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Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652803/hypoxia-supports-epicardial-cell-differentiation-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-the-activation-of-the-tgf%C3%AE-pathway
#1
Jiayi Tao, Joey V Barnett, Michiko Watanabe, Diana Ramírez-Bergeron
Epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) are an important pool of multipotent cardiovascular progenitor cells. Through epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), EPDCs invade the subepicardium and myocardium and further differentiate into several cell types required for coronary vessel formation. We previously showed that epicardial hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling mediates the invasion of vascular precursor cells critical for patterning the coronary vasculature. Here, we examine the regulatory role of hypoxia (1% oxygen) on EPDC differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534001/the-popeye-domain-containing-genes-and-their-function-as-camp-effector-proteins-in-striated-muscle
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Brand
The Popeye domain containing (POPDC) genes encode transmembrane proteins, which are abundantly expressed in striated muscle cells. Hallmarks of the POPDC proteins are the presence of three transmembrane domains and the Popeye domain, which makes up a large part of the cytoplasmic portion of the protein and functions as a cAMP-binding domain. Interestingly, despite the prediction of structural similarity between the Popeye domain and other cAMP binding domains, at the protein sequence level they strongly differ from each other suggesting an independent evolutionary origin of POPDC proteins...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533995/using-camp-sensors-to-study-cardiac-nanodomains
#3
REVIEW
Katharina Schleicher, Manuela Zaccolo
3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling plays a major role in the cardiac myocyte response to extracellular stimulation by hormones and neurotransmitters. In recent years, evidence has accumulated demonstrating that the cAMP response to different extracellular agonists is not uniform: depending on the stimulus, cAMP signals of different amplitudes and kinetics are generated in different subcellular compartments, eliciting defined physiological effects. In this review, we focus on how real-time imaging using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based reporters has provided mechanistic insight into the compartmentalisation of the cAMP signalling pathway and allowed for the precise definition of the regulation and function of subcellular cAMP nanodomains...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517992/multi-scale-assessments-of-cardiac-electrophysiology-reveal-regional-heterogeneity-in-health-and-disease
#4
REVIEW
Catherine E Lipovsky, Brittany D Brumback, Aditi Khandekar, Stacey L Rentschler
The left and right ventricles of the four-chambered heart have distinct developmental origins and functions. Chamber-specific developmental programming underlies the differential gene expression of ion channel subunits regulating cardiac electrophysiology that persists into adulthood. Here, we discuss regional specific electrical responses to genetic mutations and cardiac stressors, their clinical correlations, and describe many of the multi-scale techniques commonly used to analyze electrophysiological regional heterogeneity...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518984/oxidative-dna-damage-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-as-predictors-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-prediabetic-subjects
#5
Roshan Kumar Mahat, Neelima Singh, Akshara Gupta, Vedika Rathore
Prediabetes is considered as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The present study was conducted with the aim of finding out the relationship between oxidative DNA damage and carotid intima media thickness for the prediction of cardiovascular disease in prediabetic subjects. The study included 100 prediabetic subjects and 100 normal individuals as controls. In both cases and controls, 8-OHdG was measured by ELISA, and CIMT was measured by B mode ultrasonography...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461511/roles-of-a-kinase-anchoring-proteins-and-phosphodiesterases-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#6
REVIEW
Maria Ercu, Enno Klussmann
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are essential enzymes in the cyclic adenosine 3'-5' monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade. They establish local cAMP pools by controlling the intensity, duration and compartmentalization of cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling. Various members of the AKAP and PDE families are expressed in the cardiovascular system and direct important processes maintaining homeostatic functioning of the heart and vasculature, e.g., the endothelial barrier function and excitation-contraction coupling...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439517/hyperglycemia-alters-the-structure-and-hemodynamics-of-the-developing-embryonic-heart
#7
Taylor B Lawson, Devon E Scott-Drechsel, Venkat Keshav Chivukula, Sandra Rugonyi, Kent L Thornburg, Monica T Hinds
