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Journal of Nature and Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211314/systemic-treatment-of-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-older-adults
#1
Luisa M Arellano, Sukeshi Patel Arora
Over the past 30 years, the incidence in of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States has tripled, largely due to untreated chronic Hepatitis C virus, alcoholic hepatitis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Additionally, the incidence of HCC among South Texas Hispanics is higher than elsewhere in the United States. The median age of HCC is 62 years in United States and 67 years in South Texas, with over 30% being 70 years of age or older. However, there is limited data on how to treat older adults with advanced HCC...
August 2018: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29938227/pulse-oximetry-targets-in-extremely-premature-infants-and-associated-mortality-one-size-may-not-fit-all
#2
Thomas M Raffay, Michele C Walsh
Oxygen saturation targets in premature infants have been investigated in multiple international randomized controlled trials. Some trials have shown increased mortality with targeting lower (85% to 89%) compared to higher (91% to 95%) oxygen saturation ranges, while others have not. We will review the mortality outcomes of the largest multi-centered trials and a post hoc study that observed increased mortality at lower target ranges among small for gestational age infants. The planned Neonatal Oxygen Prospective Meta-analysis (NeOProM) collaborative will hopefully provide further insight into patient-specific risks, which include growth status...
2018: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756042/skeletal-muscle-metrics-on-clinical-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-predict-health-outcomes-in-patients-with-sarcoma
#3
Brent Foster, Robert D Boutin, Leon Lenchik, David Gedeon, Yu Liu, Vinay Nittur, Ramsey D Badawi, Chin-Shang Li, Robert J Canter, Abhijit J Chaudhari
The aim of this study was to determine the association of measures of skeletal muscle determined from 18 F-FDG PET/CT with health outcomes in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. 14 patients (8 women and 6 men; mean age 66.5 years) with sarcoma had PET/CT examinations. On CTs of the abdomen and pelvis, skeletal muscle was segmented, and cross-sectional muscle area, muscle volume, and muscle attenuation were determined. Within the segmented muscle, intramuscular fat area, volume, and density were derived. On PET images, the standardized uptake value (SUV) of muscle was determined...
2018: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682607/the-role-of-hsp40-conserved-motifs-in-the-response-to-cytotoxic-stress
#4
Samantha J Sojourner, Willie M Graham, Aurellia M Whitmore, Jana S Miles, Devon Freeny, Hernan Flores-Rozas
Doxorubicin, a highly effective therapeutic agent against several types of cancer, is associated with serious side-effects, particularly cardiotoxicity. In addition, drug resistance leads to unsuccessful outcomes in many patients. There are no current biomarkers to indicate doxorubicin treatment response in patients. To understand the mechanisms of toxicity of doxorubicin, a whole-genome sensitivity screen was performed in the yeast S. cerevisiae . A deletion mutant of the yeast DNAJ (YDJ1), a J-domain heat-shock protein 40 (HSP40) was among the most sensitive strains...
2018: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552637/impact-of-chronic-neonatal-intermittent-hypoxia-on-severity-of-retinal-damage-in-a-rat-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#5
Kay D Beharry, Charles L Cai, Taimur Ahmad, Sibel Guzel, Gloria B Valencia, Jacob V Aranda
Neonatal intermittent hypoxia (IH) followed by re-oxygenation in normoxia or supplemental oxygen (IHR) increases the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The exact timing for the onset of retinal damage which may guide strategic interventions during retinal development, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure of the immature retina to neonatal IH induces early manifestations of retinal damage that can be utilized as key time points for strategic pharmacologic intervention. Newborn rats were exposed to IH within 2 hours of birth (P0) until P14, or allowed to recover in room air (RA) from P14 to P21 (IHR)...
2018: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527572/variability-in-quantitative-dce-mri-sources-and-solutions
#6
Harrison Kim
DCE-MRI has been extensively used for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy monitoring of various diseases including cancer. However, it has been reported that the perfusion parameters measured by DCE-MRI largely vary across different research sites, preventing data comparison in multi-institutional clinical trials. Recently, novel perfusion phantoms have been developed to correct scanner-driven errors, enabling quality assurance of quantitative DCE-MRI measurement. However, the sources for the variability in quantitating perfusion parameters are not only MRI scanners but also software packages and imaging protocols set by the operators...
