journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090570/targeted-inhibition-of-pancreatic-acinar-cell-calcineurin-is-a-novel-strategy-to-prevent-post-ercp-pancreatitis
#1
Abrahim I Orabi, Li Wen, Tanveer A Javed, Tianming Le, Ping Guo, Subramaniam Sanker, David Ricks, Kristy Boggs, John F Eisses, Carlos Castro, Xiangwei Xiao, Krishna Prasadan, Farzad Esni, George K Gittes, Sohail Z Husain
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a pressing need to develop effective preventative therapies for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). We demonstrated that early PEP events are induced through the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin and that global calcineurin deletion abolishes PEP in mice. A crucial question is whether acinar cell calcineurin controls the initiation of PEP in vivo. METHODS: We used a mouse model of PEP and examined the effects of in vivo acinar cell-specific calcineurin deletion by either generating a conditional knockout line or infusing a novel AAV-Ela-iCre into the pancreatic duct of a calcineurin floxed line...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090569/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-kinase-activity-maintains-acinar-to-ductal-metaplasia-and-is-required-for-organ-regeneration-in-pancreatitis
#2
Christopher J Halbrook, Hui-Ju Wen, Jeanine M Ruggeri, Kenneth K Takeuchi, Yaqing Zhang, Marina Pasca di Magliano, Howard C Crawford
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in the exocrine pancreas has been extensively studied in the context of pancreatic cancer, where its potential as a therapeutic target is limited by acquired drug resistance. However, its role in pancreatitis is less understood. We investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-initiated MAPK signaling in pancreatitis to determine the potential for MEK inhibition in treating pancreatitis patients...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090568/pathophysiology-of-intestinal-na-h-exchange
#3
Michael A Gurney, Daniel Laubitz, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Several members of the SLC9A family of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers are expressed in the gut, with varying expression patterns and cellular localization. Not only do they participate in the regulation of basic epithelial cell functions, including control of transepithelial Na(+) absorption, intracellular pH (pH i ), cell volume, and nutrient absorption, but also in cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Additionally, they modulate the extracellular milieu in order to facilitate other nutrient absorption and to regulate the intestinal microbial microenvironment...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066800/cd36-deficiency-impairs-the-small-intestinal-barrier-and-induces-subclinical-inflammation-in-mice
#4
Vincenza Cifarelli, Stoyan Ivanov, Yan Xie, Ni-Huiping Son, Brian T Saunders, Terri A Pietka, Trevor M Shew, Jun Yoshino, Sinju Sundaresan, Nicholas O Davidson, Ira J Goldberg, Andrew E Gelman, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Nada A Abumrad
BACKGROUND & AIMS: CD36 has immuno-metabolic actions and is abundant in the small intestine on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. We examined the role of CD36 in gut homeostasis using mice null for CD36 (CD36KO) and with CD36 deletion specific to enterocytes (Ent-CD36KO) or endothelial cells (EC-CD36KO). METHODS: Intestinal morphology was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy (EM). Intestinal inflammation was determined from neutrophil infiltration and expression of cytokines, toll-like receptors and COX-2...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105461/the-hepatic-lymphatic-vascular-system-structure-function-markers-and-lymphangiogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Masatake Tanaka, Yasuko Iwakiri
The lymphatic vascular system has been minimally explored in the liver despite its essential functions including maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. The discovery of specific markers for lymphatic endothelial cells has advanced the study of lymphatics by methods including imaging, cell isolation, and transgenic animal models and has resulted in rapid progress in lymphatic vascular research during the last decade. These studies have yielded concrete evidence that lymphatic vessel dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090567/the-rna-polymerase-iii-subunit-polr3b-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-small-intestinal-crypts-in-mice
#6
Julia Kieckhaefer, Sabina Lukovac, Diana Z Ye, Dolim Lee, Danielle J Beetler, Michael Pack, Klaus H Kaestner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The continuously self-renewing mammalian intestinal epithelium, with high cellular turnover, depends on adequate protein synthesis for its proliferative capacity. RNA polymerase III activity is closely related to cellular growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the role of Polr3b, a large RNA polymerase III subunit, in the mammalian intestinal epithelium. METHODS: We derived mice with an intestinal epithelium-specific hypomorphic mutation of the Polr3b gene, using VillinCre-mediated gene ablation...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090566/large-animal-models-the-key-to-translational-discovery-in-digestive-disease-research
#7
Amanda Ziegler, Liara Gonzalez, Anthony Blikslager
Gastrointestinal disease is a prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality and the use of animal models have been instrumental in studying mechanisms of digestive pathophysiology. As investigators attempt to translate the wealth of basic science information developed from rodent, models, large animal models provide a number of translational advantages. The pig, in particular, is arguably one of the most powerful models of human organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract. The pig has provided important tools and insight into intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury, intestinal mucosal repair, as well as new insights into esophageal injury and repair...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090565/thbs2-is-a-candidate-modifier-of-liver-disease-severity-in-alagille-syndrome
#8
