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Current Molecular Biology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177131/recent-advances-in-intestinal-stem-cells
#1
Laura R McCabe, Narayanan Parameswaran
Purpose of review: The intestine is a dynamic organ with rapid stem cell division generating epithelial cells that mature and apoptose in 3-5 days. Rapid turnover maintains the epithelial barrier and homeostasis. Current insights on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their regulation are discussed here. Recent findings: The Lgr5+ ISCs maintain intestinal homeostasis by dividing asymmetrically, but also divide symmetrically to extinguish or replace ISCs. Following radiation or mucosal injury, reserve BMI1+ ISCs as well as other crypt cells can de-differentiate into Lgr5+ ISCs...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152454/recent-advances-in-retinal-stem-cell-therapy
#2
Sujoy Bhattacharya, Rajashekhar Gangaraju, Edward Chaum
Purpose of review: Progress in stem cell research for blinding diseases over the past decade is now being applied to patients with retinal degenerative diseases and soon perhaps, glaucoma. However, the field still has much to learn about the conversion of stem cells into various retinal cell types, and the potential delivery methods that will be required to optimize the clinical efficacy of stem cells delivered into the eye. Recent findings: Recent groundbreaking human clinical trials have demonstrated both the opportunities and current limitations of stem cell transplantation for retinal diseases...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152453/targeting-the-stem-cell-properties-of-adult-breast-cancer-cells-using-combinatorial-strategies-to-overcome-drug-resistance
#3
Naira V Margaryan, Elisabeth A Seftor, Richard E B Seftor, Mary J C Hendrix
Purpose of review: Cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. In aggressive cancers, which are heterogeneous in nature, there exists a paucity of targetable molecules that can be used to predict outcome and response to therapy in patients, especially those in the high risk category with a propensity to relapse following chemotherapy. This review addresses the challenges pertinent to treating aggressive cancer cells with inherent stem cell properties, with a special focus on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057207/harnessing-epicardial-progenitor-cells-and-their-derivatives-for-rescue-and-repair-of-cardiac-tissue-after-myocardial-infarction
#4
Krithika S Rao, Jeffrey L Spees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic heart disease and stroke lead to the greatest number of deaths worldwide. Despite decreased time to intervention and improvements in the standard of care, 1 out of 5 patients that survive a myocardial infarction (MI) still face long-term chronic heart failure and a 5-year mortality rate of about 50%. Based on their multi-potency for differentiation and paracrine activity, epicardial cells and their derivatives have potential to rescue jeopardized tissue and/or promote cardiac regeneration...
September 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276666/reciprocal-regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-runx2-activities-in-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-fine-balance-between-p38-mapk-and-protein-phosphatase-5
#5
Lance A Stechschulte, Beata Lecka-Czernik
Purpose of review: Post-translational modifications (PTMs), specifically serine phosphorylation, are essential for determination and tuning up an activity of many proteins, including those that are involved in the control of gene transcription. Transcription factors PPARγ2 and RUNX2 are essential for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) commitment to either adipocyte or osteoblast lineage. This review is summarizing current knowledge how serine phosphorylation PTMs regulate activities of both transcription factors and MSCs lineage commitment...
June 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098141/the-osteoblastic-niche-in-hematopoiesis-and-hematological-myeloid-malignancies
#6
Marta Galán-Díez, Stavroula Kousteni
Purpose of review: This review focuses on evidence highlighting the bidirectional crosstalk between the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and their surrounding stromal cells, with a particular emphasis on cells of the osteoblast lineage. The role and molecular functions of osteoblasts in normal hematopoiesis and in myeloid hematological malignancies is discussed. Recent findings: Cells of the osteoblast lineage have emerged as potent regulators of HSC expansion that regulate their recruitment and, depending on their stage of differentiation, their activity, proliferation and differentiation along the lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid lineages...
June 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057206/control-of-the-osteoblast-lineage-by-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-signaling
#7
Renny T Franceschi, Chunxi Ge
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: This review will provide a timely assessment of MAP kinase actions in bone development and homeostasis with particular emphasis on transcriptional control of the osteoblast lineage. RECENT FINDINGS: ERK and p38 MAP kinases function as transducers of signals initiated by the extracellular matrix, mechanical loading, TGF-β, BMPs and FGF2. MAPK signals may also affect and/or interact with other important pathways such as WNT and HIPPO. ERK and p38 MAP kinase pathways phosphorylate specific osteogenic transcription factors including RUNX2, Osterix, ATF4 and DLX5...
