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Journal of Nature and Science

Evan V Papa, Xiaoyang Dong, Mahdi Hassan
A variety of changes in skeletal muscle occur with aging. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Traditional definitions of sarcopenia focused on the size of human skeletal muscle. However, increasing evidence in older adults suggests that low muscle mass is associated with weakness, and weakness is strongly associated with function and disability. In recent years a global trend has shifted toward more encompassing definitions for the loss of muscle mass which include decreases in physical function...
January 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
Yunzhou Dong, Xue Cai, Yong Wu, Yanjun Liu, Lin Deng, Hong Chen
The retina is a light sensitive tissue that contains specialized photoreceptor cells called rods and cones which process visual signals. These signals are relayed to the brain through interneurons and the fibers of the optic nerve. The retina is susceptible to a variety of degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and other inherited retinal degenerations. In order to reveal the mechanism underlying these diseases and to find methods for the prevention/treatment of retinal degeneration, animal models have been generated to mimic human eye diseases...
January 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
Todd Richards, Robert D Abbott, Virginia W Berninger
The relationship between presence or absence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in persisting developmental dysgraphia (impaired handwriting) and brain connectivity during writing tasks was investigated. Thirteen participants (6 males, 1 female with ADHD; 4 males, 2 females without ADHD) in upper elementary or middle school grades performed four fMRI writing tasks-two cognitive (mind wandering and planning to compose) and two transcription (handwriting and spelling). Presence or absence of ADHD was correlated with brain connectivity on all four fMRI writing tasks during scanning, rather than just on the fMRI handwriting task as predicted based on prior research...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Li-Min Mao, John Q Wang
Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes) are regulated by protein kinases. A recent focus is mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). A prototypic subclass of MAPKs, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), is densely expressed in adult brain postmitotic neurons. This kinase resides in not only the cytoplasm around the nucleus, also the neuronal peripheral structures such as synapses. Recombinant ERK2 binds to C terminal tails of mGluR1a in vitro and native ERK1/2 forms complexes with mGluR1/5 in neurons in vivo...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Donald R Senger, Shugeng Cao
Nrf2 defense is a very important cellular mechanism to control oxidative stress, which is implicated in wound healing. Nrf2 can induce many cytoprotective genes, including HO-1, NQO1 and G6PD. Among many natural products that have been reported as Nrf2 activators, sulforaphane and curcumin have been studied more widely than any others, and both are in clinical trials for non-cancerous disorders. Recently, we reported 4-ethyl catechol and 4-vinyl catechol as Nrf2 co-factors that can induce Nrf2 as potently as sulforaphane and curcumin...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
David B Douglas, John M Boone, Emanuel Petricoin, Lance Liotta, Eugene Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. METHODS: A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. RESULTS: The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Douglas Powell, Anburaj Muthumani, RuiPing Xia
OBJECTIVE: Quantify the effect of a continuous compared to discontinuous movement trajectory on parkinsonian rigidity and reflex responses to passive stretch and shortening. METHODS: Eighteen participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) performed passive wrist flexion and extension movements through a 90° range of motion at 50 °/sec using continuous (CONT) and discontinuous (DISC) movement trajectories. Participants were tested in both the OFF-MED and ON-MED states...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Lulu Xie, Hongyi Kang, Maiken Nedergaard
BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. As a consequence, several excellent rodent models have been developed to gain insight into the pathophysiology of stroke and testing the efficacy of neuroprotective interventions. However, one potential problem is that albeit roughly 80% of strokes occur in awake patients, all existing murine stroke models employ anesthesia. Moreover, epidemiological studies have shown that stroke injury is more severe in the minority of patients that suffer stroke while asleep...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Brittany A Potz, M Ruhul Abid, Frank W Sellke
Calpains are a 15-member class of calcium activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases which are involved in a broad range of cellular function. Calpains are usually localized to the cytosol and within mitochondria. Calpastatin is an endogenous protein that specifically binds to and inhibits calpain. Overactivation of calpain has been implicated in a number of disease processes of the brain, eyes, heart, lungs, pancreas, kidneys, vascular system and skeletal muscle. Therefore, calpain may serve as a potential therapeutic target for a wide variety of disease processes...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Nick Lawson, Chung-Han Hsieh, Dana March, Xinnan Wang
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by physical and mental exhaustion. The underlying pathogenesis is unknown, but impairments in certain mitochondrial functions have been found in some CFS patients. To thoroughly reveal mitochondrial deficiencies in CFS patients, here we examine the key aspects of mitochondrial function in blood cells from a paired CFS patient-control series. Surprisingly, we discover that in patients the ATP levels are higher and mitochondrial cristae are more condensed compared to their paired controls, while the mitochondrial crista length, mitochondrial size, shape, density, membrane potential, and enzymatic activities of the complexes in the electron transport chain remain intact...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Jennifer Gile, Tobias Eckle
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. A powerful strategy for cardioprotection would be to identify specific molecules or targets that mimic ischemic preconditioning (IP), where short non-lethal episodes of ischemia and reperfusion prior to myocardial infarction result in dramatic reduction of infarct sizes. Since 1960 researchers believed that adenosine has a strong cardio-protective potential. In fact, with the discovery of cardiac IP in 1986 by Murry et al., adenosine was the first identified molecule that was used in studying the underlying mechanism of IP...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Sibaprasad Maity, Ekaterina Viazovkina, Alexander Gall, Yuri Lyubchenko
