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Royal Society Open Science

Pavel Grasgruber, Stevo Popović, Dominik Bokuvka, Ivan Davidović, Sylva Hřebíčková, Pavlína Ingrová, Predrag Potpara, Stipe Prce, Nikola Stračárová
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.161054.].
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Adam R Reddon, Constance M O'Connor, Erin Nesjan, Jason Cameron, Jennifer K Hellmann, Isaac Y Ligocki, Susan E Marsh-Rollo, Ian M Hamilton, Douglas R Wylie, Peter L Hurd, Sigal Balshine
Social living has evolved numerous times across a diverse array of animal taxa. An open question is how the transition to a social lifestyle has shaped, and been shaped by, the underlying neurohormonal machinery of social behaviour. The nonapeptide neurohormones, implicated in the regulation of social behaviours, are prime candidates for the neuroendocrine substrates of social evolution. Here, we examined the brains of eight cichlid fish species with divergent social systems, comparing the number and size of preoptic neurons that express the nonapeptides isotocin and vasotocin...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Allan McRobie
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160759.].
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Valerio Capraro, Brice Corgnet, Antonio M Espín, Roberto Hernán-González
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160605.].
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Stephen G B Chester, Thomas E Williamson, Jonathan I Bloch, Mary T Silcox, Eric J Sargis
Palaechthonid plesiadapiforms from the Palaeocene of western North America have long been recognized as among the oldest and most primitive euarchontan mammals, a group that includes extant primates, colugos and treeshrews. Despite their relatively sparse fossil record, palaechthonids have played an important role in discussions surrounding adaptive scenarios for primate origins for nearly a half-century. Likewise, palaechthonids have been considered important for understanding relationships among plesiadapiforms, with members of the group proposed as plausible ancestors of Paromomyidae and Microsyopidae...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Jeremy K M Sanders
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Signe Brinkløv, Coen P H Elemans, John M Ratcliffe
Oilbirds are active at night, foraging for fruits using keen olfaction and extremely light-sensitive eyes, and echolocate as they leave and return to their cavernous roosts. We recorded the echolocation behaviour of wild oilbirds using a multi-microphone array as they entered and exited their roosts under different natural light conditions. During echolocation, the birds produced click bursts (CBs) lasting less than 10 ms and consisting of a variable number (2-8) of clicks at 2-3 ms intervals. The CBs have a bandwidth of 7-23 kHz at -6 dB from signal peak frequency...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
M Mies, C R Voolstra, C B Castro, D O Pires, E N Calderon, P Y G Sumida
Symbiodinium are responsible for the majority of primary production in coral reefs and found in a mutualistic symbiosis with multiple animal phyla. However, little is known about the molecular signals involved in the establishment of this symbiosis and whether it initiates during host larval development. To address this question, we monitored the expression of a putative symbiosis-specific gene (H(+)-ATPase) in Symbiodinium A1 ex hospite and in association with larvae of a scleractinian coral (Mussismilia hispida), a nudibranch (Berghia stephanieae) and a giant clam (Tridacna crocea)...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
D Miguez, E F Hodson-Tole, I Loram, P J Harding
Ultrasound (US) imaging is a well-recognized technique for the study of static tissues but its suitability for studying tissue dynamics depends upon accurate frame time information, which may not always be available to users. Here we present methods to quantify the inter-frame interval (IFI) variability, and evaluate different procedures for collecting temporal information from two US-imaging devices. The devices tested exhibited variable IFIs that could only be confirmed by direct measures of timing signals, available by means of electrical signals (triggers) and/or temporal information contained in the software used for the US data collection...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Margarita M López-Uribe, Andrea Fitzgerald, Michael Simone-Finstrom
Honeybees use a variety of defence mechanisms to reduce disease infection and spread throughout the colony. Many of these defences rely on the collective action of multiple individuals to prevent, reduce or eradicate pathogens-often referred to as 'social immunity'. Glucose oxidase (GOX) and some antimicrobial peptides (e.g. defensin-1 or Def1) are secreted by the hypopharyngeal gland of adult bees on larval food for their antiseptic properties. Because workers secrete these compounds to protect larvae, they have been used as 'biomarkers' for social immunity...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Christopher D Buckley, Eric Boudot
We investigate pattern and process in the transmission of traditional weaving cultures in East and Southeast Asia. Our investigation covers a range of scales, from the experiences of individual weavers ('micro') to the broad-scale patterns of loom technologies across the region ('macro'). Using published sources, we build an empirical model of cultural transmission (encompassing individual weavers, the household and the community), focussing on where cultural information resides and how it is replicated and how transmission errors are detected and eliminated...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Yin Hu, Su Wang, Nan Ma, Suzanne M Hingley-Wilson, Andrea Rocco, Johnjoe McFadden, Hongying Lilian Tang
Cell growth experiments with a microfluidic device produce large-scale time-lapse image data, which contain important information on cell growth and patterns in their genealogy. To extract such information, we propose a scheme to segment and track bacterial cells automatically. In contrast with most published approaches, which often split segmentation and tracking into two independent procedures, we focus on designing an algorithm that describes cell properties evolving between consecutive frames by feeding segmentation and tracking results from one frame to the next one...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Allan McRobie, Marina Konstantatou, Georgios Athanasopoulos, Laura Hannigan
