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Ahlee Kim, Amy S Shah, Takahisa Nakamura
Childhood obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity causes various metabolic complications, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. However, currently, we have a limited understanding of the pathophysiology in the development of these processes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nano-sized vesicles secreted by different cell types that travel to various organ systems carrying molecular and genetic information...
November 15, 2018: Children
Zachary A Vesoulis, Nathalie M El Ters, Maja Herco, Halana V Whitehead, Amit M Mathur
Although the most common forms of brain injury in preterm infants have been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, existing MRI scoring systems lack specificity, do not incorporate clinical factors, and are technically challenging to perform. The objective of this study was to develop a web-based, clinically-focused prediction system which differentiates severe neurodevelopmental outcomes from normal-moderate outcomes at two years. Infants were retrospectively identified as those who were born ≤30 weeks gestation and who had MRI imaging at term-equivalent age and neurodevelopmental testing at 18⁻24 months...
November 14, 2018: Children
Igor Ryabov
The present study used nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (a.k.a., Add Health) to examine the impact of childhood obesity on young adult educational attainment. In addition to weight status, independent variables included race⁻ethnicity, immigrant generational status, family socio-economic status (SES), preference for overweight and obese friends in school, school socio-economic and race⁻ethnic composition, and other important predictors. Educational attainment was measured as a categorical variable with the categories reflecting key educational benchmarks: (1) being a high school graduate; (2) having some college education; and (3) having completed a bachelor's or higher degree...
November 13, 2018: Children
Basel Habra, Atqah AbdulWahab
Bird Fancier's Lung (BFL) is a rare, nonatopic immunologic response to repeated or intense inhalation of avian (bird) proteins/antigens found in the feathers or droppings of many species of birds, which leads to an immune-mediated inflammatory reaction in the respiratory system. Although this is the most common type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) reported in adults, it is one of the classifications of a rare subtype of interstitial lung disease that occurs in the pediatric age group of which few case reports are available in the literature...
November 12, 2018: Children
Peter E Zage
While recent increases in our understanding of the biology of neuroblastoma have allowed for more precise risk stratification and improved outcomes for many patients, children with high-risk neuroblastoma continue to suffer from frequent disease relapse, and despite recent advances in our understanding of neuroblastoma pathogenesis, the outcomes for children with relapsed neuroblastoma remain poor. These children with relapsed neuroblastoma, therefore, continue to need novel treatment strategies based on a better understanding of neuroblastoma biology to improve outcomes...
October 31, 2018: Children
Fatih Aygun, Ruhsar Kirkoc, Deniz Aygun, Halit Cam
Introduction : Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and uric acid (UA) are reported to be predictive markers in various disorders. It has been reported that these biomarkers can be used to indicate increased risk of mortality in critically ill patients. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the initial serum GGT and UA levels on the outcomes of patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and to investigate if these biomarkers can be used to predict pediatric mortality. Materials and Methods : The relationship between the initial GGT and UA levels and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) support, inotropic drug need, acute renal kidney injury (AKI), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), presence of sepsis, mortality, and hospitalization period were investigated retrospectively...
October 30, 2018: Children
Julie Pétrin, Max Fiander, Prenitha Mercy Ignatius Arokia Doss, E Ann Yeh
Knowledge of the effect of modifiable lifestyle factors in the pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) population is limited. We therefore conducted a scoping review, following the framework provided by Arksey and O'Malley. Four databases were searched for pediatric MS and modifiable lifestyle factors using index terms and keywords, from inception to May 2018. All quantitative and qualitative primary articles were included and limited to English and full text. Of the 7202 articles identified and screened, 25 full-text articles were relevant to our objective and were included...
October 26, 2018: Children
Hannah M Phelps, Saara Kaviany, Scott C Borinstein, Harold N Lovvorn
Prior to the 1950s, survival from Wilms tumor (WT) was less than 10%. Today, a child diagnosed with WT has a greater than 90% chance of survival. These gains in survival rates from WT are attributed largely to improvements in multimodal therapy: Enhanced surgical techniques leading to decreased operative mortality, optimization of more effective chemotherapy regimens (specifically, dactinomycin and vincristine), and inclusion of radiation therapy in treatment protocols. More recent improvements in survival, however, can be attributed to a growing understanding of the molecular landscape of Wilms tumor...
October 26, 2018: Children
Nicholas H Carter, Andrew H Avery, Jaime Libes, Harold N Lovvorn, Erik N Hansen
International disparities in outcomes from pediatric solid tumors remain striking. Herein, we review the current literature regarding management, outcomes, and barriers to care for pediatric solid tumors in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In sub-Saharan Africa, Wilms Tumor represents the most commonly encountered solid tumor of childhood and has been the primary target of recent efforts to improve outcomes in low-resource settings. Aggressive and treatment-resistant tumor biology may play a role in poor outcomes within certain populations, but socioeconomic barriers remain the principal drivers of preventable mortality...
October 23, 2018: Children
Suvi Määttä, Henna Vepsäläinen, Reetta Lehto, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Eva Roos, Carola Ray
Valid and reliable non-objective assessments of guardian and preschool personnel reports are necessary when estimating young children's health behaviors. This study examines the test-retest reproducibility of (a) guardian and preschool personnel questionnaires about correlates of preschool-aged children's energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), (b) a screen time diary, and (c) a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) reported by a guardian. A sample of guardians having preschool-aged children ( N = 69) and preschool personnel ( N = 61) completed questionnaires twice within a five-week time interval during April⁻May 2018 in Finland...
