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Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease

Amélie Calmont, Naomi Anderson, Jenifer P Suntharalingham, Richard Ang, Andrew Tinker, Peter J Scambler
Haploinsufficiency of the T-box transcription factor TBX1 is responsible for many features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Tbx1 is expressed dynamically in the pharyngeal apparatus during mouse development and Tbx1 homozygous mutants display numerous severe defects including abnormal cranial ganglion formation and neural crest cell defects. These abnormalities prompted us to investigate whether parasympathetic (vagal) innervation of the heart was affected in Tbx1 mutant embryos. In this report, we used an allelic series of Tbx1 mouse mutants, embryo tissue explants and cardiac electrophysiology to characterise, in detail, the function of Tbx1 in vagal innervation of the heart...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Nur Ilyana Jaafar, Ramachandran Vasudevan, Patimah Ismail, Ahmad Fazli Abdul Aziz, Nur Afiqah Mohamad, Geetha Kandavello, Raja Nurzatul Effah Raja Adnan, Vinod Balasubramaniam
Genetic polymorphisms are variations in DNA sequences which can influence either disease susceptibility, severity, or prognosis. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the complications that occurs in certain patients who have atrial septal defect (ASD). This study seeks to determine the association of gene polymorphisms with the pathogenesis of PAH in ASD patients. This study was conducted on 30 ASD patients with PAH, and 50 ASD patients who were not diagnosed with PAH. All respondents were Malay...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
María Fatima Garcés Da Silva, Yamil Adrian Guarin, Yenny Carrero, Hilda Stekman, María Luisa Núñez Bello, Celsy Hernández, Rafael Apitz, Mercedes Fernández-Mestre, Germán Camejo
Purpose: Fasting or postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is considered an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) is involved in the intracellular transport and metabolism of fatty acids. The presence of the Ala54Thr polymorphism of the FABP2 gene appears to be involved in postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. We explored the possible association of the Ala54Thr polymorphism with fat intolerance in apparently healthy, fasting, normolipidemic subjects with normal body-mass index and without diabetes...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Bjarke Jensen, Theodoor H Smit
That form and function are related is a maxim of anatomy and physiology. Yet, form-function relations can be difficult to prove. Human subjects with excessive trabeculated myocardium in the left ventricle, for example, are diagnosed with non-compaction cardiomyopathy, but the extent of trabeculations may be without relation to ejection fraction. Rather than rejecting a relation between form and function, we may ask whether the salient function is assessed. Is there a relation to electrical propagation, mean arterial blood pressure, or propensity to form blood clots? In addition, how should the extent of trabeculated muscle be assessed? While reviewing literature on trabeculated muscle, we applied Tinbergen's four types of causation-how does it work, why does it work, how is it made, and why did it evolve-to better parse what is meant by form and function...
September 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Kouassi T Kouassi, Palanikumar Gunasekar, Devendra K Agrawal, Gopal P Jadhav
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are as menacing as ever and still continue to kill adults worldwide, notwithstanding tremendous efforts to decrease their consequent mortality and morbidity. Lately, a growing body of research indicated that inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and complications of CVDs. A receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) was shown to induce and amplify the inflammation in both acute and chronic disease' pathogenesis and progression, which hence makes it one of the most important complication factors of CVDs...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Robert H Anderson, Shumpei Mori, Diane E Spicer, Damian Sanchez-Quintana, Bjarke Jensen
It is now well over 100 years since Sunao Tawara clarified the location of the axis of the specialised myocardium responsible for producing coordinated ventricular activation. Prior to that stellar publication, controversies had raged as to how many bundles crossed the place of the atrioventricular insulation as found in mammalian hearts, as well as the very existence of the bundle initially described by Wilhelm His Junior. It is, perhaps surprising that controversies continue, despite the multiple investigations that have taken place since the publication of Tawara's monograph...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Saranya Ravi, Traci L Parry, Monte S Willis, Pamela Lockyer, Cam Patterson, James R Bain, Robert D Stevens, Olga R Ilkayeva, Christopher B Newgard, Jonathan C Schisler
We previously reported how the loss of CHIP expression (Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-Interacting Protein) during pressure overload resulted in robust cardiac dysfunction, which was accompanied by a failure to maintain ATP levels in the face of increased energy demand. In this study, we analyzed the cardiac metabolome after seven days of pressure overload and found an increase in long-chain and medium-chain fatty acid metabolites in wild-type hearts. This response was attenuated in mice that lack expression of CHIP ( CHIP -/- )...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Christian Legerer, Zakaria A Almsherqi, Craig S McLachlan
Elastic extra-aortic wrapping is a potential non-pharmacological way to improve aortic compliance and treat isolated systolic hypertension associated with a stiffened aorta. We aimed to use computer simulations to re-evaluate whether there is aortic shape distortion in aortic wrapping to achieve greater elasticity of the wrapped aortic segment. Non-linear transient numerical analysis based on an idealized hyper-elastic single-layered aorta model was performed to simulate the force/displacement regimes of external aortic wrapping...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Vicente Mora, Ildefonso Roldán, Elena Romero, Assumpció Saurí, Diana Romero, Jana Pérez-Gozalbo, Natalia Ugalde, Javier Bertolín, Melisa Rodriguez-Israel, Carmen Pérez-Olivares Delgado, Jorge A Lowenstein
BACKGROUND: According to the ventricular myocardial band model, the diastolic isovolumetric period is a contraction phenomenon. Our objective was to employ speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) to analyze myocardial deformation of the left ventricle (LV) and to confirm if it supports the myocardial band model. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in which 90 healthy volunteers were recruited. We evaluated different types of postsystolic shortening (PSS) from an LV longitudinal strain study...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Marina Campione, Thomas Brand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Maria Giovanna Lupo, Nicola Ferri
