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Current Pharmacology Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527458/traf-molecules-in-inflammation-and-inflammatory-diseases
#1
Almin I Lalani, Sining Zhu, Samantha Gokhale, Juan Jin, Ping Xie
Purpose of Review: This review presents an overview of the current knowledge of TRAF molecules in inflammation with an emphasis on available human evidence and direct in vivo evidence of mouse models that demonstrate the contribution of TRAF molecules in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Recent Findings: The tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R)-associated factor (TRAF) family of cytoplasmic proteins was initially identified as signaling adaptors that bind directly to the intracellular domains of receptors of the TNF-R superfamily...
February 2018: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101054/histone-h3-mutations-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Yi Ching Esther Wan, Jiaxian Liu, Kui Ming Chan
Histone modifications are one form of epigenetic information that relate closely to gene regulation. Aberrant histone methylation caused by alteration in chromatin-modifying enzymes has long been implicated in cancers. More recently, recurrent histone mutations have been identified in multiple cancers and have been shown to impede histone methylation. All three histone mutations (H3K27M, H3K36M, and H3G34V/R) identified result in amino acid substitution at/near a lysine residue that is a target of methylation...
2018: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503796/epigenetic-therapeutics-and-their-impact-in-immunotherapy-of-lung-cancer
#3
Ju Hwan Cho, Filiz Oezkan, Michael Koenig, Gregory A Otterson, James Gordon Herman, Kai He
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and worldwide. Novel therapeutic developments are critically necessary to improve outcomes for this disease. Aberrant epigenetic change plays an important role in lung cancer development and progression. Therefore, drugs targeting the epigenome are being investigated in the treatment of lung cancer. Monotherapy of epigenetic therapeutics such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have so far not shown any apparent benefit while one of the clinical trials with the combinations of DNMTi and HDACi showed a small positive signal for treating lung cancer...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430385/host-response-to-pulmonary-fungal-infections-a-highlight-on-cell-driven-immunity-to-cryptococcus-species-and-aspergillus-fumigatus
#4
Orchi Dutta, Jorge A Masso-Silva, Keyi Wang, Amariliz Rivera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404265/pancreatic-cancer-current-status-and-challenges
#5
Amanda R Muñoz, Divya Chakravarthy, Jingjing Gong, Glenn A Halff, Rita Ghosh, Addanki P Kumar
Purpose of the review: The 5-year survival rate of patients with pancreatic cancer (PanCA) has remained stagnant. Unfortunately, the incidence is almost equal to mortality rates. These facts underscore the importance of concerted efforts to understand the pathology of this disease. Deregulation of multiple signaling pathways involved in a wide variety of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis contribute not only to cancer development but also to therapeutic resistance...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399439/plant-flavone-apigenin-an-emerging-anticancer-agent
#6
Eswar Shankar, Aditi Goel, Karishma Gupta, Sanjay Gupta
Research in cancer chemoprevention provides convincing evidence that increased intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce the risk of several human malignancies. Phytochemicals present therein provide beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that serve to improve the cellular microenvironment. Compounds known as flavonoids categorized anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanones, flavonols, flavones, and isoflavones have shown considerable promise as chemopreventive agents. Apigenin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a major plant flavone, possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties affecting several molecular and cellular targets used to treat various human diseases...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399438/type-2-cytokine-responses-regulating-immunity-to-helminth-parasites-and-allergic-inflammation
#7
Everett K Henry, Juan M Inclan-Rico, Mark C Siracusa
Purpose of Review: It is well established that T helper type 2 (TH 2) immune responses are necessary to provide protection against helminth parasites but also to promote the detrimental inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Given the importance of type 2 immunity and inflammation, many studies have focused on better understanding the factors that regulate TH 2 cell development and activation. As a result, significant progress has been made in understanding the signaling pathways and molecular events necessary to promote TH 2 cell polarization...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242771/sentinels-at-the-frontline-the-role-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Madeleine D Hu, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: Intestinal mucosal immunity is tightly regulated to ensure effective host defense against invasive microorganisms while limiting the potential for aberrant damage. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an imbalance between effector and regulatory T cell populations results in an uncontrolled inflammatory response to commensal bacteria. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are perfectly positioned within the intestinal epithelium to provide the first line of mucosal defense against luminal microbes or rapidly respond to epithelial injury...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130028/sphingosine-kinases-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-in-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#9
Eric K Kwong, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Phillip B Hylemon, Huiping Zhou
The ever-increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia and diabetes in the western world continues to be of great public health concern. Biologically active sphingolipids, such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide, are important regulators of lipid metabolism. S1P not only directly functions as an active intracellular mediator, but also activates multiple signaling pathways via five transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), S1PR1-5. S1P is exclusively formed by sphingosine kinases (SphKs)...
