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Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675461/antibiotic-treatment-leads-to-fecal-escherichia-coli-and-coliphage-expansion-in-severely-malnourished-diarrhea-patients
#1
Silas Kieser, Shafiqul A Sarker, Bernard Berger, Shamima Sultana, Mohammod J Chisti, Shoeb B Islam, Francis Foata, Nadine Porta, Bertrand Betrisey, Coralie Fournier, Patrick Descombes, Annick Mercenier, Olga Sakwinska, Harald Brüssow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675460/epigenetic-reprogramming-of-human-hepatoma-cells-a-low-cost-option-for-drug-metabolism-assessment
#2
Luc Gailhouste, Lee Chuen Liew, Ken Yasukawa, Keitaro Hagiwara, Norihiko Iwazaki, Yasuhiro Yamada, Izuho Hatada, Takahiro Ochiya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675459/bioengineered-systems-and-designer-matrices-that-recapitulate-the-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#3
REVIEW
Yuli Wang, Raehyun Kim, Samuel S Hinman, Bailey Zwarycz, Scott T Magness, Nancy L Allbritton
The relationship between intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and the surrounding niche environment is complex and dynamic. Key factors localized at the base of the crypt are necessary to promote ISC self-renewal and proliferation, to ultimately provide a constant stream of differentiated cells to maintain the epithelial barrier. These factors diminish as epithelial cells divide, migrate away from the crypt base, differentiate into the postmitotic lineages, and end their life span in approximately 7 days when they are sloughed into the intestinal lumen...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675458/bioengineered-liver-models-for-drug-testing-and-cell-differentiation-studies
#4
REVIEW
Gregory H Underhill, Salman R Khetani
In vitro models of the human liver are important for the following: (1) mitigating the risk of drug-induced liver injury to human beings, (2) modeling human liver diseases, (3) elucidating the role of single and combinatorial microenvironmental cues on liver cell function, and (4) enabling cell-based therapies in the clinic. Methods to isolate and culture primary human hepatocytes (PHHs), the gold standard for building human liver models, were developed several decades ago; however, PHHs show a precipitous decline in phenotypic functions in 2-dimensional extracellular matrix-coated conventional culture formats, which does not allow chronic treatment with drugs and other stimuli...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675457/obesity-and-binge-drinking-two-hits-driving-liver-fibrosis-progression
#5
EDITORIAL
Min You
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675456/nrf2-induction-for-nash-treatment-a-new-hope-rises
#6
EDITORIAL
Montserrat Rojo de la Vega, Donna D Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675455/stinging-tight-junctions-with-wasps
#7
EDITORIAL
Benjamin Aroeti, Ephrem G Kassa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675454/cftr-and-the-regulation-of-crypt-cell-proliferation
#8
EDITORIAL
Deborah C Rubin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675453/nafld-phenotype-in-patients-with-v-atpase-proton-pump-assembly-defects
#9
EDITORIAL
Jos C Jansen, David Wolthuis, Monique Van Scherpenzeel, Vlad Ratziu, Joost P H Drenth, Dirk J Lefeber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675452/attaching-and-effacing-pathogens-exploit-junction-regulatory-activities-of-n-wasp-and-snx9-to-disrupt-the-intestinal-barrier
#10
John J Garber, Emily M Mallick, Karen M Scanlon, Jerrold R Turner, Michael S Donnenberg, John M Leong, Scott B Snapper
Background & Aims: Neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton in epithelial tissues and is poised to mediate cytoskeletal-dependent aspects of apical junction complex (AJC) homeostasis. Attaching-and-effacing (AE) pathogens disrupt this homeostasis through translocation of the effector molecule early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESX)-1 secretion-associated protein F (EspF). Although the mechanisms underlying AJC disruption by EspF are unknown, EspF contains putative binding sites for N-WASP and the endocytic regulator sorting nexin 9 (SNX9)...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675451/cftr-modulates-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-and-stem-cell-proliferation-in-murine-intestine
#11
Ashlee M Strubberg, Jinghua Liu, Nancy M Walker, Casey D Stefanski, R John MacLeod, Scott T Magness, Lane L Clarke
Background & Aims: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and CF mouse models have increased risk for gastrointestinal tumors. CF mice show augmented intestinal proliferation of unknown etiology and an altered intestinal environment. We examined the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) in Wnt/β-catenin signaling, stem cell proliferation, and its functional expression in the active intestinal stem cell (ISC) population. Dysregulation of intracellular pH (pHi ) in CF ISCs was investigated for facilitation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675450/engineered-human-gastrointestinal-cultures-to-study-the-microbiome-and-infectious-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Sarah E Blutt, Sue E Crawford, Sasirekha Ramani, Winnie Y Zou, Mary K Estes
New models to study the intestine are key to understanding intestinal diseases and developing novel treatments. Intestinal organ-like culture systems (organoids and enteroids) have substantially advanced the study of the human gastrointestinal tract. Stem cell-derived cultures produce self-organizing structures that contain the multiple differentiated intestinal epithelial cell types including enterocytes, goblet, Paneth, and enteroendocrine cells. Understanding host-microbial interactions is one area in which these cultures are expediting major advancements...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675449/is-the-lower-esophageal-sphincter-tone-related-to-a-gas