Genetic and clinical studies have demonstrated that loss-of-function variants in the angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) gene are associated with decreased plasma levels of triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), which leads to a significant reduction in cardiovascular risk. For this reason, ANGPTL3 is considered an important new pharmacological target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) together with more conventional lipid lowering therapies, such as statins and anti proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Rashid Mir, Musadiq Bhat, Jamsheed Javid, Chandan Jha, Alpana Saxena, Shaheen Banu
Purpose : Catechol- O -methyltransferase (COMT) plays a central role in DNA repair and estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 4 G > A or Val108 > 158Met or rs4680 G > A influences COMT enzyme activity. The three phenotypes of the COMT enzyme activities include COMT A/A with low enzyme activity, COMT A/G with medium enzyme activity and COMT G/G with high enzyme activity. The Met allele is associated with low enzymatic activity resulting in higher levels of prefrontal dopamine...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Tiffany L Dill, Francisco J Naya
The imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 genomic region harbors a noncoding RNA cluster encoding over fifty microRNAs (miRNAs), three long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) gene array. These distinct noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are thought to arise from a single polycistronic transcript that is subsequently processed into individual ncRNAs, each with important roles in diverse cellular contexts. Considering these ncRNAs are derived from a polycistron, it is possible that some coordinately regulate discrete biological processes in the heart...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Eva Hurt-Camejo, Germán Camejo
Experimental and clinical data indicate that the initiation and progress of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations are first caused by circulating apoB-100 lipoproteins that enter and are retained in the arterial intima. Extracellular sulfated proteoglycans (PGs) of the intima are the retention agents. The PGs also initiate physical and biochemical lipoprotein degradation with the production of bioactive, lipid products that trigger an inflammatory response that leads to atherosclerosis. There are many simple methods for measuring abnormalities of circulating lipoproteins and their relation to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD)...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Vaia Raikou, Vasilios Kardalinos, Despina Kyriaki
INTRODUCTION: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is considered a main biomarker of oxidative stress, a common characteristic in end stage renal disease. We examined the relationship between ox-LDL serum concentrations and cardiovascular disease in permanent hemodiafiltration therapy patients. METHODS: Ox-LDL values were measured by ELISA and were corrected for LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in 96 participants and in 45 healthy control subjects. We performed chi-square tests and adjusted models for the role of ox-LDL on cardiovascular morbidity including coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic, diastolic dysfunction and peripheral arterial disease...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Robert S Stephenson, Peter Agger, Camilla Omann, Damian Sanchez-Quintana, Jonathan C Jarvis, Robert H Anderson
The precise nature of packing together of the cardiomyocytes within the ventricular walls has still to be determined. The spiraling nature of the chains of interconnected cardiomyocytes has long been recognized. As long ago as the end of the nineteenth century, Pettigrew had emphasized that the ventricular cone was not arranged on the basis of skeletal muscle. Despite this guidance, subsequent anatomists described entities such as “bulbo-spiral muscles”, with this notion of subunits culminating in the suggestion that the ventricular cone could be unwrapped so as to produce a “ventricular myocardial band”...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Gerald D Buckberg, Navin C Nanda, Christopher Nguyen, Mladen J Kocica
Cardiac dynamics are traditionally linked to a left ventricle, right ventricle, and septum morphology, a topography that differs from the heart's five-century-old anatomic description of containing a helix and circumferential wrap architectural configuration. Torrent Guasp's helical ventricular myocardial band (HVMB) defines this anatomy and its structure, and explains why the heart's six dynamic actions of narrowing, shortening, lengthening, widening, twisting, and uncoiling happen. The described structural findings will raise questions about deductions guiding "accepted cardiac mechanics", and their functional aspects will challenge and overturn them...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Azza M A M Abul-Fadl, Maha M Mourad, Alaa Ghamrawy, Ayah Ebada Sarhan
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a preventable disease that is prevalent in developing regions of the world. Its eradication from most of the developed world indicates that this disease can be controlled and eliminated. Aim: To conduct an in-depth analysis of the trends and challenges of controlling RHD in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). Methodology: Global data from the World Health Organization (WHO) data banks were retrieved for total deaths and age standardized death rate per 100,000 (ASDR) by age group, sex, and year (from 2000 to 2015)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Chandan K Jha, Rashid Mir, Naina Khullar, Shaheena Banu, S M S Chahal
PURPOSE: The low-density lipoprotein receptor is responsible for the binding and uptake of plasma LDL particles and plays a critical role in maintaining cellular cholesterol homeostasis. LDLR gene SNP rs688 has been reported to be associated with increased plasma total and LDL cholesterol in several populations and can lead to elevated plasma LDL levels, resulting in an increased risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. This study aimed to explore genetic LDLR variant rs688 for its potential roles in coronary artery disease...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Laura Bouchareychas, Robert L Raffai
Apolipoprotein (apo) E stands out among plasma apolipoproteins through its unprecedented ability to protect against atherosclerosis. Although best recognized for its ability to mediate plasma lipoprotein clearance in the liver and protect against macrophage foam cell formation, our recent understanding of the influence that apoE can exert to control atherosclerosis has significantly widened. Among apoE's newfound athero-protective properties include an ability to control exaggerated hematopoiesis, blood monocyte activation and aortic stiffening in mice with hyperlipidemia...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
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