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Injury Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457201/validity-of-oral-fluid-test-for-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-in-drivers-using-the-2013-national-roadside-survey-data
#1
Huiyan Jin, Sharifa Z Williams, Stanford T Chihuri, Guohua Li, Qixuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of marijuana is a serious traffic safety concern in the United States. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active compound in marijuana. Although blood THC testing is a more accurate measure of THC-induced impairment, measuring THC in oral fluid is a less intrusive and less costly method of testing. METHODS: We examined whether the oral fluid THC test can be used as a valid alternative to the blood THC test using a sensitivity and specificity analysis and a logistic regression, and estimate the quantitative relationship between oral fluid THC concentration and blood THC concentration using a correlation analysis and a linear regression on the log-transformed THC concentrations...
February 19, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435691/common-data-elements-collected-among-universities-for-sport-related-concussion-studies
#2
Jingzhen Yang, Corinne Peek-Asa, James M Noble, James Torner, Paul Schmidt, Martha L Cooper
BACKGROUND: Universities are increasingly implementing programs to effectively respond to and manage sport-related concussions (SRCs). One such effort is to develop common data elements (CDEs) and standardize data collection methods. The objectives of this study were to describe CDEs currently collected by Big Ten and Ivy League universities for SRC studies, and to compare the data collected with the core CDEs recommended by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)...
February 12, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308538/epidemiology-of-asphyxiation-suicides-in-the-united-states-2005-2014
#3
Rebecca K Yau, Mallie J Paschall
BACKGROUND: From 2005 to 2014, the asphyxiation suicide rate in the United States (U.S.) increased by 45.7% from 2.45 to 3.57 per 100,000 population. The primary purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe decedent and incident characteristics of asphyxiation suicides in the U.S. from 2005 to 2014. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore whether any demographic characteristics of asphyxia suicide decedents were associated with type of suicide incident. METHODS: Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) were used to describe asphyxiation suicide mechanisms and means in 16 states...
January 8, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29256160/firearm-ownership-among-american-veterans-findings-from-the-2015-national-firearm-survey
#4
Emily C Cleveland, Deborah Azrael, Joseph A Simonetti, Matthew Miller
BACKGROUND: While the majority of veteran suicides involve firearms, no contemporary data describing firearm ownership among US veterans are available. This study uses survey data to describe the prevalence of firearm ownership among a nationally representative sample of veterans, as well as veterans' reasons for firearm ownership. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationally representative web-based survey conducted in 2015. RESULTS: Nearly half of all veterans own one or more firearms (44...
December 19, 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218603/characteristics-of-unintentional-drowning-deaths-in-children-with-autism%C3%A2-spectrum-disorder
#5
Joseph Guan, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased markedly in the past two decades. Recent research indicates that children with ASD are at a substantially increased risk of injury mortality, particularly from unintentional drowning. The purpose of this study was to explore the circumstances of fatal unintentional drowning incidents involving children with ASD under 15 years of age. FINDINGS: During January 2000 through May 2017, US newspapers reported a total of 23 fatal drowning incidents involving 18 boys and 5 girls with ASD...
December 8, 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192337/pediatric-emergency-department-visits-for-pedestrian-and-bicyclist-injuries-in-the-us
#6
Katherine Wheeler-Martin, Stephen J Mooney, David C Lee, Andrew Rundle, Charles DiMaggio
BACKGROUND: Despite reductions in youth pedestrian and bicyclist deaths over the past two decades, these injuries remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality for children and adolescents. There is a need for additional information on non-fatal pediatric pedestrian injuries and the role of traumatic brain injury (TBI), a leading cause of acquired disability. METHODS: Using a multi-year national sample of emergency department (ED) records, we estimated annual motorized-vehicle related pediatric pedestrian and bicyclist (i...
