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Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275693/transmission-of-hbv-dna-mediated-by-ceramide-triggered-extracellular-vesicles
#1
Takahiro Sanada, Yuichi Hirata, Yutaka Naito, Naoki Yamamoto, Yoshiaki Kikkawa, Yuji Ishida, Chihiro Yamasaki, Chise Tateno, Takahiro Ochiya, Michinori Kohara
BACKGROUND & AIMS: An extracellular vesicle (EV) is a nanovesicle that shuttles proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids, thereby influencing cell behavior. A recent crop of reports have shown that EVs are involved in infectious biology, influencing host immunity and playing a role in the viral life cycle. In the present work, we investigated the EV-mediated transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: We investigated the EV-mediated transmission of HBV infection by using a HBV infectious culture system that uses primary human hepatocytes derived from humanized chimeric mice (PXB-cells)...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275692/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulates-hepatic-bile-acid-metabolism-in-mice
#2
Anne S Henkel, Brian LeCuyer, Shantel Olivares, Richard M Green
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cholestasis promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver, however, the effect of ER stress on hepatic bile acid metabolism is unknown. We aim to determine the effect of ER stress on hepatic bile acid synthesis and transport in mice. METHODS: ER stress was induced pharmacologically in C57BL/6J mice and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The hepatic expression of genes controlling bile acid synthesis and transport was determined. To measure the activity of the primary bile acid synthetic pathway, the concentration of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-1 was measured in plasma...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275691/targeting-the-enterohepatic-bile-acid-signaling-induces-hepatic-autophagy-via-a-cyp7a1-akt-mtor-axis-in-mice
#3
Yifeng Wang, Yifeng Ding, Jibiao Li, Hemantkumar Chavan, David Matye, Hong-Min Ni, John Y L Chiang, Partha Krishnamurthy, Wen-Xing Ding, Tiangang Li
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic cholesterol accumulation and autophagy defects contribute to hepatocyte injury in fatty liver disease. Bile acid synthesis is a major pathway for cholesterol catabolism in the liver. This study aims to understand the molecular link between cholesterol and bile acid metabolism and hepatic autophagy activity. METHODS: The effects of cholesterol and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression on autophagy and lysosome function were studied in cell models...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275690/intestinal-epithelial-specific-mtorc1-activation-enhances-intestinal-adaptation-after-small-bowel-resection
#4
Lauren Barron, Raphael C Sun, Bola Aladegbami, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner, Jun Guo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal adaptation is a compensatory response to the massive loss of small intestine after surgical resection. We investigated the role of intestinal epithelial cell-specific mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (i-mTORC1) in intestinal adaptation after massive small bowel resection (SBR). METHODS: We performed 50% proximal SBR on mice to study adaptation. To manipulate i-mTORC1 activity, Villin-Cre(ER) transgenic mice were crossed with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1(flox/flox) or Raptor(flox/flox) mice to inducibly activate or inactivate i-mTORC1 activity with tamoxifen...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275689/distinct-microbiome-neuroimmune-signatures-correlate-with%C3%A2-functional-abdominal-pain-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Ruth Ann Luna, Numan Oezguen, Miriam Balderas, Alamelu Venkatachalam, Jessica K Runge, James Versalovic, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, George M Anderson, Tor Savidge, Kent C Williams
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Emerging data on the gut microbiome in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggest that altered host-microbe interactions may contribute to disease symptoms. Although gut microbial communities in children with ASD are reported to differ from individuals with neurotypical development, it is not known whether these bacteria induce pathogenic neuroimmune signals. METHODS: Because commensal clostridia interactions with the intestinal mucosa can regulate disease-associated cytokine and serotonergic pathways in animal models, we evaluated whether microbiome-neuroimmune profiles (from rectal biopsy specimens and blood) differed in ASD children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (ASD-FGID, n = 14) compared with neurotypical (NT) children with FGID (NT-FGID, n = 15) and without abdominal pain (NT, n = 6)...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275688/gastric-cancer-genomics-advances-and-future%C3%A2-directions