August 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983453/remote-sensing-between-liver-and-intestine-importance-of-microbial-metabolites
#10
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642837/environmental-influences-in-the-etiology-of-colorectal-cancer-the-premise-of-metabolomics
#11
Nicholas J W Rattray, Georgia Charkoftaki, Zahra Rattray, James E Hansen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Caroline H Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review we discuss how environmental exposures predominate the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). With CRC being a personalized disease influenced by genes and environment, our goal was to explore the role metabolomics can play in identifying exposures, assessing the interplay between co-exposures, and the development of personalized therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 10 % of CRC cases can be explained by germ-line mutations, whereas the prevailing majority are caused by an initiating exposure event occurring decades prior to diagnosis...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862164/single-cell-transcriptome-analysis-of-neural-stem-cells
#12
Ying Li, Jeremy Anderson, Kelvin Y Kwan, Li Cai
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult central nervous system play essential roles in both normal homeostasis and repair of damaged tissue after injury. The study of adult NSCs is hampered by the heterogeneous NSC population. In this review, we describe recent progresses in using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technique for the investigation of NSCs. The first part of this review focuses on the scRNA-seq techniques and bioinformatic analysis. The second part emphasizes the applications of scRNA-seq analysis in NSC research...
April 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993795/reactive-carbonyl-species-scavengers-novel-therapeutic-approaches-for-chronic-diseases
#13
Sean S Davies, Linda S Zhang
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize recent evidence supporting the use of reactive carbonyl species scavengers in the prevention and treatment of disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The newly developed 2-aminomethylphenol class of scavengers shows great promise in preclinical trials for a number of diverse conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular disease. In addition, new studies with the thiol-based and imidazole-based scavengers have found new applications outside of adjunctive therapy for chemotherapeutics...
April 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983452/role-of-fxr-in-liver-inflammation-during-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
Laura E Armstrong, Grace L Guo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: About 15-25% of patients with simple steatosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the underlying mechanism for this progression has not been elucidated. NASH ultimately could progress to cirrhosis, an irreversible condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been studied for its role in modulating inflammation, and the expression of FXR is down-regulated during NASH development...
April 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758057/the-opportunities-of-metabolomics-in-drug-safety-evaluation
#15
Pengcheng Wang, Amina I Shehu, Xiaochao Ma
Although safety of drug candidates is carefully monitored in preclinical and clinical studies using a variety of approaches, drug toxicity may still occur in clinical practice. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to complement the current drug safety evaluation system. Metabolomics comprehensively analyzes the metabolites altered by drug exposure, which can therefore be used to profile drug metabolism, endobiotic metabolism, and drug-microbiota interactions. The information from metabolomic analysis can be used to determine the off-targets of a drug candidate, and thus provide a mechanistic understanding of drug toxicity...
February 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344923/impact-of-drug-treatment-at-neonatal-ages-on-variability-of-drug-metabolism-and-drug-drug-interactions-in-adult-life
#16
Stephanie Piekos, Chad Pope, Austin Ferrara, Xiao-Bo Zhong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of patients taking more than one medication concurrently continues to increase, predicting and preventing drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is now more important than ever. Administration of one drug can cause changes in the expression and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and alter the efficacy or toxicity of other medications that are substrates for these enzymes, resulting in a DDI. In today's medical practice, potential DDIs are evaluated based on the current medications a patient is taking with little regard to drugs the patient has been exposed to in the past...
February 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201631/infection-a-cause-of-and-cure-for-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Jenna H Newman, Andrew Zloza
Purpose of Review: This article provides a brief overview of the role that infections play in cancer emergence and cancer treatment. Recent Findings: A select number of pathogens have been reported to increase the incidence of specific cancers (directly through altering gene expression or indirectly through inducing chronic inflammation). These have been referred to as oncogenic pathogens. Conversely, a subset of pathogens has been demonstrated to preferentially cause lysis of tumor cells, leading to tumor regression and improved anti-tumor immunity...
2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261547/progress-in-prediction-and-interpretation-of-clinically-relevant-metabolic-drug-drug-interactions-a-minireview-illustrating-recent-developments-and-current-opportunities
#18
REVIEW
Stephen Fowler, Peter N Morcos, Yumi Cleary, Meret Martin-Facklam, Neil Parrott, Michael Gertz, Li Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review gives a perspective on the current "state of the art" in metabolic drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction. We highlight areas of successful prediction and illustrate progress in areas where limits in scientific knowledge or technologies prevent us from having full confidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Several examples of success are highlighted. Work done for bitopertin shows how in vitro and clinical data can be integrated to give a model-based understanding of pharmacokinetics and drug interactions...
2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966903/challenges-and-opportunities-with-predicting-in-vivo-phase-ii-metabolism-via-glucuronidation-from-in-vitro-data
#19
Shufan Ge, Yifan Tu, Ming Hu
Glucuronidation is the most important phase II metabolic pathway which is responsible for the clearance of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. To better understand the elimination process for compounds undergoing glucuronidation and identify compounds with desirable in vivo pharmacokinetic properties, many efforts have been made to predict in vivo glucuronidation using in vitro data. In this article, we reviewed typical approaches used in previous predictions. The problems and challenges in prediction of glucuronidation were discussed...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546917/challenges-in-the-delivery-of-therapies-to-melanoma-brain-metastases
#20
Gautham Gampa, Shruthi Vaidhyanathan, Brynna-Wilken Resman, Karen E Parrish, Svetomir N Markovic, Jann N Sarkaria, William F Elmquist
Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced melanoma. Recent approval of several molecularly-targeted agents and biologics has brought hope to patients with this previously untreatable disease. However, patients with symptomatic melanoma brain metastases have often been excluded from pivotal clinical trials. This may be in part attributed to the fact that several of the approved small molecule molecularly-targeted agents are substrates for active efflux at the blood-brain barrier, limiting their effective delivery to brain metastases...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
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