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Injury Epidemiology

Gerald S Poplin, Stephanie Griffin, Keshia Pollack Porter, Joshua Mallett, Chengcheng Hu, Virginia Day-Nash, Jefferey L Burgess
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the efficacy of a fire department proactive risk management program aimed at reducing firefighter injuries and their associated costs. METHODS: Injury data were collected for the intervention fire department and a contemporary control department. Workers' compensation claim frequency and costs were analyzed for the intervention fire department only. Total, exercise, patient transport, and fireground operations injury rates were calculated for both fire departments...
April 16, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Charles A Jennissen, Maggie Koos, Gerene Denning
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to better understand the factors associated with playground slide-related injuries in preschool children and to test the hypothesis that riding on laps increases the likelihood of lower extremity injuries. METHODS: Playground slide-related injuries (product code 1242) in children ≤5 years of age treated in emergency departments from 2002 to 2015 were identified (N = 12,686) using the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS)...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Michael A Gittelman, Adam C Carle, Sarah Denny, Samantha Anzeljc, Melissa Wervey Arnold
BACKGROUND: Many pediatric providers struggle to screen families for the majority of age-appropriate injury risks and educate them when appropriate. Standardized tools have helped physicians provide effective, more purposeful counseling. In this study, pediatricians utilized a standardized, injury prevention screening tool to increase targeted discussions and families were re-screened at subsequent visits to determine changes in their behavior. METHODS: Pediatric practices, recruited from the Ohio Chapter, American Academy of Pediatrics database, self-selected to participate in a quality improvement program...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Kirsten V Loftus, Tara Rhine, Shari L Wade, Wendy J Pomerantz
BACKGROUND: Unintentional falls cause a substantial proportion of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), with building falls carrying particularly high risk for morbidity and mortality. The cohort of children sustaining building fall-related TBI has not been well-examined. We sought to characterize children hospitalized with building fall-related TBIs and evaluate if specific factors distinguished these children from children hospitalized with TBI due to other fall mechanisms. We secondarily assessed if TBI severity among children injured due to a building fall varied between children from urban versus non-urban areas...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Sofia Chaudhary, Janet Figueroa, Salah Shaikh, Elizabeth Williams Mays, Rana Bayakly, Mahwish Javed, Matthew Lee Smith, Tim P Moran, Jonathan Rupp, Sharon Nieb
BACKGROUND: Pediatric unintentional falls are the leading cause of injury-related emergency visits for children < 5 years old. The purpose of this study was to identify population characteristics, injury mechanisms, and injury severities and patterns among children < 5 years to better inform age-appropriate falls prevention strategies. METHODS: This retrospective database study used trauma registry data from the lead pediatric trauma system in Georgia...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Charles A Jennissen, Erin Evans, Resmiye Oral, Gerene Denning
BACKGROUND: Only 14 states have laws or guidelines regarding the minimum age a child may be left home alone. These ages range from 6 to 14 years. Our objective was to identify factors that influence child neglect determination by experts with regards to parents leaving children home alone. METHODS: American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Child Abuse and Neglect members (N = 523) were surveyed from July-August, 2015. Respondents were asked whether scenarios involving a child of varying age knowingly left home alone for 4 h were neglect in the presence or absence of injury to the child and the legality of the situation...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Sheena Hussain, Gina S Lowell, Douglas R Roehler, Kyran P Quinlan, S Darius Tandon, Lesley Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) accounted for approximately 3700 infant deaths in the US in 2015. SUID risk factors include prone sleeping, bed-sharing, soft bedding use, and maternal smoking. Infant safe sleep data in at-risk communities are difficult to obtain and home visiting programs can add to what we know. This study's purpose is to determine how often caregivers enrolled in home visiting programs provide safe sleep environments for their infants in relation to breastfeeding status and tobacco use...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Ernika G Quimby, Suzanne G McLone, Maryann Mason, Karen Sheehan
BACKGROUND: In 2014, suicide was the second leading cause of death among 10- to 24-year-olds in the US. Studies note disparities in youth suicide based on sex, race/ethnicity, and urban vs rural settings. This study investigates demographics, mental health indicators, and other circumstances surrounding youth/young adult deaths by suicide, comparing Chicago and suburban Cook County from 2005 to 2010. METHODS: Using the Illinois Violent Death Reporting System (IVDRS), we employed a cross-sectional design to provide descriptive analysis of decedents in three age groups (10-14, 15-19, and 20-24 years) in two geographic areas: urban (city of Chicago) and suburban (suburban Cook County) between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Samaa Kemal, Karen Sheehan, Joe Feinglass
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated trends and risk factors over time for self-reported gun carrying among freshman and sophomore public school students in Chicago, New York City and Los Angeles, chosen as high profile cities with different levels of firearm violence. METHODS: The study used four biennial waves (2007-2013) of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), an anonymous, voluntary survey of public high school students. Analyses were restricted to freshman and sophomores given significant high school dropout rates among older students...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Dawn M Porter, Beverly K Miller, Samantha H Mullins, Mary E Porter, Mary E Aitken
BACKGROUND: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens 14-19 years of age, with younger teen drivers at higher risk than older teens. Graduated driver licensing has been proven to reduce teen driver-related motor vehicle crashes and fatalities. Arkansas allows parents to request age waivers, which allow a teen to obtain a license for independent driving before the sixteenth birthday. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the prevalence of age waivers issued in Arkansas and (2) determine motor vehicle crash risks associated with 14 and 15 year old drivers...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Lois K Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Heather M Hirsch, Samantha H Mullins, Beverly K Miller, Mary E Aitken
BACKGROUND: Sudden Unexpected Infant Death (SUID) results in 3400 sleep-related deaths yearly in the United States, yet caregivers' compliance with safe sleep recommendations remains less than optimal. Paternal caregiver's attitudes toward infant safe sleep messages are largely unaddressed, despite established differences between female and male caregiver perceptions. This study aimed to explore the determinants of safe sleep practices among male caregivers. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted in Arkansas with male caregivers of infants ages 2-12 months to discuss infant sleep routines, parental roles, sources for safe sleep information, and messaging suggestions for safe sleep promotion...