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) represent the most common form of human birth defects; approximately one-third of heart defects involve malformations of the outflow tract (OFT). Maternal diabetes increases the risk of CHD by 3-5 fold. During heart organogenesis, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia on hemodynamics, which are critical to normal heart development. Heart development prior to septation in the chick embryo was studied under hyperglycemic conditions. Sustained hyperglycemic conditions were induced, raising the average plasma glucose concentration from 70 mg/dL to 180 mg/dL, akin to the fasting plasma glucose of a patient with diabetes...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419761/a-kinase-anchoring-protein-lbc-a-molecular-scaffold-involved-in-cardiac-protection
#8
REVIEW
Dario Diviani, Halima Osman, Erica Reggi
Heart failure is a lethal disease that can develop after myocardial infarction, hypertension, or anticancer therapy. In the damaged heart, loss of function is mainly due to cardiomyocyte death and associated cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. In this context, A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) constitute a family of scaffolding proteins that facilitate the spatiotemporal activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and other transduction enzymes involved in cardiac remodeling...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415491/is-an-appreciation-of-isomerism-the-key-to-unlocking-the-mysteries-of-the-cardiac-findings-in-heterotaxy
#9
REVIEW
Robert H Anderson, Diane E Spicer, Rohit Loomba
Pediatric cardiologists treating patients with severe congenital cardiac defects define "visceral heterotaxy" on the basis of isomerism of the atrial appendages. The isomeric features represent an obvious manifestation of disruption of left-right asymmetry during embryonic development. Thus, there are two subsets of individuals within the overall syndrome, with features of either right or left isomerism. Within the heart, it is only the atrial appendages that are truly isomeric. The remainder of the cardiac components shows variable morphology, as does the arrangement of the remaining body organs...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415428/functions-of-pde3-isoforms-in-cardiac-muscle
#10
REVIEW
Matthew Movsesian, Faiyaz Ahmad, Emilio Hirsch
Isoforms in the PDE3 family of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases have important roles in cyclic nucleotide-mediated signalling in cardiac myocytes. These enzymes are targeted by inhibitors used to increase contractility in patients with heart failure, with a combination of beneficial and adverse effects on clinical outcomes. This review covers relevant aspects of the molecular biology of the isoforms that have been identified in cardiac myocytes; the roles of these enzymes in modulating cAMP-mediated signalling and the processes mediated thereby; and the potential for targeting these enzymes to improve the profile of clinical responses...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401660/epac-function-and-camp-scaffolds-in-the-heart-and-lung
#11
REVIEW
Marion Laudette, Haoxiao Zuo, Frank Lezoualc'h, Martina Schmidt
Evidence collected over the last ten years indicates that Epac and cAMP scaffold proteins play a critical role in integrating and transducing multiple signaling pathways at the basis of cardiac and lung physiopathology. Some of the deleterious effects of Epac, such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and arrhythmia, initially described in vitro, have been confirmed in genetically modified mice for Epac1 and Epac2. Similar recent findings have been collected in the lung. The following sections will describe how Epac and cAMP signalosomes in different subcellular compartments may contribute to cardiac and lung diseases...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385021/pde4-mediated-camp-signalling
#12
REVIEW
Bracy A Fertig, George S Baillie
cAMP is the archetypal and ubiquitous second messenger utilised for the fine control of many cardiovascular cell signalling systems. The ability of cAMP to elicit cell surface receptor-specific responses relies on its compartmentalisation by cAMP hydrolysing enzymes known as phosphodiesterases. One family of these enzymes, PDE4, is particularly important in the cardiovascular system, where it has been extensively studied and shown to orchestrate complex, localised signalling that underpins many crucial functions of the heart...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370121/polymorphisms-mutations-in-a-kinase-anchoring-proteins-akaps-role-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#13
REVIEW
Santosh V Suryavanshi, Shweta M Jadhav, Bradley K McConnell
A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) belong to a family of scaffolding proteins that bind to protein kinase A (PKA) by definition and a variety of crucial proteins, including kinases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases. By scaffolding these proteins together, AKAPs build a "signalosome" at specific subcellular locations and compartmentalize PKA signaling. Thus, AKAPs are important for signal transduction after upstream activation of receptors ensuring accuracy and precision of intracellular PKA-dependent signaling pathways...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367584/cyclic-nucleotide-directed-protein-kinases-in-cardiovascular-inflammation-and-growth
#14
REVIEW
Nathan A Holland, Jake T Francisco, Sean C Johnson, Joshua S Morgan, Troy J Dennis, Nishitha R Gadireddy, David A Tulis
