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Science Advances

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134201/pushing-the-limits-of-photoreception-in-twilight-conditions-the-rod-like-cone-retina-of-the-deep-sea-pearlsides
#1
Fanny de Busserolles, Fabio Cortesi, Jon Vidar Helvik, Wayne I L Davies, Rachel M Templin, Robert K P Sullivan, Craig T Michell, Jessica K Mountford, Shaun P Collin, Xabier Irigoien, Stein Kaartvedt, Justin Marshall
Most vertebrates have a duplex retina comprising two photoreceptor types, rods for dim-light (scotopic) vision and cones for bright-light (photopic) and color vision. However, deep-sea fishes are only active in dim-light conditions; hence, most species have lost their cones in favor of a simplex retina composed exclusively of rods. Although the pearlsides, Maurolicus spp., have such a pure rod retina, their behavior is at odds with this simplex visual system. Contrary to other deep-sea fishes, pearlsides are mostly active during dusk and dawn close to the surface, where light levels are intermediate (twilight or mesopic) and require the use of both rod and cone photoreceptors...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134200/intraoceanic-subduction-spanned-the-pacific-in-the-late-cretaceous-paleocene
#2
Mathew Domeier, Grace E Shephard, Johannes Jakob, Carmen Gaina, Pavel V Doubrovine, Trond H Torsvik
The notorious ~60° bend separating the Hawaiian and Emperor chains marked a prominent change in the motion of the Pacific plate at ~47 Ma (million years ago), but the origin of that change remains an outstanding controversy that bears on the nature of major plate reorganizations. Lesser known but equally significant is a conundrum posed by the pre-bend (~80 to 47 Ma) motion of the Pacific plate, which, according to conventional plate models, was directed toward a fast-spreading ridge, in contradiction to tectonic forcing expectations...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134199/rapid-directed-transport-of-dc-sign-clusters-in-the-plasma-membrane
#3
Ping Liu, Violetta Weinreb, Marc Ridilla, Laurie Betts, Pratik Patel, Aravinda M de Silva, Nancy L Thompson, Ken Jacobson
C-type lectins, including dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), are all-purpose pathogen receptors that exist in nanoclusters in plasma membranes of dendritic cells. A small fraction of these clusters, obvious from the videos, can undergo rapid, directed transport in the plane of the plasma membrane at average speeds of more than 1 μm/s in both dendritic cells and MX DC-SIGN murine fibroblasts ectopically expressing DC-SIGN. Surprisingly, instantaneous speeds can be considerably greater...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134198/%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-direct-differentiation-of-the-membrane-phenotype-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-potentiate-osteogenesis
#4
Kandice R Levental, Michal A Surma, Allison D Skinkle, Joseph H Lorent, Yong Zhou, Christian Klose, Jeffrey T Chang, John F Hancock, Ilya Levental
Mammalian cells produce hundreds of dynamically regulated lipid species that are actively turned over and trafficked to produce functional membranes. These lipid repertoires are susceptible to perturbations from dietary sources, with potentially profound physiological consequences. However, neither the lipid repertoires of various cellular membranes, their modulation by dietary fats, nor their effects on cellular phenotypes have been widely explored. We report that differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts or adipocytes results in extensive remodeling of the plasma membrane (PM), producing cell-specific membrane compositions and biophysical properties...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134197/directed-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells
#5
Tongcheng Qian, Shaenah E Maguire, Scott G Canfield, Xiaoping Bao, William R Olson, Eric V Shusta, Sean P Palecek
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of specialized endothelial cells that are critical to neurological health. A key tool for understanding human BBB development and its role in neurological disease is a reliable and scalable source of functional brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can theoretically generate unlimited quantities of any cell lineage in vitro, including BMECs, for disease modeling, drug screening, and cell-based therapies. We demonstrate a facile, chemically defined method to differentiate hPSCs to BMECs in a developmentally relevant progression via small-molecule activation of key signaling pathways...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134196/environmental-controls-on-modern-scleractinian-coral-and-reef-scale-calcification
#6
Travis A Courtney, Mario Lebrato, Nicholas R Bates, Andrew Collins, Samantha J de Putron, Rebecca Garley, Rod Johnson, Juan-Carlos Molinero, Timothy J Noyes, Christopher L Sabine, Andreas J Andersson
Modern reef-building corals sustain a wide range of ecosystem services because of their ability to build calcium carbonate reef systems. The influence of environmental variables on coral calcification rates has been extensively studied, but our understanding of their relative importance is limited by the absence of in situ observations and the ability to decouple the interactions between different properties. We show that temperature is the primary driver of coral colony (Porites astreoides and Diploria labyrinthiformis) and reef-scale calcification rates over a 2-year monitoring period from the Bermuda coral reef...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134195/ecological-restoration-success-is-higher-for-natural-regeneration-than-for-active-restoration-in-tropical-forests
