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Journal of Nature and Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884145/sensory-experience-shapes-the-integration-of-adult-born-neurons-into-the-olfactory-bulb
#1
Elizabeth Hanson, Jessica Swanson, Benjamin R Arenkiel
Olfaction is an ancient sensory modality which is heavily involved in viscerally-important tasks like finding food and identifying mates. Olfactory processing involves interpreting stimuli from a non-continuous odor space, and translating them into an organized pattern of neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb. Additionally, olfactory processing is rapidly modulated by behavioral states and vice versa. This implies strong bidirectional neuromodulation between the olfactory bulb and other brain regions that include the cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain...
August 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868359/immune-mediator-pharmacogenomics-tcl1a-snps-and-estrogen-dependent-regulation-of-inflammation
#2
Ming-Fen Ho, Richard M Weinshilboum
This review describes the important functional implications of TCL1A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered during pharmacogenomic studies of aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal adverse events that were subsequently shown to influence the expression of cytokines, chemokines, toll-like receptors (TLR), and NF-κB in a SNP and estrogen-dependent fashion. Functional genomic studies of these SNPs led to the discovery of novel mechanisms that may contribute to disease pathophysiology and which may also increase our understanding of pharmacogenomic aspects of regulation of the expression of inflammatory mediators...
August 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824962/military-blast-induced-synaptic-changes-with-distinct-vulnerability-may-explain-behavioral-alterations-in-the-absence-of-obvious-brain-damage
#3
Catherine M Parisian, Gregory Georgevitch, Ben A Bahr
Sadly many military veterans, who left home to serve their country honorably, return from service with permanent life-changing injuries. It is easy to remember our debt to those who have incurred such visible injuries, and all too easy to forget the invisible wounds that afflict so many of our military servicemen and women. Brain injuries can be invisible during initial medical evaluations and are often caused by military explosives that create blast shockwaves of varying intensity. One of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service is blast-induced neurotrauma...
July 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815209/pathways-to-genome-targeted-therapies-in-serous-ovarian-cancer
#4
Joshua Axelrod, Joe Delaney
Genome sequencing technologies and corresponding oncology publications have generated enormous publicly available datasets for many cancer types. While this has enabled new treatments, and in some limited cases lifetime management of the disease, the treatment options for serous ovarian cancer remain dismal. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of ovarian cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity, functional genomics, and actionable data.
July 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758150/diabetes-and-cardioplegia
#5
Brittany A Potz, Laura A Scrimgeour, Jun Feng, Frank W Sellke
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest is associated with injury to the vasculature and microcirculation leading to coronary microvascular dysfunction, permeability changes and cardiac dysfunction. In the setting of cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegia, poorly-controlled diabetes is associated with significant changes in endothelium-dependent and independent vascular dysfunction, vascular reactivity, vascular permeability, protein expression, cell death, coronary/peripheral microcirculation and reduced vasomotor tone leading to hypotension and impaired endothelial function...
June 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758149/adiponectin-and-its-hydrolase-activated-receptors
#6
Ankit X Sharma, William L Holland
The relevance of adiponectin to insulin sensitivity has been elucidated over the last two decades. As a promoter of ceramide degradation, it works through its cognate receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, to alter bioactive sphingolipid species. Adiponectin diminishes the accumulation of ceramide, a lipid metabolite which can play a causal role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Concurrently, adiponectin stimulates the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a cyto-protective molecule that accentuates adiponectin's positive metabolic effects...
June 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748216/t-cells-targeting-neuromyelitis-optica-autoantigen-aquaporin-4-cause-paralysis-and-visual-system-injury
#7
COMMENT
Andrés Cruz-Herranz, Sharon A Sagan, Raymond A Sobel, Ari J Green, Scott S Zamvil
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-specific antibodies are instrumental in promoting central nervous system (CNS) tissue injury in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), yet evidence indicates that AQP4-specific T cells also have a pivotal role in NMO pathogenesis. Although considerable effort has been devoted to creation of animal models to study how AQP4-specific T cells and antibodies may cooperate in development of both clinical and histologic opticospinal inflammatory disease, the initial attempts were unsuccessful. Recently, it was discovered that T cells from AQP4-deficient (AQP4(-/-)) mice recognize distinct AQP4 epitopes that were not identified previously in wild-type (WT) mice, and that donor Th17 cells from AQP4(-/-) mice that target those novel epitopes could cause paralysis and visual system injury associated with opticospinal inflammation in WT recipient mice...
