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Injury Epidemiology

Elizabeth D Nesoff, Charles C Branas, Silvia S Martins
BACKGROUND: Increasing U.S. rates of pedestrian injuries could be attributable in part to changing policies and attitudes towards drugs and associated increases in use, yet drug use has not been investigated widely as a risk factor for pedestrian injury. This study details challenges to investigating drug-involved pedestrian crashes using existing surveillance systems. METHODS: Using California police reports from 2004 to 2016, we performed simple linear regression with the proportion of data that was missing by year for drug and alcohol use as the outcome of interest...
December 3, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Stanford Chihuri, Christopher Kevin Wong
BACKGROUND: People with lower limb loss that live in the community fall at a rate that exceeds that of other vulnerable populations such as hospitalized elderly people. Past research in a small single state study has identified factors associated with fall-related injury. The purpose of this study was to use a larger multistate sample of people with lower limb loss living in community settings to evaluate factors associated with fall-related injury in a multivariable model. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study included community-dwelling people with lower limb loss participating in wellness-walking programs in 6 states within the United States...
November 12, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Adrian Esterman, Fintan Thompson, Michelle Fitts, John Gilroy, Jennifer Fleming, Paul Maruff, Alan Clough, India Bohanna
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Previous studies have shown that males have a higher incidence than females, and Indigenous populations have a higher rate than non-Indigenous. To date, no study has compared the incidence rate of TBI between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians for any cause. Here we add to this rather sparse literature. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from North Queensland Emergency Departments between 2007 and 2015 using Australian Bureau of Statistics population estimates for North Queensland residents aged 15-64 years as denominator data...
November 12, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Srujan Lam Sharma, Samarasimha Reddy N, Karthikeyan Ramanujam, Mats Steffi Jennifer, Annai Gunasekaran, Anuradha Rose, Sushil Mathew John, Anuradha Bose, Venkata Raghava Mohan
BACKGROUND: Globally, 5.82 million deaths occurred among children under the age of five years in 2015 and injury specific mortality rate was 73 per 100,000 population. In India, injury specific mortality rate is around 2.1 per 1000 live births contributing to 4% of the total under 5 mortality rate. This study aims to estimate the burden and understand factors associated with unintentional injuries among children aged 1-5 years residing in urban slums of Vellore, southern India. We also attempted to assess the hazards posed by the living environment of these children and study their association with unintentional injury patterns...
November 5, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Tuulia Pajunen, Erkki Vuori, Philippe Lunetta
BACKGROUND: Post-mortem (PM) ethanol production may hamper the interpretation of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in victims of drowning. Different exclusion criteria (e.g. cases with low BAC or with protracted interval between death and toxicological analysis) have been proposed with no factual figures to reduce the potential bias due to PM ethanol production when examining the prevalence rates for alcohol-related drowning. The aim of this study is to verify the extent to which PM alcohol production may affect the accuracy of studies on drowning and alcohol...
November 1, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Jacob B Avraham, Spiros G Frangos, Charles J DiMaggio
BACKGROUND: Firearm-related injuries cause significant morbidity and mortality in the United States (US), consuming resources and fueling political and public health discourse. Most analyses of firearm injuries are based on fatality statistics. Here, we describe the epidemiology of firearm injuries presenting to US emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Program Nationwide Emergency Department Survey (NEDS) from 2009 to 2012...
October 15, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Mark R Zonfrillo, Rebecca S Spicer, Bruce A Lawrence, Ted R Miller
BACKGROUND: Injuries are a leading cause of death and acquired disability, and result in significant medical spending. Prior estimates of injury-related cost have been limited by older data, for certain population, or specific mechanisms. FINDINGS: This study estimated the incidence of hospital-treated nonfatal injuries in the United States (US) in 2013 and the related comprehensive costs. Injury-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations were identified using 2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) data...
October 8, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Svetla Slavova, Julia F Costich, Huong Luu, Judith Fields, Barbara A Gabella, Sergey Tarima, Terry L Bunn
BACKGROUND: Implementation of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) in the U.S. on October 1, 2015 was a significant policy change with the potential to affect established injury morbidity trends. This study used data from a single state to demonstrate 1) the use of a statistical method to estimate the effect of this coding transition on injury hospitalization trends, and 2) interpretation of significant changes in injury trends in the context of the structural and conceptual differences between ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM, the new ICD-10-CM-specific coding guidelines, and proposed ICD-10-CM-based framework for reporting of injuries by intent and mechanism...
October 1, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Navneet Kaur Baidwan, Susan G Gerberich, Hyun Kim, Andrew D Ryan, Timothy R Church, Benjamin Capistrant
BACKGROUND: Age may affect one's susceptibility to the myriad physical hazards that may pose risks for work-related injuries. Aging workers are not only at risk for work-related injuries but, also, at even higher risk for more severe health and work-related consequences. However, limited longitudinal research efforts have focused on such injuries among the aging workforce. This study aimed to investigate the association between physical work-related factors and injuries among United States (U...
September 24, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Celestin Missikpode, Corinne Peek-Asa, Daniel V McGehee, James Torner, Wayne Wakeland, Robert Wallace
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of teen deaths in spite of preventive efforts. Prevention strategies could be advanced through new analytic approaches that allow us to better conceptualize the complex processes underlying teen crash risk. This may help policymakers design appropriate interventions and evaluate their impacts. METHODS: System Dynamics methodology was used as a new way of representing factors involved in the underlying process of teen crash risk...