#7
Renato Crouzeilles, Mariana S Ferreira, Robin L Chazdon, David B Lindenmayer, Jerônimo B B Sansevero, Lara Monteiro, Alvaro Iribarrem, Agnieszka E Latawiec, Bernardo B N Strassburg
Is active restoration the best approach to achieve ecological restoration success (the return to a reference condition, that is, old-growth forest) when compared to natural regeneration in tropical forests? Our meta-analysis of 133 studies demonstrated that natural regeneration surpasses active restoration in achieving tropical forest restoration success for all three biodiversity groups (plants, birds, and invertebrates) and five measures of vegetation structure (cover, density, litter, biomass, and height) tested...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134194/biodiversity-recovery-following-delta-wide-measures-for-flood-risk-reduction
#8
Menno W Straatsma, Alexandra M Bloecker, H J Rob Lenders, Rob S E W Leuven, Maarten G Kleinhans
Biodiversity declined markedly over the past 150 years, with the biodiversity loss in fluvial ecosystems exceeding the global average. River restoration now aims at flood safety while enhancing biodiversity and has had success locally. However, at the scale of large river distributaries, the recovery remained elusive. We quantify changes in biodiversity of protected and endangered species over 15 years of river restoration in the embanked floodplains of an entire river delta. We distinguish seven taxonomic groups and four functional groups in more than 2 million field observations of species presence...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134193/snowball-earth-climate-dynamics-and-cryogenian-geology-geobiology
#9
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119140/the-spin-nernst-effect-in-tungsten
#10
Peng Sheng, Yuya Sakuraba, Yong-Chang Lau, Saburo Takahashi, Seiji Mitani, Masamitsu Hayashi
The spin Hall effect allows the generation of spin current when charge current is passed along materials with large spin-orbit coupling. It has been recently predicted that heat current in a nonmagnetic metal can be converted into spin current via a process referred to as the spin Nernst effect. We report the observation of the spin Nernst effect in W. In W/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures, we find changes in the longitudinal and transverse voltages with magnetic field when temperature gradient is applied across the film...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119139/a-remote-c-c-bond-cleavage-enabled-skeletal-reorganization-access-to-medium-large-sized-cyclic-alkenes
#11
Lei Li, Zhong-Liang Li, Qiang-Shuai Gu, Na Wang, Xin-Yuan Liu
Although great success has been achieved in selective C-C bond cleavage via the intramolecular radical remote migration process of several carbon-based groups, the development of the radical-based remote vinyl migration process remains a formidable challenge because of the energetically unfavorable process. To address this problem, we report here, for the first time, a novel C-C bond reorganization strategy via an unprecedented radical 1,3-, 1,4-, or 1,5-vinyl migration triggered by various types of fluoroalkylation of alkenes for the efficient realization of 1,2-fluoroalkylalkenylation reaction...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119138/giant-positive-magnetoresistance-in-half-metallic-double-perovskite-sr2crwo6-thin-films
#12
Ji Zhang, Wei-Jing Ji, Jie Xu, Xiao-Yu Geng, Jian Zhou, Zheng-Bin Gu, Shu-Hua Yao, Shan-Tao Zhang
Magnetoresistance (MR) is the magnetic field-induced change of electrical resistance. The MR effect not only has wide applications in hard drivers and sensors but also is a long-standing scientific issue for complex interactions. Ferromagnetic/ferrimagnetic oxides generally show negative MR due to the magnetic field-induced spin order. We report the unusually giant positive MR up to 17,200% (at 2 K and 7 T) in 12-nm Sr2CrWO6 thin films, which show metallic behavior with high carrier density of up to 2.26 × 10(28) m(-3) and high mobility of 5...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119137/competitive-chiral-induction-in-a-2d-molecular-assembly-intrinsic-chirality-versus-coadsorber-induced-chirality
#13
Ting Chen, Shu-Ying Li, Dong Wang, Li-Jun Wan
Noncovalently introducing stereogenic information is a promising approach to embed chirality in achiral molecular systems. However, the interplay of the noncovalently introduced chirality with the intrinsic chirality of molecules or molecular aggregations has rarely been addressed. We report a competitive chiral expression of the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction and the intrinsic stereogenic center-controlled chirality induction in a two-dimensional (2D) molecular assembly at the liquid/solid interface...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119136/k-%C3%AE-crossover-transition-in-the-conduction-band-of-monolayer-mos2-under-hydrostatic-pressure
#14
Lei Fu, Yi Wan, Ning Tang, Yi-Min Ding, Jing Gao, Jiachen Yu, Hongming Guan, Kun Zhang, Weiying Wang, Caifeng Zhang, Jun-Jie Shi, Xiang Wu, Su-Fei Shi, Weikun Ge, Lun Dai, Bo Shen
Monolayer MoS2 is a promising material for optoelectronics applications owing to its direct bandgap, enhanced Coulomb interaction, strong spin-orbit coupling, unique valley pseudospin degree of freedom, etc. It can also be implemented for novel spintronics and valleytronics devices at atomic scale. The band structure of monolayer MoS2 is well known to have a direct gap at K (K') point, whereas the second lowest conduction band minimum is located at Λ point, which may interact with the valence band maximum at K point, to make an indirect optical bandgap transition...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119135/ultrafast-magnetization-reversal-by-picosecond-electrical-pulses
