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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772813/the-rights-of-children-on-the-move-and-the-budapest-declaration
#1
Charles Oberg
It has been estimated that more than 50,000,000 children and youth have migrated across borders or been forcibly displaced within their own country. They consist of refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons (IDP), economic migrants, and exploited trafficked children. They are virtually "stateless", children deprived of the protective structures of state and family that they need and deserve and unrecognized by either their country of origin or the international community. This opinion piece starts with the personal reflections of its author on his recent work in Middle East refugee camps...
May 17, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734703/child-malnutrition-in-pakistan-evidence-from-literature
#2
REVIEW
Muhammad Asim, Yasir Nawaz
Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the methodological approaches used in previous studies, to assess the overall situation of childhood malnutrition, and to identify the areas that have not yet been studied. This study was carried out to collect and synthesize the relevant data from previously published papers through different scholarly database search engines...
May 4, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734694/hearing-loss-in-adult-survivors-of-childhood-cancer-treated-with-radiotherapy
#3
Amber Khan, Amy Budnick, Dana Barnea, Darren R Feldman, Kevin C Oeffinger, Emily S Tonorezos
The ototoxic effects of radiotherapy have been poorly characterized. We examined adult survivors of childhood cancer who were treated with radiotherapy, which included the head, before the age of 22 years and between 1952 and 2016. Those who received platinum chemotherapy were excluded. Demographic, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes were captured. Audiograms were graded using the Chang and International Society of Paediatric Oncology ototoxicity (SIOP) scales. Among 276 patients with a history of radiation to sites that included the brain, orbit, nasopharynx, and total body irradiation, the median age at treatment was 10...
May 4, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724004/family-socioeconomic-status-at-birth-and-youth-impulsivity-at-age-15-blacks-diminished-return
#4
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell, Ron Mincy
Minorities’ Diminished Return theory suggests that health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) are systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. To test the relevance of Minorities’ Diminished Return theory for youth impulsivity, we investigated Black⁻White differences in the effects of family SES at birth on subsequent youth impulsivity at age 15. Data came from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), 1998⁻2016, a 15-year longitudinal study of urban families from the birth of their children to age 15...
May 1, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723989/anti-epileptic-drug-toxicity-in-children
#5
EDITORIAL
Imti Choonara
Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have had a major impact on children, improving their quality of life and significantly reducing both morbidity and mortality. They are, however, associated with significant toxicity. Behavioural problems and somnolence are the most frequent adverse drug reactions for many AEDs. Unfortunately, the comparative risk of drug toxicity for different AEDs has been inadequately studied. Drug toxicity is poorly reported in randomised controlled trials. Prospective cohort studies are the best way to study drug toxicity...
May 1, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702616/development-and-validation-of-a-questionnaire-on-breastfeeding-intentions-attitudes-and-knowledge-of-a-sample-of-croatian-secondary-school-students
#6
Marija Čatipović, Martina Marković, Josip Grgurić
BACKGROUND: Validating a questionnaire/instrument before proceeding to the field for data collection is important. METHODS: An 18-item breastfeeding intention, 39-item attitude and 44-item knowledge questionnaire was validated in a Croatian sample of secondary-school students ( N = 277). RESULTS: For the intentions, principal component analysis (PCA) yielded a four-factor solution with 8 items explaining 68.3% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha (0...
April 27, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701661/from-inpatient-to-clinic-to-home-to-hospice-and-back-using-the-pop-up-pediatric-palliative-model-of-care
#7
Martha F Mherekumombe
Children and young people with life-limiting illnesses who need palliative care often have complex diverse medical conditions that may involve multiple hospital presentations, medical admissions, care, or transfer to other medical care facilities. In order to provide patients with holistic care in any location, palliative care clinicians need to carefully consider the ways to maintain continuity of care which enhances the child's quality of life. An emerging model of care known as "Pop Up" describes the approaches to supporting children and young people in any facility...
