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Nature Plants

Nicholas J Grantham, Joel Wurman-Rodrich, Oliver M Terrett, Jan J Lyczakowski, Katherine Stott, Dinu Iuga, Thomas J Simmons, Mylene Durand-Tardif, Steven P Brown, Ray Dupree, Marta Busse-Wicher, Paul Dupree
Xylan and cellulose are abundant polysaccharides in vascular plants and essential for secondary cell wall strength. Acetate or glucuronic acid decorations are exclusively found on even-numbered residues in most of the glucuronoxylan polymer. It has been proposed that this even-specific positioning of the decorations might permit docking of xylan onto the hydrophilic face of a cellulose microfibril (1-3) . Consequently, xylan adopts a flattened ribbon-like twofold screw conformation when bound to cellulose in the cell wall (4) ...
October 9, 2017: Nature Plants
Hiro-Oki Iwakawa, Yukihide Tomari
A global analysis of translation efficiency and RNA accumulation revealed that microRNAs in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas regulate target gene expression via RNA destabilization and translational repression like land plants and metazoans, yet in a different way.
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Tamar Azoulay-Shemer, Po-Kai Hsu, Julian I Schroeder
Gibberellins (GAs) control key growth and developmental processes in plants. Real-time monitoring of GA concentrations in living tissues is critical for understanding the actions of this hormone class. A first-generation optogenetic GA-nano-indicator now illuminates the effects of GA levels on cell length and light signalling.
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Betty Y-W Chung, Michael J Deery, Arnoud J Groen, Julie Howard, David C Baulcombe
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 21-24-nucleotide RNAs present in many eukaryotes that regulate gene expression as part of the RNA-induced silencing complex. The sequence identity of the miRNA provides the specificity to guide the silencing effector Argonaute (AGO) protein to target mRNAs via a base-pairing process (1) . The AGO complex promotes translation repression and/or accelerated decay of this target mRNA (2) . There is overwhelming evidence both in vivo and in vitro that translation repression plays a major role (3-7) ...
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Michael J Holdsworth
A mechanism by which plants detect and respond to oxygen starvation has been known for some years. Three recent papers suggest that we haven't been seeing the full picture.
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Yongchan Lee, Tomohiro Nishizawa, Mizuki Takemoto, Kaoru Kumazaki, Keitaro Yamashita, Kunio Hirata, Ayumi Minoda, Satoru Nagatoishi, Kouhei Tsumoto, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Osamu Nureki
The triose-phosphate/phosphate translocator (TPT) catalyses the strict 1:1 exchange of triose-phosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate across the chloroplast envelope, and plays crucial roles in photosynthesis. Despite rigorous study for more than 40 years, the molecular mechanism of TPT is poorly understood because of the lack of structural information. Here we report crystal structures of TPT bound to two different substrates, 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate, in occluded conformations...
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Karsten Fischer, Andreas P M Weber
Plastids are integrated into the cellular metabolism by several metabolite and ion transporters. The first crystal structure of one of these transporters, a member of the plastid phosphate transporter family, unravels a rocker-switch transport mode and serves as lead structure for other plastidial and endomembrane system transporters.
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Steven Stack
Temperature increases are associated with decreases in rainfall and ensuing crop yields. A recent study estimates that such warming over the last 30 years is responsible for 59,300 extra suicides in India, and proposes a new perspective to contextualize the linked effects of global warming in affected agricultural communities.
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Lei Lei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Annalisa Rizza, Ankit Walia, Viviane Lanquar, Wolf B Frommer, Alexander M Jones
The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) is a key regulator of plant growth and development. Although the upstream regulation and downstream responses to GA vary across cells and tissues, developmental stages and environmental conditions, the spatiotemporal distribution of GA in vivo remains unclear. Using a combinatorial screen in yeast, we engineered an optogenetic biosensor, GIBBERELLIN PERCEPTION SENSOR 1 (GPS1), that senses nanomolar levels of bioactive GAs. Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a nuclear localized GPS1 report on GAs at the cellular level...
