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Ann S Masten, Andrew J Barnes
Advances in developmental resilience science are highlighted with commentary on implications for pediatric systems that aspire to promote healthy development over the life course. Resilience science is surging along with growing concerns about the consequences of adverse childhood experiences on lifelong development. Resilience is defined as the capacity of a system to adapt successfully to challenges that threaten the function, survival, or future development of the system. This definition is scalable across system levels and across disciplines, applicable to resilience in a person, a family, a health care system, a community, an economy, or other systems...
July 17, 2018: Children
Wei Ling Chin, Tiina Jaaniste, Susan Trethewie
Siblings of children with life limiting conditions (LLC) are an important part of the broader family system and require consideration in the holistic care of the family. There can be considerable variation in the functioning and adjustment of these siblings. The current paper explores the resilience paradigm, particularly in the context of siblings of children with LLC and serious medical conditions. The potential impact of children living with a seriously ill brother or sister will be overviewed, and a range of functional outcomes considered...
July 16, 2018: Children
Kristen M Aggerbeck Kessler, Debanjana Chatterjee, Rebecca Shlafer, Andrew J Barnes
Youth who experience homelessness have worse health and well-being than housed youth. Internal assets, including social competency and positive self-identity, are factors that promote healthy development. This study compared internal assets between homeless and housed youth, and examined whether connectedness with parents moderates the association between homelessness and internal assets. Using data from a large population-based survey of middle- and high-school aged youth, we found that homelessness was associated with lower levels of internal assets...
July 16, 2018: Children
Janelle A Gifford, Josephine D Gwynn, Louise L Hardy, Nicole Turner, Lily C Henderson, Christine Innes-Hughes, Victoria M Flood
Childhood obesity is associated with low socioeconomic status in developed countries, and community programs can deliver cost-effective obesity interventions to vulnerable children and adolescents at scale. Evaluating these programs in a low-cost, time-efficient, and culturally appropriate way with valid and reliable measures is essential to determining their effectiveness. We aimed to identify existing valid and reliable short-form instruments (≤50 items for diet, ≤15 items for physical activity) suitable for the assessment of change in diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour in an Australian obesity intervention program for children and adolescents aged 7⁻13 years from low socioeconomic groups, with a focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children...
July 13, 2018: Children
Aisling A Garvey, Elisabeth M W Kooi, Aisling Smith, Eugene M Dempsey
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of end-organ tissue oxygenation. The use of NIRS, cerebral NIRS (cNIRS) in particular, in neonatal care has increased significantly over the last few years. This dynamic monitoring technique provides real-time information on the cerebral and haemodynamic status of the neonate and has the potential to serve as an important adjunct to patient care with some centres routinely utilising cNIRS to aid decision-making at the bedside. cNIRS values may be influenced by many variables, including cardiac, respiratory and metabolic parameters, and therefore it is essential to understand the pathophysiology behind alterations in cNIRS values...
July 9, 2018: Children
Seema Kumar, Ivana T Croghan, Bridget K Biggs, Katrina Croghan, Rose Prissel, Debbie Fuehrer, Bonnie Donelan-Dunlap, Amit Sood
Mindfulness has gained attention in the treatment of obesity. However, there is a paucity of data on family-based training in mindful eating in children. The objective of this pilot randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a family-based mindful eating intervention (MEI) in adolescents with obesity, and to compare the efficacy of the MEI versus standard dietary counseling (SDC) for decreasing weight and improving cardiometabolic risk markers. Twenty-two adolescents (age 14...
July 6, 2018: Children
Keri R Hainsworth, Xue Cheng Liu, Pippa M Simpson, Ann M Swartz, Nina Linneman, Susan T Tran, Gustavo R Medrano, Bryant Mascarenhas, Liyun Zhang, Steven J Weisman
Obesity negatively impacts the kinematics and kinetics of the lower extremities in children and adolescents. Although yoga has the potential to provide several distinct benefits for children with obesity, this is the first study to examine the benefits of yoga for gait (primary outcome) in youths with obesity. Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical activity, and pain. Feasibility and acceptability were also assessed. Nine youths (11⁻17 years) participated in an eight-week Iyengar yoga intervention (bi-weekly 1-h classes)...
July 4, 2018: Children
Hani K Fanous, Silvia Delgado-Villata, Reka Kovacs, Eglal Shalaby-Rana, Iman Sami-Zakahri
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal genetic diseases in the United States in Caucasians. More than 2000 genetic mutations have been described and CF is now known to affect other races. The incidence of CF in individuals of Hispanic descent is estimated to be 1:9200. An uncommon mutation, 1811+1643G>T, was recently reported. We report four patients with the 1811+1643G>T mutation (homozygous or heterozygous) and describe their clinical features and compare them to the remainder of our Hispanic cohort group...
July 3, 2018: Children
Emma Sterrett-Hong, Becky Antle, Brianna Nalley, Monica Adams
Witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) among parents negatively impacts millions of children in the United States each year. Low-income families are disproportionately affected by IPV compared to middle- and high-income individuals, and are beginning to be the focus of IPV secondary prevention interventions, including relationship education programs. Despite these developments, few studies have examined changes in psychosocial functioning among children of parents participating in relationship education programs...
June 30, 2018: Children
Ayoub Al Jawaldeh, Hanin Al-Jawaldeh
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of mortality globally with an estimated 39.5 million deaths per year (72% of total death) in 2016, due to the four major NCDs: cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. In the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), almost 68% of all deaths are attributed to NCDs commonly known as chronic or lifestyle-related diseases. Two-thirds of NCD premature deaths are linked to 4 shared modifiable behavioral risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol...
