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Royal Society Open Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134107/correction-to-the-role-of-climatic-and-geological-events-in-generating-diversity-in-ethiopian-grass-frogs-genus-ptychadena
#1
Megan L Smith, Brice P Noonan, Timothy J Colston
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.170021.].
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134106/robust-clustering-of-languages-across-wikipedia-growth
#2
Kristina Ban, Matjaž Perc, Zoran Levnajić
Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134105/global-network-centrality-of-university-rankings
#3
Weisi Guo, Marco Del Vecchio, Ganna Pogrebna
Universities and higher education institutions form an integral part of the national infrastructure and prestige. As academic research benefits increasingly from international exchange and cooperation, many universities have increased investment in improving and enabling their global connectivity. Yet, the relationship of university performance and its global physical connectedness has not been explored in detail. We conduct, to our knowledge, the first large-scale data-driven analysis into whether there is a correlation between university relative ranking performance and its global connectivity via the air transport network...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134104/king-post-truss-as-a-motif-for-internal-structure-of-meta-material-with-controlled-elastic-properties
#4
Emilio Turco, Ivan Giorgio, Anil Misra, Francesco dell'Isola
One of the most interesting challenges in the modern theory of materials consists in the determination of those microstructures which produce, at the macro-level, a class of metamaterials whose elastic range is many orders of magnitude wider than the one exhibited by 'standard' materials. In dell'Isola et al. (2015 Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik66, 3473-3498. (doi:10.1007/s00033-015-0556-4)), it was proved that, with a pantographic microstructure constituted by 'long' micro-beams it is possible to obtain metamaterials whose elastic range spans up to an elongation exceeding 30%...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134103/allometry-of-wing-twist-and-camber-in-a-flower-chafer-during-free-flight-how-do-wing-deformations-scale-with-body-size
#5
Yonatan Meresman, Gal Ribak
Intraspecific variation in adult body mass can be particularly high in some insect species, mandating adjustment of the wing's structural properties to support the weight of the larger body mass in air. Insect wings elastically deform during flapping, dynamically changing the twist and camber of the relatively thin and flat aerofoil. We examined how wing deformations during free flight scale with body mass within a species of rose chafers (Coleoptera: Protaetia cuprea) in which individuals varied more than threefold in body mass (0...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134102/imperial-trophy-or-island-relict-a-new-extinction-paradigm-for-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-a-chinese-conservation-icon
#6
Samuel T Turvey, Ian Barnes, Melissa Marr, Selina Brace
Determining the 'dynamic biogeography' of range collapse in threatened species is essential for effective conservation, but reconstruction of spatio-temporal patterns of population vulnerability and resilience can require use of non-standard ecological data such as historical archives. Père David's deer or milu, one of the few living mammal species that has become extinct in the wild, is historically known only from a small captive herd of unknown provenance that survived until 1900 in the Imperial Hunting Park near Beijing, from which all living individuals are descended...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134101/aligning-evidence-concerns-regarding-multiple-sequence-alignments-in-estimating-the-phylogeny-of-the-nudibranchia-suborder-doridina
#7
Joshua M Hallas, Anton Chichvarkhin, Terrence M Gosliner
Molecular estimates of phylogenetic relationships rely heavily on multiple sequence alignment construction. There has been little consensus, however, on how to properly address issues pertaining to the alignment of variable regions. Here, we construct alignments from four commonly sequenced molecular markers (16S, 18S, 28S and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) for the Nudibranchia using three different methodologies: (i) strict mathematical algorithm; (ii) exclusion of variable or divergent regions and (iii) manually curated, and examine how different alignment construction methods can affect phylogenetic signal and phylogenetic estimates for the suborder Doridina...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134100/three-dimensional-innate-mobility-of-the-human-foot-bones-under-axial-loading-using-biplane-x-ray-fluoroscopy
#8
Kohta Ito, Koh Hosoda, Masahiro Shimizu, Shuhei Ikemoto, Takeo Nagura, Hiroyuki Seki, Masateru Kitashiro, Nobuaki Imanishi, Sadakazu Aiso, Masahiro Jinzaki, Naomichi Ogihara