#15
Yang Yang, Richard B Wilson, Jon Gorchon, Charles-Henri Lambert, Sayeef Salahuddin, Jeffrey Bokor
The field of spintronics involves the study of both spin and charge transport in solid-state devices. Ultrafast magnetism involves the use of femtosecond laser pulses to manipulate magnetic order on subpicosecond time scales. We unite these phenomena by using picosecond charge current pulses to rapidly excite conduction electrons in magnetic metals. We observe deterministic, repeatable ultrafast reversal of the magnetization of a GdFeCo thin film with a single sub-10-ps electrical pulse. The magnetization reverses in ~10 ps, which is more than one order of magnitude faster than any other electrically controlled magnetic switching, and demonstrates a fundamentally new electrical switching mechanism that does not require spin-polarized currents or spin-transfer/orbit torques...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109980/the-abundance-of-metabolites-related-to-protein-methylation-correlates-with-the-metastatic-capacity-of-human-melanoma-xenografts
#16
Xiaolei Shi, Alpaslan Tasdogan, Fang Huang, Zeping Hu, Sean J Morrison, Ralph J DeBerardinis
Metabolic reprogramming is a major factor in transformation, and particular metabolic phenotypes correlate with oncogenotype, tumor progression, and metastasis. By profiling metabolites in 17 patient-derived xenograft melanoma models, we identified durable metabolomic signatures that correlate with biological features of the tumors. BRAF mutant tumors had metabolomic and metabolic flux features of enhanced glycolysis compared to BRAF wild-type tumors. Tumors that metastasized efficiently from their primary sites had elevated levels of metabolites related to protein methylation, including trimethyllysine (TML)...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109979/na-induced-structural-transition-of-motps-for-stator-assembly-of-the-bacillus-flagellar-motor
#17
Naoya Terahara, Noriyuki Kodera, Takayuki Uchihashi, Toshio Ando, Keiichi Namba, Tohru Minamino
The bacterial flagellar motor consists of a rotor and a dozen stator units and regulates the number of active stator units around the rotor in response to changes in the environment. The MotPS complex is a Na(+)-type stator unit in the Bacillus subtilis flagellar motor and binds to the peptidoglycan layer through the peptidoglycan-binding (PGB) domain of MotS to act as the stator. The MotPS complex is activated in response to an increase in the Na(+) concentration in the environment, but the mechanism of this activation has remained unknown...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109978/dust-formation-and-wind-acceleration-around-the-aluminum-oxide-rich-agb-star-w-hydrae
#18
Aki Takigawa, Takafumi Kamizuka, Shogo Tachibana, Issei Yamamura
Dust grains, formed around asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, are accelerated by stellar radiation to drive stellar winds, which supply freshly synthesized nuclides to the Galaxy. Silicate is the dominant dust species in space, but ~40% of oxygen-rich AGB stars are thought to have comparable amounts of aluminum oxide dust. Dust formation and the wind-driving mechanism around these oxygen-rich stars, however, are poorly understood. We report on the spatial distributions of AlO and (29)SiO molecules around an aluminum oxide-rich M-type AGB star, W Hydrae, based on observations obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109977/prior-alcohol-use-enhances-vulnerability-to-compulsive-cocaine-self-administration-by-promoting-degradation-of-hdac4-and-hdac5
#19
Edmund A Griffin, Philippe A Melas, Royce Zhou, Yang Li, Peter Mercado, Kimberly A Kempadoo, Stacy Stephenson, Luca Colnaghi, Kathleen Taylor, Mei-Chen Hu, Eric R Kandel, Denise B Kandel
Addiction to cocaine is commonly preceded by experiences with legal or decriminalized drugs, such as alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. The biological mechanisms by which these gateway drugs contribute to cocaine addiction are only beginning to be understood. We report that in the rat, prior alcohol consumption results in enhanced addiction-like behavior to cocaine, including continued cocaine use despite aversive consequences. Conversely, prior cocaine use has no effect on alcohol preference. Long-term, but not short-term, alcohol consumption promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of the nuclear histone deacetylases HDAC4 and HDAC5 in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region critical for reward-based memory...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109976/wind-causes-totten-ice-shelf-melt-and-acceleration
#20
Chad A Greene, Donald D Blankenship, David E Gwyther, Alessandro Silvano, Esmee van Wijk
Totten Glacier in East Antarctica has the potential to raise global sea level by at least 3.5 m, but its sensitivity to climate change has not been well understood. The glacier is coupled to the ocean by the Totten Ice Shelf, which has exhibited variable speed, thickness, and grounding line position in recent years. To understand the drivers of this interannual variability, we compare ice velocity to oceanic wind stress and find a consistent pattern of ice-shelf acceleration 19 months after upwelling anomalies occur at the continental shelf break nearby...
November 2017: Science Advances
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