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Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322087/the-endosomal-protein-endotubin-is-required-for-enterocyte%C3%A2-differentiation
#1
Christopher M Cox, Ruifeng Lu, Kaan Salcin, Jean M Wilson
Background & Aims: During late embryonic development and through weaning, enterocytes of the ileum are highly endocytic. Defects in endocytosis and trafficking are implicated in neonatal disease, however, the mechanisms regulating trafficking during the developmental period are incompletely understood. The apical endosomal protein endotubin (EDTB) is highly expressed in the late embryonic and neonatal ileum. In epithelial cells in vitro, EDTB regulates both trafficking of tight junction proteins and proliferation through modulation of YAP activity...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322086/engineered-livers-for-infectious-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Nil Gural, Liliana Mancio-Silva, Jiang He, Sangeeta N Bhatia
Engineered liver systems come in a variety of platform models, from 2-dimensional cocultures of primary human hepatocytes and stem cell-derived progeny, to 3-dimensional organoids and humanized mice. Because of the species-specificity of many human hepatropic pathogens, these engineered systems have been essential tools for biologic discovery and therapeutic agent development in the context of liver-dependent infectious diseases. Although improvement of existing models is always beneficial, and the addition of a robust immune component is a particular need, at present, considerable progress has been made using this combination of research platforms...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276755/role-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-in-promoting-the-pathogenesis-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-eoe
#3
Alok K Verma, Murli Manohar, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Uwe Blecker, Margaret H Collins, Anil Mishra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276754/uncovering-a-predictive-molecular-signature-for-the-onset-of-nash-related-fibrosis-in-a-translational-nash-mouse-model
#4
Arianne van Koppen, Lars Verschuren, Anita M van den Hoek, Joanne Verheij, Martine C Morrison, Kelvin Li, Hiroshi Nagabukuro, Adalberto Costessi, Martien P M Caspers, Tim J van den Broek, John Sagartz, Cornelis Kluft, Carine Beysen, Claire Emson, Alain J van Gool, Roel Goldschmeding, Reinout Stoop, Ivana Bobeldijk-Pastorova, Scott M Turner, Guido Hanauer, Roeland Hanemaaijer
Background & Aims: The incidence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing. The pathophysiological mechanisms of NASH and the sequence of events leading to hepatic fibrosis are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dynamics of key molecular processes involved in NASH and to rank early markers for hepatic fibrosis. Methods: A time-course study in low-density lipoprotein-receptor knockout. Leiden mice on a high-fat diet was performed to identify the temporal dynamics of key processes contributing to NASH and fibrosis...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276753/indian-hedgehog-suppresses-a-stromal-cell-driven-intestinal-immune-response
#5
B Florien Westendorp, Nikè V J A Büller, Olga N Karpus, Willemijn A van Dop, Jan Koster, Rogier Versteeg, Pim J Koelink, Clinton Y Snel, Sander Meisner, Joris J T H Roelofs, Anja Uhmann, Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat, Jarom Heijmans, Heidi Hahn, Vanesa Muncan, Manon E Wildenberg, Gijs R van den Brink
Background & Aims: Upon intestinal epithelial damage a complex wound healing response is initiated to restore epithelial integrity and defend against pathogenic invasion. Epithelium-derived Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) functions as a critical sensor in this process. Signaling occurs in a paracrine manner because the receptor for Ihh is expressed only in the mesenchyme, but the exact Hedgehog target cell has remained elusive. The aim of this study was to elucidate further the nature of this target cell in the context of intestinal inflammation...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276752/a-molecular-signature-of-mouse-nash-a-step-closer-to-a-human%C3%A2-predictive-biomarker
#6
EDITORIAL
Samar H Ibrahim, Harmeet Malhi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276751/indian-hedgehog-suppresses-intestinal-inflammation
#7
EDITORIAL
Nataliya Razumilava, Deborah L Gumucio, Linda C Samuelson, Yatrik M Shah, Asma Nusrat, Juanita L Merchant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276750/hypoxia-in-the-gut
#8
EDITORIAL
Cormac T Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276749/hif-1%C3%AE-deletion-in-the-endothelium-but-not-in-the-epithelium-protects-from-radiation-induced-enteritis
#9
Aurore Toullec, Valérie Buard, Emilie Rannou, Georges Tarlet, Olivier Guipaud, Sylvie Robine, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe, Agnès François, Fabien Milliat
Background & Aims: Radiation therapy in the pelvic area is associated with side effects that impact the quality of life of cancer survivors. Interestingly, the gastrointestinal tract is able to adapt to significant changes in oxygen availability, suggesting that mechanisms related to hypoxia sensing help preserve tissue integrity in this organ. However, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent responses to radiation-induced gut toxicity are unknown. Radiation-induced intestinal toxicity is a complex process involving multiple cellular compartments...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276748/extracellular-matrix-bioscaffolds-for-building-gastrointestinal-tissue
#10
REVIEW
George S Hussey, Madeline C Cramer, Stephen F Badylak