The anatomical design of the human foot is considered to facilitate generation of bipedal walking. However, how the morphology and structure of the human foot actually contribute to generation of bipedal walking remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the three-dimensional kinematics of the foot bones under a weight-bearing condition using cadaver specimens, to characterize the innate mobility of the human foot inherently prescribed in its morphology and structure. Five cadaver feet were axially loaded up to 588 N (60 kgf), and radiographic images were captured using a biplane X-ray fluoroscopy system...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134099/assessment-of-owner-directed-aggressive-behavioural-tendencies-of-dogs-in-situations-of-possession-and-manipulation
#9
Anna Bálint, Gabriella Rieger, Ádám Miklósi, Péter Pongrácz
Excessive aggression is a common behaviour problem in dogs that can have various destructive effects on the affected people and the implicated dog. Aggressive behaviour directed towards the owner or other family members is one of the most frequently occurring aggressive phenotypes. Here, we examine the reliability of a short questionnaire assessing aggressive behaviours by two, contextually different behavioural tests: 'take away bone' and 'roll over'. Based on dogs' behaviour in the tests, we sorted dogs (N = 93) in two groups for each test, namely a less and a more disobedient/resistant group...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134098/progressive-ontogenetic-niche-shift-over-the-prolonged-immaturity-period-of-wandering-albatrosses
#10
Alice Carravieri, Henri Weimerskirch, Paco Bustamante, Yves Cherel
Very little is known about trophic ontogenetic changes over the prolonged immaturity period of long-lived, wide-ranging seabirds. By using blood and feather trophic tracers (δ(13)C and δ(15)N, and mercury, Hg), we studied age-related changes in feeding ecology during the immature phase of wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans when they gradually change from a pure oceanic life to visits to their future breeding grounds. Immatures fed in subtropical waters at high trophic positions during moult. Between- and within-individual variations in isotopic niche were very high, irrespective of age, highlighting wide-ranging exploratory behaviours...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134097/the-optimization-of-fermentation-conditions-for%C3%A2-producing-cellulase-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-and-its-application-to-goose%C3%A2-feed
#11
Miao Ye, Linghong Sun, Ru Yang, Zaigui Wang, KeZong Qi
The proper culture conditions for producing cellulase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S1, isolated from the cecum of goose was optimized by single-factor experiment combined with orthogonal test. The properties of the cellulase were investigated by DNS method. The appropriate doses of B. amyloliquefaciens S1 were obtained by adding them to goose feed. It indicated that the suitable culture conditions of producing cellulase were the culture temperature of 37°C, the initial pH of 7.0, the incubation time of 72 h and the loaded liquid volume of 75 ml per 250 ml...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134096/co-infection-does-not-predict-disease-signs-in-gopherus-tortoises
#12
Chava L Weitzman, Ryan Gov, Franziska C Sandmeier, Sarah J Snyder, C Richard Tracy
In disease ecology, the host immune system interacts with environmental conditions and pathogen properties to affect the impact of disease on the host. Within the host, pathogens may interact to facilitate or inhibit each other's growth, and pathogens interact with different hosts differently. We investigated co-infection of two Mycoplasma and the association of infection with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease in four congeneric tortoise host species (Gopherus) in the United States to detect differences in infection risk and disease dynamics in these hosts...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134095/the-york-gospels-a-1000-year-biological-palimpsest
#13
Matthew D Teasdale, Sarah Fiddyment, Jiří Vnouček, Valeria Mattiangeli, Camilla Speller, Annelise Binois, Martin Carver, Catherine Dand, Timothy P Newfield, Christopher C Webb, Daniel G Bradley, Matthew J Collins
Medieval manuscripts, carefully curated and conserved, represent not only an irreplaceable documentary record but also a remarkable reservoir of biological information. Palaeographic and codicological investigation can often locate and date these documents with remarkable precision. The York Gospels (York Minster Ms. Add. 1) is one such codex, one of only a small collection of pre-conquest Gospel books to have survived the Reformation. By extending the non-invasive triboelectric (eraser-based) sampling technique eZooMS, to include the analysis of DNA, we report a cost-effective and simple-to-use biomolecular sampling technique for parchment...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134094/the-evolution-of-giant-flightless-birds-and-novel-phylogenetic-relationships-for-extinct-fowl-aves-galloanseres
#14
Trevor H Worthy, Federico J Degrange, Warren D Handley, Michael S Y Lee
The extinct dromornithids, gastornithids and phorusrhacids are among the most spectacular birds to have ever lived, with some giants exceeding 500 kg. The affinities and evolution of these and other related extinct birds remain contentious, with previous phylogenetic analyses being affected by widespread convergence and limited taxon sampling. We address these problems using both parsimony and tip-dated Bayesian approaches on an expansive taxon set that includes all key extinct flightless and flighted (e...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134093/bringing-ecology-blogging-into-the-scientific-fold-measuring-reach-and-impact-of-science-community-blogs