June 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057205/micrornas-and-connexins-in-bone-interaction-and-mechanisms-of-delivery
#8
Lilian I Plotkin, Rafael Pacheco-Costa, Hannah M Davis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the current knowledge on the cross-talk between connexins and microRNAs (miRs) in bone cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Connexins play a crucial role on bone development and maintenance, and disruptions in their abundance or localization can affect how bone perceives and responds to mechanical, hormonal, and pharmacological stimuli. Connexin expression can be modified by miRs, which modulate connexin mRNA and protein levels. Recently, different manners by which miRs and connexins can interact in bone have been identified, including mechanisms that mediate miR exchange between cells in direct contact through gap junctions, or between distant cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
June 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580233/connecting-bone-and-fat-the-potential-role-for-sclerostin
#9
Heather Fairfield, Clifford J Rosen, Michaela R Reagan
Sclerostin (SOST), a protein secreted from mature osteocytes in response to mechanical unloading and other stimuli, inhibits the osteogenic Wnt/β-catenin pathway in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) impeding their ability to differentiate into mineralizing osteoblasts. PURPOSE: This review summarizes the crosstalk between adipose tissue and bone. It also reviews the origin, regulation, and role of SOST in osteogenesis and brings attention to an emerging role of this protein in the regulation of adipogenesis...
June 2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214143/the-potential-of-micrornas-for-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-degenerative-skeletal-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Emma Budd, Shona Waddell, María C de Andrés, Richard O C Oreffo
Purpose of Review: Degenerative skeletal disorders including osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) are the result of attenuation of tissue regeneration and lead to painful conditions with limited treatment options. Preventative measures to limit the onset of OA and OP remain a significant unmet clinical need. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be involved in the differentiation of stem cells, and in combination with stem cell therapy could induce skeletal regeneration and potentially prevent OA and OP onset...
2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214142/molecular-mechanisms-of-enzalutamide-resistance-in-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Zoran Culig
Purpose of Review: Compensatory mechanisms leading to increased androgen receptor expression and activity after androgen ablation or anti-androgen treatment have been identified in prostate cancer. After hydroxyflutamide and bicalutamide were used in therapy of prostate cancer over many years, novel anti-androgen enzalutamide showed improved clinical activity. However, enzalutamide resistance develops over a certain time period, and molecular mechanisms responsible for this process are heterogeneous...
2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845385/the-role-of-the-calcitonin-peptide-family-in-prostate-cancer-and-bone-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Jessica Isabel Warrington, Gareth Owain Richards, Ning Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study is to highlight recent discoveries associated with the role of calcitonin peptide family and their receptors in prostate cancer progression and bone metastasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have linked adrenomedullin (AM), calcitonin (CT) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to the spread of prostate tumours to the bone. AM can induce a metastatic phenotype in prostate cancer cells through its action on TRPV2 calcium channels and is also capable of influencing localised levels of RANKL in the bone to favour tumourigenesis...
2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255532/assembly-of-dynamic-p450-mediated-metabolons-order-versus-chaos
#13
REVIEW
Jean-Etienne Bassard, Birger Lindberg Møller, Tomas Laursen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of the current knowledge on cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism organized as metabolons and factors that facilitate their stabilization. Essential parameters will be discussed including those that are commonly disregarded using the dhurrin metabolon from Sorghum bicolor as a case study. RECENT FINDINGS: Sessile plants control their metabolism to prioritize their resources between growth and development, or defense. This requires fine-tuned complex dynamic regulation of the metabolic networks involved...
2017: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008373/clinical-factors-disease-parameters-and-molecular-therapies-affecting-osseointegration-of-orthopedic-implants
#14
Hilal Maradit Kremers, Eric A Lewallen, Andre J van Wijnen, David G Lewallen
Total hip and knee arthroplasty are effective interventions for management of end-stage arthritis. Indeed, about 7 million Americans are currently living with artificial hip and knee joints. The majority of these individuals, however, will outlive their implants and require revision surgeries, mostly due to poor implant osseointegration and aseptic loosening. Revisions are potentially avoidable with better management of patient-related risk factors that affect the osseointegration of orthopedic implants. In this review, we summarize the published clinical literature on the role of demographics, biologic factors, comorbidities, medications and aseptic loosening risk...
