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Royal Society Open Science

Gajula Gopinath, Kuchi Srikeerthana, Archana Tomar, Srikakolapu M Ch Sekhar, Kallare P Arunkumar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.170261.].
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Roger S Seymour, Vanya Bosiocic, Edward P Snelling
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160305.].
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Sayak Mukherjee, David Stewart, William Stewart, Lewis L Lanier, Jayajit Das
Single-cell responses are shaped by the geometry of signalling kinetic trajectories carved in a multidimensional space spanned by signalling protein abundances. It is, however, challenging to assay a large number (more than 3) of signalling species in live-cell imaging, which makes it difficult to probe single-cell signalling kinetic trajectories in large dimensions. Flow and mass cytometry techniques can measure a large number (4 to more than 40) of signalling species but are unable to track single cells...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Marlène Mengoni, Oluwasegun Kayode, Sebastien N F Sikora, Fernando Y Zapata-Cornelio, Diane E Gregory, Ruth K Wilcox
The development of current surgical treatments for intervertebral disc damage could benefit from virtual environment accounting for population variations. For such models to be reliable, a relevant description of the mechanical properties of the different tissues and their role in the functional mechanics of the disc is of major importance. The aims of this work were first to assess the physiological hoop strain in the annulus fibrosus in fresh conditions (n = 5) in order to extract a functional behaviour of the extrafibrillar matrix; then to reverse-engineer the annulus fibrosus fibrillar behaviour (n = 6)...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
E S Klein, M R Barbier, J R Watson
Understanding how and when cooperative human behaviour forms in common-pool resource systems is critical to illuminating social-ecological systems and designing governance institutions that promote sustainable resource use. Before assessing the full complexity of social dynamics, it is essential to understand, concretely and mechanistically, how resource dynamics and human actions interact to create incentives and pay-offs for social behaviours. Here, we investigated how such incentives for information sharing are affected by spatial dynamics and management in a common-pool resource system...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Mazarin Akami, Hamada Chakira, Awawing A Andongma, Kanjana Khaeso, Olajire A Gbaye, Njintang Y Nicolas, E-N Nukenine, Chang-Ying Niu
The intensive use of synthetic pesticides in cowpea storage has led to the development of resistance by Callosobruchus maculatus and subsequent degradation of grain quality. In an attempt to circumvent these constraints, the susceptibility of C. maculatus to 2,2-dichlorovinyldimethyl phosphate (DDVP) and Lippia adoensis essential oil (EO) was investigated and variations in the proportions of nutritional values of treated grains 150 days after storage were assessed. The survival rate was recorded after five generations...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Alessandro Palci, Mark N Hutchinson, Michael W Caldwell, Michael S Y Lee
The inner ear morphology of 80 snake and lizard species, representative of a range of ecologies, is here analysed and compared to that of the fossil stem snake Dinilysia patagonica, using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Inner ear morphology is linked to phylogeny (we find here a strong phylogenetic signal in the data that can complicate ecological correlations), but also correlated with ecology, with Dinilysia resembling certain semi-fossorial forms (Xenopeltis and Cylindrophis), consistent with previous reports...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Martin B Short, Scott G McCalla, Maria R D'Orsogna
We model radicalization in a society consisting of two competing religious, ethnic or political groups. Each of the 'sects' is divided into moderate and radical factions, with intra-group transitions occurring either spontaneously or through indoctrination. We also include the possibility of one group violently attacking the other. The intra-group transition rates of one group are modelled to explicitly depend on the actions and characteristics of the other, including violent episodes, effectively coupling the dynamics of the two sects...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Jing Li, Qingxiang Zhou, Yongyong Yuan, Yalin Wu
Iron-based magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (Fe@SiO2@MIP) were synthesized for highly selective removal and recognition of di-n-pentyl phthalate (DnPP) from water. Well-defined core-shell Fe@SiO2 nanoparticles (less than 70 nm) were decorated on MIPs reticular layers to endow DnPP-MIPs with magnetic property for the first time. Five other phthalic acid esters including dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-octyl phthalate were used to investigate the adsorptive selectivity to DnPP...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Qingen Meng, John Fisher, Ruth Wilcox
The geometry of the articular components of the knee is an important factor in predicting joint mechanics in computational models. There are a number of uncertainties in the definition of the geometry of cartilage and meniscus, and evaluating the effects of these uncertainties is fundamental to understanding the level of reliability of the models. In this study, the sensitivity of knee mechanics to geometric uncertainties was investigated by comparing polynomial-based and image-based knee models and varying the size of meniscus...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Sam Darvishi, Michael C Ridding, Brenton Hordacre, Derek Abbott, Mathias Baumert
Restorative brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been proposed to enhance stroke rehabilitation. Restorative BCIs are able to close the sensorimotor loop by rewarding motor imagery (MI) with sensory feedback. Despite the promising results from early studies, reaching clinically significant outcomes in a timely fashion is yet to be achieved. This lack of efficacy may be due to suboptimal feedback provision. To the best of our knowledge, the optimal feedback update interval (FUI) during MI remains unexplored...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Kasha Strickland, Alexis Levengood, Vivienne Foroughirad, Janet Mann, Ewa Krzyszczyk, Celine H Frère