In this paper, recent progress in graphic statics is combined with Williot displacement diagrams to create a graphical description of both statics and kinematics for two- and three-dimensional pin-jointed trusses. We begin with reciprocal form and force diagrams. The force diagram is dissected into its component cells which are then translated relative to each other. This defines a displacement diagram which is topologically equivalent to the form diagram (the structure). The various contributions to the overall Virtual Work appear as parallelograms (for two-dimensional trusses) or parallelopipeds (for three-dimensional trusses) that separate the force and the displacement pieces...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Miguel Morgado-Santos, Sara Carona, Luís Vicente, Maria João Collares-Pereira
Androgenesis among vertebrates is considered a rare phenomenon, with some cases reported so far, but linked to experiments involving gamete manipulation (artificial androgenesis). Herein, we report the first empirical evidence of the natural occurrence of spontaneous androgenesis in a vertebrate, the Squalius alburnoides allopolyploid complex. A genetically screened random sample of a natural population was allowed to reproduce in an isolated pond without any human interference, and the viable offspring obtained was later analysed for paternity...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Shahid Majeed, Sharon Rose Hill, Teun Dekker, Rickard Ignell
Natural selection has favoured specialization in anthropophilic mosquito host choice, yet in the absence of human hosts, females feed on a selected range of vertebrates. For host recognition, we hypothesize that mosquitoes primarily rely on generic host volatiles. Detection and perception of such compounds would provide the mosquito with a flexible, yet constrained, odour coding system that could delineate host preference. In this study, we show that the quintessential generic volatile for host-seeking, carbon dioxide, activates and attracts the malaria mosquito, Anopheles coluzzii, and the arbovirus vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, within boundaries set by the dynamic range and coding capacity of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurons...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Maria Elissavet Nikolaidou, Robert Marzilger, Sebastian Bohm, Falk Mersmann, Adamantios Arampatzis
Humans achieve greater jump height during a counter-movement jump (CMJ) than in a squat jump (SJ). However, the crucial difference is the mean mechanical power output during the propulsion phase, which could be determined by intrinsic neuro-muscular mechanisms for power production. We measured M. vastus lateralis (VL) fascicle length changes and activation patterns and assessed the force-length, force-velocity and power-velocity potentials during the jumps. Compared with the SJ, the VL fascicles operated on a more favourable portion of the force-length curve (7% greater force potential, i...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Fabio A Sarria-S, Benedict D Chivers, Carl D Soulsbury, Fernando Montealegre-Z
Frequency analysis in the mammalian cochlea depends on the propagation of frequency information in the form of a travelling wave (TW) across tonotopically arranged auditory sensilla. TWs have been directly observed in the basilar papilla of birds and the ears of bush-crickets (Insecta: Orthoptera) and have also been indirectly inferred in the hearing organs of some reptiles and frogs. Existing experimental approaches to measure TW function in tetrapods and bush-crickets are inherently invasive, compromising the fine-scale mechanics of each system...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Drew M Altschul, Emma K Wallace, Ruth Sonnweber, Masaki Tomonaga, Alexander Weiss
Human intellect is characterized by intercorrelated psychological domains, including intelligence, academic performance and personality. Higher openness is associated with higher intelligence and better academic performance, yet high performance among individuals is itself attributable to intelligence, not openness. High conscientiousness individuals, although not necessarily more intelligent, are better performers. Work with other species is not as extensive, yet animals display similar relationships between exploration- and persistence-related personality traits and performance on cognitive tasks...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Natalie Wildermann, Kay Critchell, Mariana M P B Fuentes, Colin J Limpus, Eric Wolanski, Mark Hamann
The ability of individuals to actively control their movements, especially during the early life stages, can significantly influence the distribution of their population. Most marine turtle species develop oceanic foraging habitats during different life stages. However, flatback turtles (Natator depressus) are endemic to Australia and are the only marine turtle species with an exclusive neritic development. To explain the lack of oceanic dispersal of this species, we predicted the dispersal of post-hatchlings in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, using oceanographic advection-dispersal models...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Paul Glaum, Maria-Carolina Simao, Chatura Vaidya, Gordon Fitch, Benjamin Iulinao
Native bee populations are critical sources of pollination. Unfortunately, native bees are declining in abundance and diversity. Much of this decline comes from human land-use change. While the effects of large-scale agriculture on native bees are relatively well understood, the effects of urban development are less clear. Understanding urbanity's effect on native bees requires consideration of specific characteristics of both particular bee species and their urban landscape. We surveyed bumble-bee (Bombus spp...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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