December 1, 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782096/the-prevention-of-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-volleyball-the-systematic-development-of-an-intervention-and-its-feasibility
#7
Vincent Gouttebarge, Marije van Sluis, Evert Verhagen, Johannes Zwerver
BACKGROUND: A scientific research project has started in the Netherlands with the aim of developing and implementing an evidence-based intervention to prevent the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries among young and adult recreational volleyball players. This article describes (i) the systematic development of the intervention; and (ii) the assessment of its feasibility in terms of relevancy, suitability and usability. SYSTEMATIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERVENTION: The development of the intervention was based on the Intervention Mapping structured and systematic process...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762157/risk-markers-for-fatal-and-non-fatal-prescription-drug-overdose-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Joanne E Brady, Rebecca Giglio, Katherine M Keyes, Charles DiMaggio, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose is a public health crisis in the United States, due in part to the unintended consequences of increases in prescribing of opioid analgesics. Many clinicians evaluate risk markers for opioid-related harms when prescribing opioids for chronic pain; however, more data on predictive risk markers are needed. Risk markers are attributes (modifiable and non-modifiable) that are associated with increased probability of an outcome. This review aims to identify risk markers associated with fatal and non-fatal prescription drug overdose by synthesizing findings in the existing peer-reviewed and grey literature...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762156/quantifying-sources-of-bias-in-longitudinal-data-linkage-studies-of-child-abuse-and-neglect-measuring-impact-of-outcome-specification-linkage-error-and-partial-cohort-follow-up
#9
Jared W Parrish, Meghan E Shanahan, Patricia G Schnitzer, Paul Lanier, Julie L Daniels, Stephen W Marshall
BACKGROUND: Health informatics projects combining statewide birth populations with child welfare records have emerged as a valuable approach to conducting longitudinal research of child maltreatment. The potential bias resulting from linkage misspecification, partial cohort follow-up, and outcome misclassification in these studies has been largely unexplored. This study integrated epidemiological survey and novel administrative data sources to establish the Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage (ALCANLink) project...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736796/longitudinal-research-on-aging-drivers-longroad-study-design-and-methods
#10
Guohua Li, David W Eby, Robert Santos, Thelma J Mielenz, Lisa J Molnar, David Strogatz, Marian E Betz, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Lindsay H Ryan, Vanya Jones, Samantha I Pitts, Linda L Hill, Charles J DiMaggio, David LeBlanc, Howard F Andrews
BACKGROUND: As an important indicator of mobility, driving confers a host of social and health benefits to older adults. Despite the importance of safe mobility as the population ages, longitudinal data are lacking about the natural history and determinants of driving safety in older adults. METHODS: The Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD) project is a multisite prospective cohort study designed to generate empirical data for understanding the role of medical, behavioral, environmental and technological factors in driving safety during the process of aging...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736795/identifying-characteristics-and-outcomes-that-are-associated-with-fall-related-fatalities-multi-year-retrospective-summary-of-fall-deaths-in-older-adults-from-2005-2012
#11
Sara M Deprey, Lynda Biedrzycki, Kristine Klenz
BACKGROUND: Fall-related deaths continue to be the leading cause of accidental deaths in the older adult (65+ year) population. However, many fall-related fatalities are unspecified and little is known about the fall characteristics and personal demographics at the time of the fall. Therefore, this report describes the characteristics, circumstances and injuries of falls that resulted in older adult deaths in one U.S. County and explores the variables associated with fatal injuries from falls...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721637/cost-of-hospitalization-for-firearm-injuries-by-firearm-type-intent-and-payer-in-the-united-states
#12
Corinne Peek-Asa, Brandon Butcher, Joseph E Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND: Firearm injuries disproportionately affect young, male, non-White populations, causing substantial individual and societal burden. Annual costs for hospitalized firearm injuries have not been widely described, as most previous cost studies have focused on lifetime costs. We examined a nationally-representative database of hospitalizations in the US to estimate per-hospital and overall hospital costs for firearm injuries by intent, type of weapon, and payer source. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all firearm injury hospitalizations in the National Inpatient Sample from 2003 through 2013...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670666/epidemiologic-comparisons-of-soccer-related-injuries-presenting-to-emergency-departments-and-reported-within-high-school-and-collegiate-settings
#13
Zachary Y Kerr, Lauren A Pierpoint, Dustin W Currie, Erin B Wasserman, R Dawn Comstock
