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Injury Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885587/assaults-against-u-s-law-enforcement-officers-in-the-line-of-duty-situational-context-and-predictors-of-lethality
#1
Cassandra K Crifasi, Keshia M Pollack, Daniel W Webster
BACKGROUND: Research on occupational safety of law enforcement officers (LEOs) has primarily focused on fatal assaults. Nonfatal assaults, however, have received little attention. The goal of this study was to describe the situational contexts in which LEOs are assaulted, and compare these contexts and risks between fatal and nonfatal assaults in the U.S. Analyzing both types of assaults provides a more complete understanding of occupational safety and opportunities for intervention. METHODS: This study includes a descriptive epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal assaults of LEOs in the U...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868168/use-perceptions-and-benefits-of-automotive-technologies-among-aging-drivers
#2
REVIEW
David W Eby, Lisa J Molnar, Liang Zhang, Renée M St Louis, Nicole Zanier, Lidia P Kostyniuk, Sergiu Stanciu
Advanced in-vehicle technologies have been proposed as a potential way to keep older adults driving for as long as they can safely do so, by taking into account the common declines in functional abilities experienced by older adults. The purpose of this report was to synthesize the knowledge about older drivers and advanced in-vehicle technologies, focusing on three areas: use (how older drivers use these technologies), perception (what they think about the technologies), and outcomes (the safety and/or comfort benefits of the technologies)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868167/the-role-of-ugandan-district-hospital-orthopedic-units-in-the-care-of-vulnerable-road-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Dan K Kisitu, Lauren E Eyler, Isaac Kajja, Gonzaga Waiswa, Titus Beyeza, David R Ragland, Isabelle Feldhaus, Catherine Juillard, Rochelle A Dicker
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are a common cause of morbidity after road traffic injury (RTI) in motorizing countries. District hospitals provide front-line orthopedic care in Uganda and other sub-Saharan African nations. Improving care at the district hospital level is an important component of the World Health Organization's strategy for surgical and trauma systems strengthening, but the data necessary to inform RTI safety and care initiatives has previously been insufficient at the district hospital level...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807807/volunteering-in-adolescence-and-young-adulthood-crime-involvement-a-longitudinal-analysis-from-the-add-health-study
#4
Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Carri Casteel, Corinne Peek-Asa
BACKGROUND: Experiences in adolescence may have a lasting impact on adulthood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between adolescent (12-18 years of age) volunteerism with the incidence of illegal behaviors, arrests, and convictions in adulthood (>18 years of age). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using secondary data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Students from grades 7-12 were recruited in 1994-1995 (n = 20,745), and then followed in 2001-2002 (n = 14,322) and in 2008-2009 (n = 12,288)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807806/a-pilot-study-of-a-hospital-based-injury-surveillance-system-in-a-secondary-level-district-hospital-in-india-lessons-learnt-and-way-ahead
#5
P V M Lakshmi, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Nalinikanta Tripathy, Sunita Singh, Deepak Bhatia, Jagnoor Jagnoor, Rajesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Reliable epidemiological information on injury burden and pattern is essential to formulate effective injury control and prevention strategies. Injury surveillance systems are globally gaining ground as a tool for collecting such systematic data on injuries, but less so in low and middle income countries. This study describes the experience of setting up a District Level Hospital-Based Injury Surveillance System in India and the pattern of injuries encountered therein. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted during Jan-Dec 2012 at the emergency department of a District Hospital in Fatehgarh Sahib in a North Indian state of Punjab...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747560/the-epidemiology-of-pre-hospital-potential-spinal-cord-injuries-in-victoria-australia-a-six-year-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Ala'a O Oteir, Karen Smith, Johannes U Stoelwinder, Shelley Cox, James W Middleton, Paul A Jennings
BACKGROUND: Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) is relatively uncommon, yet a devastating and costly condition. Despite the human and social impacts, studies describing patients with potential TSCI in the pre-hospital setting are scarce. This paper aims to describe the epidemiology of patients potentially at risk of or suspected to have a TSCI by paramedics, with a view to providing a better understanding of factors associated with potential TSCI. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients managed and transported by Ambulance Victoria (AV) between 01 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 who, based on meeting pre-hospital triage protocols and criteria for spinal clearance, paramedic suspicion or spinal immobilisation, were classified to be at risk of or suspected to have a TSCI...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747559/side-impact-motor-vehicle-crashes-driver-passenger-vehicle-and-crash-characteristics-for-fatally-and-nonfatally-injured-rear-seated-adults
