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Public Health Research & Practice

Carmen Huckel Schneider, Fiona Blyth
OBJECTIVES: To explore the challenges that arise through the multidisciplinary nature of evidence informed policy making (EIPM). Type of program or service: Education and practice for EIPM. METHODS: This article summarises and compares four disciplinary approaches to EIPM with highly contrasting starting points: behavioural science, policy science, critical theory and intervention research. Key insights and theories are highlighted to provide a gateway into each, and to complement what is already known about the evidence needs of policy makers in terms of high-quality, timely and well-communicated research evidence...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Nyssa Ferguson, Michael Savic, Victoria Manning, Daniel Lubman
Alcohol use among middle-aged and older adults (55 years and older) is increasingly becoming a public health concern. Despite this, there is relatively little research on the experiences of alcohol use and related concerns among people aged 55 and older to inform tailored and engaging health promotion activities. To address this gap, we aimed to develop an engaging alcohol-related health promotion resource for people aged 55 and older. We drew on a research-into-action approach, which involved: 1) thematic analysis of alcohol-related concerns in online counselling transcripts of 70 people aged 55 and older, 2) a review of health promotion literature, and 3) consultation with consumers of alcohol and other drug services, and carers...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Andrew Page, Jo-An Atkinson, Mark Heffernan, Geoff McDonnell, Ian Hickie
Dynamic simulation modelling is increasingly being recognised as a valuable decision-support tool to help guide investments and actions to address complex public health issues such as suicide. In particular, participatory system dynamics (SD) modelling provides a useful tool for asking high-level 'what if' questions, and testing the likely impacts of different combinations of policies and interventions at an aggregate level before they are implemented in the real world. We developed an SD model for suicide prevention in Australia, and investigated the hypothesised impacts over the next 10 years (2015-2025) of a combination of current intervention strategies proposed for population interventions in Australia: 1) general practitioner (GP) training, 2) coordinated aftercare in those who have attempted suicide, 3) school-based mental health literacy programs, 4) brief-contact interventions in hospital settings, and 5) psychosocial treatment approaches...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Wei Du, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Nicholas A Buckley, Cathy Day, Emily Banks
OBJECTIVES: External cause International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes are commonly used to ascertain adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to hospitalisation. We quantified ascertainment of ADR-related hospitalisation using external cause codes and additional ICD-based hospital diagnosis codes. METHODS: We reviewed the scientific literature to identify different ICD-based criteria for ADR-related hospitalisations, developed algorithms to capture ADRs based on candidate hospital ICD-10 diagnoses and external cause codes (Y40-Y59), and incorporated previously published causality ratings estimating the probability that a specific diagnosis was ADR related...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Ashley McAllister, Maree L Hackett, Stephen R Leeder
AIM: Mental illnesses have many distinctive features that make determining eligibility for disability income support challenging - for example, their fluctuating nature, invisibility and lack of diagnostic clarity. How do policy makers deal with these features when designing disability income support? More specifically, how do mental illnesses come to be considered eligible disabilities, what tools are used to assess mental illnesses for eligibility, what challenges exist in this process, and what approaches are used to address these challenges? We aimed to determine what evidence is available to policy makers in Australia and Ontario, Canada, to answer these questions...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Becky Freeman, Ross MacKenzie, Mike Daube
Formation of Australia's National Drug Strategy (NDS) included an extensive consultation process that was open not only to community and public health stakeholders, but also to representatives of the tobacco and alcohol industries. Australia is bound by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires governments to protect tobacco control measures from interference by the tobacco industry. NDS consultation submissions made by these conflicted industries are not publicly available for scrutiny...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Scott J Fitzpatrick, Claire Hooker
Suicide is a significant public health concern. Continued high suicide rates, coupled with emerging international evidence, have led to the development of a 'systems' approach to suicide prevention, which is now being trialled as part of a proposed Suicide Prevention Framework for NSW (New South Wales, Australia). The Framework replicates successful international approaches. It is organised around nine components, ranging from individual to population-level approaches, to improve coordination and integration of existing services...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Shane Pm Cross, Ian Hickie
A component of Australia's recent national reform agenda for mental health services is the directive to the Primary Health Networks to develop and implement stepped-care models of service delivery. The current guidance proposes that interventions are aligned to mild, moderate and severe illness categories. Other models in operation are tied to single disorders, such as depression. Both approaches have a number of limitations when applied to real-world, complex clinical practice, especially in primary care. This article outlines some limitations of these models and argues for the development of a transdiagnostic model, based on developments in our work in primary care youth services, which can be generalised to adult populations...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Jackie Crowe
Mental health leaders, policy makers and successive national and state governments have tried countless incremental reforms. Yet, for decades in Australia, independent inquiries and reports have concluded that our mental health 'system of care' is a misnomer. It is fragmented, ineffective, inefficient and unfair. For far too long, people, families and communities have paid a heavy price for this. Reform in itself will not be the solution that we can hang all our hopes on. Disruptive innovations are now sneaking into the mental health sector and beginning to be taken up en masse...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Ian Hickie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Lily O'Donoughue Jenkins, Kaarin J Anstey
This paper discusses the use of secondments as a tool to increase knowledge translation between academics and policy makers by developing individual capacity. A case study is presented of a reciprocal secondment between a government department and a university. Enablers of knowledge translation included flexibility and support, a prior relationship between the two organisations, and a government culture that values use of research in policy making. Barriers included the lack of a planned approach with agreed outcomes, and a lack of evaluation at the end of the secondment...