Ellen A Tsai, Melissa A Gilbert, Christopher M Grochowski, Lara A Underkoffler, He Meng, Xiaojie Zhang, Michael M Wang, Hailu Shitaye, Kurt D Hankenson, David Piccoli, Henry Lin, Binita M Kamath, Marcella Devoto, Nancy B Spinner, Kathleen M Loomes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alagille syndrome is an autosomal-dominant, multisystem disorder caused primarily by mutations in JAG1, resulting in bile duct paucity, cholestasis, cardiac disease, and other features. Liver disease severity in Alagille syndrome is highly variable, however, factors influencing the hepatic phenotype are unknown. We hypothesized that genetic modifiers may contribute to the variable expressivity of this disorder. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of Caucasian subjects with known pathogenic JAG1 mutations, comparing patients with mild vs severe liver disease, followed by functional characterization of a candidate locus...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090564/hepatocyte-toll-like-receptor-5-promotes-bacterial-clearance-and-protects-mice-against-high-fat-diet-induced-liver-disease
#9
Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Innate immune dysfunction can promote chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. For example, mice lacking the flagellin receptor Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) show microbial dysbiosis and predisposition to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. The extent to which hepatocytes play a direct role in detecting bacterial products in general, or flagellin in particular, is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of hepatocyte TLR5 in recognizing flagellin, policing bacteria, and protecting against liver disease...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078320/lgr4-and-lgr5-function-redundantly-during-human-endoderm-differentiation
#10
Yu-Hwai Tsai, David R Hill, Namit Kumar, Sha Huang, Alana M Chin, Briana R Dye, Melinda S Nagy, Michael P Verzi, Jason R Spence
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Lgr family of transmembrane proteins (Lgr4, 5, 6) act as functional receptors for R-spondin proteins (Rspo 1, 2, 3, 4), and potentiate Wnt signaling in different contexts. Lgr5 is arguably the best characterized of the Lgr family members in a number of adult and embryonic contexts in mice. However, the function of LGR family members in early embryonic development is unclear, and has not been explored during human development or tissue differentiation in detail. METHODS: We interrogated the function and expression of LGR family members using human pluripotent stem cell-derived tissues including definitive endoderm, mid/hindgut, and intestinal organoids...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990460/the-development-of-spasmolytic-polypeptide-tff2-expressing-metaplasia-spem-during-gastric-repair-is-absent-in-the-aged-stomach
#11
Amy C Engevik, Rui Feng, Eunyoung Choi, Shana White, Nina Bertaux-Skeirik, Jing Li, Maxime M Mahe, Eitaro Aihara, Li Yang, Betsy DiPasquale, Sunghee Oh, Kristen A Engevik, Andrew S Giraud, Marshall H Montrose, Mario Medvedovic, Michael A Helmrath, James R Goldenring, Yana Zavros
BACKGROUND & AIMS: During aging, physiological changes in the stomach result in more tenuous gastric tissue that is less capable of repairing injury, leading to increased susceptibility to chronic ulceration. Spasmolytic polypeptide/trefoil factor 2-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) is known to emerge after parietal cell loss and during Helicobacter pylori infection, however, its role in gastric ulcer repair is unknown. Therefore, we sought to investigate if SPEM plays a role in epithelial regeneration...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766298/epithelial-regeneration-after-gastric-ulceration-causes-prolonged-cell-type-alterations
#12
Eitaro Aihara, Andrea L Matthis, Rebekah A Karns, Kristen A Engevik, Peihua Jiang, Jiang Wang, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Marshall H Montrose
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The peptic ulcer heals through a complex process, although the ulcer relapse often occurs several years later after healing. Our hypothesis is that even after visual evidence of healing of gastric ulceration, the regenerated epithelium is aberrant for an extended interval, increasing susceptibility of the regenerated epithelium to damage and further diseases. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by serosal topical application of acetic acid...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642625/stomach-organ-and-cell-lineage-differentiation-from-embryogenesis-to-adult-homeostasis
#13
Spencer G Willet, Jason C Mills
Gastric diseases cause considerable worldwide burden. However, the stomach is still poorly understood in terms of the molecular-cellular processes that govern its development and homeostasis. In particular, the complex relationship between the differentiated cell types located within the stomach and the stem and progenitor cells that give rise to them is significantly understudied relative to other organs. In this review, we will highlight the current state of the literature relating to specification of gastric cell lineages from embryogenesis to adulthood...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090563/targeting-%C3%AE-v-integrins-in-pancreatic-fibrosis-progress-in-resolving-the-scar
#14
EDITORIAL
Chuhan Chung, Fred S Gorelick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795980/functional-characterization-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-gut-dysbiosis-in-gnotobiotic-mice
#15
Hiroko Nagao-Kitamoto, Andrew B Shreiner, Merritt G Gillilland, Sho Kitamoto, Chiharu Ishii, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Peter Kuffa, Mohamad El-Zaatari, Helmut Grasberger, Anna M Seekatz, Peter D R Higgins, Vincent B Young, Shinji Fukuda, John Y Kao, Nobuhiko Kamada
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gut dysbiosis is closely involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear whether IBD-associated gut dysbiosis contributes to disease pathogenesis or is merely secondary to intestinal inflammation. We established a humanized gnotobiotic (hGB) mouse system to assess the functional role of gut dysbiosis associated with 2 types of IBD: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Germ-free mice were colonized by the gut microbiota isolated from patients with CD and UC, and healthy controls...