April 26, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690631/pediatric-integrative-medicine-in-residency-program-relationship-between-lifestyle-behaviors-and-burnout-and-wellbeing-measures-in-first-year-residents
#8
Hilary McClafferty, Audrey J Brooks, Mei-Kuang Chen, Michelle Brenner, Melanie Brown, Anna Esparham, Dana Gerstbacher, Brenda Golianu, John Mark, Joy Weydert, Ann Ming Yeh, Victoria Maizes
It is widely recognized that burnout is prevalent in medical culture and begins early in training. Studies show pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout rates comparable to other specialties. Newly developed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in professionalism and personal development recognize the unacceptably high resident burnout rates and present an important opportunity for programs to improve residents experience throughout training. These competencies encourage healthy lifestyle practices and cultivation of self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, mindfulness, and compassion—a paradigm shift from traditional medical training underpinned by a culture of unrealistic endurance and self-sacrifice...
April 23, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671836/children-s-experience-of-symptoms-narratives-through-words-and-images
#9
REVIEW
Barbara M Sourkes
Children who live with a complex chronic or life-threatening illness face extraordinary challenges. Whether they are receiving disease-oriented treatment (aimed at potential cure or prolongation of life) or palliative treatment-or both concurrently-our challenge is to enhance their comfort and minimize their distress. Symptom management is thus a critical component of pediatric palliative care. Symptoms may be either physical or psychological in nature (or a confluence of both) and their effective management has a direct impact on the child's quality of life...
April 19, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671820/irritability-is-common-and-is-related-to-poorer-psychosocial-outcomes-in-youth-with-functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-fapd
#10
Sarah Nelson, Erin Moorman, Michael Farrell, Natoshia Cunningham
Functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) are associated with increased emotional problems which, in turn, exacerbate functional impairment. However, irritability, which relates both to internalizing and externalizing problems, has not been specifically examined in these youths. Irritability may be common and adversely impact functioning in pediatric FAPD, particularly for males who are more likely to experience such symptoms. The current study examined the relationship between irritability and psychosocial and pain-related impairment in youth with FAPD...
April 19, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670054/association-of-place-of-residence-and-under-five-mortality-in-middle-and-low-income-countries-a-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Ian Forde, Vrijesh Tripathi
This review evaluated the association of place of residence (urban/rural) and under-five mortality in middle- and low-income countries. Both English and Spanish language studies conducted during the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) period (1990 to 2015) were reviewed. Twenty-six cross-sectional studies, all in the English language, were selected for further review. Published data were used for this analysis. A funnel plot was produced to ascertain the presence of publication bias. The combined relative risk for under-five mortality was estimated using a random-effects model and a meta-regression was conducted on 15 of the 26 studies...
April 18, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641493/comparison-of-the-effect-of-toothbrushing-education-via-video-lecture-and-pamphlet-on-the-dental-plaque-index-of-12-year-old-children
#12
Javad Ramezaninia, Mohammad Mehdi Naghibi Sistani, Zohreh Ahangari, Hemmat Gholinia, Iman Jahanian, Samaneh Gharekhani
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different modes of toothbrushing education (lecture, video and pamphlet) on the dental plaque index (PI) of adolescents. The cluster randomized intervention was performed on 128 participants aged 12 years, who were allocated into four groups based on the type of intervention. Group 1: no intervention; and groups 2, 3, 4: education via lecture, video, and pamphlet, respectively (n = 32). Their plaque index was measured at the baseline, 24 h and two months later...
April 11, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642612/ponseti-technique-for-the-management-of-congenital-talipes-equinovarus-in-a-rural-set-up-in-india-experience-of-356-patients
#13
Rohit Malhotra, Ashutosh Mohapatra, Geetika Arora, Priyam Choudhury, Hitesh Joshi, Pranav Patel
Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), also known as clubfoot, is a complex congenital deformity of the foot that, left untreated, can limit a person's mobility by making it difficult and painful to walk. Worldwide, 80% of children born with clubfoot are in low- and middle-income countries. The management of clubfoot has a long history. Non-operative management did not become popular, as an increasing number of orthopaedists started leaning towards surgical treatment. The late Dr. Ignacio Ponseti developed a method of clubfoot correction that successfully realigns clubfoot in infants without extensive and major surgery...
