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Current Sleep Medicine Reports

Annemarie I Luik, Simon D Kyle, Colin A Espie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decade, digital solutions have been developed to support the dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). In this paper, we review the evidence for and implications of digital CBT (dCBT) for insomnia. RECENT FINDINGS: We propose three categories of dCBT, which differ in the amount of clinician time needed, level of automatization, costs, and scalability: dCBT as support, guided dCBT, and fully automated dCBT. Consistent evidence has been published on the effectiveness of dCBT to address insomnia disorder, in a variety of populations, with effects extending into well-being...
2017: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Sheila N Garland, Eric S Zhou, Brian D Gonzalez, Nicole Rodriguez
Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBIs) for insomnia and sleep disturbances are receiving increasing clinical and research attention. This paper provides a critical appraisal of this growing area investigating the application of MBIs for people with insomnia and sleep disturbance. First, we discuss the theoretical justification for how mindfulness meditation practice may affect sleep processes. Second, we provide a focused review of literature published between January 1, 2012 and April 1, 2016 examining the impact of MBIs on sleep, broken down by whether insomnia or sleep disturbance was a primary or secondary outcome...
September 2016: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Helen J Burgess, Jonathan S Emens
This review summarizes recent developments relevant to the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. The clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders is described, followed by recent treatment studies for delayed sleep-wake phase disorder, non-24 hour sleep-wake disorder, irregular sleep-wake disorder and shift work. New methods to estimate circadian phase, including home saliva collection to estimate the dim light melatonin onset, circadian questionnaires and general rules to guide light and exogenous melatonin treatments are described...
September 2016: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Markus Jansson-Fröjmark, Annika Norell-Clarke
Insomnia means difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep and is commonly comorbid with psychiatric disorders. From being considered secondary to primary psychiatric disorders, comorbid insomnia is now considered an independent health issue that warrants treatment in its own right. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an evidence-based treatment for insomnia. The effects from CBT-I on comorbid psychiatric conditions have received increasing interest as insomnia comorbid with psychiatric disorders has been associated with more severe psychiatric symptomologies, and there are studies that indicate effects from CBT-I on both insomnia and psychiatric symptomology...
2016: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Mohammed N Khan, Rebecca Nock, Nalaka S Gooneratne
Mobile devices (smartphones and tablet computers) have become widely prevalent due to rapid improvements in function and decreasing costs. As of 2014, 90 % of US adults have a mobile phone, with 58 % having a smartphone, 32 % owning some type of e-reader, and 42 % of US adults owning a tablet computer. Mobile devices are particularly well-suited for the study of common conditions such as sleep difficulties because of their ubiquity. Around 35 to 49 % of the US adult population have problems falling asleep or have daytime sleepiness...
December 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Lauren Hale, Erin Emanuele, Sarah James
In this brief review article, we provide an overview of recent (since 2010) scientific contributions to our understanding of the social and environmental determinants of sleep health. In particular, we focus on three areas where we saw the most contributions to the determinants of sleep health among children, adolescents, and adults. First, studies of neighborhood context and sleep health find that sleep quality and quantity are lower in disadvantaged neighborhoods. These negative associations are often stronger for women than for men...
December 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Samantha Conley, Nancy S Redeker
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is associated with high levels of morbidity, disability and poor quality of life. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms and diagnosis of insomnia are high among those with CVD. Although insomnia appears to be important to CVD, less is known about the effects of insomnia treatment on important biological, sleep, symptom, quality of life, functional and morbidity or mortality outcomes in people with or at-risk for CVD. The purposes of this paper are to review the literature on the effects of CBT-I on insomnia, sleep, daytime symptoms, function, and biological outcomes in the context of CVD and to suggest implications for future research and practice...
September 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Fabio Ferrarelli
Numerous electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have reported neurophysiological and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients during wakefulness. However, these findings have been inconsistently replicated across different groups of patients, thus complicating the identification of underlying neuronal defects. Sleep minimizes possible waking-related confounds, including decreased motivation and presence of active symptoms. Additionally, the two main sleep rhythms, slow waves and spindles, reflect the intrinsic activity of corticothalamic circuits and are associated with cognitive activities, including learning and memory, occurring during wakefulness...
