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Royal Society Open Science

Laura Coquereau, Julie Lossent, Jacques Grall, Laurent Chauvaud
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160606.].
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Abinael B Oliveira, Knut Bakke
Quantum effects on a neutral particle (atom or molecule) with an induced electric dipole moment are investigated when it is subject to the Kratzer potential and a scalar potential proportional to the radial distance. In addition, this neutral is placed in a region with electric and magnetic fields. This system is analysed in both non-rotating and rotating reference frames. Then, it is shown that bound state solutions to the Schrödinger equation can be achieved and, in the search for polynomial solutions to the radial wave function, a restriction on the values of the cyclotron frequency is analysed in both reference frames...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Julian Sheats, Bianca Sclavi, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino, Pietro Cicuta, Kevin D Dorfman
We present experimental data on the nematic alignment of Escherichia coli bacteria confined in a slit, with an emphasis on the effect of growth rate and corresponding changes in cell aspect ratio. Global alignment with the channel walls arises from the combination of local nematic ordering of nearby cells, induced by cell division and the elongated shape of the cells, and the preferential orientation of cells proximate to the side walls of the slit. Decreasing the growth rate leads to a decrease in alignment with the walls, which is attributed primarily to effects of changing cell aspect ratio rather than changes in the variance in cell area...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
P J Johnson, M J Noonan, A C Kitchener, L A Harrington, C Newman, D W Macdonald
The tendency for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) to increase with body mass in taxa where males are larger, and to decrease when females are larger, is known as Rensch's rule. In mammals, where the trend occurs, it is believed to be the result of a competitive advantage for larger males, while female mass is constrained by the energetics of reproduction. Here, we examine the allometry of SSD within the Felidae and Canidae, demonstrating distinctly different patterns: in felids, there is positive allometric scaling, while there is no trend in canids...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Benoit Talbot, Ondřej Balvín, Maarten J Vonhof, Hugh G Broders, Brock Fenton, Nusha Keyghobadi
Reciprocal selective pressures can drive coevolutionary changes in parasites and hosts, and result in parasites that are highly specialized to their hosts. Selection and host co-adaptation are better understood in endoparasites than in ectoparasites, whose life cycles may be more loosely linked to that of their hosts. Blood-feeding ectoparasites use salivary proteins to prevent haemostasis in the host, and maximize energy intake. Here we looked for signals of selection in salivary protein genes of ectoparasite species from a single genus (Cimex) that associate with a range of hosts including mammals (bats and humans) and birds (swallows)...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Brian Chapman
This paper seeks to develop a more thermodynamically sound pedagogy for students of biological transport than is currently available from either of the competing schools of linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics (LNET) or Michaelis-Menten kinetics (MMK). To this end, a minimal model of facilitated diffusion was constructed comprising four reversible steps: cis-substrate binding, cis→trans bound enzyme shuttling, trans-substrate dissociation and trans→cis free enzyme shuttling. All model parameters were subject to the second law constraint of the probability isotherm, which determined the unidirectional and net rates for each step and for the overall reaction through the law of mass action...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Laura Chabrolles, Gérard Coureaud, Nicolas Boyer, Nicolas Mathevon, Marilyn Beauchaud
Animals routinely receive information through different sensory channels, and inputs from a modality may modulate the perception and behavioural reaction to others. In spite of their potential adaptive value, the behavioural correlates of this cross-sensory modulation have been poorly investigated. Due to their predator life, crocodilians deal with decisional conflicts emerging from concurrent stimuli. By testing young Crocodylus niloticus with sounds in the absence or presence of chemical stimuli, we show that (i) the prandial (feeding) state modulates the responsiveness of the animal to a congruent, i...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Randall Haas, Ioana C Stefanescu, Alexander Garcia-Putnam, Mark S Aldenderfer, Mark T Clementz, Melissa S Murphy, Carlos Viviano Llave, James T Watson
High-elevation environments above 2500 metres above sea level (m.a.s.l.) were among the planet's last frontiers of human colonization. Research on the speed and tempo of this colonization process is active and holds implications for understanding rates of genetic, physiological and cultural adaptation in our species. Permanent occupation of high-elevation environments in the Andes Mountains of South America tentatively began with hunter-gatherers around 9 ka according to current archaeological estimates, though the timing is currently debated...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Soumitra Roy, Arup Kumar Pal
Digital image watermarking has emerged as a promising solution for copyright protection. In this paper, a discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) based hybrid robust image watermarking method using Arnold scrambling is proposed and simulated to protect the copyright of natural images. In this proposed scheme, before embedding, watermark is scrambled with Arnold scrambling. Then, the greyscale cover image and encrypted watermark logo are decomposed into non-overlapping blocks and subsequently some selected image blocks are transformed into the DCT domain for inserting the watermark blocks permanently...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Daniel J Newhouse, Erik K Hofmeister, Christopher N Balakrishnan
West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread arbovirus that imposes a significant cost to both human and wildlife health. WNV exists in a bird-mosquito transmission cycle in which passerine birds act as the primary reservoir host. As a public health concern, the mammalian immune response to WNV has been studied in detail. Little, however, is known about the avian immune response to WNV. Avian taxa show variable susceptibility to WNV and what drives this variation is unknown. Thus, to study the immune response to WNV in birds, we experimentally infected captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Hao Li, Kathleen Kuman, Matt G Lotter, George M Leader, Ryan J Gibbon