April 10, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642556/reliability-and-validity-of-the-european-child-environment-questionnaire-eceq-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cerebral-palsy-persian-version
#14
Mahyar Salavati, Roshanak Vameghi, Seyed Ali Hosseini, Ahmad Saeedi, Masoud Gharib
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ) in the Iranian context. In total, 332 parents (20.2% fathers and 79.8% mothers) of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) with an average age of 12.33 years (min 7.08 to max 18.08) from three provinces in Iran participated in the study. The original version of the questionnaire was translated and back-translated. Confirmatory construct validity was assessed by factor analysis and reliability was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha ( N = 332) and after two weeks' test-retest reliability ( n = 51) using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)...
April 9, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617351/the-nuts-and-bolts-of-food-immunotherapy-the-future-of-food-allergy
#15
REVIEW
Sara Anvari, Katherine Anagnostou
Food allergies are on the rise and have a major impact on the quality of life of the food allergic child and their family. Currently, the mainstream treatment for food allergies is strict avoidance and elimination of the allergenic food(s) from the patient's diet in order to prevent an allergic reaction. However, recent advances in research have presented new therapeutic options for food allergic patients that are potentially becoming promising alternatives to traditional treatment. Food immunotherapy is the most popular of these new emerging interventions and has been studied intensively over the last decade for various foods...
April 4, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596309/risk-factors-for-brachial-plexus-birth-injury
#16
Emily Louden, Michael Marcotte, Charles Mehlman, William Lippert, Bin Huang, Andrea Paulson
Over the course of decades, the incidence of brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) has increased despite advances in healthcare which would seem to assist in decreasing the rate. The aim of this study is to identify previously unknown risk factors for BPBI and the risk factors with potential to guide preventative measures. A case control study of 52 mothers who had delivered a child with a BPBI injury and 132 mothers who had delivered without BPBI injury was conducted. Univariate, multivariable and logistic regressions identified risk factors and their combinations...
March 29, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597333/from-the-child-s-word-to-clinical-intervention-novel-new-and-innovative-approaches-to-symptoms-in-pediatric-palliative-care
#17
Katharine E Brock, Joanne Wolfe, Christina Ullrich
Despite vast improvements in disease-based treatments, many children live with life-threatening disorders that cause distressing symptoms. These symptoms can be difficult to comprehensively assess and manage. Yet, frequent and accurate symptom reporting and expert treatment is critical to preserving a patient's physical, psychological, emotional, social, and existential heath. We describe emerging methods of symptom and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) assessment through patient-reported outcomes (PROs) tools now used in clinical practice and novel research studies...
March 28, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570688/diagnosis-evaluation-and-treatment-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-children
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin S Frank, D Dunbar Ivy
Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), the syndrome of elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality for affected children. PH is associated with a wide variety of potential underlying causes, including cardiac, pulmonary, hematologic and rheumatologic abnormalities. Regardless of the cause, for many patients the natural history of PH involves progressive elevation in pulmonary arterial resistance and pressure, right ventricular dysfunction, and eventually heart failure...
March 23, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558389/pediatric-melanoma-and-drug-development
#19
Klaus Rose, Jane M Grant-Kels
Importance-Pediatric melanoma occurs, albeit rarely. Should patients be treated by today's medical standards, or be subjected to medically unnecessary clinical studies? Observations-We identified international, industry-sponsored pediatric melanoma studies triggered by regulatory demands in www.clinicaltrials.gov and further pediatric melanoma studies demanded by European Union pediatric investigation plans. We retrieved related regulatory documents from the internet. We analyzed these studies for rationale and medical beneficence on the basis of physiology, pediatric clinical pharmacology and rationale...
March 20, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547507/serum-zinc-level-in-asthmatic-and-non-asthmatic-school-children
#20
Atqah AbdulWahab, Aseel Zeidan, Tony Avades, Prem Chandra, Ashraf Soliman
Asthma is one of the most common chronic disorders among children. Zinc (Zn) is an essential dietary antioxidant and may have a special role in assisting the airways of asthmatic subjects. The primary objective of this study was to measure serum Zn levels among asthmatic school children and to compare this to the serum Zn level in non-asthmatic children. The secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between Zn levels and the degree of asthma control. A cross-sectional study following forty asthmatic children and forty matched non-asthmatic children of both genders was conducted...
March 16, 2018: Children
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