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Jeff R Crane, Patti-Jean Naylor, Viviene A Temple
Accompanying the transition from early to middle childhood are substantial changes in children's educational and recreational circumstances. These changes may affect physical activity levels. This study examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in kindergarten (age range 5⁻6 years) and grade 2 (age range 7⁻8 years). Participants were 96 kindergarten children recruited in the 2010⁻2011 and 2011⁻2012 school years and 94 grade 2 children recruited in the 2012⁻2013 and 2013⁻2014 school years...
September 20, 2018: Children
Avneet K Mangat, Ju-Lee Oei, Kerry Chen, Im Quah-Smith, Georg M Schmölzer
Pain is a major problem in sick newborn infants, especially for those needing intensive care. Pharmacological pain relief is the most commonly used, but might be ineffective and has side effects, including long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. The effectiveness and safety of alternative analgesic methods are ambiguous. The objective was to review the effectiveness and safety of non-pharmacological methods of pain relief in newborn infants and to identify those that are the most effective. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms: "infant", "premature", "pain", "acupuncture", "skin-to-skin contact", "sucrose", "massage", "musical therapy" and 'breastfeeding'...
September 20, 2018: Children
Sandra Mandic, Roman Keller, Enrique García Bengoechea, Antoni Moore, Kirsten J Coppell
BACKGROUND: Excessive school bag weight is a barrier to active transport to school (ATS). This study examined parents' and adolescents' perceptions of school bag weights and actual school bag weights for adolescents in New Zealand. METHODS: Parents (n = 331; 76.7% women) completed a survey. Adolescents (n = 682; age 15.1 ± 1.4 years; 57.3% boys) completed a survey, underwent anthropometry, and had their school bags weighed. RESULTS: Overall, 68...
September 20, 2018: Children
Michael B Owen, Charlotte Kerner, Sarah L Taylor, Robert J Noonan, Lisa Newson, Maria-Christina Kosteli, Whitney B Curry, Stuart J Fairclough
Enjoyment of physical activity (PA) is positively correlated with PA engagement. The inclusion of peers has been found to increase the likelihood of PA enjoyment in youth. Peer-led strategies, incorporating peer networks in the intervention delivery, is relatively underused and consequently understudied in school-based PA interventions. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the novel Girls Peer Activity (G-PACT) peer-led mentoring intervention. Two-hundred and forty-nine Year 9 adolescent girls (13⁻14 years old) from three mixed-sex secondary schools located in West Lancashire, North-West England were invited to participate in the G-PACT project...
September 19, 2018: Children
Girish Gulab Meshram, Neeraj Kaur, Kanwaljeet Singh Hura
Salivary gland tumors are extremely rare and encompass a diverse group of histologies. Less than 5% of the affected population is pediatric. We present a case of 6-year-old child with pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy. Recurrence was not observed in the six months of follow-up. Surgery is the mainstay of the management of benign salivary gland tumors. Although novel molecular agents are being explored, personalized therapy would be a challenge due to the rarity and vast genetic/histologic variations of salivary gland tumors...
September 18, 2018: Children
J Matthew Kynes, Martin Blakely, Kevin Furman, William B Burnette, Katharina B Modes
Children with neuromuscular diseases present unique challenges to providing safe and appropriate perioperative care. Given the spectrum of disease etiologies and manifestations, this is a population that often requires specialized multidisciplinary care from pediatricians, geneticists, neurologists, dieticians, and pulmonologists which must also be coordinated with surgeons and anesthesiologists when these patients present for surgery. Several of these diseases also have specific pharmacologic implications for anesthesia, most notably mitochondrial disease and muscular dystrophies, which put them at additional risk during the perioperative period particularly in patients presenting without a formal diagnosis...
September 12, 2018: Children
Imelda K Moise
The risk of a child dying before age five in Burundi is almost 1.6 times higher than that in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region. However, variations in the all-cause mortality rates across Burundi have not yet been measured directly at subnational levels, age group and by gender. The objective of this study was to describe the main causes of hospitalization and mortality in children during the neonatal period and at ages 1 to 59 months, for boys and girls, and to assess the total annual (2010) burden of under-five morbidity and mortality in hospitals using hospitalization records from 21 district hospitals...
September 8, 2018: Children
Ashish Pathak, Nitin Agrawal, Love Mehra, Aditya Mathur, Vishal Diwan
Data on types of community first aid use and treatment provided post-injury from many low‒middle-income countries, including India, are lacking. This cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged one month to 18 years of age, in Ujjain, India, to understand types of first aid given and health-seeking post-injury. A total of 1087 injuries in 1049 children were identified in the past year. A total of 729 (67%) injured children received first aid and 758 (70%) sought some form of health care. Children with burns received the most (86%) first aid, and most children (84%) with road traffic accidents (RTA) sought health care...
September 6, 2018: Children
Anna Esparham, Sanghamitra M Misra, Erica Sibinga, Timothy Culbert, Kathi Kemper, Hilary McClafferty, Sunita Vohra, Lawrence Rosen
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...].
September 5, 2018: Children
Marion Eckert, Catharina Amarell, Dennis Anheyer, Holger Cramer, Gustav Dobos
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has not been systematically institutionalized in pediatric hospital care in Germany so far. For the responsible implementation and systematic evaluation of CAM in pediatric care, a model project was initialized in three different pediatric hospitals in Germany, one of them being the "Kinderkrankenhaus St. Marien" in Landshut, Germany. During this project, a concept of the implementation process was developed based on clinical care, teaching, and scientific evaluation...
