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Royal Society Open Science

Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Pavés, Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Hideyuki Doi, Izumi Katano, Yusuke Sakata, Rio Souma, Toshihiro Kosuge, Mariko Nagano, Kousuke Ikeda, Koki Yano, Koji Tojo
The use of environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been employed to evaluate the distribution of various aquatic macroorganisms. Although this technique has been applied to a broad range of taxa, from vertebrates to invertebrates, its application is limited for aquatic insects such as aquatic heteropterans. Nepa hoffmanni (Heteroptera: Nepidae) is a small (approx. 23 mm) aquatic heteropteran that inhabits wetlands, can be difficult to capture and is endangered in Japan. The molecular tool eDNA was used to evaluate the species distribution of N...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Julia Giehr, Anna V Grasse, Sylvia Cremer, Jürgen Heinze, Alexandra Schrempf
Infections with potentially lethal pathogens may negatively affect an individual's lifespan and decrease its reproductive value. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that individuals faced with a reduced survival should invest more into reproduction instead of maintenance and growth. Several studies suggest that individuals are indeed able to estimate their body condition and to increase their reproductive effort with approaching death, while other studies gave ambiguous results. We investigate whether queens of a perennial social insect (ant) are able to boost their reproduction following infection with an obligate killing pathogen...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Chris Simpson
The era of the Square Kilometre Array is almost upon us, and pathfinder telescopes are already in operation. This brief review summarizes our current knowledge of extragalactic radio sources, accumulated through six decades of continuum surveys at the low-frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum and the extensive complementary observations at other wavelengths necessary to gain this understanding. The relationships between radio survey data and surveys at other wavelengths are discussed. Some of the outstanding questions are identified and prospects over the next few years are outlined...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Georgia Kosmala, Keith Christian, Gregory Brown, Richard Shine
Invasive species provide a robust opportunity to evaluate how animals deal with novel environmental challenges. Shifts in locomotor performance-and thus the ability to disperse-(and especially, the degree to which it is constrained by thermal and hydric extremes) are of special importance, because they might affect the rate that an invader can spread. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) across a broad geographical range: two populations within the species' native range in Brazil, two invasive populations on the island of Hawai'i and eight invasive populations encompassing the eastern, western and southern limits of the toad invasion in Australia...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Caroline B Turner, Brian D Wade, Justin R Meyer, Brooke A Sommerfeld, Richard E Lenski
Organismal stoichiometry refers to the relative proportion of chemical elements in the biomass of organisms, and it can have important effects on ecological interactions from population to ecosystem scales. Although stoichiometry has been studied extensively from an ecological perspective, much less is known about the rates and directions of evolutionary changes in elemental composition. We measured carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of 12 Escherichia coli populations that evolved under controlled carbon-limited, serial-transfer conditions for 50 000 generations...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Helder Gomes Rodrigues, Rémi Lefebvre, Marcos Fernández-Monescillo, Bernardino Mamani Quispe, Guillaume Billet
Studying dental ontogeny in mammals can provide valuable insight on the evolution of their masticatory apparatus and their related adaptations. The multiple acquisitions of a prolonged to continuous growth of teeth in herbivorous mammals in response to high abrasion represent an intensively investigated issue. However, the ontogenetic and architectural patterns associated with these repeated dental innovations remain poorly known. Here, we focused on two case studies corresponding to distant mammalian clades, the extinct Mesotheriidae (Notoungulata), which shared some striking dental features with the extant Ctenodactylidae (Rodentia)...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Gustavo A Monti, Gabriela A Fernández, N Mariano Correa, R Darío Falcone, Fernando Moyano, Gustavo F Silbestri
Herein we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) in presence of sulphonated imidazolium salts [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropyl-4-sodiumsulfonatophenyl)imidazolium (L1), 1-mesityl-3-(3-sulfonatopropyl)imidazolium (L2) and 1-(3-sulfonatopropyl)imidazolium (L3)] in water and in a confinement environment created by reverse micelles (RMs). The Au-NPs were characterized-with an excellent agreement between different techniques-by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Sulisay Phonekeo, Nathan Mlot, Daria Monaenkova, David L Hu, Craig Tovey
In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Bernardo Monechi, Pietro Gravino, Vito D P Servedio, Francesca Tria, Vittorio Loreto
Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Hayleigh Kearns, Fatima Ali, Matthew A Bedics, Neil C Shand, Karen Faulds, Michael R Detty, Duncan Graham
This is the first report of the use of a hand-held 1064 nm Raman spectrometer combined with red-shifted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags to provide an unprecedented performance in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region. A library consisting of 17 chalcogenopyrylium nanotags produce extraordinary SERS responses with femtomolar detection limits being obtained using the portable instrument. This is well beyond previous SERS detection limits at this far red-shifted wavelength and opens up new options for SERS sensors in the SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum (between 950 and 1700 nm)...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Joseph Lydiate
