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Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229130/current-understanding-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-biomarkers-and-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Ece Bayram, Jessica Z K Caldwell, Sarah J Banks
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by a cascade of changes to brain integrity. Neuroimaging biomarkers are important in diagnosis and monitoring the effects of interventions. As memory impairments are among the first symptoms of AD, the relationship between imaging findings and memory deficits is important in biomarker research. The most established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding is hippocampal atrophy, which is related to memory decline and currently used as a diagnostic criterion for AD. While the medial temporal lobes are impacted early by the spread of neurofibrillary tangles, other networks and regional changes can be found quite early in the progression...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225339/minimotifs-dysfunction-is-pervasive-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#2
Surbhi Sharma, Richard J Young, Jingchun Chen, Xiangning Chen, Edwin C Oh, Martin R Schiller
Minimotifs are modular contiguous peptide sequences in proteins that are important for posttranslational modifications, binding to other molecules, and trafficking to specific subcellular compartments. Some molecular functions of proteins in cellular pathways can be predicted from minimotif consensus sequences identified through experimentation. While a role for minimotifs in regulating signal transduction and gene regulation during disease pathogenesis (such as infectious diseases and cancer) is established, the therapeutic use of minimotif mimetic drugs is limited...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211293/neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-of-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Brent Bluett, Sarah Banks, Dietmar Cordes, Ece Bayram, Virendra Mishra, Jeffrey Cummings, Irene Litvan
Introduction: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling phenomenon characterized by a brief, episodic absence or reduction of forward progression of the feet despite the intention to walk. It is a common cause of falls and mortality in cases with Parkinson's disease (PD). This article reviews neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies to date and introduces a new study of multimodal imaging and cognition in PD-FOG. Methods: A comprehensive literature search identified studies using neuropsychological evaluation and/or neuroimaging to evaluate PD-FOG...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175232/advances-in-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-data-analysis-methods-using-empirical-mode-decomposition-to-investigate-temporal-changes-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Dietmar Cordes, Xiaowei Zhuang, Muhammad Kaleem, Karthik Sreenivasan, Zhengshi Yang, Virendra Mishra, Sarah J Banks, Brent Bluett, Jeffrey L Cummings
Introduction: Previous neuroimaging studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have shown changes in whole-brain functional connectivity networks. Whether connectivity changes can be detected in the early stages (first 3 years) of PD by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) remains elusive. Research infrastructure including MRI and analytic capabilities is required to investigate this issue. The National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences Center for Biomedical Research Excellence awards support infrastructure to advance research goals...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175231/statistical-advances-in-clinical-trials-and-clinical-research
#5
Guogen Shan, Sarah Banks, Justin B Miller, Aaron Ritter, Charles Bernick, Joseph Lombardo, Jeffrey L Cummings
Introduction: New treatments for neurodegenerative disease are urgently needed, and clinical trial methods are an essential component of new drug development. Although a parallel-group study design for neurological disorder clinical trials is commonly used to test the effectiveness of a new treatment as compared to placebo, it does not efficiently use information from the on-going study to increase the success rate of a trial or to stop a trial earlier when the new treatment is indeed ineffective...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175230/biomedical-informatics-applications-for-precision-management-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
Justin B Miller, Guogen Shan, Joseph Lombardo, Gustavo Jimenez-Maggoria
Modern medicine is in the midst of a revolution driven by "big data," rapidly advancing computing power, and broader integration of technology into healthcare. Highly detailed and individualized profiles of both health and disease states are now possible, including biomarkers, genomic profiles, cognitive and behavioral phenotypes, high-frequency assessments, and medical imaging. Although these data are incredibly complex, they can potentially be used to understand multi-determinant causal relationships, elucidate modifiable factors, and ultimately customize treatments based on individual parameters...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175229/neuroscience-learning-from-longitudinal-cohort-studies-of-alzheimer-s-disease-lessons-for-disease-modifying-drug-programs-and-an-introduction-to-the-center-for-neurodegeneration-and-translational-neuroscience