June 1, 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
David T Plante
Hypersomnia is commonly comorbid with depressive illness and is associated with treatment resistance, symptomatic relapse, and functional impairment. This review highlights recent changes in nosological classifications of hypersomnia. In addition, emergent findings regarding the neurobiologic underpinnings, assessment, and treatment of hypersomnia in mood disorders are reviewed, as well as the effects of hypersomnolence on illness course. Future strategies for research are proposed that may elucidate the causes of hypersomnia in mood disorders and lead to the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
June 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Olivia J Veatch, Angela C Maxwell-Horn, Beth A Malow
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common neurodevelopmental conditions, affecting 1 in 68 children. Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is very common in children diagnosed with ASD, with evidence supporting overlapping neurobiological and genetic underpinnings. Disturbed sleep exacerbates core and related ASD symptoms and has a substantial negative impact on the entire family. Treatment of sleep disturbance holds promise for ameliorating many of the challenging behavioral symptoms that children with ASD and their families face...
June 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Salome Kurth, Nadja Olini, Reto Huber, Monique LeBourgeois
Sleep is increasingly recognized as a key process in neurodevelopment. Animal data show that sleep is essential for the maturation of fundamental brain functions, and growing epidemiological findings indicate that children with early sleep disturbance suffer from later cognitive, attentional, and psychosocial problems. Still, major gaps exist in understanding processes underlying links between sleep and neurodevelopment. One challenge is to translate findings from animal research to humans. In this review, we describe parallels and differences in sleep and development of the cortex in humans and animals and discuss emerging questions...
March 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
John O'Donnell, Fengfei Ding, Maiken Nedergaard
Astrocytes are the chief supportive cells in the central nervous system, but work over the past 20 years have documented that astrocytes also contribute to complex neural processes, such as working memory. Recent discoveries of norepinephrine-mediated astrocytic Ca(2+) responses have raised the possibility that astrocytic activity in the adult brain is driven by global responses to changes in behavioral state. Moreover, analysis of the interstitial space volume suggests that astrocytes may undergo changes in cell volume in response to activation of norepinephrine receptors...
March 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Michele Bellesi
Transcriptomic studies have revealed that the brains of sleeping and awake animals differ significantly at the molecular level, with hundreds of brain transcripts changing their expression across behavioral states. However, it was unclear how sleep affects specific cells types, such as oligodendrocytes, which make myelin in the healthy brain and in response to injury. In this review, I summarize the recent findings showing that several genes expressed at higher levels during sleep are involved in the synthesis/maintenance of all membranes and of myelin in particular...
March 1, 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Alexandre Tiriac, Greta Sokoloff, Mark S Blumberg
As bodies grow and change throughout early development and across the lifespan, animals must develop, refine, and maintain accurate sensorimotor maps. Here we review evidence that myoclonic twitches-brief and discrete contractions of the muscles, occurring exclusively during REM (or active) sleep, that result in jerks of the limbs-help animals map their ever-changing bodies by activating skeletal muscles to produce corresponding sensory feedback, or reafference. First, we highlight the spatiotemporal characteristics of twitches...
March 2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Miranda Varrasse, Junxin Li, Nalaka Gooneratne
Insomnia and other sleep complaints are highly prevalent in community-dwelling older adults yet often go under detected. Age-related physiological changes may affect sleep, but sleep disturbances and complaints should not be considered normal in this population. Various physiological, psychological, and social consequences have been associated with insomnia and sleep complaints. Treatment options are available so it is imperative to diagnose and treat these individuals to promote healthy aging. Exercise is known to have a wide variety of health benefits, but unfortunately most older adults engage in less exercise with advancing age...
2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
Stephane Dissel, Krishna Melnattur, Paul J Shaw
Drosophila has proven to be a powerful model to identify genes and circuits that impact sleep. While the majority of studies have primarily been interested in identifying manipulations that alter sleep time, a growing body of work has begun to focus on how changing sleep influences functional outcomes such as cognitive performance, structural plasticity, and metabolism to name a few. Evaluating sleep time provides an appropriate entry point into elucidating sleep function. However, it is not possible to fully understand how a manipulation has impacted sleep regulation without first establishing how it has affected the animals' well-being...
2015: Current Sleep Medicine Reports
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