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Royal Society Open Science

Joy Christian
The exceptional Lie group E 8 plays a prominent role in both mathematics and theoretical physics. It is the largest symmetry group associated with the most general possible normed division algebra, namely, that of the non-associative real octonions, which-thanks to their non-associativity-form the only possible closed set of spinors (or rotors) that can parallelize the 7-sphere. By contrast, here we show how a similar 7-sphere also arises naturally from the algebraic interplay of the graded Euclidean primitives, such as points, lines, planes and volumes, which characterize the three-dimensional conformal geometry of the ambient physical space, set within its eight-dimensional Clifford-algebraic representation...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Christopher Wolf, William J Ripple
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.172235.].
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
David Demory, Charlotte Combe, Philipp Hartmann, Amélie Talec, Eric Pruvost, Raouf Hamouda, Fabien Souillé, Pierre-Olivier Lamare, Marie-Odile Bristeau, Jacques Sainte-Marie, Sophie Rabouille, Francis Mairet, Antoine Sciandra, Olivier Bernard
Hydrodynamics in a high-rate production reactor for microalgae cultivation affects the light history perceived by cells. The interplay between cell movement and medium turbidity leads to a complex light pattern, whose forcing effects on photosynthesis and photoacclimation dynamics are non-trivial. Hydrodynamics of high density algal ponds mixed by a paddle wheel has been studied recently, although the focus has never been on describing its impact on photosynthetic growth efficiency. In this multidisciplinary downscaling study, we first reconstructed single cell trajectories in an open raceway using an original hydrodynamical model offering a powerful discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations tailored to systems with free surfaces...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Mariela C Castro, Francisco J Goin, Edgardo Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E Carolina Vieytes, Kaori Tsukui, Jahandar Ramezani, Alessandro Batezelli, Júlio C A Marsola, Max C Langer
In the last three decades, records of tribosphenidan mammals from India, continental Africa, Madagascar and South America have challenged the notion of a strictly Laurasian distribution of the group during the Cretaceous. Here, we describe a lower premolar from the Late Cretaceous Adamantina Formation, São Paulo State, Brazil. It differs from all known fossil mammals, except for a putative eutherian from the same geologic unity and Deccanolestes hislopi , from the Maastrichtian of India. The incompleteness of the material precludes narrowing down its taxonomic attribution further than Tribosphenida, but it is larger than most coeval mammals and shows a thin layer of parallel crystallite enamel...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Erneson A Oliveira, Vasco Furtado, José S Andrade, Hernán A Makse
The shape of urban settlements plays a fundamental role in their sustainable planning. Properly defining the boundaries of cities is challenging and remains an open problem in the science of cities. Here, we propose a worldwide model to define urban settlements beyond their administrative boundaries through a bottom-up approach that takes into account geographical biases intrinsically associated with most societies around the world, and reflected in their different regional growing dynamics. The generality of the model allows one to study the scaling laws of cities at all geographical levels: countries, continents and the entire world...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Simeon Floyd, Giovanni Rossi, Julija Baranova, Joe Blythe, Mark Dingemanse, Kobin H Kendrick, Jörg Zinken, N J Enfield
Gratitude is argued to have evolved to motivate and maintain social reciprocity among people, and to be linked to a wide range of positive effects-social, psychological and even physical. But is socially reciprocal behaviour dependent on the expression of gratitude, for example by saying 'thank you' as in English? Current research has not included cross-cultural elements, and has tended to conflate gratitude as an emotion with gratitude as a linguistic practice, as might appear to be the case in English. Here, we ask to what extent people express gratitude in different societies by focusing on episodes of everyday life where someone seeks and obtains a good, service or support from another, comparing these episodes across eight languages from five continents...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Megan S Thoemmes, Fiona A Stewart, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Matthew A Bertone, David A Baltzegar, Russell J Borski, Naomi Cohen, Kaitlin P Coyle, Alexander K Piel, Robert R Dunn
The indoor environment created by the construction of homes and other buildings is often considered to be uniquely different from other environments. It is composed of organisms that are less diverse than those of the outdoors and strongly sourced by, or dependent upon, human bodies. Yet, no one has ever compared the composition of species found in contemporary human homes to that of other structures built by mammals, including those of non-human primates. Here we consider the microbes and arthropods found in chimpanzee beds, relative to the surrounding environment ( n  = 41 and 15 beds, respectively)...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Hanxun Wang, Bin Zhang, Xueliang Bai, Lei Shi
In general, exploitation of rock materials, such as limestone or granite exploitation, can cause serious damage to the environment near a mine area. With economic development and the ever-increasing demand for ore resources, mining activities have induced very serious environmental issues in China. Therefore, environmental restoration work around mines in China is urgently required. This study explores the Chuankou open-pit limestone quarry in Tongchuan City, Shaanxi Province, Northwest China, as the engineering case...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Wenjiao Xu, Yuxiu Sun, Bin Ding, Jingbo Zhang
Zeolitic-imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), as novel porous materials, are attracting much attention in several fields due to their special advantages such as large specific surface area, versatile porosity and well-connected networks. Here, we develop a porous ZIF-derived catalytic thin film, which was coated on the conducting glass as a counter electrode (CE) to substitute costly platinum for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A ZIF layer is first prepared by coating ZIF-67 powders on the conducting glass, followed by the careful calcination treatments in sulfur vapour (sulfuration) or nitrogen gas (carbonization)...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Iván Cortés, Teodoro S Kaufman, Andrea B J Bracca
The use of CeCl3 ·7H2 O as an efficient and eco-friendly promoter for the convenient synthesis of methoximes derived from aromatic aldehydes and ketones, is reported. The transformations entail the use of equimolar amounts of MeONH2 ·HCl and NaOAc in EtOH at 50°C, and no special precautions are needed with regard to the presence of oxygen. The scope and limitations of the transformation were studied and a reaction mechanism was proposed.