#6
REVIEW
Bryson W Katona, Anil K Rustgi
Advancement in the field of cancer genomics is revolutionizing the molecular characterization of a wide variety of different cancers. Recent application of large-scale, next-generation sequencing technology to gastric cancer, which remains a major source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, has helped better define the complex genomic landscape of this cancer. These studies also have led to the development of novel genomically based molecular classification systems for gastric cancer, reinforced the importance of classic driver mutations in gastric cancer pathogenesis, and led to the discovery of new driver gene mutations that previously were not known to be associated with gastric cancer...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275687/hedgehog-signaling-links-chronic-inflammation-to-gastric-cancer-precursor-lesions
#7
REVIEW
Juanita L Merchant, Lin Ding
Since its initial discovery in Drosophila, Hedgehog (HH) signaling has long been associated with foregut development. The mammalian genome expresses 3 HH ligands, with sonic hedgehog (SHH) levels highest in the mucosa of the embryonic foregut. More recently, interest in the pathway has shifted to improving our understanding of its role in gastrointestinal cancers. The use of reporter mice proved instrumental in our ability to probe the expression pattern of SHH ligand and the cell types responding to canonical HH signaling during homeostasis, inflammation, and neoplastic transformation...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275686/historical-perspective-on-familial-gastric-cancer
#8
REVIEW
C Richard Boland, Matthew B Yurgelun
Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, typically associated with acquired chronic inflammation in the stomach, related in most instances to infection by Helicobacter pylori. A small percentage of cases occurs in familial clusters, and some of these can be linked to specific germline mutations. This article reviews the historical background to the current understanding of familial gastric cancer, focuses on the entity of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, and also reviews the risks for gastric cancer related to a number of other familial genetic diseases...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275685/the-clinical-evidence-linking-helicobacter-pylori-to-gastric-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Steven F Moss
Gastric cancer has long been recognized to be accompanied and preceded by chronic gastritis, lasting decades. Arguably, the most important development in our understanding of gastric cancer pathogenesis over the past 50 years has been the realization that, for most cases of gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori is the cause of the underlying gastritis. Gastritis can promote gastric carcinogenesis, typically via the Correa cascade of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Nested case-control studies have shown that H pylori infection increases the risk of gastric cancer significantly, both of the intestinal and diffuse subtypes, and that H pylori is responsible for approximately 90% of the world's burden of noncardia gastric cancer...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275684/thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-to-cut-a-long-story-short
#10
REVIEW
Katerina Tsilingiri, Giulia Fornasa, Maria Rescigno
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was identified more than 20 years ago as a secreted factor of a mouse thymic stromal cell line; later, a human orthologue was also identified. The signaling pathway triggered by TSLP has been extensively studied, and upregulation of the cytokine itself is linked to the pathogenesis of numerous Th2-related diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic responses, as well as certain types of cancers. On the other hand, TSLP mediates several immune homeostatic functions in both the gut and the thymus...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275683/colorectal-cancer-liver-metastasis-evolving-paradigms-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Luai R Zarour, Sudarshan Anand, Kevin G Billingsley, William H Bisson, Andrea Cercek, Michael F Clarke, Lisa M Coussens, Charles E Gast, Cristina B Geltzeiler, Lissi Hansen, Katherine A Kelley, Charles D Lopez, Shushan R Rana, Rebecca Ruhl, V Liana Tsikitis, Gina M Vaccaro, Melissa H Wong, Skye C Mayo
