Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Pharmacology Reports

Almin I Lalani, Sining Zhu, Samantha Gokhale, Juan Jin, Ping Xie
Purpose of Review: This review presents an overview of the current knowledge of TRAF molecules in inflammation with an emphasis on available human evidence and direct in vivo evidence of mouse models that demonstrate the contribution of TRAF molecules in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Recent Findings: The tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R)-associated factor (TRAF) family of cytoplasmic proteins was initially identified as signaling adaptors that bind directly to the intracellular domains of receptors of the TNF-R superfamily...
February 2018: Current Pharmacology Reports
Ju Hwan Cho, Filiz Oezkan, Michael Koenig, Gregory A Otterson, James Gordon Herman, Kai He
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and worldwide. Novel therapeutic developments are critically necessary to improve outcomes for this disease. Aberrant epigenetic change plays an important role in lung cancer development and progression. Therefore, drugs targeting the epigenome are being investigated in the treatment of lung cancer. Monotherapy of epigenetic therapeutics such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have so far not shown any apparent benefit while one of the clinical trials with the combinations of DNMTi and HDACi showed a small positive signal for treating lung cancer...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Orchi Dutta, Jorge A Masso-Silva, Keyi Wang, Amariliz Rivera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Amanda R Muñoz, Divya Chakravarthy, Jingjing Gong, Glenn A Halff, Rita Ghosh, Addanki P Kumar
Purpose of the review: The 5-year survival rate of patients with pancreatic cancer (PanCA) has remained stagnant. Unfortunately, the incidence is almost equal to mortality rates. These facts underscore the importance of concerted efforts to understand the pathology of this disease. Deregulation of multiple signaling pathways involved in a wide variety of cellular processes including proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis contribute not only to cancer development but also to therapeutic resistance...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Eswar Shankar, Aditi Goel, Karishma Gupta, Sanjay Gupta
Research in cancer chemoprevention provides convincing evidence that increased intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce the risk of several human malignancies. Phytochemicals present therein provide beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that serve to improve the cellular microenvironment. Compounds known as flavonoids categorized anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavanones, flavonols, flavones, and isoflavones have shown considerable promise as chemopreventive agents. Apigenin (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone), a major plant flavone, possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties affecting several molecular and cellular targets used to treat various human diseases...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Everett K Henry, Juan M Inclan-Rico, Mark C Siracusa
Purpose of Review: It is well established that T helper type 2 (TH 2) immune responses are necessary to provide protection against helminth parasites but also to promote the detrimental inflammation associated with allergies and asthma. Given the importance of type 2 immunity and inflammation, many studies have focused on better understanding the factors that regulate TH 2 cell development and activation. As a result, significant progress has been made in understanding the signaling pathways and molecular events necessary to promote TH 2 cell polarization...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Madeleine D Hu, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: Intestinal mucosal immunity is tightly regulated to ensure effective host defense against invasive microorganisms while limiting the potential for aberrant damage. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an imbalance between effector and regulatory T cell populations results in an uncontrolled inflammatory response to commensal bacteria. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are perfectly positioned within the intestinal epithelium to provide the first line of mucosal defense against luminal microbes or rapidly respond to epithelial injury...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Eric K Kwong, Xiaojiaoyang Li, Phillip B Hylemon, Huiping Zhou
The ever-increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia and diabetes in the western world continues to be of great public health concern. Biologically active sphingolipids, such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide, are important regulators of lipid metabolism. S1P not only directly functions as an active intracellular mediator, but also activates multiple signaling pathways via five transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), S1PR1-5. S1P is exclusively formed by sphingosine kinases (SphKs)...
August 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Zidong Donna Fu, Julia Yue Cui
Recent technological advancements including metagenomics sequencing and metabolomics have allowed the discovery of critical functions of gut microbiota in obesity, malnutrition, neurological disorders, asthma, and xenobiotic metabolism. Classification of the human gut microbiome into distinct "enterotypes" has been proposed to serve as a new paradigm for understanding the interplay between microbial variation and human disease phenotypes, as many organs are affected by gut microbiota modifications during the pathogenesis of diseases...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Nicholas J W Rattray, Georgia Charkoftaki, Zahra Rattray, James E Hansen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Caroline H Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review we discuss how environmental exposures predominate the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). With CRC being a personalized disease influenced by genes and environment, our goal was to explore the role metabolomics can play in identifying exposures, assessing the interplay between co-exposures, and the development of personalized therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 10 % of CRC cases can be explained by germ-line mutations, whereas the prevailing majority are caused by an initiating exposure event occurring decades prior to diagnosis...