September 2016: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326387/cell-mechanosensitivity-is-enabled-by-the-linc-nuclear-complex
#15
Gunes Uzer, Clinton T Rubin, Janet Rubin
Mechanoresponses in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) guide both differentiation and function. In this review, we focus on advances in0 our understanding of how the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton, nuclear envelope and nucleoskeleton, which are connected via LINC (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complexes, are emerging as an integrated dynamic signaling platform to regulate MSC mechanobiology. This dynamic interconnectivity affects mechanical signaling and transfer of signals into the nucleus. In this way, nuclear and LINC-mediated cytoskeletal connectivity play a critical role in maintaining mechanical signaling that affects MSC fate by serving as both mechanosensory and mechanoresponsive structures...
March 2016: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152252/pth-signaling-and-epigenetic-control-of-bone-remodeling
#16
Florante Ricarte, Teruyo Nakatani, Nicola Partridge
As our understanding of the mechanisms that govern bone development advance, the role of epigenetic modifications in these processes become increasingly evident. Interestingly, in parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced bone metabolism and remodeling, recent evidence shows that PTH signaling employs a particular facet of the epigenetic machinery to elicit its desired effects. In this review, we briefly discuss the known epigenetic events occurring in cells of the osteoblast lineage. More specifically, we elaborate on current findings that reveal the utilization of histone deacetylating enzymes (HDACs) in PTH-regulated modulation of gene expression in bone...
March 2016: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134818/systemic-control-of-bone-homeostasis-by-fgf23-signaling
#17
Erica L Clinkenbeard, Kenneth E White
The regulation of phosphate metabolism as an influence on bone homeostasis is profound. Recent advances in understanding the systemic control of Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) has uncovered novel effectors of endocrine feedback loops for calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D balance that interact with 'traditional' feedback loops for mineral metabolism. Not only are these findings re-shaping research studying phosphate handling and skeletal interactions, they have provided new therapeutic interventions. Emerging data support that the control of FGF23 production in bone and its circulating concentrations is a multi-layered process, with some influences affecting FGF23 transcription and some post-translational modification of the secreted, bioactive protein...
March 1, 2016: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042400/mitotic-bookmarking-maintaining-post-mitotic-reprogramming-of-transcription-reactivation
#18
Niraj Lodhi, Yingbiao Ji, Alexei Tulin
Restoring chromatin structure with high fidelity after mitosis is critical for cell survival. Transcriptional reactivation of genes is the first step toward establishing identity of the daughter cell. During mitosis, chromatin bookmarking factors associated with specific chromatin regions ensure the restoration of the original gene expression pattern in daughter cells. Recent findings have provided new insights into the mechanisms, regulation, and biological significance of gene bookmarking in eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss how epigenetic factors, such as Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1, establish epigenetic memory in mitotic chromatin...
March 2016: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986719/spatial-organization-of-epigenomes
#19
Jonathan Christopher Dubé, Xue Qing David Wang, Josée Dostie
The role of genome architecture in transcription regulation has become the focus of an increasing number of studies over the past decade. Chromatin organization can have a significant impact on gene expression by promoting or restricting the physical proximity between regulatory DNA elements. Given that any change in chromatin state has the potential to alter DNA folding and the proximity between control elements, the spatial organization of chromatin is inherently linked to its molecular composition. In this review, we explore how modulators of chromatin state and organization might keep gene expression in check...
March 2016: Current Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617188/strategies-and-first-advances-in-the-development-of-prevascularized-bone-implants
#20
REVIEW
Christoph Rücker, Holger Kirch, Oliver Pullig, Heike Walles
Despite the great regenerative potential of human bone, large bone defects are a serious condition. Commonly, large defects are caused by trauma, bone disease, malignant tumor removal, and infection or medication-related osteonecrosis. Large defects necessitate clinical treatment in the form of autologous bone transplantation or implantation of biomaterials as well as the application of other available methods that enhance bone defect repair. The development and application of prevascularized bone implants are closely related to the development animal models and require dedicated methods in order to reliably predict possible clinical outcomes and the efficacy of implants...
2016: Current Molecular Biology Reports
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