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Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925810/resolving-the-true-ventricular-mural-architecture
#1
REVIEW
Robert S Stephenson, Peter Agger, Camilla Omann, Damian Sanchez-Quintana, Jonathan C Jarvis, Robert H Anderson
The precise nature of packing together of the cardiomyocytes within the ventricular walls has still to be determined. The spiraling nature of the chains of interconnected cardiomyocytes has long been recognized. As long ago as the end of the nineteenth century, Pettigrew had emphasized that the ventricular cone was not arranged on the basis of skeletal muscle. Despite this guidance, subsequent anatomists described entities such as “bulbo-spiral muscles”, with this notion of subunits culminating in the suggestion that the ventricular cone could be unwrapped so as to produce a “ventricular myocardial band”...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867011/what-is-the-heart-anatomy-function-pathophysiology-and-misconceptions
#2
REVIEW
Gerald D Buckberg, Navin C Nanda, Christopher Nguyen, Mladen J Kocica
Cardiac dynamics are traditionally linked to a left ventricle, right ventricle, and septum morphology, a topography that differs from the heart's five-century-old anatomic description of containing a helix and circumferential wrap architectural configuration. Torrent Guasp's helical ventricular myocardial band (HVMB) defines this anatomy and its structure, and explains why the heart's six dynamic actions of narrowing, shortening, lengthening, widening, twisting, and uncoiling happen. The described structural findings will raise questions about deductions guiding "accepted cardiac mechanics", and their functional aspects will challenge and overturn them...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848951/trends-in-deaths-from-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-burden-and-challenges
#3
Azza M A M Abul-Fadl, Maha M Mourad, Alaa Ghamrawy, Ayah Ebada Sarhan
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a preventable disease that is prevalent in developing regions of the world. Its eradication from most of the developed world indicates that this disease can be controlled and eliminated. Aim: To conduct an in-depth analysis of the trends and challenges of controlling RHD in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). Methodology: Global data from the World Health Organization (WHO) data banks were retrieved for total deaths and age standardized death rate per 100,000 (ASDR) by age group, sex, and year (from 2000 to 2015)...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843469/-ldlr-rs688-tt-genotype-and-t-allele-are-associated-with-increased-susceptibility-to-coronary-artery-disease-a-case-control-study
#4
Chandan K Jha, Rashid Mir, Naina Khullar, Shaheena Banu, S M S Chahal
PURPOSE: The low-density lipoprotein receptor is responsible for the binding and uptake of plasma LDL particles and plays a critical role in maintaining cellular cholesterol homeostasis. LDLR gene SNP rs688 has been reported to be associated with increased plasma total and LDL cholesterol in several populations and can lead to elevated plasma LDL levels, resulting in an increased risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. This study aimed to explore genetic LDLR variant rs688 for its potential roles in coronary artery disease...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789495/apolipoprotein-e-and-atherosclerosis-from-lipoprotein-metabolism-to-microrna-control-of-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Laura Bouchareychas, Robert L Raffai
Apolipoprotein (apo) E stands out among plasma apolipoproteins through its unprecedented ability to protect against atherosclerosis. Although best recognized for its ability to mediate plasma lipoprotein clearance in the liver and protect against macrophage foam cell formation, our recent understanding of the influence that apoE can exert to control atherosclerosis has significantly widened. Among apoE's newfound athero-protective properties include an ability to control exaggerated hematopoiesis, blood monocyte activation and aortic stiffening in mice with hyperlipidemia...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751653/functional-significance-of-the-adcy10-dependent-intracellular-camp-compartments
#6
REVIEW
Sofya Pozdniakova, Yury Ladilov
Mounting evidence confirms the compartmentalized structure of evolutionarily conserved 3'⁻5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, which allows for simultaneous participation in a wide variety of physiological functions and ensures specificity, selectivity and signal strength. One important player in cAMP signaling is soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). The intracellular localization of sAC allows for the formation of unique intracellular cAMP microdomains that control various physiological and pathological processes...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751595/optical-electrophysiology-in-the-developing-heart
#7
REVIEW
Kandace Thomas, Julie Goudy, Trevor Henley, Michael Bressan
The heart is the first organ system to form in the embryo. Over the course of development, cardiomyocytes with differing morphogenetic, molecular, and physiological characteristics are specified and differentiate and integrate with one another to assemble a coordinated electromechanical pumping system that can function independently of any external stimulus. As congenital malformation of the heart presents the leading class of birth defects seen in humans, the molecular genetics of heart development have garnered much attention over the last half century...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747383/current-role-of-lipoprotein-apheresis-in-the-treatment-of-high-risk-patients