May 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670621/changes-in-dti-diffusivity-and-fmri-connectivity-cluster-coefficients-for-students-with-and-without-specific-learning-disabilities-in-written-language-brain-s-response-to-writing-instruction
#8
Todd L Richards, Virginia W Berninger, Kevin J Yagle, Robert D Abbott, Daniel J Peterson
Before and after computerized writing instruction, participants completed assessment with normed measures and DTI and fMRI connectivity scanning. Evidence-based differential diagnosis was used at time 1 to assign them to diagnostic groups: typical oral and written language (n=6), dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=10), dyslexia (impaired word spelling and reading, n=20), and OWL LD (impaired syntax construction, n=6). The instruction was aimed at subword letter writing, word spelling, and syntax composing...
April 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670620/linking-chronic-inflammation-with-cardiovascular-disease-from-normal-aging-to-the-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Angel Lopez-Candales, Paula M Hernández Burgos, Dagmar F Hernandez-Suarez, David Harris
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of clinical disorders including an unhealthy body habitus with a large waistline, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance and hypertension. It is known that these disorders not only increase the chances of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but also cardiovascular disease (CVD). Furthermore, the co-occurrence of all these risk factors known as the MetS is linked to pathways sharing common underlying mediators and mechanisms. Though insulin resistance has been considered as the root of the problem to explain the conglomerate of metabolic abnormalities within this syndrome; new evidence points to several pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species and free fatty acid intermediates might play an even greater role in regulating a series of intracellular signaling pathways sustain as well as perpetuate the development of the MetS and its CVD complications...
April 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616589/mir-145-revival-of-a-dragon-in-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Saini Setua, Sheema Khan, Kyle Doxtater, Murali M Yallapu, Meena Jaggi, Subhash C Chauhan
Emergence of the role of MicroRNA-145 (miR-145) as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer, offers its potential for novel therapeutic interventions. Our recently published studies demonstrate clinical significance of miR-145 in pancreatic cancer and suggest that the dysregulation of miR-145 in human pancreatic tumors draws in parallel with the aberrant expression of an oncogenic mucin, MUC13. These studies also present a novel therapeutic strategy of restoring the downregulated levels of miR-145 in pancreatic cancer via nanoparticle mediated efficient delivery system...
March 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580427/incidental-finding-of-low-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-endurance-trained-individuals-methodological-considerations-for-positron-emission-tomography
#11
Eric T Trexler, Drew McCallister, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Rosa T Branca
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adults has been shown to have a meaningful impact on energy expenditure and cold-induced thermogenesis. Data from rodent research have suggested that exercise may be a promising method of increasing BAT activity, with potential applications to the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes. However, emerging human research using positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has identified lower BAT activity in endurance-trained athletes compared to sedentary controls, despite similar metabolic rate responses to cold exposure...
March 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691101/advancing-discontinuous-fiber-reinforced-composites-above-critical-length-for-replacing-current-dental-composites-and-amalgam
#12
Richard C Petersen
Clinicians have been aware that posterior dental particulate-filled composites (PFCs) have many placement disadvantages and indeed fail clinically at an average rate faster than amalgam alloys. Secondary caries is most commonly identified as the chief failure mechanism for both dental PFCs and amalgam. In terms of a solution, fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) above critical length (Lc) can provide mechanical property safety factors with compound molding packing qualities to reduce many problems associated with dental PFCs...
February 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680966/normalizing-emg-to-background-muscle-activation-masks-medication-induced-reductions-in-reflex-amplitudes-in-parkinsonian-rigidity
#13
Douglas Powell, Anburaj Muthumani, Rui-Ping Xia
OBJECTIVES: Exaggerated reflex responses to passive stretch and shortening contribute to parkinsonian rigidity. Studies have reported medication-induced reductions in rigidity in the absence of attenuated reflex magnitudes. The purpose of this study was to determine if normalization procedures mask medication-induced reductions in reflex responses in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Twelve participants with PD performed passive wrist flexion and extension movements after a 12-hour withdrawal from dopaminergic medication and 60 minutes after medication was administered...