#7
REVIEW
Justin B Miller, Jeffrey Cummings, Christin Nance, Aaron Ritter
The development of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease is an urgent public health emergency. Recent failures have highlighted the significant challenges faced by drug-development programs. Longitudinal cohort studies are ideal for promoting understanding of this multifactorial, slowly progressive disease. In this section of the special edition, we review several important lessons from longitudinal cohort studies which should be considered in disease-modifying therapy development. In the final section, we introduce the clinical cohort of the Center for Neurodegeneration and Translational Neuroscience...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175228/impact-of-apolipoprotein-e-genotypes-on-vitamin-e-and-memantine-treatment-outcomes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Ilana Belitskaya-Lévy, Maurice Dysken, Peter Guarino, Mary Sano, Sanjay Asthana, Julia E Vertrees, Muralidhar Pallaki, Maria Llorente, Susan Love, Gerard Schellenberg
Introduction: Because apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes are known risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), they have been measured in clinical trial participants to determine their effect on treatment outcome. Methods: We determined APOE genotypes in a subset of subjects (N = 415) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of vitamin E and memantine in 613 veterans with mild-to-moderate AD. Results: Similar to the primary study, substudy participants receiving vitamin E also had slower functional decline than those receiving placebo...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175227/the-price-of-progress-funding-and-financing-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-development
#9
Jeffrey Cummings, Carl Reiber, Parvesh Kumar
Introduction: Advancing research and treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the search for effective treatments depend on a complex financial ecosystem involving federal, state, industry, advocacy, venture capital, and philanthropy funding approaches. Methods: We conducted an expert review of the literature pertaining to funding and financing of translational research and drug development for AD. Results: The federal government is the largest public funder of research in AD...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30167452/neurodegeneration-research-advances-in-clinical-translational-neuroscience-infrastructure-and-methods
#10
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey L Cummings, Nadia Fulkerson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094332/community-based-serious-illness-care-for-patients-with-dementia
#11
Hannah Noah, Timothy P Daaleman, Christine E Kistler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094331/tommorrow-neuropsychological-battery-german-language-validation-and-normative-study
#12
Heather R Romero, Andreas U Monsch, Kathleen M Hayden, Brenda L Plassman, Alexandra S Atkins, Richard S E Keefe, Shyama Brewster, Carl Chiang, Janet O'Neil, Grant Runyan, Mark J Atkinson, Stephen Crawford, Kumar Budur, Daniel K Burns, Kathleen A Welsh-Bohmer
Introduction: Assessment of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires reliable and validated methods to detect subtle cognitive changes. The battery of standardized cognitive assessments that is used for diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment due to AD in the TOMMORROW study have only been fully validated in English-speaking countries. We conducted a validation and normative study of the German language version of the TOMMORROW neuropsychological test battery, which tests episodic memory, language, visuospatial ability, executive function, and attention...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094330/intranasal-rifampicin-for-alzheimer-s-disease-prevention
#13
Tomohiro Umeda, Akiko Tanaka, Ayumi Sakai, Akira Yamamoto, Toshiyasu Sakane, Takami Tomiyama
Introduction: Oral rifampicin has been shown to significantly reduce amyloid β (Aβ) and tau pathologies in mice. However, it shows occasional adverse effects such as liver injury in humans, making its use difficult for a long period. Methods: To explore safer rifampicin treatment, APPOSK mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease, were treated with rifampicin for 1 month via oral, intranasal, and subcutaneous administration, and its therapeutic efficacy and safety were compared...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094329/the-my-active-and-healthy-aging-my-aha-ict-platform-to-detect-and-prevent-frailty-in-older-adults-randomized-control-trial-design-and-protocol
#14
Mathew J Summers, Innocenzo Rainero, Alessandro E Vercelli, Georg Aumayr, Helios de Rosario, Michaela Mönter, Ryuta Kawashima
Introduction: Frailty increases the risk of poor health outcomes, disability, hospitalization, and death in older adults and affects 7%-12% of the aging population. Secondary impacts of frailty on psychological health and socialization are significant negative contributors to poor outcomes for frail older adults. Method: The My Active and Healthy Aging (My-AHA) consortium has developed an information and communications technology-based platform to support active and healthy aging through early detection of prefrailty and provision of individually tailored interventions, targeting multidomain risks for frailty across physical activity, cognitive activity, diet and nutrition, sleep, and psychosocial activities...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090850/patient-perspectives-of-the-experience-of-a-computerized-cognitive-assessment-in-a-clinical-setting