April 10, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
David E Clark, Adam W Black, David H Skavdahl, Lee D Hallagan
BACKGROUND: The article introduces Programs for Injury Categorization, using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and R statistical software (ICDPIC-R). Starting with ICD-8, methods have been described to map injury diagnosis codes to severity scores, especially the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). ICDPIC was originally developed for this purpose using Stata, and ICDPIC-R is an open-access update that accepts both ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), Admission Year 2015...
April 9, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
A M Bueno, M Pilgaard, A Hulme, P Forsberg, D Ramskov, C Damsted, R O Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Physical activity plays an important role in public health, owing to a range of health-related benefits that it provides. Sports-related injuries are known to be an important barrier to continued physical activity. Still, the prevalence of injuries on a general population level has not yet been explored in a descriptive epidemiological investigation. The purpose of the questionnaire-based study, therefore, was to describe the prevalence of injury in a representative sample of the Danish population...
April 2, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Lara B McKenzie, Kristin J Roberts, Roxanne Clark, Rebecca McAdams, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, Elizabeth G Klein, Sarah A Keim, Orie Kristel, Alison Szymanski, Christopher G Cotton, Wendy C Shields
BACKGROUND: Many unintentional injuries that occur in and around the home can be prevented through the use of safety equipment and by consistently following existing safety recommendations. Unfortunately, uptake of these safety behaviors is unacceptably low. This paper describes the design of the Make Safe Happen® smartphone application evaluation study, which aims to evaluate a mobile technology-based safety behavior change intervention on parents' safety knowledge and actions. METHODS: Make Safe Happen® app evaluation study is a randomized controlled trial...
March 12, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Catherine G Corey, Joanne T Chang, Brian L Rostron
BACKGROUND: Currently, an estimated 7.9 million US adults use electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). Although published reports have identified fires and explosions related to use of ENDS since 2009, these reports do not provide national estimates of burn injuries associated with ENDS batteries in the US. FINDINGS: We analyzed nationally representative data provided in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) to estimate the number of US emergency department (ED) visits for burn injuries associated with ENDS batteries...
March 5, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Huiyan Jin, Sharifa Z Williams, Stanford T Chihuri, Guohua Li, Qixuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Driving under the influence of marijuana is a serious traffic safety concern in the United States. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active compound in marijuana. Although blood THC testing is a more accurate measure of THC-induced impairment, measuring THC in oral fluid is a less intrusive and less costly method of testing. METHODS: We examined whether the oral fluid THC test can be used as a valid alternative to the blood THC test using a sensitivity and specificity analysis and a logistic regression, and estimate the quantitative relationship between oral fluid THC concentration and blood THC concentration using a correlation analysis and a linear regression on the log-transformed THC concentrations...
February 19, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Jingzhen Yang, Corinne Peek-Asa, James M Noble, James Torner, Paul Schmidt, Martha L Cooper
BACKGROUND: Universities are increasingly implementing programs to effectively respond to and manage sport-related concussions (SRCs). One such effort is to develop common data elements (CDEs) and standardize data collection methods. The objectives of this study were to describe CDEs currently collected by Big Ten and Ivy League universities for SRC studies, and to compare the data collected with the core CDEs recommended by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)...
February 12, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Rebecca K Yau, Mallie J Paschall
BACKGROUND: From 2005 to 2014, the asphyxiation suicide rate in the United States (U.S.) increased by 45.7% from 2.45 to 3.57 per 100,000 population. The primary purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe decedent and incident characteristics of asphyxiation suicides in the U.S. from 2005 to 2014. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore whether any demographic characteristics of asphyxia suicide decedents were associated with type of suicide incident. METHODS: Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) were used to describe asphyxiation suicide mechanisms and means in 16 states...
January 8, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Emily C Cleveland, Deborah Azrael, Joseph A Simonetti, Matthew Miller
BACKGROUND: While the majority of veteran suicides involve firearms, no contemporary data describing firearm ownership among US veterans are available. This study uses survey data to describe the prevalence of firearm ownership among a nationally representative sample of veterans, as well as veterans' reasons for firearm ownership. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationally representative web-based survey conducted in 2015. RESULTS: Nearly half of all veterans own one or more firearms (44...
December 19, 2017: Injury Epidemiology
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