#15
REVIEW
Manu E Saunders, Meghan A Duffy, Stephen B Heard, Margaret Kosmala, Simon R Leather, Terrence P McGlynn, Jeff Ollerton, Amy L Parachnowitsch
The popularity of science blogging has increased in recent years, but the number of academic scientists who maintain regular blogs is limited. The role and impact of science communication blogs aimed at general audiences is often discussed, but the value of science community blogs aimed at the academic community has largely been overlooked. Here, we focus on our own experiences as bloggers to argue that science community blogs are valuable to the academic community. We use data from our own blogs (n = 7) to illustrate some of the factors influencing reach and impact of science community blogs...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134092/enhanced-photovoltaic-properties-of-perovskite-solar-cells-by-tio2-homogeneous-hybrid-structure
#16
Pengyu Su, Wuyou Fu, Huizhen Yao, Li Liu, Dong Ding, Fei Feng, Shuang Feng, Yebin Xue, Xizhe Liu, Haibin Yang
In this paper, we fabricated a TiO2 homogeneous hybrid structure for application in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under ambient conditions. Under the standard air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) illumination, PSCs based on homogeneous hybrid structure present a maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.39% which is higher than that of pure TiO2 nanosheets. The enhanced properties can be explained by the better contact of TiO2 nanosheets/nanoparticles with CH3NH3PbI3 and fewer pinholes in electron transport materials...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134091/synthesis-of-zeolites-na-a-and-na-x-from-tablet-compressed-and-calcinated-coal-fly-ash
#17
Tao Hu, Wenyan Gao, Xin Liu, Yifu Zhang, Changgong Meng
Zeolites Na-A and Na-X are important synthetic zeolites widely used for separation and adsorption in industry. It is of great significance to develop energy-efficient routines that can synthesize zeolites Na-A and Na-X from low-cost raw materials. Coal fly ash (CFA) is the major residue from the combustion of coal and biomass containing more than 85% SiO2 and Al2O3, which can readily replace the conventionally used sodium silicate and aluminate for zeolite synthesis. We used Na2CO3 to replace the expensive NaOH used for the calcination of CFA and showed that tablet compression can enhance the contact with Na2CO3 for the activation of CFA through calcination for the synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X under mild conditions...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134090/assessment-of-dynamic-material-properties-of-intact-rocks-using-seismic-wave-attenuation-an-experimental-study
#18
W A M Wanniarachchi, P G Ranjith, M S A Perera, T D Rathnaweera, Q Lyu, B Mahanta
The mechanical properties of any substance are essential facts to understand its behaviour and make the maximum use of the particular substance. Rocks are indeed an important substance, as they are of significant use in the energy industry, specifically for fossil fuels and geothermal energy. Attenuation of seismic waves is a non-destructive technique to investigate mechanical properties of reservoir rocks under different conditions. The attenuation characteristics of five different rock types, siltstone, shale, Australian sandstone, Indian sandstone and granite, were investigated in the laboratory using ultrasonic and acoustic emission instruments in a frequency range of 0...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134089/moo2-nanosheets-embedded-in-amorphous-carbon-matrix-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#19
Hong He, Yuhong Man, Jingang Yang, Jiale Xie, Maowen Xu
MoO2 nanosheets embedded in the amorphous carbon matrix (MoO2/C) are successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and investigated as an anode for sodium-ion batteries. Because of the efficient ion transport channels and good volume change accommodation, MoO2/C delivers a discharge/charge capacity of 367.8/367.0 mAh g(-1) with high coulombic efficiency (99.4%) after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g(-1).
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134088/on-the-lack-of-a-universal-pattern-associated-with-mammalian-domestication-differences-in-skull-growth-trajectories-across-phylogeny
#20
Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Valentina Segura, Madeleine Geiger, Laura Heck, Kristof Veitschegger, David Flores
As shown in a taxonomically broad study, domestication modifies postnatal growth. Skull shape across 1128 individuals was characterized by 14 linear measurements, comparing 13 pairs of wild versus domesticated forms. Among wild forms, the boar, the rabbit and the wolf have the highest proportion of allometric growth, explaining in part the great morphological diversity of the domesticated forms of these species. Wild forms exhibit more isometric growth than their domesticated counterparts. Multivariate comparisons show that dogs and llamas exhibit the greatest amount of differences in trajectories with their wild counterparts...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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