2018: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104930/brain-and-behavioral-assessment-of-executive-functions-for-self-regulating-levels-of-language-in-reading-brain
#7
Virginia W Berninger, Todd L Richards, Robert D Abbott
This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions...
November 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057328/cancer-prevention-and-treatment-by-wholistic-nutrition
#8
T Colin Campbell
Cancer is traditionally considered a genetic disease. It starts with a gene mutation, often caused by environmental carcinogens that are enzymatically activated to metabolites that covalently bind to DNA. If these now-damaged carcinogen-DNA adducts are not repaired before the cell replicates, they result in a mutation, which is inherited by daughter cells and their subsequent progeny. Still more mutations are added that are thought to advance cellular independence, metastasis, and drug resistance, among other characteristics typically observed for advanced cancer...
October 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034321/refractory-versus-resistant-hypertension-novel-distinctive-phenotypes
#9
Tanja Dudenbostel, Mohammed Siddiqui, Nitin Gharpure, David A Calhoun
Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is relatively common with an estimated prevalence of 10-20% of treated hypertensive patients. It is defined as blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg treated with ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, if tolerated. Refractory hypertension is a novel phenotype of severe antihypertensive treatment failure. The proposed definition for refractory hypertension, i.e. BP >140/90 mmHg with use of ≥5 different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) has been applied inconsistently...
September 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959732/a-microrna-cluster-let-7c-mirna-99a-mirna-125b-mirna-155-and-mirna-802-encoded-at-chr21q21-1-chr21q21-3-and-the-phenotypic-diversity-of-down-s-syndrome-ds-trisomy-21
#10
Yuhai Zhao, Vivian Jaber, Maire E Percy, Walter J Lukiw
Down's syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and cognitive deficit attributable to a naturally-occurring abnormality of gene dosage. DS is caused by a triplication of all or part of human chromosome 21 (chr21) and currently there are no effective treatments for this incapacitating disorder of neurodevelopment. First described by the English physician John Langdon Down in 1862, propelled by the invention of karyotype analytical techniques in the early 1950s and the discovery in 1959 by the French geneticist Jerome Lejune that DS resulted from an extra copy of chr21, DS was the first neurological disorder linking a chromosome dosage imbalance to a defect in intellectual development with ensuing cognitive disruption...
September 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936481/controlling-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-acetylation-of-histone-h2bk5
#11
Robert J Mobley, Amy N Abell
Large-scale epigenetic changes take place when epithelial cells with cell-cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity transition into invasive, individual, mesenchymal cells through a process known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, cancers with stem cell properties disseminate and form distant metastases by reactivating the developmental EMT program. Recent studies have demonstrated that the epigenetic histone modification, H2BK5 acetylation (H2BK5Ac), is important in the regulation of EMT...
September 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936480/the-role-of-corneal-stroma-a-potential-nutritional-source-for-the-cornea
#12
Lingling Zhang, Matthew C Anderson, Chia-Yang Liu
Corneal stroma plays a pivotal role in normal visual function. Anatomically, it is located between the outer epithelium and the inner endothelium and is the thickest layer of the cornea. Keratocytes in the stroma produce a variety of cellular products, including growth factors/cytokines, extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and kinases. These products support normal corneal development and homeostasis.
August 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884145/sensory-experience-shapes-the-integration-of-adult-born-neurons-into-the-olfactory-bulb
#13
Elizabeth Hanson, Jessica Swanson, Benjamin R Arenkiel
Olfaction is an ancient sensory modality which is heavily involved in viscerally-important tasks like finding food and identifying mates. Olfactory processing involves interpreting stimuli from a non-continuous odor space, and translating them into an organized pattern of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Additionally, olfactory processing is rapidly modulated by behavioral states and vice versa. This implies strong bidirectional neuromodulation between the olfactory bulb and other brain regions that include the cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain...
August 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868359/immune-mediator-pharmacogenomics-tcl1a-snps-and-estrogen-dependent-regulation-of-inflammation
#14
Ming-Fen Ho, Richard M Weinshilboum
This review describes the important functional implications of TCL1A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered during pharmacogenomic studies of aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal adverse events that were subsequently shown to influence the expression of cytokines, chemokines, toll-like receptors (TLR), and NF-κB in a SNP and estrogen-dependent fashion. Functional genomic studies of these SNPs led to the discovery of novel mechanisms that may contribute to disease pathophysiology and which may also increase our understanding of pharmacogenomic aspects of regulation of the expression of inflammatory mediators...