June 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Sean S Davies, Linda S Zhang
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To summarize recent evidence supporting the use of reactive carbonyl species scavengers in the prevention and treatment of disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The newly developed 2-aminomethylphenol class of scavengers shows great promise in preclinical trials for a number of diverse conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular disease. In addition, new studies with the thiol-based and imidazole-based scavengers have found new applications outside of adjunctive therapy for chemotherapeutics...
April 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Laura E Armstrong, Grace L Guo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: About 15-25% of patients with simple steatosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the underlying mechanism for this progression has not been elucidated. NASH ultimately could progress to cirrhosis, an irreversible condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been studied for its role in modulating inflammation, and the expression of FXR is down-regulated during NASH development...
April 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Pengcheng Wang, Amina I Shehu, Xiaochao Ma
Although safety of drug candidates is carefully monitored in preclinical and clinical studies using a variety of approaches, drug toxicity may still occur in clinical practice. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to complement the current drug safety evaluation system. Metabolomics comprehensively analyzes the metabolites altered by drug exposure, which can therefore be used to profile drug metabolism, endobiotic metabolism, and drug-microbiota interactions. The information from metabolomic analysis can be used to determine the off-targets of a drug candidate, and thus provide a mechanistic understanding of drug toxicity...
February 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Stephanie Piekos, Chad Pope, Austin Ferrara, Xiao-Bo Zhong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of patients taking more than one medication concurrently continues to increase, predicting and preventing drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is now more important than ever. Administration of one drug can cause changes in the expression and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and alter the efficacy or toxicity of other medications that are substrates for these enzymes, resulting in a DDI. In today's medical practice, potential DDIs are evaluated based on the current medications a patient is taking with little regard to drugs the patient has been exposed to in the past...
February 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Jenna H Newman, Andrew Zloza
Purpose of Review: This article provides a brief overview of the role that infections play in cancer emergence and cancer treatment. Recent Findings: A select number of pathogens have been reported to increase the incidence of specific cancers (directly through altering gene expression or indirectly through inducing chronic inflammation). These have been referred to as oncogenic pathogens. Conversely, a subset of pathogens has been demonstrated to preferentially cause lysis of tumor cells, leading to tumor regression and improved anti-tumor immunity...
2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Stephen Fowler, Peter N Morcos, Yumi Cleary, Meret Martin-Facklam, Neil Parrott, Michael Gertz, Li Yu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review gives a perspective on the current "state of the art" in metabolic drug-drug interaction (DDI) prediction. We highlight areas of successful prediction and illustrate progress in areas where limits in scientific knowledge or technologies prevent us from having full confidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Several examples of success are highlighted. Work done for bitopertin shows how in vitro and clinical data can be integrated to give a model-based understanding of pharmacokinetics and drug interactions...
2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
Shufan Ge, Yifan Tu, Ming Hu
Glucuronidation is the most important phase II metabolic pathway which is responsible for the clearance of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. To better understand the elimination process for compounds undergoing glucuronidation and identify compounds with desirable in vivo pharmacokinetic properties, many efforts have been made to predict in vivo glucuronidation using in vitro data. In this article, we reviewed typical approaches used in previous predictions. The problems and challenges in prediction of glucuronidation were discussed...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
Gautham Gampa, Shruthi Vaidhyanathan, Brynna-Wilken Resman, Karen E Parrish, Svetomir N Markovic, Jann N Sarkaria, William F Elmquist
Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced melanoma. Recent approval of several molecularly-targeted agents and biologics has brought hope to patients with this previously untreatable disease. However, patients with symptomatic melanoma brain metastases have often been excluded from pivotal clinical trials. This may be in part attributed to the fact that several of the approved small molecule molecularly-targeted agents are substrates for active efflux at the blood-brain barrier, limiting their effective delivery to brain metastases...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
Michael A Kelberman, Elena M Vazey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) are better predictors of quality of life changes, caregiver burden, and mortality than motor symptoms. Levodopa has limited, and sometimes detrimental, effects on these symptoms. In this review we discuss recent evidence on pharmacological treatments for non-motor symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Breakthroughs have been made in the treatment of psychosis and sleep dysfunction. Pimavanserin has become the first FDA approved drug for PD psychosis...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
Obeid M Malekshah, Xuguang Chen, Alireza Nomani, Siddik Sarkar, Arash Hatefi
The use of enzyme/prodrug system has gained attention because it could help improve the efficacy and safety of conventional cancer chemotherapies. In this approach, cancer cells are first transfected with a gene that can express an enzyme with ability to convert a non-toxic prodrug into its active cytotoxic form. As a result, the activated prodrug could kill the transfected cancer cells. Despite the significant progress of different suicide gene therapy protocols in preclinical studies and early clinical trials, none has reached the clinic due to several shortcomings...
December 2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"