September 4, 2018: Children
Danielle Ruskin, Lauren Campbell, Jennifer Stinson, Sara Ahola Kohut
Parenting a child with chronic pain can be stressful and impact parent functioning in a variety of areas. Several studies have examined mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for parents of children with different health and mental health conditions. However, no studies to date have examined MBIs for parents of children with pain conditions. This study aimed to: (1) determine the feasibility and acceptability of a one-time MBI workshop for parents ( n = 34) of adolescents with painful conditions (chronic pain and inflammatory bowel disease) who were participating in a concurrent mindfulness group for adolescents with pain, and (2) examine changes in parent mindfulness and psychological flexibility following the intervention...
September 3, 2018: Children
Stefan J Friedrichsdorf, Eduardo Bruera
Among the over 21 million children with life-limiting conditions worldwide that would benefit annually from a pediatric palliative care (PPC) approach, more than eight million would need specialized PPC services. In the United States alone, more than 42,000 children die every year, half of them infants younger than one year. Advanced interdisciplinary pediatric palliative care for children with serious illnesses is now an expected standard of pediatric medicine. Unfortunately, in many institutions there remain significant barriers to achieving optimal care related to lack of formal education, reimbursement issues, the emotional impact of caring for a dying child, and most importantly, the lack of interdisciplinary PPC teams with sufficient staffing and funding...
August 31, 2018: Children
Erin K Barr, Mark A Applebaum
Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in children under the age of one. It displays remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, resulting in differences in outcomes that correlate with clinical and biologic features at diagnosis. While neuroblastoma accounts for approximately 5% of all cancer diagnoses in pediatrics, it disproportionately results in about 9% of all childhood deaths. Research advances over the decades have led to an improved understanding of neuroblastoma biology. However, the initiating events that lead to the development of neuroblastoma remain to be fully elucidated...
August 31, 2018: Children
Pedro F Saint-Maurice, Yang Bai, Spyridoula Vazou, Gregory Welk
This study describes age, sex, and season patterns in children's physical activity behaviors during discrete time periods, both in school and at home. Participants were 135 elementary, 67 middle, and 89 high-school students (128 boys and 163 girls) involved in a larger school activity monitoring project. We examined time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at recess, physical education (PE), lunch, commuting to/from school, before-school, after-school, evening, and weekend segments. Differences in MVPA by age, sex, and season were examined using a three-way analysis of variance and separately for each individual segment...
August 30, 2018: Children
Emmanuel Obeng-Gyasi, Melissa A Weinstein, Jessica R Hauser, Cecilia S Obeng
Scholarship on child health indicates that the early years of life are vital for all aspects of health and development. In particular, a solid health foundation predicts good life outcomes; therefore, systematic strategies for combating diseases are needed to ensure optimal health of young children in early care environments. This study examined strategies used by 48 preschool teachers from 10 pre-schools in the US Midwest in order to combat diseases. The following results emerged: Participants noted that children should not attend childcare if they are vomiting, have a fever or have diarrhea...
August 30, 2018: Children
Alexander T Toth, Gricelda Gomez, Alpana P Shukla, Janey S Pratt, Hellas Cena, Ginevra Biino, Louis J Aronne, Fatima Cody Stanford
This paper presents a retrospective cohort study of weight loss medications in young adults aged 21 to 30 following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) between November 2000 and June 2014. Data were collected from patients who used topiramate, phentermine, and/or metformin postoperatively. Percentage of patients achieving ≥5%, ≥10%, or ≥15% weight loss on medications was determined and percent weight change on each medication was compared to percent weight change of the rest of the cohort...
August 29, 2018: Children
Nicholas Chadi, Elli Weisbaum, Catherine Malboeuf-Hurtubise, Sara Ahola Kohut, Christine Viner, Miriam Kaufman, Jake Locke, Dzung X Vo
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been shown to improve health and well-being in adolescents with chronic illnesses. Because they are most often delivered in person in a group setting, there are several barriers that limit access to MBIs for youth with limited mobility or who cannot access in-person MBIs in their communities. The objective of this study was to determine if eHealth is a viable platform to increase accessibility to MBIs for teens with chronic illnesses. This study reports the qualitative results of a mixed method randomized trial describing the experience of the Mindful Awareness and Resilience Skills for Adolescents (MARS-A) program, an eight-week MBI, delivered either in person or via eHealth...
August 28, 2018: Children
Valeria Smith, Jennifer Foster
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. One subset, high-risk neuroblastoma, is very difficult to treat and requires multi-modal therapy. Intensification of therapy has vastly improved survival rates, and research is focused on novel treatments to further improve survival rates. The current treatment schema is divided into three stages-induction, consolidation, and maintenance. This review serves as an overview of the current treatment for high-risk neuroblastoma and a glimpse at current research for future therapy...
August 28, 2018: Children
Camila B Walters, J Matthew Kynes, Jenna Sobey, Tsitsi Chimhundu-Sithole, K A Kelly McQueen
Chronic pain is a serious health concern and potentially debilitating condition, leading to anxiety, depression, reduced productivity and functionality, and poor quality of life. This condition can be even more detrimental and incapacitating in the pediatric patient population. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), pain services are often inadequate or unavailable, leaving most of the world's pediatric population with chronic pain untreated. Many of these children in LMICs are suffering without treatment, and often die in pain...
August 27, 2018: Children
Melissa DeFilippis
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity. The prevalence of comorbid depression seems to correlate with higher functioning forms of ASD and increasing age. Adolescence is a time when youth struggle with identity and interpersonal relationships, and a diagnosis of ASD further complicates this process. Adolescents with ASD may be more aware of the social communication deficits that come with the diagnosis than children with ASD, and it is theorized that higher functioning adolescents may experience this more acutely...
August 21, 2018: Children
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