#15
Julie M Robillard, Jen-Ai Lai, Julia M Wu, Tanya L Feng, Sherri Hayden
Introduction: Computerized assessments are becoming widely accepted in the clinical setting and as a potential outcome measure in clinical trials. To gain patient perspectives of this experience, the aim of the present study was to investigate patient attitudes and perceptions of the Cognigram [Cogstate], a computerized cognitive assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 older adults undergoing a computerized cognitive assessment at the University of British Columbia Hospital Clinic for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090849/case-finding-in-clinical-practice-an-appropriate-strategy-for-dementia-identification
#16
REVIEW
Janice M Ranson, Elżbieta Kuźma, William Hamilton, Iain Lang, David J Llewellyn
Earlier diagnosis of dementia is increasingly being recognized as a public health priority. As screening is not generally recommended, case-finding in clinical practice is encouraged as an alternative dementia identification strategy. The approaches of screening and case-finding are often confused, with uncertainty about what case-finding should involve and under what circumstances it is appropriate. We propose a formal definition of dementia case-finding with a clear distinction from screening. We critically examine case-finding policy and practice and propose evidence requirements for implementation in clinical practice...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090848/adherence-retention-alzheimer-s-prevention-initiative-colombia-plan
#17
Silvia Rios-Romenets, Natalia Acosta-Baena, Liliana Lopez, Lucia Madrigal-Zapata, Helen Street, Laura Jakimovich, Jessica B Langbaum, William Cho, Eric M Reiman, Pierre N Tariot, Francisco Lopera
Introduction: The Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Colombia Trial is a collaborative project involving the Neurosciences Group of Antioquia, Genentech/Roche, and the Banner Alzheimer's Institute, studying whether crenezumab can delay or prevent the clinical onset of Alzheimer's disease in cognitively unimpaired individuals who carry the PSEN1 E280A mutation. In an effort to optimize participant compliance and adherence and maintain interest in the trial for its duration, the Neurosciences Group of Antioquia developed an "Adherence/Retention Plan...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090847/caregiving-intellectual-disability-and-dementia-report-of-the-summit-workgroup-on-caregiving-and-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities
#18
REVIEW
Tamar Heller, Haleigh M Scott, Matthew P Janicki
Introduction: A specially commissioned working group produced a report on caregiving, intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and dementia for the National Institutes of Health-located National Research Summit on Care, Services, and Supports for Persons with Dementia and Their Caregivers. Methods: Experts in caregiving, dementia, and IDDs examined the current state of research, policy, and practice related to caregiving and supports; identified the similarities and dissimilarities between IDD-related care and services and the general population affected by dementia; and considered how these findings might contribute to the conversation on developing a dementia care research and services development agenda...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090846/objectively-measured-physical-activity-profile-and-cognition-in-finnish-elderly-twins
#19
Paula Iso-Markku, Katja Waller, Eero Vuoksimaa, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Noora Lindgren, Kauko Heikkilä, Harri Sievänen, Juha Rinne, Jaakko Kaprio, Urho M Kujala
Introduction: We studied whether objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are associated with cognition in Finnish elderly twins. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised twins born in Finland from 1940 to 1944 in the Older Finnish Twin Cohort (mean age, 72.9 years; 726 persons). From 2014 to 2016, cognition was assessed with a validated telephonic interview, whereas PA was measured with a waist-worn accelerometer. Results: In between-family models, SB and light physical activity had significant linear associations with cognition after adjusting for age, sex, wearing time, education level, body mass index, and living condition (SB: β-estimate, -0...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29955667/from-information-to-follow-up-ethical-recommendations-to-facilitate-the-disclosure-of-amyloid-pet-scan-results-in-a-research-setting
#20
REVIEW
Gwendolien Vanderschaeghe, Jolien Schaeverbeke, Rose Bruffaerts, Rik Vandenberghe, Kris Dierickx
In the field of Alzheimer's disease research, the use of biomarkers such as amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) has become widespread over a relatively brief period of time. There is an increasing tendency in research studies and trials to switch from no disclosure under any condition toward a qualified disclosure of individual research results, such as amyloid PET scan results. This perspective article aims to evaluate the possible need for a modification of the available recommendations on amyloid PET scan disclosure, based on recent empirical evidence obtained within the field of amyloid PET...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
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