October 23, 2018: Children
Emily G Greengard
Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor encountered in childhood and accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer-related deaths. Although there has been significant improvement in the outcomes for patients with high-risk disease, the therapy needed to achieve a cure is quite toxic and for those that do experience a disease recurrence, the prognosis is very dismal. Given this, there is a tremendous need for novel therapies for children with high-risk neuroblastoma and the molecular discoveries over recent years provide hope for developing new, less toxic, and potentially more efficacious treatments...
October 15, 2018: Children
Audrey Dionne, Nagib Dahdah
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an inflammatory febrile illness of early childhood and the primary cause of acquired heart disease during childhood. Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) are a serious complication of KD, leading to ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Timely diagnosis in the first ten days of fever is crucial to reduce the risk of coronary artery complications. Nitrogen-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), originally used for the management of adults with heart disease, was shown to be useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with KD...
October 12, 2018: Children
Spyridoula Vazou, Pedro F Saint-Maurice, Miriam Skrade, Gregory Welk
BACKGROUND: One of the promising strategies for increasing physical activity (PA) at school is to integrate it with academic learning. The purposes of this study were: (a) to examine differences in objectively measured PA levels between integrated PA with mathematics and traditional lessons, and (b) to evaluate the PA levels of different integrated PAs. METHODS: Seventy-seven 4th grade students (41 males) were included in an intervention (Move for Thought program: M4T) group ( n = 46) that utilized PA integrated with mathematics or a control group ( n = 31)...
October 11, 2018: Children
Spyridon A Karageorgos, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ashley Landicho, Joshua Haratz, Louis Argentine, Amit Jain, Andrew D McInnes, Margaret Fisher, Ioannis Koutroulis
Hypotonic solutions have been used in pediatrics for maintenance of intravenous (IV) hydration. However, recent randomized control trials and cohort studies have raised significant concerns for association with hospital-acquired hyponatremia (HAH). The study aimed to assess whether the use of hypotonic parenteral solutions (PS) compared with isotonic PS is associated with increased HAH risk in children with common pediatric conditions. Retrospective chart review of 472 patients aged 2 months to 18 years who received either isotonic or hypotonic PS as maintenance fluids...
October 2, 2018: Children
Emilia Trapasso, Zoe Knowles, Lynne Boddy, Lisa Newson, Jo Sayers, Clare Austin
This study investigated whether children engaged in more physical activity (PA) on school days that included Forest School (FS) sessions than a regular school day or a school day with a Physical Education (PE) lesson. How FS sessions influenced children's general levels of PA and wellbeing was also explored across gender. A mixed-methods study followed a sample of 59 child participants aged 7 to 9 years old, from four primary schools, whilst taking part in twelve weekly FS sessions. Measures included the PA Questionnaire for Older Children and accelerometry data together with an individual Write and Draw task to inform focus groups...
September 26, 2018: Children
Jessica Chandler, Michael Beets, Pedro Saint-Maurice, Robert Weaver, Dylan Cliff, Clemens Drenowatz, Justin B Moore, Mei Sui, Keith Brazendale
BACKGROUND: The objective of this paper is to derive a wrist-placed cut-point threshold for distinguishing sedentary behaviors from light-intensity walking using the ActiGraph GT3X+ in children. METHODS: This study employed a cross-sectional study design, typically used in measurement-related studies. A sample of 167 children, ages 5⁻11 years (mean ± SD: 8.0 ± 1.8 years), performed up to eight seated sedentary activities while wearing accelerometers on both wrists...
September 26, 2018: Children
Christine Denton, Amber Price, Julie Friend, Chandrashekhara Manithody, Keith Blomenkamp, Matthew Westrich, Vindhya Kakarla, William Phillips, Joseph Krebs, Salim Abraham Munoz, Hector Osei, Ajay Kumar Jain
For decades, parenteral nutrition (PN) has been a successful method for intravenous delivery of nutrition and remains an essential therapy for individuals with intolerance of enteral feedings or impaired gut function. Although the benefits of PN are evident, its use does not come without a significant risk of complications. For instance, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD)-a well-described cholestatic liver injury-and atrophic changes in the gut have both been described in patients receiving PN...
September 25, 2018: Children
Emma Powell, Lorayne A Woodfield, Alexander J Powell, Alan M Nevill, Tony D Myers
Despite the known benefits of engaging in daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), only 22% of children in England are meeting the recommended guidelines. School break times have been advocated as a key part of children's daily routines in which their MVPA can be increased. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of installing a walking-track on children's MVPA during school break times. A mixed method design was employed which allowed for the quantitative measurement of children's PA at three time points (baseline, mid-intervention (1⁻5 weeks) and follow-up (6⁻9 weeks)), using pedometers ( n = 81, 5⁻9 years) and systematic observation ( n = 23, 7⁻9 years)...
September 25, 2018: Children
Andrew J Murphy, Andrew M Davidoff
Historically, the management of bilateral Wilms tumor (BWT) was non-standardized and suffered from instances of prolonged chemotherapy and inconsistent surgical management which resulted in suboptimal renal and oncologic outcomes. Because of the risk of end-stage renal disease associated with the management of BWT, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and nephron-sparing surgery have been adopted as the guiding management principles. This management strategy balances acceptable oncologic outcomes against the risk of end-stage renal disease...
September 24, 2018: Children
Narumi Kihara, Tomoko Yamamoto
Early childhood education and care (ECEC) workers and hospital play specialists (HPSs) share a role in supporting the development of sick children through play while respecting their autonomy. On the other hand, in supporting children's play, managing their anxiety, and making environmental arrangements for them, ECEC workers and HPSs play different roles. When supporting the development of sick children, the former should respect their autonomy and make the most of the characteristics of ECEC as a measure to comprehensively support their participation in play, including it in their daily lives...
September 21, 2018: Children
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