Probing of biomolecular complexes by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) methods including AFM requires proper and suitable coupling methods for immobilization of biomolecules onto the AFM tip and the surface. The use of flexible tethers for the coupling process has dual advantages. First, they allow the specific immobilization of interacting molecules, and second, their flexibility facilitates the proper orientation of the interacting partners. Recently, we developed an approach termed Flexible Nano Array (FNA) in which interacting partners are located on the same polymeric FNA molecule separated by a flexible segment with a defined length...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Catherine Buettner, Robert L Greenman, Long H Ngo, Jim S Wu
OBJECTIVES: Statins partially block the production of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an essential component for mitochondrial function. Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity has been proposed to be a cause of statin myalgia and can be measured using (31)phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of CoQ10 oral supplementation on mitochondrial function in statin users using (31)P-MRS. DESIGN/SETTING: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 21 adults aged 47-73 were randomized to statin+placebo (n=9) or statin+CoQ10 (n=12)...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Bridget Ellsworth, Atul F Kamath
Malnutrition is prevalent in patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Malnutrition has been shown to be an independent risk factor for multiple postsurgical complications following TJA in addition to increasing postoperative mortality. In the current healthcare environment, it is important to recognize and correct modifiable risk factors preoperatively to minimize perioperative complications and improve patient outcomes. Recently, multiple studies have been published focusing on the association between malnutrition and perioperative complications following TJA...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Ofonime Udofot, Kevin Affram, Taylor Smith, Bulumko Tshabe, Sunil Krishnan, Mandip Sachdeva, Edward Agyare
The objective of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of 5-FU entrapped pH-sensitive liposomal nanoparticles with surface-modified anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody (pHLNps-5-FU) delivery system. Cytotoxicity of 5-FU and pHLNps-5-FU was determined in vitro against HCT-116 cells. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetic parameters of the administered 5-FU and pHLNps-5-FU as well as efficacy of 5-FU and pHLNps-5-FU were determined in HCT-116 subcutaneous mouse model...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
Jens O Watzlawik, Meghan M Painter, Bharath Wootla, Moses Rodriguez
We previously identified a human monoclonal antibody, termed HIgM12 that stimulates spontaneous locomotor activity in a chronically demyelinating mouse model of multiple sclerosis. When tested as a molecular substrate, HIgM12 stimulated neurite outgrowth in vitro. We recently reported that polysialic acid (PSA) attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is one of the cellular antigens for HIgM12. Fluorescent double-labeling of astrocytes using HIgM12 and commercially available anti-PSA antibody showed dramatic co-localization...
August 2015: Journal of Nature and Science
Sebastian T Kwon, William Burek, Alexander C Dupay, Mehdi Farsad, Seungik Baek, Eun-Ah Park, Whal Lee
OBJECTIVES: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) that rupture have a high mortality rate. Rupture occurs when local mechanical stress exceeds the local mechanical strength of an AAA, so stress profiles such as those from finite element analysis (FEA) are useful. The role and effect of surrounding tissues, like the vertebral column, which have not been extensively studied, are examined in this paper. METHODS: Longitudinal CT scans from ten patients with AAAs were studied to see the effect of surrounding tissues on AAAs...
August 2015: Journal of Nature and Science
Dane J Genther, Mark L Laudenslager, Yoon-Kyu Sung, Caitlin R Blake, David S Chen, Frank R Lin
OBJECTIVE: Elevated systemic stress is a predictor of adverse health outcomes, and stress can be objectively quantified by cortisol concentration. Despite its utility, such testing is rarely performed in otolaryngology. This manuscript provides details on the principles, methodology, and feasibility of performing laboratory assessments of hair and salivary cortisol to inform researchers wishing to incorporate these novel tests in future otolaryngologic studies. METHODS: Participants were older adults with hearing impairment...
August 2015: Journal of Nature and Science
Zachary McCormick, Daniel Cushman, Mary Caldwell, Benjamin Marshall, Leda Ghannad, Christine Eng, Jaymin Patel, Steven Makovitch, Samuel K Chu, Ashwin N Babu, David R Walega, Christina Marciniak, Joel Press, David J Kennedy, Christopher Plastaras
OBJECTIVE: Minimal definitive literature identifies patients with radicular pain who would benefit most from epidural steroid injection (ESI). This study investigated if electromyographic (EMG) confirmation of radiculopathy with active or chronic denervation predicts a positive treatment outcome following ESI. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study of adults who underwent EMG and subsequent transforaminal ESI within 6 months. The proportion of individuals who experienced >50% pain relief and mean change in daily morphine equivalents (DME) were calculated...
August 2015: Journal of Nature and Science
Yuhai Zhao, Walter J Lukiw
According to the 'amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease' first proposed about 16 years ago, the accumulation of Aβ peptides in the human central nervous system (CNS) is the primary influence driving Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and Aβ peptide accretion is the result of an imbalance between Aβ peptide production and clearance. In the last 18 months multiple laboratories have reported two particularly important observations: (i) that because the microbes of the human microbiome naturally secrete large amounts of amyloid, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and other related pro-inflammatory pathogenic signals, these may contribute to both the systemic and CNS amyloid burden in aging humans; and (ii) that the clearance of Aβ peptides appears to be intrinsically impaired by deficits in the microglial plasma-membrane enriched triggering receptor expressed in microglial/myeloid-2 cells (TREM2)...
July 2015: Journal of Nature and Science
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