Regenerative medicine is a rapidly advancing field that uses principles of tissue engineering, developmental biology, stem cell biology, immunology, and bioengineering to reconstruct diseased or damaged tissues. Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix have shown great promise as an inductive substrate to facilitate the constructive remodeling of gastrointestinal (GI) tissue damaged by neoplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, and congenital or acquired defects. The present review summarizes the preparation and use of extracellular matrix scaffolds for bioengineering of the GI tract, identifies significant advances made in regenerative medicine for the reconstruction of functional GI tissue, and describes an emerging therapeutic approach...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204508/advancing-intestinal-organoid-technology-toward-regenerative%C3%A2-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Tetsuya Nakamura, Toshiro Sato
With the emergence of technologies to culture intestinal epithelial cells in vitro as various forms of intestinal organoids, there is growing interest in using such cultured intestinal cells as a source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. One such approach would be to combine the organoid technology with methodologies to engineer the culture environment, particularly the three-dimensional scaffold materials, to generate intestines that exquisitely recapitulate their original structures and functions...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188232/colorectal-cancer-cells-adhere-to-and-migrate-along-the-neurons-of-the-enteric-nervous-system
#12
Emilie Duchalais, Christophe Guilluy, Steven Nedellec, Melissa Touvron, Anne Bessard, Yann Touchefeu, Céline Bossard, Hélène Boudin, Guy Louarn, Michel Neunlist, Laurianne Van Landeghem
Background & Aims: In several types of cancers, tumor cells invade adjacent tissues by migrating along the resident nerves of the tumor microenvironment. This process, called perineural invasion, typically occurs along extrinsic nerves, with Schwann cells providing physical guidance for the tumor cells. However, in the colorectal cancer microenvironment, the most abundant nervous structures belong to the nonmyelinated intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we investigated whether colon cancer cells interact with the ENS...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062881/early-diagnosis-of-gastroesophageal-cancers-and-the-cytosponge-a-work-in-progress
#13
Rebecca C Fitzgerald, Brian J Reid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062880/setting-up-a-lab-the-early-years
#14
EDITORIAL
Aida Habtezion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062879/heterogeneity-of-hepatitis-c-virus-particles-and-their-evolution-during-infection
#15
EDITORIAL
Agata Budkowska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062878/lamin-deficiency-in-the-liver-sets-the-stage-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-development-in-males
#16
EDITORIAL
Tim Hendrikx, Bernd Schnabl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062877/location-matters-in-defining-t-cell-mediated-immunity-in-response-to-salmonella-typhi-vaccination
#17
EDITORIAL
Karen L Edelblum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022005/systemic-and-terminal-ileum-mucosal-immunity-elicited-by-oral-immunization-with-the-ty21a-typhoid-vaccine-in-humans
#18
Jayaum S Booth, Seema A Patil, Leyla Ghazi, Robin Barnes, Claire M Fraser, Alessio Fasano, Bruce D Greenwald, Marcelo B Sztein
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic cellular immunity elicited by the Ty21a oral typhoid vaccine has been extensively characterized. However, very limited data are available in humans regarding mucosal immunity at the site of infection (terminal ileum [TI]). Here we investigated the host immunity elicited by Ty21a immunization on terminal ileum-lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC) and peripheral blood in volunteers undergoing routine colonoscopy. METHODS: We characterized LPMC-T memory (TM) subsets and assessed Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi)-specific responses by multichromatic flow cytometry...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936471/analysis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-particle-heterogeneity-in-immunodeficient-human-liver-chimeric-fah-mice
#19
Ursula Andreo, Ype P de Jong, Margaret A Scull, Jing W Xiao, Koen Vercauteren, Corrine Quirk, Michiel C Mommersteeg, Sonia Bergaya, Arjun Menon, Edward A Fisher, Charles M Rice
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States. HCV particles in the blood of infected patients are characterized by heterogeneous buoyant densities, likely owing to HCV association with lipoproteins. However, clinical isolates are not infectious in vitro and the relative infectivity of the particles with respect to their buoyant density therefore cannot be determined, pointing to the need for better in vivo model systems...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936470/porcine-esophageal-submucosal-gland-culture-model-shows-capacity-for-proliferation-and-differentiation
#20
Richard J von Furstenberg, Joy Li, Christina Stolarchuk, Rachel Feder, Alexa Campbell, Leandi Kruger, Liara M Gonzalez, Anthony T Blikslager, Diana M Cardona, Shannon J McCall, Susan J Henning, Katherine S Garman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although cells comprising esophageal submucosal glands (ESMGs) represent a potential progenitor cell niche, new models are needed to understand their capacity to proliferate and differentiate. By histologic appearance, ESMGs have been associated with both overlying normal squamous epithelium and columnar epithelium. Our aim was to assess ESMG proliferation and differentiation in a 3-dimensional culture model. METHODS: We evaluated proliferation in human ESMGs from normal and diseased tissue by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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