June 29, 2018: Children
Bibhuti B Das
Pediatric heart failure (HF) represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. There is an overlapping relationship of HF, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. The goal of treatment of HF in children is to maintain stability, prevent progression, and provide a reasonable milieu to allow somatic growth and optimal development. Current management and therapy for HF in children are extrapolated from treatment approaches in adults. There are significant barriers in applying adult data to children because of developmental factors, age variation from birth to adolescence, and differences in the genetic expression profile and β-adrenergic signaling...
June 28, 2018: Children
Shujuan Song, Chunfeng Chen, Aiguo Zhang
In the rural areas of China, there is a high occurrence of parental migration, wherein adults are flushed into urban areas to search for employment opportunities, leading to millions of left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. LBC attracts more attention from the social community and Chinese government. Here, we compared the life satisfaction and academic achievement of left-behind children (LBC) and non-left-behind children (NLBC) in rural regions that send out migrant labor in Hubei province, central China...
June 27, 2018: Children
Christine Mott, Amrita Sarpal, Krista Moss, Anthony Herbert
Methadone has the potential to assist in the management of pain in children with life-limiting illness, but its use is limited by its complex pharmacokinetic profile and limited research on its use in children. This is a retrospective review of the use of methadone as an analgesic in 16 children with life-limiting illness. Efficacy, dosing and side effect profile were analysed. Fifteen (94%) patients had improvements in their analgesia with minimal observed adverse effects. Patients were either rapidly converted from a prior opioid in one change or received methadone as an adjunct medication...
June 27, 2018: Children
Kendra D Koch, Barbara L Jones
The well-being of parents is essential to the well-being of children with life-limiting illness. Parents are vulnerable to a range of negative financial, physical, and psychosocial issues due to caregiving tasks and other stressors related to the illness of their child. Pediatric palliative care practitioners provide good care to children by supporting their parents in decision-making and difficult conversations, by managing pain and other symptoms in the ill child, and by addressing parent and family needs for care coordination, respite, bereavement, and social and emotional support...
June 26, 2018: Children
Terence Tong, Anna Rangan, Luke Gemming
Breakfast is an important contributor to the daily dietary intake of children. This study investigated the nutritional composition of ready to eat (RTE) children’s breakfast cereals, which display fictional cartoon characters and themes, compared to other cereals available in Australia. Nutrient content claims on packaging were also examined. Data were collected from RTE breakfast cereal packages ( N = 347) from four major supermarkets in Sydney. Cereals were classified based on product type and promotional information displayed...
June 21, 2018: Children
Brittany A Bailey, Sophia K Andrzejewski, Sarah M Greif, Adrian M Svingos, Shelley C Heaton
The current study evaluated a model of youth academic self-concept which incorporates practical executive functioning behaviors and academic achievement. Though greater academic achievement has been linked to both positive self-concept and better executive functioning, these constructs have not been examined simultaneously. It was hypothesized that academic achievement would mediate the association between problems with executive functioning and academic self-concept such that youth with more problems with executive functioning would have lower academic achievement and, in turn, lower academic self-concept...
June 21, 2018: Children
Larissa Alice Dreier, Julia Wager, Markus Blankenburg, Boris Zernikow
A high prevalence of sleep problems exists in children and adolescents with life-limiting conditions (LLC) and severe psychomotor impairment (SPMI). This study aimed to compare the impacts of various child-related (pain, epilepsy, repositioning, medical care) and environment-related (light, noise, TV/radio, open door) factors on sleep in this vulnerable population. Data were obtained through the “Sleep Questionnaire for Children with Severe Psychomotor Impairment” (SNAKE) by proxy assessment...
June 21, 2018: Children
Chishinga Callender, Deborah Thompson
Obesity prevalence is greater in African American girls than their non-Hispanic white peers. Obesity prevention programs are needed to help parents create an obesity-preventive home environment. This paper reports the feasibility and acceptability of a mHealth child obesity prevention program consisting of self-determination theory-grounded text messages promoting a healthy home food and activity environment to parents of 8⁻10-year-old African American girls. A one-group design with baseline and immediate post-intervention assessments was utilized...
June 19, 2018: Children
Shaylea Badovinac, Hannah Gennis, Rebecca Pillai Riddell, Hartley Garfield, Saul Greenberg
Parents play a critical role in supporting infants' ability to manage strong emotions. Routine vaccinations provide an ideal context to observe the effect of parents' behaviors on infants' pain-related distress. Previous research in the vaccination context showed that parent sensitivity, operationalized by variables such as emotional availability and proximal soothing behaviors, is associated with infant pain-related distress behavior. However, the magnitudes of these relationships were smaller than expected given the established importance of parents in the development of distress regulation...
June 18, 2018: Children
Gert-Jan van der Heijden, Zhiyue J Wang, Zili D Chu, Morey Haymond, Pieter J J Sauer, Agneta L Sunehag
Hispanic adolescent girls with normal BMI frequently have high body fat %. Without knowledge of body fat content and distribution, their risk for metabolic complications is unknown. We measured metabolic risk indicators and abdominal fat distribution in post-pubertal Hispanic adolescent girls with Normal BMI (N-BMI: BMI < 85th percentile) and compared these indicators between girls with Normal BMI and High Fat content (N-BMI-HF: body fat &ge; 27%; n = 15) and Normal BMI and Normal Fat content (N-BMI-NF: body fat < 27%; n = 8)...
June 15, 2018: Children
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