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Advances in Medicine

Vidya A Holla, L K Chatra, Prashanth Shenai, Devika Shetty, Ashwini Baliga
Aim and Objectives. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant disorder associated with the usage of areca nut. Usage of processed forms of areca nut is popular among the youth and its carcinogenic effects are not well known. Due to large immigrant population, various patterns of areca nut usage are seen. The aim of this study is to assess the various quid chewing patterns and their association with severity of OSF. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 250 cases clinically and histologically diagnosed as having OSF lesion that were selected and subjected to a detailed habit history which was recorded through preformed questionnaire...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Nisha Panth, Keshav Raj Paudel, Kalpana Parajuli
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been the prime cause of mortality worldwide for decades. However, the underlying mechanism of their pathogenesis is not fully clear yet. It has been already established that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a vital role in the progression of CVDs. ROS are chemically unstable reactive free radicals containing oxygen, normally produced by xanthine oxidase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, lipoxygenases, or mitochondria or due to the uncoupling of nitric oxide synthase in vascular cells...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Afshin Mohammad Alizadeh, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani, Mitra Rahimi, Mohammad Mashayekhian, Behrooz Hashemi Domeneh, Peyman Erfantalab, Ali Ostadi
The aim of the current study is to compare three different methods of treatment of snake bite to determine the most efficient one. To unify the protocol of snake bite treatment in our center, we retrospectively reviewed files of the snake-bitten patients who had been referred to us between 2010 and 2014. They were contacted for follow-up using phone calls. Demographic and on-arrival characteristics, protocol used for treatment (WHO/Haddad/GF), and outcome/complications were evaluated. Patients were entered into one of the protocol groups and compared...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Olaf Suess, Markus Schomacher
Aim. Transpedicular screw fixation is widely used in spinal surgery. But the insertion of pedicle screws can sometimes be challenging because of the variability in pedicle size and the proximity of nerve roots. Methods. We detected intraoperatively the sensitivity for iatrogenic pedicel perforation with a hand-held electronic conductivity measurement device (ECD) that measures electrical conductivity of tissue-medium surrounding the instrument tip. ECD was used to guide the placement of 84 pedicle screws in 15 patients undergoing surgery for tumor or degenerative spinal disease at various spinal levels from T8 to L5...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Gita Faghihi, Azam Elahipoor, Fariba Iraji, Shadi Behfar, Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini
Introduction. Actinic keratoses (AKs), a premalignant skin lesion, are a common lesion in fair skin. Although destructive treatment remains the gold standard for AKs, medical therapies may be preferable due to the comfort and reliability .This study aims to compare the effects of topical 1% colchicine gel and 3% diclofenac sodium gel in AKs. Materials and Methods. In this randomized double-blind study, 70 lesions were selected. Patients were randomized before receiving either 1% colchicine gel or 3% diclofenac sodium cream twice a day for 6 weeks...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Ashraf Tashakori, Forough Riahi, Amin Mohammadpour
Objective. Today, obesity and depression are two major illnesses that are on the rise all over the world and threaten human health. This research was done to determine the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and depression among Ahvaz high school female students. Method. In a descriptive-analytical study using stratified random sampling, 400 female high school students in academic year of 2013-2014 were picked and their height and weight were measured. BMI was classified based on World Health Organization classification...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Ruta Sakiene, Alvita Vilkeviciute, Loresa Kriauciuniene, Vilma Jurate Balciuniene, Dovile Buteikiene, Goda Miniauskiene, Rasa Liutkeviciene
Background. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in elderly individuals where aetiology and pathophysiology of age-related macular degeneration are not absolutely clear. Purpose. To determine the frequency of the genotype of rs2108622 in patients with early and exudative age-related macular degeneration. Methods. The study enrolled 190 patients with early age-related macular degeneration, 181 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (eAMD), and a random sample of 210 subjects from the general population (control group)...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Khalid Abusaada, Fnu Asad-Ur-Rahman, Vladimir Pech, Umair Majeed, Shengchuan Dai, Xiang Zhu, Sally A Litherland
Background. Blatchford and AIMS65 scores were developed to risk stratify patients with upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB). We sought to assess the performance of Blatchford and AIMS65 scores in predicting outcomes in elderly patients with nonvariceal UGIB. Methods. A retrospective cohort study of elderly patients (over 65 years of age) with nonvariceal UGIB admitted to a tertiary care center. Primary outcome was a combined outcome of in-hospital mortality, need for any therapeutic endoscopic, radiologic, or surgical intervention, rebleeding within 30 days, or blood transfusion...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Elham Baghdadi, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Sassan Rezaie, Sara Abolghasem, Neda Kiasat, Zahra Salehi, Somayeh Sharifynia, Farzad Aala
Aims. Biofilms formed by Candida species which associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species isolated from endotracheal tubes from ICU patients. Methods. One hundred forty ICU patients with tracheal tubes who were intubated and mechanically ventilated were surveyed for endotracheal tube biofilms. Samples were processed for quantitative microbial culture. Yeast isolates were identified to the species level based on morphological characteristics and their identity was confirmed by PCR-RFLP...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Mohammad Hashemi, Mahnaz Sandoughi, Seyed Amirhossein Fazeli, Gholamreza Bahari, Maryam Rezaei, Zahra Zakeri
Purpose/Background. Mounting evidence designates that HLA-G plays a role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and autoimmune diseases. There are controversial reports concerning the impact of HLA-G gene polymorphism on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was aimed at examining the impact of 14 bp ins/del and +3142G>C polymorphism with susceptibility and early disease activity in RA patients in a sample of the Iranian population. Methods. This case-control study was done on 194 patients with RA and 158 healthy subjects...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Ahmet Ali Tuncer, Mehmet Fatih Bozkurt, Tulay Koken, Nurhan Dogan, Mine Kanat Pektaş, Didem Baskin Embleton
Objective. This study aims to evaluate whether alpha-lipoic acid and/or coenzyme Q10 can protect the prepubertal ovarian tissue from ischemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental rat model of ovarian torsion. Materials and Methods. Forty-two female preadolescent Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups randomly. The sham group had laparotomy without torsion; the other groups had torsion/detorsion procedure. After undergoing torsion, group 2 received saline, group 3 received olive oil, group 4 received alpha-lipoic acid, group 5 received coenzyme Q10, and group 6 received both alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 orally...