#7
Chang Liu, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: Most studies of rear-seated occupants have focused on or included pediatric occupants which may not translate to adults. This study examines passenger, driver, vehicle and crash characteristics for rear-seated adult occupants involved in side crashes. METHODS: The National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (NASS/GES) for calendar years 2011-2014 was used with accompanying weights to examine the occupant, vehicle and crash characteristics associated with injury in rear-seated adults (n = 395,504) involved in a side crash...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747558/trauma-recidivism-at-an-emergency-department-of-a-swedish-medical-center
#8
Fredrik Röding, Marie Lindkvist, Ulrica Bergström, Olle Svensson, Jack Lysholm
BACKGROUND: To inform targeted prevention, we studied patterns of trauma recidivism and whether a first injury predicts the risk for a recurrent injury. METHODS: In a population-based study of 98,502 adult injury events 1999-2012, at the emergency department of Umeå University Hospital, Sweden, we compared non-recidivists with recidivists in terms of patients' sex, age, type of injury and severity of the injury. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of all patients suffered recurrent injuries, which were associated with a higher proportion of inpatient care and more hospital days...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747557/bicycle-helmet-laws-and-persistent-racial-and-ethnic-helmet-use-disparities-among-urban-high-school-students-a-repeated-cross-sectional-analysis
#9
John D Kraemer
BACKGROUND: Bicycle helmet laws generally increase helmet usage, but few studies assess whether helmet laws reduce disparities. The objective of this study is to assess changes in racial/ethnic disparities in helmet use among high school students in urban jurisdictions where laws were previously determined to increase overall helmet use. METHODS: Log-binomial models were fit to four districts' 1991-2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data. Post-regression predictive margins were used to calculate adjusted bicycle helmet use proportions, assess before-to-after changes in race/ethnicity specific helmet use, and estimate changes in disparities from jurisdictions' white subpopulations...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747556/mortality-from-motorcycle-crashes-the-baby-boomer-cohort-effect
#10
Victor Puac-Polanco, Katherine M Keyes, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Motorcyclists are known to be at substantially higher risk per mile traveled of dying from crashes than car occupants. In 2014, motorcycling made up less than 1 % of person-miles traveled but 13 % of the total mortality from motor-vehicle crashes in the United States. We assessed the cohort effect of the baby-boomers (i.e., those born between 1946 and 1964) in motorcycle crash mortality from 1975 to 2014 in the United States. METHODS: Using mortality data for motorcycle occupants from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we performed an age-period-cohort analysis using the multiphase method and the intrinsic estimator method...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747555/complications-and-in-hospital-mortality-in-trauma-patients-treated-in-intensive-care-units-in-the-united-states-2013
#11
Meghan Prin, Guohua Li
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but epidemiologic data about trauma patients who require intensive care unit (ICU) admission are scant. This study aimed to describe the annual incidence of ICU admission for adult trauma patients, including an assessment of risk factors for hospital complications and mortality in this population. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of adults hospitalized at Level 1 and Level 2 trauma centers after trauma and recorded in the National Trauma Data Bank in 2013...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747554/baby-walker-injury-disability-and-death-in-a-high-income-middle-eastern-country-as-reported-by-siblings
#12
Peter Barss, Michal Grivna, Amna Al-Hanaee, Ayesha Al-Dhahab, Fatima Al-Kaabi, Shamma Al-Muhairi
BACKGROUND: Baby walkers (BWs) are frequent causes of infant injuries. Little research is reported from the Middle East and few population-based studies anywhere. METHODS: Using multistage random sampling in a city of the United Arab Emirates, 4 of 8 female Arab government high schools and 3 final-year classes each from science and arts tracks were selected. Structured self-administered questionnaires assessed prevalence, frequency, severity, and external causes of BW incidents and injuries, and residential hazards...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747553/implementing-exercise-programs-to-prevent-falls-systematic-descriptive-review
#13
Victoria Shier, Eric Trieu, David A Ganz
BACKGROUND: The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends exercise to prevent falls in community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65 years at increased fall risk. However, little is known about how best to implement exercise programs in routine care when a patient's need for exercise is identified within the healthcare system. METHODS: Using a qualitative approach, we reviewed the literature to determine how exercise programs to prevent falls are implemented from the vantage point of a health care setting...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747552/evaluation-of-iowa-s-anti-bullying-law