Animal sociality is of significant interest to evolutionary and behavioural ecologists, with efforts focused on the patterns, causes and fitness outcomes of social preference. However, individual social patterns are the consequence of both attraction to (preference for) and avoidance of conspecifics. Despite this, social avoidance has received far less attention than social preference. Here, we detail the necessary steps to generate a spatially explicit, iterative null model which can be used to identify non-random social avoidance in longitudinal studies of social animals...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Hideyuki Doi, Fumikazu Akamatsu, Angélica L González
Nitrogen and carbon stable isotopic compositions (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) of consumers have been used for physiological and food web studies. Previous studies have shown δ(15)N and δ(13)C values are affected by several biological and environmental factors during starvation, but the generality of the effect of starvation on δ(15)N and δ(13)C values has not yet been tested. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of starvation on δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of consumers, and the underlying factors that may explain the observed variation...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Erin A Falcone, Gregory S Schorr, Stephanie L Watwood, Stacy L DeRuiter, Alexandre N Zerbini, Russel D Andrews, Ronald P Morrissey, David J Moretti
Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) have stranded in association with mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) use, and though the causative mechanism linking these events remains unclear, it is believed to be behaviourally mediated. To determine whether MFAS use was associated with behavioural changes in this species, satellite tags were used to record the diving and movements of 16 Cuvier's beaked whales for up to 88 days in a region of frequent MFAS training off the coast of Southern California. Tag data were combined with summarized records of concurrent bouts of high-power, surface-ship and mid-power, helicopter-deployed MFAS use, along with other potential covariates, in generalized additive mixed-effects models...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Vanraj, S S Dhami, B S Pabla
Gearbox plays most essential role in the modern machinery for transmitting the required torque along with motion and contributes to wide range of applications. Any failure in gearbox components affects the productivity and efficiency of the system. Most machine breakdowns related to gears are a result of improper operating conditions and loading, hence lead to failure of the whole mechanism. Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) comprises advancement and valuable addition in Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and has been widely used in fault detection of rotating machines...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Cody A Freas, Ajay Narendra, Corentin Lemesle, Ken Cheng
Solitary foraging ants have a navigational toolkit, which includes the use of both terrestrial and celestial visual cues, allowing individuals to successfully pilot between food sources and their nest. One such celestial cue is the polarization pattern in the overhead sky. Here, we explore the use of polarized light during outbound and inbound journeys and with different home vectors in the nocturnal bull ant, Myrmecia midas. We tested foragers on both portions of the foraging trip by rotating the overhead polarization pattern by ±45°...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
C Cornec, Y Hingrat, T Aubin, F Rybak
The pressures of selection acting on transmission of information by acoustic signals are particularly high in long-distance communication networks. Males of the North African houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata undulata) produce extremely low-frequency vocalizations called 'booms' as a component of their courtship displays. These displays are performed on sites separated by a distance of on average 550 m, constituting exploded leks. Here, we investigate the acoustic features of booms involved in species-specific identity...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Isolda Roger, Claire Wilson, Hans M Senn, Stephen Sproules, Mark D Symes
The copper-containing nitrite reductases (CuNIRs) are a class of enzymes that mediate the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide in biological systems. Metal-ligand complexes that reproduce the salient features of the active site of CuNIRs are therefore of fundamental interest, both for elucidating the possible mode of action of the enzymes and for developing biomimetic catalysts for nitrite reduction. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new tris(2-pyridyl) copper complex ([Cu1(NO2)2]) that binds two molecules of nitrite, and displays all three of the common binding modes for [Formula: see text], with one nitrite bound in an asymmetric quasi-bidentate κ(2)-ONO manner and the other bound in a monodentate fashion with a linkage isomerism between the κ(1)-ONO and κ(1)-NO2 binding modes...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Leah Springate, Timothy R Frasier
Fertilization represents a critical stage in biology, where successful alleles of a previous generation are shuffled into new arrangements and subjected to the forces of selection in the next generation. Although much research has been conducted on how variation in morphological and behavioural traits lead to variation in fertilization patterns, surprisingly little is known about fertilization at a molecular level, and specifically about how genes expressed on the sperm and egg themselves influence fertilization patterns...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Sha Peng, Ming Zhou, Feiyan Liu, Chang Zhang, Xueqing Liu, Jiyan Liu, Liyong Zou, Jia Chen
Flame-retardant polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes with high transparency and flexibility were prepared by mixing an aqueous solution of a phosphorus-containing acrylic acid (AOPA) with PVA. The reaction between AOPA and PVA, the transparency, the crystallinity and the flexibility of the membrane were investigated with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), UV-vis light transmittance, X-ray diffraction and tensile tests, respectively. The limited oxygen index (LOI) and vertical flame (UL 94 VTM), microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and TGA-FTIR were employed to evaluate the flame retardancy as well as to reveal the corresponding mechanisms...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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