#13
EDITORIAL
Ravinder K Mittal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675448/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-activation-by-pharmacologic-inhibition-of-the-organic-solute-transporter-%C3%AE-%C3%AE
#14
Sandra M W van de Wiel, D Rudi de Waart, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Stan F J van de Graaf
Background & Aims: The organic solute transporter α-β (OSTα-OSTβ) mainly facilitates transport of bile acids across the basolateral membrane of ileal enterocytes. Therefore, inhibition of OSTα-OSTβ might have similar beneficial metabolic effects as intestine-specific agonists of the major nuclear receptor for bile acids, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). However, no OSTα-OSTβ inhibitors have yet been identified. Methods: Here, we developed a screen to identify specific inhibitors of OSTα-OSTβ using a genetically encoded Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-bile acid sensor that enables rapid visualization of bile acid efflux in living cells...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552626/neutrophil-hepatic-stellate-cell-interactions-promote-fibrosis-in-experimental-steatohepatitis
#15
Zhou Zhou, Ming-Jiang Xu, Yan Cai, Wei Wang, Joy X Jiang, Zoltan V Varga, Dechun Feng, Pal Pacher, George Kunos, Natalie J Torok, Bin Gao
Background & Aims: Hepatic infiltration of neutrophils is a hallmark of steatohepatitis; however, the role of neutrophils in the progression of steatohepatitis remains unknown. Methods: A clinically relevant mouse model of steatohepatitis induced by high-fat diet (HFD) plus binge ethanol feeding was used. Liver fibrosis was examined. In vitro cell culture was used to analyze the interaction of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and neutrophils. Results: HFD plus one binge ethanol (HFD+1B) feeding induced significant hepatic neutrophil infiltration, liver injury, and fibrosis...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552625/experimental-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis-are-ameliorated-by-pharmacologic-activation-of-nrf2-nf-e2-p45-related-factor-2
#16
Ritu S Sharma, David J Harrison, Dorothy Kisielewski, Diane M Cassidy, Alison D McNeilly, Jennifer R Gallagher, Shaun V Walsh, Tadashi Honda, Rory J McCrimmon, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Michael L J Ashford, John F Dillon, John D Hayes
Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with oxidative stress. We surmised that pharmacologic activation of NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) using the acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyano enone) TBE-31 would suppress NASH because Nrf2 is a transcriptional master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis. Methods: Nrf2 +/+ and Nrf2 -/- C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat plus fructose (HFFr) or regular chow diet for 16 weeks or 30 weeks, and then treated for the final 6 weeks, while still being fed the same HFFr or regular chow diets, with either TBE-31 or dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552624/trping-up-fibrosis-a-novel-role-for-trpa1-in-intestinal-myofibroblasts
#17
EDITORIAL
Simon Andrew Hirota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552623/translating-developmental-principles-to-generate-human-gastric-organoids
#18
REVIEW
Alexandra K Eicher, H Matthew Berns, James M Wells
Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major structural and physiological differences in human stomachs that render these models insufficient...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552622/the-esophageal-organoid-system-reveals-functional-interplay-between-notch-and-cytokines-in-reactive-epithelial-changes
#19
Yuta Kasagi, Prasanna M Chandramouleeswaran, Kelly A Whelan, Koji Tanaka, Veronique Giroux, Medha Sharma, Joshua Wang, Alain J Benitez, Maureen DeMarshall, John W Tobias, Kathryn E Hamilton, Gary W Falk, Jonathan M Spergel, Andres J Klein-Szanto, Anil K Rustgi, Amanda B Muir, Hiroshi Nakagawa
Background & Aims: Aberrations in the esophageal proliferation-differentiation gradient are histologic hallmarks in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. A reliable protocol to grow 3-dimensional (3D) esophageal organoids is needed to study esophageal epithelial homeostasis under physiological and pathologic conditions. Methods: We modified keratinocyte-serum free medium to grow 3D organoids from endoscopic esophageal biopsies, immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells, and murine esophagi...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552621/ferroportin-expression-in-adipocytes-does-not-contribute-to-iron-homeostasis-or-metabolic-responses-to-a-high-calorie-diet
#20
Laurence Britton, Lesley-Anne Jaskowski, Kim Bridle, Eriza Secondes, Daniel Wallace, Nishreen Santrampurwala, Janske Reiling, Gregory Miller, Salvatore Mangiafico, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, V Nathan Subramaniam, Darrell Crawford
Background & Aims: Iron has an increasingly recognized role in the regulation of adipose tissue function, including the expression of adipokines involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, has been proposed as being a key determinant of adipocyte iron homeostasis. Methods: We studied an adipocyte-specific ferroportin ( Fpn1 ) knockout mouse model, using an Adipoq -Cre recombinase driven Fpn1 deletion and fed mice according to the fast food diet model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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