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Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756004/galectin-3-and-incident-cognitive-impairment-in-regards-a-cohort-of-blacks-and-whites
#1
Anand Venkatraman, Peter Callas, Leslie A McClure, Fred Unverzagt, Garima Arora, Virginia Howard, Virginia G Wadley, Mary Cushman, Pankaj Arora
Introduction: The relationship between serum galectin-3 and incident cognitive impairment was analyzed in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study. Methods: Baseline galectin-3 was measured in 455 cases of incident cognitive impairment and 546 controls. Galectin-3 was divided into quartiles based on the weighted distribution in the control group, and the first quartile was the referent. Results: There was an increasing odds of cognitive impairment across quartiles of galectin-3 (odds ratios, 1...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687076/alzheimer-s-disease-archimedes-condition-event-simulator-development-and-validation
#2
Anuraag R Kansal, Ali Tafazzoli, K Jack Ishak, Stanmira Krotneva
Introduction: Several advances have been made in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) modeling, however, there remains a need for a simulator that represents the full scope of disease progression and can be used to study new disease-modifying treatments for early-stage and even prodromal AD. Methods: We developed AD Archimedes condition-event simulator, a patient-level simulator with a focus on simulating the effects of early interventions through changes in biomarkers of AD...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560413/effect-of-donepezil-on-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-parameters-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Yun Tae Hwang, Lorenzo Rocchi, Paul Hammond, Chris Jd Hardy, Jason D Warren, Basil H Ridha, John Rothwell, Martin N Rossor
Introduction: There is a need for a reliable, noninvasive biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed whether short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm that assesses cholinergic circuits of the brain, could become such a biomarker. Methods: Nineteen patients with AD underwent four SAI testing sessions. The timing of their usual donepezil dose was altered to create different cholinergic states for each session. This was compared to the SAI results from 20 healthy subjects...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560412/elevated-phospholipase-d-isoform-1-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-hippocampus-relevance-to-synaptic-dysfunction-and-memory-deficits
#4
Balaji Krishnan, Rakez Kayed, Giulio Taglialatela
Introduction: Phospholipase D (PLD), a lipolytic enzyme that breaks down membrane phospholipids, is also involved in signaling mechanisms downstream of seven transmembrane receptors. Abnormally elevated levels of PLD activity are well-established in Alzheimer's disease (AD), implicating the two isoforms of mammalian phosphatidylcholine cleaving PLD (PC-PLD1 and PC-PLD2). Therefore, we took a systematic approach of investigating isoform-specific expression in human synaptosomes and further investigated the possibility of therapeutic intervention using preclinical studies...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296659/unmasking-the-benefits-of-donepezil-via-psychometrically-precise-identification-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-adcs-vitamin-e-and-donepezil-in-mci-study
#5
Emily C Edmonds, M Colin Ard, Steven D Edland, Douglas R Galasko, David P Salmon, Mark W Bondi
Introduction: Criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) used in many clinical trials are susceptible to "false-positive (FP)" errors that can be avoided by an actuarial psychometric approach. Methods: Cluster analysis was applied to baseline neuropsychological test data from 756 MCI participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study donepezil trial. Treatment groups were compared after FP MCI cases were removed. Results: Cluster analyses revealed three groups: "single-domain amnestic MCI" (31%), "multi-domain amnestic MCI" (39%), and "FP MCI" (30%)...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296658/longitudinal-patterns-of-potentially-inappropriate-medication-use-following-incident-dementia-diagnosis
#6
Christine M Ramsey, Danijela Gnjidic, George O Agogo, Heather Allore, Daniela Moga
Introduction: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use in older adults with dementia is an understudied area. We assessed longitudinal changes in PIM exposure by dementia type following dementia diagnosis. Methods: We followed 2448 participants aged ≥65 years (52% women, 85.5% Caucasian, mean age 80.9 ± 7.5 years) diagnosed with dementia after enrollment in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (2005-2014). We estimated the association between dementia type and PIM annually for 2 years after diagnosis, using Generalized Estimating Equations...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379864/guide-to-enable-health-charities-to-increase-recruitment-to-clinical-trials-on-dementia
#7
Larry W Chambers, Megan Harris, Elizabeth Lusk, Debbie Benczkowski
Introduction: The Alzheimer Society embarked on a project to improve ways that the 60 provincial and local Societies in Canada can work with local researchers to support recruitment of volunteers to clinical trials and studies. A Guide to assist these offices was produced to design ethical recruitment of research volunteers within their client populations. Methods: Consultations with individuals from provincial and local Societies, as well as researchers and leaders from health-related organizations, were conducted to identify in what ways these organizations are involved in study volunteer recruitment, what is and is not working, and what would be helpful to support future efforts...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29264389/optimizing-the-preclinical-alzheimer-s-cognitive-composite-with-semantic-processing-the-pacc5