This paper introduces the simulation and modelling of a novel dual micro-ring resonator. The geometric configuration of the resonators, and the implementation of a simulated broadband excitation source, results in the realization of optical transparencies in the combined through port output spectrum. The 130 nm silicon on insulator rib fabrication process is adopted for the simulation of the dual-ring configuration. Two titanium nitride heaters are positioned over the coupling regions of the resonators, which can be operated independently, to control the spectral position of the optical transparency...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Ala Morshedian, Matthew B Toomey, Gabriel E Pollock, Rikard Frederiksen, Jennifer M Enright, Stephen D McCormick, M Carter Cornwall, Gordon L Fain, Joseph C Corbo
The spectral composition of ambient light varies across both space and time. Many species of jawed vertebrates adapt to this variation by tuning the sensitivity of their photoreceptors via the expression of CYP27C1, an enzyme that converts vitamin A1 into vitamin A2, thereby shifting the ratio of vitamin A1-based rhodopsin to red-shifted vitamin A2-based porphyropsin in the eye. Here, we show that the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless vertebrate that diverged from jawed vertebrates during the Cambrian period (approx...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Qin-Feng Zhu, Ying Bao, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Jia Su, Li-Dong Shao, Qin-Shi Zhao
Two new lactone-containing selaginellins T and U (1 and 2) together with eleven known selaginellin derivatives (3 and 7-16) were isolated from the whole plant of Selaginella tamariscina. The structure of tautomeric selaginellin U along with its biogenetic pathway was confirmed and proposed by a cross-validation of the semisynthesis of compound 4 from selaginellin (3) and derivation from 2 to 4. Additionally, compounds 3, 13 and 16 exhibited good inhibitory activities against β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) with IC50 values of 81...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Charlotte Duranton, Friederike Range, Zsófia Virányi
Dogs are renowned for being skilful at using human-given communicative cues such as pointing. Results are contradictory, however, when it comes to dogs' following human gaze, probably due to methodological discrepancies. Here we investigated whether dogs follow human gaze to one of two food locations better than into distant space even after comparable pre-training. In Experiments 1 and 2, the gazing direction of dogs was recorded in a gaze-following into distant space and in an object-choice task where no choice was allowed, in order to allow a direct comparison between tasks, varying the ostensive nature of the gazes...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Vanika Gupta, Pedro F Vale
The ability to tolerate infection is a key component of host defence and offers potential novel therapeutic approaches for infectious diseases. To yield successful targets for therapeutic intervention, it is important that the analytical tools employed to measure disease tolerance are able to capture distinct host responses to infection. Here, we show that commonly used methods that estimate tolerance as a linear relationship should be complemented with more flexible, nonlinear estimates of this relationship which may reveal variation in distinct components such as host vigour, sensitivity to increases in pathogen loads, and the severity of the infection...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Jonathan Birch
This paper attempts to reconcile critics and defenders of inclusive fitness by constructing a synthesis that does justice to the insights of both. I argue that criticisms of the regression-based version of Hamilton's rule, although they undermine its use for predictive purposes, do not undermine its use as an organizing framework for social evolution research. I argue that the assumptions underlying the concept of inclusive fitness, conceived as a causal property of an individual organism, are unlikely to be exactly true in real populations, but they are approximately true given a specific type of weak selection that Hamilton took, on independent grounds, to be responsible for the cumulative assembly of complex adaptation...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Aoi Murase, Kazuo Fujita, Shuichi Yano
Predator-experienced individuals often change their predation avoidance response when they re-encounter the same predators or their cues. Recent reports show that behavioural change sometimes occurs even before the re-encounter. To function as an adaptive strategy in the wild, such prospective experience-induced behaviour should change flexibly in response to changing situations. We assessed flexibility of experience-induced oviposition site shift in two closely related species of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and T...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Mao-Xiang Jing, Jing-Quan Li, Chong Han, Shan-Shan Yao, Ji Zhang, Hong-Ai Zhai, Li-Li Chen, Xiang-Qian Shen, Ke-Song Xiao
Improving the specific capacity and electronic conductivity of TiO2 can boost its practical application as a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries. In this work, a three-dimensional networking oxygen-deficient nano TiO2-x/carbon fibre membrane was achieved by combining the electrospinning process with a hot-press sintering method and directly used as a self-standing anode. With the synergistic effects of three-dimensional conductive networks, surface oxygen deficiency, high specific surface area and high porosity, binder-free and self-standing structure, etc...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Bonnie J Holmes, Samuel M Williams, Nicholas M Otway, Einar E Nielsen, Safia L Maher, Mike B Bennett, Jennifer R Ovenden
Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring (FST > 0.14, p < 0.001) between all Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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