contacts to the DNA primer strand. This, in turn, allows two dNTPs to bind initiation and elongation sites on the enzyme for the formation of the first dinucleotide...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819051/serine-one-carbon-catabolism-with-formate-overflow
#20
Johannes Meiser, Sergey Tumanov, Oliver Maddocks, Christiaan Fred Labuschagne, Dimitris Athineos, Niels Van Den Broek, Gillian M Mackay, Eyal Gottlieb, Karen Blyth, Karen Vousden, Jurre J Kamphorst, Alexei Vazquez
Serine catabolism to glycine and a one-carbon unit has been linked to the anabolic requirements of proliferating mammalian cells. However, genome-scale modeling predicts a catabolic role with one-carbon release as formate. We experimentally prove that in cultured cancer cells and nontransformed fibroblasts, most of the serine-derived one-carbon units are released from cells as formate, and that formate release is dependent on mitochondrial reverse 10-CHO-THF synthetase activity. We also show that in cancer cells, formate release is coupled to mitochondrial complex I activity, whereas in nontransformed fibroblasts, it is partially insensitive to inhibition of complex I activity...
October 2016: Science Advances
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