2016: Advances in Medicine
R Khonde Kumbu, K Mbanzulu Makola, Lu Bin
Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Emeka B Kesieme, Peter O Okokhere, Christopher Ojemiega Iruolagbe, Angela Odike, Clifford Owobu, Theophilus Akhigbe
Background. The diagnosis and treatment of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade have evolved over the years with a tendency towards a more comprehensive diagnostic workup and less traumatic intervention. Method. We reviewed and analysed the data of 32 consecutive patients who underwent surgery on account of massive pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in a semiurban university hospital in Nigeria from February 2010 to February 2016. Results. The majority of patients (34.4%) were between 31 and 40 years...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Vishnu Kaniyarakkal, Nizamuddin Mundangalam, Anitha Puduvail Moorkoth, Sheela Mathew
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related opportunistic infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in susceptible population. This study aims to negate the paucity of data regarding the relation between CD4 levels, prevalence of enteric parasites, and the outcome of treatment with HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) and Cotrimoxazole in Kerala, India. Multiple stool samples from 200 patients in a cross-sectional study were subjected to microscopy and Cryptosporidium stool antigen ELISA...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Kelechi E Okonta, Emmanuel O Ocheli, Peter D Okoh
Background. There are no available literatures on massive pleural effusions (MPE) in our country. Aim. To determine the aetiology of MPE and compare the mortality rate between malignant and nonmalignant MPE in adult Nigerians. Methods. A prospective study of all the patients diagnosed with nontraumatic pleural fluid collections for one year in two tertiary federal hospitals in Southern Nigeria. A total of 101 consecutive patients with pleural fluid collections were studied. Diagnoses were made by clinical features and laboratory and radiological investigations...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Loubna Shamseddine, Farid Chaaban
Objectives. To investigate the influence of a contra bevel on the fracture resistance of teeth restored with cast post and core. Materials and Methods. Sixty plastic analogues of an upper incisor were endodontically treated and prepared with 6° internal taper and 2 mm of ferrule in order to receive a cast post and core. The prepared samples were divided into two groups (n = 30); the first group serves as control while the second group was prepared with an external 30° bevel on the buccal and lingual walls...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Shimaa Nour Moursi Ahmed, Hideo Saka, Hamdy Ali Mohammadien, Ola Alkady, Masahide Oki, Yoshimasa Tanikawa, Rie Tsuboi, Masahiro Aoyama, Keiji Sugiyama
Objectives. To highlight the possible complications of medical thoracoscopy (MT) and how to avoid them. Methods. A retrospective and prospective analysis of 127 patients undergoing MT in Nagoya Medical Center (NMC) and Toyota Kosei Hospital. The data about complications was obtained from the patients, notes on the computer system, and radiographs. Results. The median age was 71.0 (range, 33.0-92.0) years and 101 (79.5%) were males. The median time with chest drain after procedure was 7.0 (range, 0.0-47.0) days and cases with talc poudrage were 30 (23...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Desalegne Amare Zelellw, Teketo Kassaw Tegegne, Girma Alem Getie
Introduction. Universal use of partograph is recommended during labor, to improve maternal and fetal outcome. The aim was to assess knowledge and attitude of obstetric caregivers about partograph and associated factors. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 273 study participants. Study facilities and study units were selected using simple random sampling technique. Midwives, Nurses, Public Health Officers, Medical Doctors, and masters in Emergency Surgery and Obstetric were included in the study...
2016: Advances in Medicine
Patrick E Akpaka, Shivnarine Kissoon, Padman Jayaratne
Geographic spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) clones in cities, countries, or even continents has been identified by molecular techniques. This study aimed at characterizing virulent genes and determining genetic relatedness of 45 VRE isolates from Trinidad and Tobago using molecular tools, including polymerase chain reaction, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The majority (84%) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium possessing vanA gene while the rest (16%) were Enterococcus faecalis possessing vanB...
2016: Advances in Medicine
T D Jones, A Kefi, S Sun, M Cho, S B Alapati
Introduction. HyStem-C™ is a commercially available injectable hydrogel composed of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), hyaluronan (HA), and gelatin (Gn). These components can be mechanically tuned to enhance cell viability and spreading. Methods. The concentration of PEGDA with an added disulfide bond (PEGSSDA) was varied from 0.5 to 8.0% (w/v) to determine the optimal concentration for injectable clinical application. We evaluated the cell viability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) embedded in 2% (w/v) PEGSSDA-HA-Gn hydrogels...
2016: Advances in Medicine
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