In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) that metastasizes to the liver, there are several key goals for improving outcomes including early detection, effective prognostic indicators of treatment response, and accurate identification of patients at high risk for recurrence. Although new therapeutic regimens developed over the past decade have increased survival, there is substantial room for improvement in selecting targeted treatment regimens for the patients who will derive the most benefit. Recently, there have been exciting developments in identifying high-risk patient cohorts, refinements in the understanding of systemic vs localized drug delivery to metastatic niches, liquid biomarker development, and dramatic advances in tumor immune therapy, all of which promise new and innovative approaches to tackling the problem of detecting and treating the metastatic spread of CRC to the liver...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275682/celiac-disease-role-of-the-epithelial-barrier
#12
REVIEW
Michael Schumann, Britta Siegmund, Jörg D Schulzke, Michael Fromm
In celiac disease (CD) a T-cell-mediated response to gluten is mounted in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in a malabsorptive enteropathy histologically highlighted by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. Recent data point to the epithelial layer as an under-rated hot spot in celiac pathophysiology to date. This overview summarizes current functional and genetic evidence on the role of the epithelial barrier in CD, consisting of the cell membranes and the apical junctional complex comprising sealing as well as ion and water channel-forming tight junction proteins and the adherens junction...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275681/gastrointestinal-organoids-understanding-the-molecular-basis-of-the-host-microbe-interface
#13
REVIEW
David R Hill, Jason R Spence
In recent years, increasing attention has been devoted to the concept that microorganisms play an integral role in human physiology and pathophysiology. Despite this, the molecular basis of host-pathogen and host-symbiont interactions in the human intestine remains poorly understood owing to the limited availability of human tissue, and the biological complexity of host-microbe interactions. Over the past decade, technological advances have enabled long-term culture of organotypic intestinal tissue derived from human subjects and from human pluripotent stem cells, and these in vitro culture systems already have shown the potential to inform our understanding significantly of host-microbe interactions...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275680/oh-the-places-you-ll-go-a%C3%A2-year-of-practical-advice
#14
EDITORIAL
Rebecca G Wells
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275679/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-emerges-as-novel-regulator-for%C3%A2-bile-acid-synthesis
#15
EDITORIAL
Grace Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275678/bile-acids-the-hidden-gateway-behind-autophagy-modulation-in%C3%A2-the-liver
#16
EDITORIAL
Julio Madrigal-Matute
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275677/tightening-the-case-for-gut-microbiota-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
EDITORIAL
Jonathan Braun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275676/the-cmgh-awards
#18
EDITORIAL
Jerrold R Turner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174758/interferon-alpha-promotes-th1-response-and-epithelial-apoptosis-via-inflammasome-activation-in-human-intestinal-mucosa
#19
Anne Jarry, Florent Malard, Chantal Bou-Hanna, Guillaume Meurette, Mohamad Mohty, Jean-François Mosnier, Christian L Laboisse, Céline Bossard
BACKGOUND & AIMS: Several lines of investigation suggest that interferon (IFN) alpha can alter human intestinal mucosa homeostasis. These include the endogenous production of IFN alpha in celiac disease or inflammatory bowel diseases, as well as the occurrence of intestinal side effects of exogenous IFN alpha used as a therapeutic tool. Here, we present an ex vivo translational approach to investigate the effects of IFN alpha on the human normal intestinal mucosa, as well as its underlying mechanisms...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174757/transcriptional-regulation-by-atoh1-and-its-target-spdef-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-intestine
#20
Yuan-Hung Lo, Eunah Chung, Zhaohui Li, Ying-Wooi Wan, Maxime M Mahe, Min-Shan Chen, Taeko K Noah, Kristin N Bell, Hari Krishna Yalamanchili, Tiemo J Klisch, Zhandong Liu, Joo-Seop Park, Noah F Shroyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The transcription factor atonal homolog 1 (ATOH1) controls the fate of intestinal progenitors downstream of the Notch signaling pathway. Intestinal progenitors that escape Notch activation express high levels of ATOH1 and commit to a secretory lineage fate, implicating ATOH1 as a gatekeeper for differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. Although some transcription factors downstream of ATOH1, such as SPDEF, have been identified to specify differentiation and maturation of specific cell types, the bona fide transcriptional targets of ATOH1 still largely are unknown...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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