February 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492063/vaccination-with-killed-but-metabolically-active-e-coli-over-expressing-hemagglutinin-elicits-neutralizing-antibodies-to-h1n1-swine-origin-influenza-a-virus
#14
Pei-Feng Liu, Yanhan Wang, Yu-Tsueng Liu, Chun-Ming Huang
There is a need for a fast and simple method for vaccine production to keep up with the pace of a rapidly spreading virus in the early phases of the influenza pandemic. The use of whole viruses produced in chicken eggs or recombinant antigens purified from various expression systems has presented considerable challenges, especially with lengthy processing times. Here, we use the killed but metabolically active (KBMA) Escherichia coli (E. coli) to harbor the hemagglutinin (HA) of swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) San Diego/01/09 (SD/H1N1-S-OIV)...
February 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393112/chromatin-replication-transmitting-the-histone-code
#15
Han-Wen Chang, Vasily M Studitsky
Efficient overcoming of the nucleosomal barrier and accurate maintenance of associated histone marks during chromatin replication are essential for normal functioning of the cell. Recent studies revealed new protein factors and histone modifications contributing to overcoming the nucleosomal barrier, and suggested an important role for DNA looping in survival of the original histones during replication. These studies suggest new possible mechanisms for transmitting the histone code to next generations of cells...
February 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361126/pressure-sensitivity-and-phenotypic-changes-in-patients-with-suspected-opioid-induced-hyperalgesia-being-withdrawn-from-full-mu-agonists
#16
Ronald A Wasserman, Afton L Hassett, Steven E Harte, Jenna Goesling, Herbert L Malinoff, Daniel W Berland, Jennifer Zollars, Stephanie E Moser, Chad M Brummett
OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in phenotype and pressure sensitivity in patients with suspected opioid-induced-hyperalgesia (OIH) after transitioning to buprenorphine. METHODS: Twenty patients with suspected OIH were enrolled to transition to buprenorphine therapy. Patients completed validated self-report measures at baseline and at 1, 4, 8 weeks, and 6 months after initiation of buprenorphine along with quantitative sensory testing including measures of pressure pain threshold, pain tolerance and Pain 50 (a pain intensity rating)...
February 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191501/skeletal-muscle-function-deficits-in-the-elderly-current-perspectives-on-resistance-training
#17
Evan V Papa, Xiaoyang Dong, Mahdi Hassan
A variety of changes in skeletal muscle occur with aging. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Traditional definitions of sarcopenia focused on the size of human skeletal muscle. However, increasing evidence in older adults suggests that low muscle mass is associated with weakness, and weakness is strongly associated with function and disability. In recent years a global trend has shifted toward more encompassing definitions for the loss of muscle mass which include decreases in physical function...
January 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191500/insights-from-genetic-model-systems-of-retinal-degeneration-role-of-epsins-in-retinal-angiogenesis-and-vegfr2-signaling
#18
Yunzhou Dong, Xue Cai, Yong Wu, Yanjun Liu, Lin Deng, Hong Chen
The retina is a light sensitive tissue that contains specialized photoreceptor cells called rods and cones which process visual signals. These signals are relayed to the brain through interneurons and the fibers of the optic nerve. The retina is susceptible to a variety of degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and other inherited retinal degenerations. In order to reveal the mechanism underlying these diseases and to find methods for the prevention/treatment of retinal degeneration, animal models have been generated to mimic human eye diseases...
January 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035334/relationships-between-presence-or-absence-of-adhd-and-fmri-connectivity-writing-tasks-in-children-with-dysgraphia
#19
Todd Richards, Robert D Abbott, Virginia W Berninger
The relationship between presence or absence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in persisting developmental dysgraphia (impaired handwriting) and brain connectivity during writing tasks was investigated. Thirteen participants (6 males, 1 female with ADHD; 4 males, 2 females without ADHD) in upper elementary or middle school grades performed four fMRI writing tasks-two cognitive (mind wandering and planning to compose) and two transcription (handwriting and spelling). Presence or absence of ADHD was correlated with brain connectivity on all four fMRI writing tasks during scanning, rather than just on the fMRI handwriting task as predicted based on prior research...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008418/regulation-of-group-i-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-by-mapk-erk-in-neurons
#20
Li-Min Mao, John Q Wang
Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes) are regulated by protein kinases. A recent focus is mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). A prototypic subclass of MAPKs, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), is densely expressed in adult brain postmitotic neurons. This kinase resides in not only the cytoplasm around the nucleus, also the neuronal peripheral structures such as synapses. Recombinant ERK2 binds to C terminal tails of mGluR1a in vitro and native ERK1/2 forms complexes with mGluR1/5 in neurons in vivo...
2016: Journal of Nature and Science
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