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Jo-An Atkinson, Eloise O'Donnell, John Wiggers, Geoff McDonnell, Jo Mitchell, Louise Freebairn, Devon Indig, Lucie Rychetnik
Development of effective policy responses to address complex public health problems can be challenged by a lack of clarity about the interaction of risk factors driving the problem, differing views of stakeholders on the most appropriate and effective intervention approaches, a lack of evidence to support commonly implemented and acceptable intervention approaches, and a lack of acceptance of effective interventions. Consequently, political considerations, community advocacy and industry lobbying can contribute to a hotly contested debate about the most appropriate course of action; this can hinder consensus and give rise to policy resistance...
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Sonia Wutzke, Sally Redman, Adrian Bauman, Penelope Hawe, Alan Shiell, Sarah Thackway, Andrew Wilson
There is often a disconnection between the creation of evidence and its use in policy and practice. Cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary partnership research, founded on shared governance and coproduction, is considered to be one of the most effective means of overcoming this research-policy-practice disconnect. Similar to a number of funding bodies internationally, Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council has introduced Partnership Centres for Better Health: a scheme explicitly designed to encourage coproduced partnership research...
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Matthew C Knox, Alexander Garner, Alan Dyason, Thomas Pearson, Sabrina W Pit
OBJECTIVES: To investigate reasons behind strong opposition to water fluoridation in regional New South Wales, Australia, and to make recommendations to improve community engagement. IMPORTANCE: Few studies have used qualitative methodologies to understand the reasons for strong antifluoridation views. An understanding of these reasons could be useful when designing public campaigns to combat the strong antifluoridation message. METHODS: The qualitative study used semistructured interviewing and thematic analysis...
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Andrew J Milat, Ben Li
BACKGROUND: A significant challenge in research translation is that interested parties interpret and apply the associated terms and conceptual frameworks in different ways. The purpose of this review was to: a) examine different research translation frameworks; b) examine the similarities and differences between the frameworks; and c) identify key strengths and weaknesses of the models when they are applied in practice. METHODS: The review involved a keyword search of PubMed...
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Abdul Ghaffar, Nhan Tran, Etienne Langlois, Zubin Shroff, Dena Javadi
The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research was established in 1999 and is hosted as an international partnership by the World Health Organization (WHO). The Alliance emerged from recommendations of the 1996 WHO Ad Hoc Committee on Health Research, which recognised the role of research in strengthening health policies and the overall development of health systems. Work towards the Alliance's mission - to promote the generation and use of health policy and systems research (HPSR) as a means to strengthen health systems in low- and middle-income countries - historically focused on three areas: generation of policy and systems knowledge, promotion of its use in decision making to improve the performance of health systems, and strengthening researchers' and decision makers' capacity to engage in these efforts...
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Sarah Thackway, Danielle Campbell, Tina Loppacher
There is a growing body of literature about the barriers to, and enablers of, the use of research evidence in policy and practice. Research funders are in a unique position to influence activities aimed at promoting research use. During the past decade, NSW (New South Wales) Health has systematically built and invested in an integrated population and health services research portfolio made up of different types of investment and policy focuses. Each of these investments has an explicit focus on translation...
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Nicola Roxon
Public health researchers and practitioners want to see their research inform government decision making. It is not always clear to researchers how evidence is used in policy decisions in a highly politicised environment with many competing demands. We spoke to the Honourable Nicola Roxon, former Australian Minister for Health and Ageing (2007-2011), to gain some insight into the process, and advice on how to engage most productively with government.
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Don Nutbeam, Andrew J Milat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Claire Hooker, Adam Capon, Julie Leask
In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman's 'risk = hazard + outrage' formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to 'capture' the dominant representation of risk issues, the importance of communicating uncertainty, and the usefulness of engaging with communities...
January 15, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
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