September 17, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Alexandria J Wiersma, Lina Brou, Sarah K Fields, R Dawn Comstock, Zachary Y Kerr
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprains account for a large proportion of injuries presenting to both United States (US) emergency departments (EDs) as well as high school (HS) and collegiate school athletic training settings. The epidemiologic differences across these settings by both sport and diagnosis have not been well differentiated. Ankle injury data from 3 national surveillance datasets. Athletic training setting data from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program was from academic years 2009/10 through 2013/14 and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (ED setting) data was from calendar years 2009 through 2013...
September 3, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Matthew C Inscore, Katherine R Gonzales, Christopher P Rennix, Bruce H Jones
BACKGROUND: Acute injuries are a burden on the Military Health System and degrade service members' ability to train and deploy. Long-term injuries contribute to early attrition and increase disability costs. To properly quantify acute injuries and evaluate injury prevention programs, injuries must be accurately coded and documented. This analysis describes how the transition from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) to the Tenth Revision (ICD-10-CM) impacted acute injury surveillance among active duty (AD) service members...
August 20, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Suliman Alghnam, Jawaher Towhari, Mohamed Alkelya, Abdulaziz Binahmad, Teresa Maria Bell
BACKGROUND: Because Saudi Arabia (SA) has struggled with the burden of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) for decades, a new automated citations system was implemented in 2018 to improve compliance with seatbelt and mobile phone laws. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the system on the prevalence of seatbelt and mobile phone use among drivers in Riyadh. This is an observational study conducted between 2017 and 2018. A Pre-Post evaluation was employed to determine the impact of a camera detection system on seatbelt and mobile phone use...
August 6, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Giulia Lorenzoni, Danila Azzolina, Nicola Soriani, Marco Galadini, Flavia Carle, Dario Gregori
BACKGROUND: Choking injuries in children are a significant public health problem. The present study was aimed at examining the epidemiologic patterns of choking injuries in children using Italian official data from hospital discharge records. METHODS: Hospital discharge records (from 2001 to 2013) reporting cases of choking injuries corresponding to the ICD-9 CM codes 933 ("Foreign body in pharynx and larynx"), 934 ("Foreign body in trachea, bronchus, and lung"), and fourth digit specifications (933...
August 1, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Lauren A Pierpoint, Cynthia R LaBella, Christy L Collins, Sarah K Fields, R Dawn Comstock
BACKGROUND: Sports injuries impose physical and economic burdens on high school athletes, yet only 37% of high schools have access to a fulltime certified athletic trainer (AT). Although intuitively there are multiple benefits of AT coverage, research demonstrating the measurable effect of AT coverage on rates and patterns of injury is limited. Our objective was to investigate the epidemiology of girls' basketball and soccer injuries in high schools with and without an AT. METHODS: We compared data captured by two similar sports injury surveillance systems during the 2006/07-2008/09 academic years...
July 16, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Zachary Y Kerr, Johna K Register-Mihalik, Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa, Emily Kroshus, Vivian Go, Paula Gildner, K Hunter Byrd, Stephen W Marshall
Behavioral interventions to increase disclosure and proper management of concussion in youth sports have unrealized potential when it comes to preventing concussion. Interventions have focused on changing individual athlete behavior and have fallen short of the potential for sustained systemic behavioral change. One potentially critical reason for this shortfall is that other key determinants of risk behaviors at all levels of the socio-ecological model (e.g. interpersonal, community, policy) are not addressed in extant programming...
July 9, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
W S Witt, T L Bunn, S Slavova
BACKGROUND: Private and Public security and law enforcement (SLE) sectors perform multiple overlapping job duties. METHODS: Workers' compensation (WC) SLE first reports of injury (FROI) data (2005-2015) were analyzed to describe injuries, identify differences in awarded WC benefits, and compare the probability of a FROI resulting in awarded benefits between Public and Private SLE. A Pearson's chi-square test was utilized and reverse selection logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio that a FROI would result in an awarded benefit for Private vs...
July 2, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Vincent Gouttebarge, Haruhito Aoki, Gino M M J Kerkhoffs
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of severe knee injuries, knee osteoarthritis (OA) seems prevalent in retired professional footballers. However, some epidemiological data remain missing, for instance whether knee OA is also prevalent in current professional footballers, whether knee OA is associated with knee injuries and surgeries, and whether knee OA leads to a lower level of functioning. Therefore, three research questions were answered: (i) what is the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) among current and retired professional footballers? (ii) is severe knee injury or knee surgery associated with knee OA among current and retired professional footballers? (iii) what are the consequences of knee OA on physical knee function among current and retired professional footballers? METHODS: An observational study based on a cross-sectional design by means of questionnaires was conducted...
June 18, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Reidar P Lystad, Stephen J Strotmeyer
BACKGROUND: Muay Thai kickboxing is a full-contact combat sport with a high incidence of head trauma, yet little is known about these athletes' concussion knowledge and attitudes. This study aims to describe and quantify concussion knowledge, attitudes, and reporting intention among adult competitive Muay Thai kickboxing athletes. RESULTS: This cross-sectional study comprised 193 competitive Muay Thai kickboxing athletes aged ≥18 years registered with the Thai Boxing Association Sanctioning Authority...
June 11, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Isaac G Freedman, Ellen Kim, Peter A Muennig
BACKGROUND: Autonomous vehicles (AVs) will radically re-shape the health and well-being of people in the United States in good ways and bad. We set out to estimate a reasonable time-to-adoption using cost-effectivenessmodels to estimate the point at which AVs become reasonably safe and affordable for widespread adoption. METHODS: We used Waymo data (previously, Google Self-Driving Car Project) and a microsimulation model to explore projected costs and safety issues today and five years from today to get a sense of the speed of consumer adoption were AVs brought to the market...
June 4, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
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