BACKGROUND: Few studies compare sports injury patterns in different settings. This study described the epidemiology of soccer injuries presenting to emergency departments (EDs) and compared injuries presenting to EDs to injuries presenting to collegiate and high school athletic trainers (ATs). METHODS: Soccer-related injuries (product code 1267) in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) that were sustained by individuals at least two years of age in 2004-2013 were included...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626848/older-adult-falls-prevention-behaviors-60-days-post-discharge-from-an-urban-emergency-department-after-treatment-for-a-fall
#14
Kalpana Narayan Shankar, Nicole J Treadway, Alyssa A Taylor, Alan H Breaud, Elizabeth W Peterson, Jonathan Howland
BACKGROUND: Falls are a common and debilitating health problem for older adults. Older adults are often treated and discharged home by emergency department (ED)-based providers with the hope they will receive falls prevention resources and referrals from their primary care provider. This descriptive study investigated falls prevention activities, including interactions with primary care providers, among community-dwelling older adults who were discharged home after presenting to an ED with a fall-related injury...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626847/injury-intense-dust-exposure-and-chronic-disease-among-survivors-of-the-world-trade-center-terrorist-attacks-of-september-11-2001
#15
Howard E Alper, Shengchao Yu, Steven D Stellman, Robert M Brackbill
BACKGROUND: The World Trade Center attack of September 11, 2001 in New York City (9/11) exposed thousands of people to intense concentrations of hazardous materials that have resulted in reports of increased levels of asthma, heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases along with psychological illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Few studies have discriminated between health consequences of immediate (short-term or acute) intense exposures versus chronic residential or workplace exposures...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480488/mishaps-and-unsafe-conditions-in-recreational-scuba-diving-and-pre-dive-checklist-use-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Steve Wing, Charles Poole, Kristen L Kucera, Stephen W Marshall, Petar J Denoble
BACKGROUND: Recreational scuba diving involves the use of complex instruments and specialized skills in an unforgiving environment. Errors in dive preparation in such an environment may lead to unsafe conditions, mishaps, injuries and fatalities. Diving mishaps can be major and minor based on their potential to cause injury and the severity of the resulting injury. The objective of this study is to assess the incidence of diving mishaps and unsafe conditions, and their associations with the participants' routine use of their own checklists...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459122/characteristics-of-trauma-mortality-in-the-northern-territory-australia
#17
Kathleen M McDermott, Matt B Brearley, Steven M Hudson, Linda Ward, David J Read
BACKGROUND: While factors including remoteness, alcohol consumption, age and Indigenous ethnicity are well-documented associations of trauma mortality, less is known of trauma seasonality. This is particularly relevant to Australia's Northern Territory, with its tropical regions experiencing a climate of wet (hot and humid) and dry (warm) seasons annually. The aim of this study was to therefore, examine the characteristics of trauma mortality in the Top End, Northern Territory, Australia...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459121/select-physical-performance-measures-and-driving-outcomes-in-older-adults
#18
REVIEW
Thelma J Mielenz, Laura L Durbin, Jodi A Cisewski, Jack M Guralnik, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Improving physical functioning may be a future intervention to keep older adults driving safely longer as it can help maintain both physical and cognitive health longer. This systematic review assesses the evidence on the association between three physical functioning measures: the Short Physical Performance Battery, the Timed Up-and-Go test, and the Rapid Pace Walk with driving outcomes in older adults. METHODS: Older adult studies published between 1994 and 2015 that included the Short Physical Performance Battery, the Timed Up-and-Go test, or the Rapid Pace Walk as a measure of physical functioning and included a driving-related outcome were identified through a comprehensive search and reviewed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459120/do-adolescents-with-long-term-illnesses-and-disabilities-have-increased-risks-of-sports-related-injuries
#19
Kwok W Ng, Jorma Tynjälä, Pauli Rintala, Sami Kokko, Lasse Kannas
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to examine the rates of sports related injuries in adolescents based on the severity of their long-term illnesses or disabilities (LTID). Few injury prevention strategies in sports and health promotion have explored disaggregation by disability. METHODS: Data obtained from the 2014 Finnish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (n = 3716, mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.03) were grouped into adolescents with and without LTID...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393320/prevalence-and-ethnic-racial-disparities-in-the-distribution-of-pediatric-injuries-in-south-florida-implications-for-the-development-of-community-prevention-programs
#20
Carmen Ramos Irizarry, Patrick C Hardigan, Mark G Mc Kenney, Gretchen Holmes, Rudy Flores, Brenda Benson, Ascension M Torres
BACKGROUND: The state of Florida continues to report significant gender, ethnic and racial disparities in trauma incidence, access to care and outcomes in the adult population. Our objective was to assess pediatric injury profiles and ethnic/racial disparities of specific injuries in a Regional Trauma Center (TC) in South Florida. METHODS: Retrospective data from November 2011 to December 2015 were obtained from the Level 2 TC registry for children ≤21 years old...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
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