#14
Marizen Ramirez, Patrick Ten Eyck, Corinne Peek-Asa, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Joseph E Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND: Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa's anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. METHODS: Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747551/gender-and-age-differences-in-components-of-traffic-related-pedestrian-death-rates-exposure-risk-of-crash-and-fatality-rate
#15
María Ángeles Onieva-García, Virginia Martínez-Ruiz, Pablo Lardelli-Claret, José Juan Jiménez-Moleón, Carmen Amezcua-Prieto, Juan de Dios Luna-Del-Castillo, Eladio Jiménez-Mejías
BACKGROUND: This ecological study aimed i) to quantify the association of age and gender with the three components of pedestrians' death rates after a pedestrian-vehicle crash: exposure, risk of crash and fatality, and ii) to determine the contribution of each component to differences in death rates according to age and gender in Spain. METHODS: We analyzed data for 220 665 pedestrians involved in road crashes recorded in the Spanish registry of road crashes with victims from 1993 to 2011, and a subset of 39 743 pedestrians involved in clean collisions (in which the pedestrian did not commit an infraction)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747550/development-of-a-curriculum-and-roadside-screening-tool-for-law-enforcement-identification-of-medical-impairment-in-aging-drivers
#16
Linda L Hill, Jill Rybar, James Stowe, Jana Jahns
BACKGROUND: An estimated one in five drivers will be over 65 by 2030. Compared with their younger counterparts, older adults are more likely to experience health and functional impairments, including cognitive dysfunction, which may interfere with their ability to drive safely. Law enforcement officers, as part of the public safety community, need help in developing the necessary skills to identify and manage these medically affected drivers. METHODS: To address this need, in partnership with the California Highway Patrol (CHP), Training, Research and Education for Driving Safety (TREDS) at the University of California, San Diego, developed a certified two-hour training curriculum...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747549/anticipated-resource-utilization-for-injury-versus-non-injury-pediatric-visits-to-emergency-departments
#17
Mark R Zonfrillo, Michelle L Macy, Lawrence J Cook, Tomohiko Funai, Rachel M Stanley, James M Chamberlain, Rebecca M Cunningham, Elizabeth R Alpern
BACKGROUND: Childhood injuries are increasingly treated in emergency departments (EDs) but the relationship between injury severity and ED resource utilization has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to compare resource utilization for pediatric injury-related ED visits across injury-severity levels and with non-injury visits, using standardized, validated scales. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 2004-2008 ED visits from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Core Data Project...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747548/spatial-analysis-of-the-association-of-alcohol-outlets-and-alcohol-related-pedestrian-bicyclist-injuries-in-new-york-city
#18
Charles DiMaggio, Stephen Mooney, Spiros Frangos, Stephen Wall
BACKGROUND: Pedestrian and bicyclist injury is an important public health issue. The retail environment, particularly the presence of alcohol outlets, may contribute the the risk of pedestrian or bicyclist injury, but this association is poorly understood. METHODS: This study quantifies the spatial risk of alcohol-related pedestrian injury in New York City at the census tract level over a recent 10-year period using a Bayesian hierarchical spatial regression model with Integrated Nested Laplace approximations...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747547/epidemiology-of-skateboarding-related-injuries-sustained-by-children-and-adolescents-5-19-years-of-age-and-treated-in-us-emergency-departments-1990-through-2008
#19
Lara B McKenzie, Erica Fletcher, Nicolas G Nelson, Kristin J Roberts, Elizabeth G Klein
BACKGROUND: The goal was to examine the patterns and trends of skateboarding-related injuries sustained by children and adolescents in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for children and adolescents 5-19 years of age treated in emergency departments for injuries associated with skateboards from 1990 through 2008. RESULTS: An estimated 1 226 868 children/adolescents (95 % CI: 948 733-1 505 003) were treated in emergency departments for skateboarding-related injuries from 1990 through 2008, an average of 64,572 cases per year...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747546/restraint-use-and-risky-driving-behaviors-across-drug-types-and-drug-and-alcohol-combinations-for-drivers-involved-in-a-fatal-motor-vehicle-collision-on-u-s-roadways
#20
Chang Liu, Yanlan Huang, Joyce C Pressley
BACKGROUND: While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. METHODS: The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008-2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger vehicles who were tested for both alcohol and drugs (n = 79,932)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
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