#8
REVIEW
Ulrich Julius
Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) is a therapeutic approach to save the lives of patients who are at an extremely high risk of developing cardiovascular events (CVE), especially after all other therapeutic options were not tolerated, or appeared not to be effective enough. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia represents a clear indication to start LA therapy. Another recognized indication is a severe hypercholesterolemia, which induced CVE, often in association with other risk factors. In the last years, an expressive elevation of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) emerged as an indication for LA...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738469/the-role-of-scarnas-in-adjusting-alternative-mrna-splicing-in-heart-development
#9
REVIEW
Chloe Nagasawa, Allison Ogren, Nataliya Kibiryeva, Jennifer Marshall, James E O'Brien, Naoya Kenmochi, Douglas C Bittel
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death in children <1 year of age. Despite intense effort in the last 10 years, most CHDs (~70%) still have an unknown etiology. Conotruncal based defects, such as Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), a common complex of devastating heart defects, typically requires surgical intervention in the first year of life. We reported that the noncoding transcriptome in myocardial tissue from children with TOF is characterized by significant variation in levels of expression of noncoding RNAs, and more specifically, a significant reduction in 12 small cajal body-associated RNAs (scaRNAs) in the right ventricle...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751502/the-development-of-compartmentation-of-camp-signaling-in-cardiomyocytes-the-role-of-t-tubules-and-caveolae-microdomains
#10
REVIEW
Navneet K Bhogal, Alveera Hasan, Julia Gorelik
3&prime;-5&prime;-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a signaling messenger produced in response to the stimulation of cellular receptors, and has a myriad of functional applications depending on the cell type. In the heart, cAMP is responsible for regulating the contraction rate and force; however, cAMP is also involved in multiple other functions. Compartmentation of cAMP production may explain the specificity of signaling following a stimulus. In particular, transverse tubules (T-tubules) and caveolae have been found to be critical structural components for the spatial confinement of cAMP in cardiomyocytes, as exemplified by beta-adrenergic receptor (&beta;-ARs) signaling...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724030/some-isolated-cardiac-malformations-can-be-related-to-laterality-defects
#11
REVIEW
Paolo Versacci, Flaminia Pugnaloni, Maria Cristina Digilio, Carolina Putotto, Marta Unolt, Giulio Calcagni, Anwar Baban, Bruno Marino
Human beings are characterized by a left⁻right asymmetric arrangement of their internal organs, and the heart is the first organ to break symmetry in the developing embryo. Aberrations in normal left⁻right axis determination during embryogenesis lead to a wide spectrum of abnormal internal laterality phenotypes, including situs inversus and heterotaxy . In more than 90% of instances, the latter condition is accompanied by complex and severe cardiovascular malformations. Atrioventricular canal defect and transposition of the great arteries&mdash;which are particularly frequent in the setting of heterotaxy &mdash;are commonly found in situs solitus with or without genetic syndromes...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724005/cholesterol-efflux-does-it-contribute-to-aortic-stiffening
#12
REVIEW
Shutan Liao, Craig S McLachlan
Aortic stiffness during cardiac contraction is defined by the rigidity of the aorta and the elastic resistance to deformation. Recent studies suggest that aortic stiffness may be associated with changes in cholesterol efflux in endothelial cells. This alteration in cholesterol efflux may directly affect endothelial function, extracellular matrix composition, and vascular smooth muscle cell function and behavior. These pathological changes favor an aortic stiffness phenotype. Among all of the proteins participating in the cholesterol efflux process, ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) appears to be the main contributor to arterial stiffness changes in terms of structural and cellular function...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690591/roles-of-pde1-in-pathological-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#13
REVIEW
Si Chen, Walter E Knight, Chen Yan
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction is a response to various stress stimuli and can result in reduced cardiac output and heart failure. Cyclic nucleotide signaling regulates several cardiac functions including contractility, remodeling, and fibrosis. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), by catalyzing the hydrolysis of cyclic nucleotides, are critical in the homeostasis of intracellular cyclic nucleotide signaling and hold great therapeutic potential as drug targets. Recent studies have revealed that the inhibition of the PDE family member PDE1 plays a protective role in pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction by the modulation of distinct cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671812/enlightening-the-association-between-bicuspid-aortic-valve-and-aortopathy
#14
REVIEW
Froso Sophocleous, Elena Giulia Milano, Giulia Pontecorboli, Pierpaolo Chivasso, Massimo Caputo, Cha Rajakaruna, Chiara Bucciarelli-Ducci, Costanza Emanueli, Giovanni Biglino