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795979/interleukin-10-restores-gastric-emptying-electrical-activity-and%C3%A2-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-networks-in-diabetic-mice
#16
Kyoung Moo Choi, Simon J Gibbons, Lei Sha, Arthur Beyder, Pieter-Jan Verhulst, Gianluca Cipriani, Jessica E Phillips, Anthony J Bauer, Tamas Ordog, Jon J Camp, Xin Ge, Adil E Bharucha, David R Linden, Joseph H Szurszewski, Purna C Kashyap, Gianrico Farrugia
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroparesis is a complication of diabetes characterized by delayed emptying of stomach contents and accompanied by early satiety, nausea, vomiting, and pain. No safe and reliable treatments are available. Interleukin 10 (IL10) activates the M2 cytoprotective phenotype of macrophages and induces expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) protein. We investigated whether IL10 administration could improve gastric emptying and reverse the associated cellular and electrical abnormalities in diabetic mice...
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777967/nod-like-receptor-protein-3-inflammasome-priming-and-activation-in-barrett-s-epithelial-cells
#17
Yuji Nadatani, Xiaofang Huo, Xi Zhang, Chunhua Yu, Edaire Cheng, Qiuyang Zhang, Kerry B Dunbar, Arianne Theiss, Thai H Pham, David H Wang, Toshio Watanabe, Yasuhiro Fujiwara, Tetsuo Arakawa, Stuart J Spechler, Rhonda F Souza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microbial molecular products incite intestinal inflammation by activating Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and inflammasomes of the innate immune system. This system's contribution to esophageal inflammation is not known. Gram-negative bacteria, which dominate the esophageal microbiome in reflux esophagitis, produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand. TLR4 signaling produces pro-interleukin (IL)1β, pro-IL18, and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), which prime the NLRP3 inflammasome...
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722191/the-pathogenesis-of-resection-associated-intestinal-adaptation
#18
REVIEW
Brad W Warner
After massive small-bowel resection, the remnant bowel compensates by a process termed adaptation. Adaptation is characterized by villus elongation and crypt deepening, which increases the capacity for absorption and digestion per unit length. The mechanisms/mediators of this important response are multiple. The purpose of this review is to highlight the major basic contributions in elucidating a more comprehensive understanding of this process.
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648466/measurement-of-gastrointestinal-and-colonic-motor-functions-in-humans-and-animals
#19
Michael Camilleri, David R Linden
Accurately measuring the complex motor behaviors of the gastrointestinal tract has tremendous value for the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of digestive diseases. This review synthesizes the literature regarding current tests that are used in both humans and animals. There remains further opportunity to enhance such tests, especially when such tests are able to provide value in both the preclinical and the clinical settings.
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642624/necroptosis-is-an-important-severity-determinant-and-potential-therapeutic-target-in-experimental-severe-pancreatitis
#20
Johanna Louhimo, Michael L Steer, George Perides
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Severe acute pancreatitis is characterized by acinar cell death and inflammation. Necroptosis is an aggressive and pro-inflammatory mode of cell death that can be prevented by necrostatin-1 administration or RIP3 deletion. METHODS: Mouse pancreatic acinar cells were incubated with supramaximally stimulating concentrations of caerulein or sub-micellar concentrations of TLCS and necroptosis was inhibited by either addition of necrostatin or by RIP3 deletion...
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
journal
journal
49951
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"