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including myocardial infarction (MI) and peripheral or coronary artery disease (PAD, CAD), remains the number one killer of individuals in the United States and worldwide, accounting for nearly 18 million (>30%) global deaths annually. Despite considerable basic science and clinical investigation aimed at identifying key etiologic components of and potential therapeutic targets for CVD, the number of individuals afflicted with these dreaded diseases continues to rise. Of the many biochemical, molecular, and cellular elements and processes characterized to date that have potential to control foundational facets of CVD, the multifaceted cyclic nucleotide pathways continue to be of primary basic science and clinical interest...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367582/imaging-of-pde2-and-pde3-mediated-cgmp-to-camp-cross-talk-in-cardiomyocytes
#15
REVIEW
Nikoleta Pavlaki, Viacheslav O Nikolaev
Cyclic nucleotides 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are important second messengers that regulate cardiovascular function and disease by acting in discrete subcellular microdomains. Signaling compartmentation at these locations is often regulated by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Some PDEs are also involved in the cross-talk between the two second messengers. The purpose of this review is to summarize and highlight recent findings about the role of PDE2 and PDE3 in cardiomyocyte cyclic nucleotide compartmentation and visualization of this process using live cell imaging techniques...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367581/pre-eclampsia-and-eclampsia-an-update-on-the-pharmacological-treatment-applied-in-portugal
#16
REVIEW
Gonçalo Miguel Peres, Melissa Mariana, Elisa Cairrão
Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are two hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, considered major causes of maternal and perinatal death worldwide. Pre-eclampsia is a multisystemic disease characterized by the development of hypertension after 20 weeks of gestation, with the presence of proteinuria or, in its absence, of signs or symptoms indicative of target organ injury. Eclampsia represents the consequence of brain injuries caused by pre-eclampsia. The correct diagnosis and classification of the disease are essential, since the therapies for the mild and severe forms of pre-eclampsia are different...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367580/function-of-adenylyl-cyclase-in-heart-the-akap-connection
#17
REVIEW
Tanya A Baldwin, Carmen W Dessauer
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), synthesized by adenylyl cyclase (AC), is a universal second messenger that regulates various aspects of cardiac physiology from contraction rate to the initiation of cardioprotective stress response pathways. Local pools of cAMP are maintained by macromolecular complexes formed by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). AKAPs facilitate control by bringing together regulators of the cAMP pathway including G-protein-coupled receptors, ACs, and downstream effectors of cAMP to finely tune signaling...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367579/vertebrate-left-right-asymmetry-what-can-nodal-cascade-gene-expression-patterns-tell-us
#18
REVIEW
Axel Schweickert, Tim Ott, Sabrina Kurz, Melanie Tingler, Markus Maerker, Franziska Fuhl, Martin Blum
Laterality of inner organs is a wide-spread characteristic of vertebrates and beyond. It is ultimately controlled by the left-asymmetric activation of the Nodal signaling cascade in the lateral plate mesoderm of the neurula stage embryo, which results from a cilia-driven leftward flow of extracellular fluids at the left-right organizer. This scenario is widely accepted for laterality determination in wildtype specimens. Deviations from this norm come in different flavors. At the level of organ morphogenesis, laterality may be inverted (situs inversus) or non-concordant with respect to the main body axis (situs ambiguus or heterotaxia)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367553/hemodynamics-modify-collagen-deposition-in-the-early-embryonic-chicken-heart-outflow-tract
#19
Monique Y Rennie, Stephanie Stovall, James P Carson, Michael Danilchik, Kent L Thornburg, Sandra Rugonyi
Blood flow is critical for normal cardiac development. Hemodynamic stimuli outside of normal ranges can lead to overt cardiac defects, but how early heart tissue remodels in response to altered hemodynamics is poorly understood. This study investigated changes in tissue collagen in response to hemodynamic overload in the chicken embryonic heart outflow tract (OFT) during tubular heart stages (HH18 to HH24, ~24 h). A suture tied around the OFT at HH18 was tightened to constrict the lumen for ~24 h (constriction range at HH24: 15-60%)...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367552/the-role-of-cerl2-in-the-establishment-of-left-right-asymmetries-during-axis-formation-and-heart-development
#20
REVIEW
José A Belo, Sara Marques, José M Inácio
The formation of the asymmetric left-right (LR) body axis is one of the fundamental aspects of vertebrate embryonic development, and one still raising passionate discussions among scientists. Although the conserved role of nodal is unquestionable in this process, several of the details around this signaling cascade are still unanswered. To further understand this mechanism, we have been studying Cerberus-like 2 (Cerl2), an inhibitor of Nodal, and its role in the generation of asymmetries in the early vertebrate embryo...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
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