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients have an increased incidence of developing aortic dilation. Despite its importance, the pathogenesis of aortopathy in BAV is still largely undetermined. Nowadays, intense focus falls both on BAV morphology and progression of valvular dysfunction and on the development of aortic dilation. However, less is known about the relationship between aortic valve morphology and aortic dilation. A better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the homeostasis of the aortic wall, including the extracellular matrix, the plasticity of the vascular smooth cells, TGF&beta; signaling, and epigenetic dysregulation, is key to enlighten the mechanisms underpinning BAV-aortopathy development and progression...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671769/cgmp-signaling-and-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-plasticity
#15
REVIEW
Moritz Lehners, Hyazinth Dobrowinski, Susanne Feil, Robert Feil
Cyclic GMP regulates multiple cell types and functions of the cardiovascular system. This review summarizes the effects of cGMP on the growth and survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which display remarkable phenotypic plasticity during the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that VSMCs contribute to the development of atherosclerotic plaques by clonal expansion and transdifferentiation to macrophage-like cells. VSMCs express a variety of cGMP generators and effectors, including NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI), respectively...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652803/hypoxia-supports-epicardial-cell-differentiation-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-through-the-activation-of-the-tgf%C3%AE-pathway
#16
Jiayi Tao, Joey V Barnett, Michiko Watanabe, Diana Ramírez-Bergeron
Epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) are an important pool of multipotent cardiovascular progenitor cells. Through epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), EPDCs invade the subepicardium and myocardium and further differentiate into several cell types required for coronary vessel formation. We previously showed that epicardial hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling mediates the invasion of vascular precursor cells critical for patterning the coronary vasculature. Here, we examine the regulatory role of hypoxia (1% oxygen) on EPDC differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534001/the-popeye-domain-containing-genes-and-their-function-as-camp-effector-proteins-in-striated-muscle
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Brand
The Popeye domain containing (POPDC) genes encode transmembrane proteins, which are abundantly expressed in striated muscle cells. Hallmarks of the POPDC proteins are the presence of three transmembrane domains and the Popeye domain, which makes up a large part of the cytoplasmic portion of the protein and functions as a cAMP-binding domain. Interestingly, despite the prediction of structural similarity between the Popeye domain and other cAMP binding domains, at the protein sequence level they strongly differ from each other suggesting an independent evolutionary origin of POPDC proteins...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533995/using-camp-sensors-to-study-cardiac-nanodomains
#18
REVIEW
Katharina Schleicher, Manuela Zaccolo
3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling plays a major role in the cardiac myocyte response to extracellular stimulation by hormones and neurotransmitters. In recent years, evidence has accumulated demonstrating that the cAMP response to different extracellular agonists is not uniform: depending on the stimulus, cAMP signals of different amplitudes and kinetics are generated in different subcellular compartments, eliciting defined physiological effects. In this review, we focus on how real-time imaging using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based reporters has provided mechanistic insight into the compartmentalisation of the cAMP signalling pathway and allowed for the precise definition of the regulation and function of subcellular cAMP nanodomains...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517992/multi-scale-assessments-of-cardiac-electrophysiology-reveal-regional-heterogeneity-in-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Catherine E Lipovsky, Brittany D Brumback, Aditi Khandekar, Stacey L Rentschler
The left and right ventricles of the four-chambered heart have distinct developmental origins and functions. Chamber-specific developmental programming underlies the differential gene expression of ion channel subunits regulating cardiac electrophysiology that persists into adulthood. Here, we discuss regional specific electrical responses to genetic mutations and cardiac stressors, their clinical correlations, and describe many of the multi-scale techniques commonly used to analyze electrophysiological regional heterogeneity...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518984/oxidative-dna-damage-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness-as-predictors-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-prediabetic-subjects
#20
Roshan Kumar Mahat, Neelima Singh, Akshara Gupta, Vedika Rathore
Prediabetes is considered as a risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The present study was conducted with the aim of finding out the relationship between oxidative DNA damage and carotid intima media thickness for the prediction of cardiovascular disease in prediabetic subjects. The study included 100 prediabetic subjects and 100 normal individuals as controls. In both cases and controls, 8-OHdG was measured by ELISA, and CIMT was measured by B mode ultrasonography...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
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