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Current Stem Cell Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423356/stem-cell-therapies-for-the-resolution-of-radiation-injury-to-the-brain
#1
Sarah M Smith, Charles L Limoli
Purpose of review: To encapsulate past and current research efforts focused on stem cell transplantation strategies to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Recent Findings: Transplantation of human stem cells in the irradiated brain was first shown to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in a landmark paper by Acharya et al., appearing in PNAS in 2009. Since that time, work from the same laboratory as well as other groups have reported on the beneficial (as well as detrimental) effects of stem cell grafting after cranial radiation exposure...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399441/nk-cells-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-for-relapse-protection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-hct
#2
Moniek A de Witte, Jürgen Kuball, Jeffrey S Miller
Purpose of review: The outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is still compromised by relapse and complications. NK cells and γδT cells, effectors which both function through MHC-unrestricted mechanisms, can target transformed and infected cells without inducing Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD). Allo-HCT platforms based on CD34+ selection or αβ-TCR depletion result in low grades of GVHD, early immune reconstitution (IR) of NK and γδT cells and minimal usage of GVHD prophylaxis...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354390/radiotherapy-and-glioma-stem-cells-searching-for-chinks-in-cellular-armor
#3
Seamus P Caragher, Sean Sachdev, Atique Ahmed
Purpose of the review: Radiation became a pillar of oncologic treatment in the last century and provided a powerful and effective locoregional treatment of solid malignancies. After achieving some of the first cures in lymphomas and skin cancers, it assumed a key role in curative treatment of epithelioid malignancies. Despite success across a variety of histologic types, glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor afflicting adults, remains ultimately resistant to current radiation strategies...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230380/the-axolotl-limb-regeneration-model-as-a-discovery-tool-for-engineering-the-stem-cell-niche
#4
Negar Seyedhassantehrani, Takayoshi Otsuka, Shambhavi Singh, David M Gardiner
Purpose of review: Recent advances in genomics and gene editing have expanded the range of model organisms to include those with interesting biological capabilities such as regeneration. Among these are the classic models of regeneration biology, the salamander. Although stimulating endogenous regeneration in humans likely is many years away, with advances in stem cell biology and biomedical engineering (e.g. bio-inspired materials), it is evident that there is great potential to enhance regenerative outcomes by approaching the problem from an engineering perspective...
September 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983454/organoid-and-organ-on-a-chip-systems-new-paradigms-for-modeling-neurological-and-gastrointestinal-disease
#5
Aslam Abbasi Akhtar, Samuel Sances, Robert Barrett, Joshua J Breunig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The modeling of biological processes in vitro provides an important tool to better understand mechanisms of development and disease, allowing for the rapid testing of therapeutics. However, a critical constraint in traditional monolayer culture systems is the absence of the multicellularity, spatial organization, and overall microenvironment present in vivo. This limitation has resulted in numerous therapeutics showing efficacy in vitro, but failing in patient trials...
June 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966905/synergistic-development-of-biochips-and-cell-preservation-methodologies-a-tale-of-converging-technologies
#6
Shangping Wang, Gloria D Elliott
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Over the past several decades, cryopreservation has been widely used to preserve cells during long term storage, but advances in stem cell therapies, regenerative medicine, and miniaturized cell-based diagnostics and sensors are providing new targets of opportunity for advancing preservation methodologies. The advent of microfluidics-based devices is an interesting case in which the technology has been used to improve preservation processing, but as the devices have evolved to also include cells, tissues, and simulated organs as part of the architecture, the biochip itself is a desirable target for preservation...
March 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966904/dietary-regulation-of-adult-stem-cells
#7
Miyeko D Mana, Elaine Yih-Shuen Kuo, Ömer H Yilmaz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary intake is a critical regulator of organismal physiology and health. Tissue homeostasis and regeneration are dependent on adult tissue stem cells that self-renew and differentiate into the specialized cell types. As stem cells respond to cues from their environment, dietary signals and nutrients influence tissue biology by altering the function and activity of adult stem cells. In this review, we highlight recent studies that illustrate how diverse diets such as caloric restriction, fasting, high fat diets, and ketogenic diets impact stem cell function and their microenvironments...
March 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920013/transcriptional-regulation-of-stem-cell-and-cancer-stem-cell-metabolism
#8
Ahmet Alptekin, Bingwei Ye, Han-Fei Ding
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolism is increasingly recognized as a major player in control of stem cell function and fate. How stem cell metabolism is established, maintained, and regulated is a fundamental question of biology and medicine. In this review, we discuss major metabolic programs in stem cells and cancer stem cells, with a focus on key transcription factors that shape the stem cell metabolic phenotype. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer stem cells primarily use oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation, in contrast to normal stem cells, which rely on glycolytic metabolism with the exception of mouse embryonic stem cells...
March 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458991/steroid-hormones-and-the-physiological-regulation-of-tissue-resident-stem-cells-lessons-from-the-drosophila-ovary
#9
Elizabeth T Ables, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stem cells respond to local paracrine signals; more recently, however, systemic hormones have also emerged as key regulators of stem cells. This review explores the role of steroid hormones in stem cells, using the Drosophila germline stem cell as a centerpiece for discussion. RECENT FINDINGS: Stem cells sense and respond directly and indirectly to steroid hormones, which regulate diverse sets of target genes via interactions with nuclear hormone receptors...