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Guillaume Tena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2, 2017: Nature Plants
Enli Wang, Pierre Martre, Zhigan Zhao, Frank Ewert, Andrea Maiorano, Reimund P Rötter, Bruce A Kimball, Michael J Ottman, Gerard W Wall, Jeffrey W White, Matthew P Reynolds, Phillip D Alderman, Pramod K Aggarwal, Jakarat Anothai, Bruno Basso, Christian Biernath, Davide Cammarano, Andrew J Challinor, Giacomo De Sanctis, Jordi Doltra, Benjamin Dumont, Elias Fereres, Margarita Garcia-Vila, Sebastian Gayler, Gerrit Hoogenboom, Leslie A Hunt, Roberto C Izaurralde, Mohamed Jabloun, Curtis D Jones, Kurt C Kersebaum, Ann-Kristin Koehler, Leilei Liu, Christoph Müller, Soora Naresh Kumar, Claas Nendel, Garry O'Leary, Jørgen E Olesen, Taru Palosuo, Eckart Priesack, Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Dominique Ripoche, Alex C Ruane, Mikhail A Semenov, Iurii Shcherbak, Claudio Stöckle, Pierre Stratonovitch, Thilo Streck, Iwan Supit, Fulu Tao, Peter Thorburn, Katharina Waha, Daniel Wallach, Zhimin Wang, Joost Wolf, Yan Zhu, Senthold Asseng
Nature Plants 3, 17102 (2017); published online 17 July 2017; corrected online 27 September 2017.
September 27, 2017: Nature Plants
Martin Dickman, Brett Williams, Yurong Li, Paul Figueiredo, Thomas Wolpert
Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD...
September 25, 2017: Nature Plants
Ross Mounce, Paul Smith, Samuel Brockington
Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens. We reveal that botanic gardens manage at least 105,634 species, equating to 30% of all plant species diversity, and conserve over 41% of known threatened species. However, we also reveal that botanic gardens are disproportionately temperate, with 93% of species held in the Northern Hemisphere...
September 25, 2017: Nature Plants
Chen Chen, Chenlong Li, Ying Wang, Justin Renaud, Gang Tian, Shrikaar Kambhampati, Behnaz Saatian, Vi Nguyen, Abdelali Hannoufa, Frédéric Marsolais, Ze-Chun Yuan, Kangfu Yu, Ryan S Austin, Jun Liu, Susanne E Kohalmi, Keqiang Wu, Shangzhi Huang, Yuhai Cui
Acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a central metabolite and the acetyl source for protein acetylation, particularly histone acetylation that promotes gene expression. However, the effect of acetyl-CoA levels on histone acetylation status in plants remains unknown. Here, we show that malfunctioned cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase1 (ACC1) in Arabidopsis leads to elevated levels of acetyl-CoA and promotes histone hyperacetylation predominantly at lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27). The increase of H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac) is dependent on adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-citrate lyase which cleaves citrate to acetyl-CoA in the cytoplasm, and requires histone acetyltransferase GCN5...
September 25, 2017: Nature Plants
M Meyer, J A Cox, M D T Hitchings, L Burgin, M C Hort, D P Hodson, C A Gilligan
Infectious crop diseases spreading over large agricultural areas pose a threat to food security. Aggressive strains of the obligate pathogenic fungus Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici (Pgt), causing the crop disease wheat stem rust, have been detected in East Africa and the Middle East, where they lead to substantial economic losses and threaten livelihoods of farmers. The majority of commercially grown wheat cultivars worldwide are susceptible to these emerging strains, which pose a risk to global wheat production, because the fungal spores transmitting the disease can be wind-dispersed over regions and even continents (1-11) ...
September 25, 2017: Nature Plants
Chang Liu, Ying-Juan Cheng, Jia-Wei Wang, Detlef Weigel
The non-random three-dimensional organization of genomes is critical for many cellular processes. Recently, analyses of genome-wide chromatin packing in the model dicot plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been reported (1-4) . At a kilobase scale, the A. thaliana chromatin interaction network is highly correlated with a range of genomic and epigenomic features (1-4) . Surprisingly, topologically associated domains (TADs), which appear to be a prevalent structural feature of genome packing in many animal species, are not prominent in the A...
August 28, 2017: Nature Plants
Jun Lyu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2017: Nature Plants
Frédéric Chédin
New genomic maps reveal that R-loop structures formed upon hybridization of nascent RNA transcripts to the DNA template are a common characteristic of Arabidopsis chromatin that may have a broad impact on gene expression.
August 28, 2017: Nature Plants
Wei Xu, Hui Xu, Kuan Li, Yingxu Fan, Yang Liu, Xuerui Yang, Qianwen Sun
R-loops are functional structures in chromatin comprising one single-stranded DNA and a DNA:RNA hybrid. Here, we report ssDRIP-seq, a single-strand DNA ligation-based library preparation technique for genome-wide identification of R-loops. When applied in Arabidopsis, ssDRIP-seq exhibits high efficiency, low bias and strand specificity. We found that Arabidopsis R-loops are enriched by both AT and GC skews, and are formed in the sense and antisense orientations. R-loops are strongly enriched in gene promoters and gene bodies, and are highly associated with noncoding RNA and repetitive genomic regions...
August 28, 2017: Nature Plants
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