Prepared core technology illustrates in-depth planning and the presence of a mental template during the core reduction process. This technology is, therefore, a significant indicator in studying the evolution of abstract thought and the cognitive abilities of hominids. Here, we report on Victoria West cores excavated from the Canteen Kopje site in central South Africa, with a preliminary age estimate of approximately 1 Ma (million years ago) for these cores. Technological analysis shows that the Victoria West cores bear similarities to the 'Volumetric Concept' as defined for the Levallois, a popular and widely distributed prepared core technology from at least 200 ka (thousand years ago)...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Alex Dinovitser, Dimitar G Valchev, Derek Abbott
Chemical degradation of edible oils has been studied using conventional spectroscopic methods spanning the spectrum from ultraviolet to mid-IR. However, the possibility of morphological changes of oil molecules that can be detected at terahertz frequencies is beginning to receive some attention. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing cost of this technology and its capability for convenient, in situ measurement of material properties, raises the possibility of monitoring oil during cooking and processing at production facilities, and more generally within the food industry...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
P Iyyappa Rajan, S Mahalakshmi, Sharat Chandra
The current communication signifies the effect of oxygen vacancies (OVs) both qualitatively and quantitatively in multiferroic BiFe0.83Ni0.17O3 by an in-depth atomic-level investigation of its electronic structure and magnetization properties, and these materials have a variety of applications in spintronics, optoelectronics, sensors and solar energy devices. Depending on the precise location of OVs, all the three types of spintronic material namely half-metallic, spin gapless semiconductor and bipolar magnetic conductor have been established in a single material for the first time and both super-exchange and double-exchange interactions are possible in accordance with the precise location of OVs...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Stefan Pentzold, Mikael Kryger Jensen, Annemarie Matthes, Carl Erik Olsen, Bent Larsen Petersen, Henrik Clausen, Birger Lindberg Møller, Søren Bak, Mika Zagrobelny
Low molecular weight compounds are typically used by insects and plants for defence against predators. They are often stored as inactive β-glucosides and kept separate from activating β-glucosidases. When the two components are mixed, the β-glucosides are hydrolysed releasing toxic aglucones. Cyanogenic plants contain cyanogenic glucosides and release hydrogen cyanide due to such a well-characterized two-component system. Some arthropods are also cyanogenic, but comparatively little is known about their system...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Vincent Miele, Catherine Matias
In ecology, recent technological advances and long-term data studies now provide longitudinal interaction data (e.g. between individuals or species). Most often, time is the parameter along which interactions evolve but any other one-dimensional gradient (temperature, altitude, depth, humidity, etc.) can be considered. These data can be modelled through a sequence of different snapshots of an evolving ecological network, i.e. a dynamic network. Here, we present how the dynamic stochastic block model approach developed by Matias & Miele (Matias & Miele In press J...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Matthew C Fysh, Markus Bindemann
This study investigated the impact of time pressure on matching accuracy with face pairs that combined photographs from student ID cards with high-quality person portraits, and under conditions that provided infrequent identity mismatches. Time pressure was administered via two onscreen displays that observers could use to adjust the amount of time that was allocated to a given trial while completing a block of trials within a required timeframe. Under these conditions, observers matched faces under time pressure that varied from 10 to 2 s (Experiment 1) and 8 to 2 s (Experiment 2)...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Elen Shute, Gavin J Prideaux, Trevor H Worthy
Megapodes are unusual galliform birds that use passive heat sources to incubate their eggs. Evolutionary relationships of extant megapode taxa have become clearer with the advent of molecular analyses, but the systematics of large, extinct forms (Progura gallinacea, Progura naracoortensis) from the late Cenozoic of Australia has been a source of confusion. It was recently suggested that the two species of Progura were synonymous, and that this taxon dwarfed into the extant malleefowl Leipoa ocellata in the Late Pleistocene...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Toshitaka N Suzuki, Nobuyuki Kutsukake
Understanding how individual behaviour influences the spatial and temporal distribution of other species is necessary to resolve the complex structure of species assemblages. Mixed-species bird flocks provide an ideal opportunity to investigate this issue, because members of the flocks are involved in a variety of behavioural interactions between species. Willow tits (Poecile montanus) often produce loud calls when visiting a new foraging patch to recruit other members of mixed-species flocks. The costs and benefits of flocking would differ with individual foraging behaviours (i...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Orla G Bath Enright, Nicholas J Minter, Esther J Sumner
Interpreting how far organisms within fossil assemblages may have been transported and if they all originated from the same location is fundamental to understanding whether they represent true palaeocommunities. In a three-factorial experimental design, we used an annular flume to generate actualistic sandy sediment-density flows that were fast (2 ms(-1)) and fully turbulent in order to test the effects of flow duration, sediment concentration, and grain angularity on the states of bodily damage experienced by the freshly euthanized polychaete Alitta virens...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
P Dilip Venugopal, Galen P Dively
Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop-pest interactions and insect resistance to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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