March 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177133/integrin-and-fak-regulation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Loriana Vitillo, Susan J Kimber
Purpose of review: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are anchorage-dependent cells that can be cultured on a variety of matrices and express integrins and the machinery for integrin signaling. Until recently, there has been limited understanding of exactly how integrin signaling regulates pluripotent stem cell (PSC) behavior. This review summarizes our knowledge of how integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulate different aspects of hPSC biology. Recent findings: The latest research suggests that mouse and human embryonic stem cells utilize similar integrin signaling players but with different biological outcomes, reflecting the known developmental difference in their pluripotent status...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177132/autologous-cell-seeding-in-tracheal-tissue-engineering
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth F Maughan, Robert E Hynds, Toby J Proctor, Sam M Janes, Martin Elliott, Martin A Birchall, Mark W Lowdell, Paolo De Coppi
Purpose of Review: There is no consensus on the best technology to be employed for tracheal replacement. One particularly promising approach is based upon tissue engineering and involves applying autologous cells to transplantable scaffolds. Here, we present the reported pre-clinical and clinical data exploring the various options for achieving such seeding. Recent Findings: Various cell combinations, delivery strategies, and outcome measures are described. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most widely employed cell type in tracheal bioengineering...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845388/integrated-experimental-and-theoretical-studies-of-stem-cells
#12
REVIEW
Hanna L Sladitschek, Pierre A Neveu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stem cells have to balance self-renewal and differentiation. The dynamic nature of these fate decisions has made stem cell study by traditional methods particularly challenging. Here we highlight recent advances in the field that draw on combining quantitative experiments and modeling to illuminate the biology of stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that seemingly complex processes such as the fate decision-making of stem cells or the self-organization of developing tissues obey remarkably simple mathematical models...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845387/notch-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell
#13
REVIEW
Fabio Pereira Lampreia, Joana Gonçalves Carmelo, Fernando Anjos-Afonso
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the signaling pathways that govern hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is fundamental to uncover their regulation and how this is skewed in hematological malignancies. Whether Notch is necessary for the regulation of mammalian HSPCs is still unclear. We therefore critically review the current literature on the role of Notch in HSPCs. RECENT FINDINGS: HSPCs have shown different requirements for Notch signals in vitro and in vivo and at different stages of differentiation...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845386/innate-immunity-and-mobilization-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Mateusz Adamiak, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Several mechanisms have been postulated to orchestrate mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), and still more work is needed to better understand this process and to gain better mechanistic insight. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence accumulated that mobilization of HSPCs is a part of innate immunity response to tissue organ injury, stress, and infection. This evolutionary ancient process is orchestrated by granulocytes and monocytes that trigger activation of complement cascade and the coagulation cascade...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616376/genome-editing-and-muscle-stem-cells-as-a-therapeutic-tool-for-muscular-dystrophies
#15
REVIEW
Veronica Pini, Jennifer E Morgan, Francesco Muntoni, Helen C O'Neill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Muscular dystrophies are a group of severe degenerative disorders characterized by muscle fiber degeneration and death. Therapies designed to restore muscle homeostasis and to replace dying fibers are being experimented, but none of those in clinical trials are suitable to permanently address individual gene mutation. The purpose of this review is to discuss genome editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated), which enable direct sequence alteration and could potentially be adopted to correct the genetic defect leading to muscle impairment...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596938/genome-edited-t-cell-therapies
#16
REVIEW
Juliette M K M Delhove, Waseem Qasim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alternative approaches to conventional drug-based cancer treatments have seen T cell therapies deployed more widely over the last decade. This is largely due to their ability to target and kill specific cell types based on receptor recognition. Introduction of recombinant T cell receptors (TCRs) using viral vectors and HLA-independent T cell therapies using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are discussed. This article reviews the tools used for genome editing, with particular emphasis on the applications of site-specific DNA nuclease mediated editing for T cell therapies...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596937/harnessing-the-potential-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-gene-editing-for-the-treatment-of-retinal-degeneration
#17
REVIEW
Patrick Ovando-Roche, Anastasios Georgiadis, Alexander J Smith, Rachael A Pearson, Robin R Ali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major cause of visual disorders is dysfunction and/or loss of the light-sensitive cells of the retina, the photoreceptors. To develop better treatments for patients, we need to understand how inherited retinal disease mutations result in the dysfunction of photoreceptors. New advances in the field of stem cell and gene editing research offer novel ways to model retinal dystrophies in vitro and present opportunities to translate basic biological insights into therapies...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596936/new-bioengineering-breakthroughs-and-enabling-tools-in-regenerative-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Alvaro Mata, Helena S Azevedo, Lorenzo Botto, Nuria Gavara, Lei Su
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we provide a general overview of recent bioengineering breakthroughs and enabling tools that are transforming the field of regenerative medicine (RM). We focus on five key areas that are evolving and increasingly interacting including mechanobiology, biomaterials and scaffolds, intracellular delivery strategies, imaging techniques, and computational and mathematical modeling. RECENT FINDINGS: Mechanobiology plays an increasingly important role in tissue regeneration and design of therapies...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261549/bioengineering-hearts-simple-yet-complex
#19
REVIEW
Doris A Taylor, Rohan B Parikh, Luiz C Sampaio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we focus on the multiple advancements in the field of cardiovascular regenerative medicine and the state-of-the art of building a heart. An organ is comprised of cells, but cells alone do not comprise an organ. We summarize the components needed, the hurdles, and likely translational steps defining the opportunities for discovery. RECENT FINDINGS: The therapies being developed in regenerative medicine aim not only to repair, but also to regenerate or replace ailing tissues and organs...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261548/manipulation-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-metabolism-for-clinical-application
#20
REVIEW
Shugo Tohyama, Sho Tanosaki, Shota Someya, Jun Fujita, Keiichi Fukuda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into various types of cells, and are promising cell sources for regenerative therapy and drug screening. However, to realize the clinical application of PSCs, a large number of highly qualified target cells must be stably prepared with low cost. To achieve this, great improvements in the reprogramming, differentiation, and elimination of residual PSCs will be necessary. In this review, we summarize the updated knowledge about metabolism in PSCs and its application...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
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