August 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824962/military-blast-induced-synaptic-changes-with-distinct-vulnerability-may-explain-behavioral-alterations-in-the-absence-of-obvious-brain-damage
#15
Catherine M Parisian, Gregory Georgevitch, Ben A Bahr
Sadly many military veterans, who left home to serve their country honorably, return from service with permanent life-changing injuries. It is easy to remember our debt to those who have incurred such visible injuries, and all too easy to forget the invisible wounds that afflict so many of our military servicemen and women. Brain injuries can be invisible during initial medical evaluations and are often caused by military explosives that create blast shockwaves of varying intensity. One of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service is blast-induced neurotrauma...
July 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815209/pathways-to-genome-targeted-therapies-in-serous-ovarian-cancer
#16
Joshua Axelrod, Joe Delaney
Genome sequencing technologies and corresponding oncology publications have generated enormous publicly available datasets for many cancer types. While this has enabled new treatments, and in some limited cases lifetime management of the disease, the treatment options for serous ovarian cancer remain dismal. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of ovarian cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity, functional genomics, and actionable data.
July 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758150/diabetes-and-cardioplegia
#17
Brittany A Potz, Laura A Scrimgeour, Jun Feng, Frank W Sellke
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest is associated with injury to the vasculature and microcirculation leading to coronary microvascular dysfunction, permeability changes and cardiac dysfunction. In the setting of cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegia, poorly-controlled diabetes is associated with significant changes in endothelium-dependent and independent vascular dysfunction, vascular reactivity, vascular permeability, protein expression, cell death, coronary/peripheral microcirculation and reduced vasomotor tone leading to hypotension and impaired endothelial function...
June 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758149/adiponectin-and-its-hydrolase-activated-receptors
#18
Ankit X Sharma, William L Holland
The relevance of adiponectin to insulin sensitivity has been elucidated over the last two decades. As a promoter of ceramide degradation, it works through its cognate receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, to alter bioactive sphingolipid species. Adiponectin diminishes the accumulation of ceramide, a lipid metabolite which can play a causal role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Concurrently, adiponectin stimulates the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a cyto-protective molecule that accentuates adiponectin's positive metabolic effects...
June 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748216/t-cells-targeting-neuromyelitis-optica-autoantigen-aquaporin-4-cause-paralysis-and-visual-system-injury
#19
COMMENT
Andrés Cruz-Herranz, Sharon A Sagan, Raymond A Sobel, Ari J Green, Scott S Zamvil
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-specific antibodies are instrumental in promoting central nervous system (CNS) tissue injury in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), yet evidence indicates that AQP4-specific T cells also have a pivotal role in NMO pathogenesis. Although considerable effort has been devoted to creation of animal models to study how AQP4-specific T cells and antibodies may cooperate in development of both clinical and histologic opticospinal inflammatory disease, the initial attempts were unsuccessful. Recently, it was discovered that T cells from AQP4-deficient (AQP4-/-) mice recognize distinct AQP4 epitopes that were not identified previously in wild-type (WT) mice, and that donor Th17 cells from AQP4-/- mice that target those novel epitopes could cause paralysis and visual system injury associated with opticospinal inflammation in WT recipient mice...
May 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670621/changes-in-dti-diffusivity-and-fmri-connectivity-cluster-coefficients-for-students-with-and-without-specific-learning-disabilities-in-written-language-brain-s-response-to-writing-instruction
#20
Todd L Richards, Virginia W Berninger, Kevin J Yagle, Robert D Abbott, Daniel J Peterson
Before and after computerized writing instruction, participants completed assessment with normed measures and DTI and fMRI connectivity scanning. Evidence-based differential diagnosis was used at time 1 to assign them to diagnostic groups: typical oral and written language (n=6), dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=10), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading, n=20), and OWL LD (impaired syntax construction, n=6). The instruction was aimed at subword letter writing, word spelling, and syntax composing...
April 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
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