#8
Kathryn V Papp, Dorene M Rentz, Irina Orlovsky, Reisa A Sperling, Elizabeth C Mormino
Introduction: Amyloid-related decline in semantic memory was recently shown to be observable in the preclinical period of Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive composites designed to be sensitive to cognitive change in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (e.g., preclinical Alzheimer's cognitive composite [PACC]) and currently used in secondary prevention trials do not currently integrate measures of semantic processing. Our objective was to determine whether a standard semantic measure (i.e., category fluency [CAT] to animals, fruits, and vegetables) adds independent information above and beyond Aβ-related decline captured by the PACC...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255793/integrating-sex-and-gender-into-neurodegeneration-research-a-six-component-strategy
#9
Mary C Tierney, Ashley F Curtis, Howard Chertkow, R Jane Rylett
Introduction: Despite important sex differences, there remains a paucity of studies examining sex and gender differences in neurodegeneration. The Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA), a national network of researchers, provides an ideal platform to incorporate sex and gender. Methods: CCNA's Women, Gender, Sex and Dementia program developed and implemented a six-component strategy involving executive oversight, training, research collaboration, progress report assessment, results dissemination, and ongoing manuscript review...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255792/tangled-tau-active-pathology-or-footprint-of-disease
#10
James P Higham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255791/drug-discovery-and-development-role-of-basic-biological-research
#11
REVIEW
Richard C Mohs, Nigel H Greig
This article provides a brief overview of the processes of drug discovery and development. Our aim is to help scientists whose research may be relevant to drug discovery and/or development to frame their research report in a way that appropriately places their findings within the drug discovery and development process and thereby support effective translation of preclinical research to humans. One overall theme of our article is that the process is sufficiently long, complex, and expensive so that many biological targets must be considered for every new medicine eventually approved for clinical use and new research tools may be needed to investigate each new target...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234725/computerized-cognitive-training-for-older-diabetic-adults-at-risk-of-dementia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Rachel Bloom, Michal Schnaider-Beeri, Ramit Ravona-Springer, Anthony Heymann, Hai Dabush, Lior Bar, Shirel Slater, Yuri Rassovsky, Alex Bahar-Fuchs
Introduction: Older adults with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of cognitive decline and dementia and form an important target group for dementia risk reduction studies. Despite evidence that computerized cognitive training (CCT) may benefit cognitive performance in cognitively healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment, whether CCT may benefit cognitive performance or improve disease self-management in older diabetic adults has not been studied to date. In addition, whether adaptive difficulty levels and tailoring of interventions to individuals' cognitive profile are superior to generic training remains to be established...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201996/a-randomized-exploratory-molecular-imaging-study-targeting-amyloid-%C3%AE-with-a-novel-8-oh-quinoline-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-pbt2-204-imagine-study
#13
Victor L Villemagne, Christopher C Rowe, Kevin J Barnham, Robert Cherny, Michael Woodward, Svetlana Bozinosvski, Olivier Salvado, Pierrick Bourgeat, Keyla Perez, Christopher Fowler, Alan Rembach, Paul Maruff, Craig Ritchie, Rudy Tanzi, Colin L Masters
Introduction: We are developing a second generation 8-OH quinoline (2-(dimethylamino) methyl-5, 7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline [PBT2, Prana Biotechnology]) for targeting amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In an earlier phase IIa, 3 month trial, PBT2 lowered cerebrospinal fluid Aβ by 13% and improved cognition (executive function) in a dose-related fashion in early AD. We, therefore, sought to learn whether PBT2 could alter the Aβ-PET signal in subjects with prodromal or mild AD, in an exploratory randomized study over a 12-month phase in a double-blind and a 12-month open label extension phase trial design...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201995/protective-effect-of-antirheumatic-drugs-on-dementia-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#14
Andy Judge, Cesar Garriga, Nigel K Arden, Simon Lovestone, Dani Prieto-Alhambra, Cyrus Cooper, Christopher J Edwards
Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease, and classical disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) have proven efficacy. It is unknown what impact cDMARDs might have on dementia as an outcome. Methods: Incident diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis in persons over 18 years from 1995 to 2011 were identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. There were 3876 cDMARD users and were propensity score matched to 1938 nonusers, on a wide range of confounders...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201994/speed-of-processing-training-results-in-lower-risk-of-dementia
#15
Jerri D Edwards, Huiping Xu, Daniel O Clark, Lin T Guey, Lesley A Ross, Frederick W Unverzagt
Introduction: Cognitive training improves cognitive performance and delays functional impairment, but its effects on dementia are not known. We examined whether three different types of cognitive training lowered the risk of dementia across 10 years of follow-up relative to control and if greater number of training sessions attended was associated with lower dementia risk. Methods: The Advanced Cognitive Training in Vital Elderly (NCT00298558) study was a randomized controlled trial (N = 2802) among initially healthy older adults, which examined the efficacy of three cognitive training programs (memory, reasoning, or speed of processing) relative to a no-contact control condition...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201993/traumatic-exposures-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-cognitive-functioning-in-world-trade-center-responders
#16
Sean Clouston, Robert H Pietrzak, Roman Kotov, Marcus Richards, Avron Spiro, Stacey Scott, Yael Deri, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Candace Stewart, Evelyn Bromet, Benjamin J Luft
Introduction: This study examined whether World Trade Center (WTC)-related exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with cognitive function and whether WTC responders' cognition differed from normative data. Methods: A computer-assisted neuropsychological battery was administered to a prospective cohort study of 1193 WTC responders with no history of stroke or WTC-related head injuries. Data were linked to information collected prospectively since 2002...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124117/proton-pump-inhibitors-and-the-risk-of-severe-cognitive-impairment-the-role-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#17
Sean A P Clouston, Oren Shapira, Roman Kotov, Lan Lei, Monika Waszczuk, Evelyn J Bromet, Benjamin J Luft
Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), a common treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), were recently associated with increased risk of dementia. However, severe or chronic stress including, for example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was not accounted for. This study examined whether PPI use was associated with severe cognitive impairment (SCI) and whether PTSD explained this association in a cohort of World Trade Center (WTC) responders. Method: A prospective cohort study of 3779 WTC responders attending a university-based monitoring and treatment program...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124116/toward-common-mechanisms-for-risk-factors-in-alzheimer-s-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Miguel Medina, Zaven S Khachaturian, Martin Rossor, Jesús Avila, Angel Cedazo-Minguez
The global strategic goal of reducing health care cost, especially the prospects for massive increases due to expanding markets for health care services demanded by aging populations and/or people with a wide range of chronic disorders-disabilities, is a complex and formidable challenge with many facets. Current projections predict marked increases in the demand for health driven by both the exponential climb in the prevalence of chronic disabilities and the increases in the absolute numbers of people in need of some form of health care...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124115/study-protocol-of-the-intense-physical-activity-and-cognition-study-the-effect-of-high-intensity-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#19
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Natalie Castalanelli, Nicole Gordon, Shaun Markovic, Hamid R Sohrabi, Michael Weinborn, Simon M Laws, James Doecke, Kaikai Shen, Ralph N Martins, Jeremiah J Peiffer
Introduction: Inconsistent results from previous studies of exercise and cognitive function suggest that rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed. Here, we describe the design of the Intense Physical Activity and Cognition (IPAC) study, which will assess the impact of a 6-month high-intensity exercise intervention on cognitive function and biomarkers of dementia risk, compared with a 6-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention and control group (no study-related exercise)...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124114/impact-of-programs-to-reduce-antipsychotic-and-anticholinergic-use-in-nursing-homes
#20
Ryan M Carnahan, Grant D Brown, Elena M Letuchy, Linda M Rubenstein, Brian M Gryzlak, Marianne Smith, Jeffrey C Reist, Michael W Kelly, Susan K Schultz, Michelle T Weckmann, Elizabeth A Chrischilles
Introduction: Antipsychotics are used for managing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) but have risks. Anticholinergics can worsen outcomes in dementia. The Improving Antipsychotic Appropriateness in Dementia Patients educational program (IA-ADAPT) and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Partnership to Improve Dementia Care (CMS Partnership) promote improved care for BPSD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of these programs on medication use and BPSD among nursing home residents...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
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