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Bo Sun, Ai-Hong Zheng, Fen Zhang, Ke-Su Wei, Qing Chen, Ya Luo, Yong Zhang, Xiao-Rong Wang, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jun Yang, Hao-Ru Tang
The metabolic profiles of tobacco leaves of two differential Chinese cultivars from different growing regions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of principal component analysis, partial least-squares discriminant analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis showed significant differences in metabolome among three groups, identified 24 differential metabolites, and analysed the metabolic pathway in which the metabolites were involved. Among them, 13 metabolites were associated with geographical regions, including seven organic and fatty acids, four carbohydrates and two secondary metabolites...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yuanming Zhang, Tingting Sun, Wei Jiang, Guangting Han
In this paper, the crystalline modification of a rare earth nucleating agent (WBG) for isotactic polypropylene (PP) based on its supramolecular self-assembly was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy. In addition, the relationship between the self-assembly structure of the nucleating agent and the crystalline structure, as well as the possible reason for the self-assembly behaviour, was further studied. The structure evolution of WBG showed that the self-assembly structure changed from a needle-like structure to a dendritic structure with increase in the content of WBG...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Adam G Taylor, Jae H Chung
New solutions of potential functions for the bilinear vertical traction boundary condition are derived and presented. The discretization and interpolation of higher-order tractions and the superposition of the bilinear solutions provide a method of forming approximate and continuous solutions for the equilibrium state of a homogeneous and isotropic elastic half-space subjected to arbitrary normal surface tractions. Past experimental measurements of contact pressure distributions in granular media are reviewed in conjunction with the application of the proposed solution method to analysis of elastic settlement in shallow foundations...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Erivelton G Nepomuceno, Alípio M Barbosa, Marcos X Silva, Matjaž Perc
We present a theoretical approach to control bovine brucellosis. We have used individual-based modelling, which is a network-type alternative to compartmental models. Our model thus considers heterogeneous populations, and spatial aspects such as migration among herds and control actions described as pulse interventions are also easily implemented. We show that individual-based modelling reproduces the mean field behaviour of an equivalent compartmental model. Details of this process, as well as flowcharts, are provided to facilitate the reproduction of the presented results...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Chen Shen, Chen Chu, Lei Shi, Matjaž Perc, Zhen Wang
In this article, we propose an aspiration-based coevolution of link weight, and explore how this set-up affects the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. In particular, an individual will increase the weight of its link to its neighbours only if the payoff received via this interaction exceeds a pre-defined aspiration. Conversely, if the received payoff is below this aspiration, the link weight with the corresponding neighbour will decrease. Our results show that an appropriate aspiration level leads to a high-cooperation plateau, whereas too high or too low aspiration will impede the evolution of cooperation...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yirong Qi, Qinghua Liang, Ruitao Lv, Wanci Shen, Feiyu Kang, Zheng-Hong Huang
The key to solving environmental and energy issues through photocatalytic technology requires highly efficient, stable and eco-friendly photocatalysts. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) is one of the most promising candidates except for its limited photoactivity. In this work, a facile and scalable one-step method is developed to fabricate an efficient heterostructural g-C3 N4 photocatalyst in situ coupled with MoS2 . The strong coupling effect between the MoS2 nanosheets and g-C3 N4 scaffold, numerous mesopores and enlarged specific surface area helped form an effective heterojunction...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Xiaojun Luo, Qiang Liu, Hongxia Zhu, Huoji Chen
A copper-catalysed sulfenylation of indoles with sodium sulfinates that affords 3-sulfenylindoles in good-to-excellent yields in N , N -dimethyl formamide (DMF) is described. In the process, DMF serves not only as a solvent but also as a reductant. This transformation is easy to carry out and has mild reaction conditions and good functional group tolerance.
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Claudius Gros
We point out that the Nobel prize production of the USA, the UK, Germany and France has been in numbers that are large enough to allow for a reliable analysis of the long-term historical developments. Nobel prizes are often split, such that up to three awardees receive a corresponding fractional prize. The historical trends for the fractional number of Nobelists per population are surprisingly robust, indicating in particular that the maximum Nobel productivity peaked in the 1970s for the USA and around 1900 for both France and Germany...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Xin Min, Xiaodong Fan, Jie Liu
A novel alkyl lithium-based initiator with relatively large steric hindrance, tert -butyldimethylsiloxydimethylpropyl lithium (TBDMSODPrLi), was designed and synthesized. By using TBDMSODPrLi, hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) was prepared via anionic polymerization. The macromolecular structure of HTPB was characterized and verified by FTIR and 1 H-NMR. It was found that 1,4 unit content in HTPB initiated by TBDMSODPrLi was significantly higher (over 90%) compared to a HTPB (1,4 unit content of 70%) initiated with another initiator possessing smaller steric hindrance...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Qionglian Yang, Juanjian Ru, Peng Song, Mingyu Hu, Jing Feng
Ni-decorated h-BN powders are fabricated with ChCl-EG as additive via electroless plating in the paper. As comparison, the different additive concentration of choline chloride-ethylene glycol (ChCl-EG) ionic liquid (0 g l-1 , 30 g l-1 , 60 g l-1 , 90 g l-1 ) is presented. The effects of ChCl-EG concentration are studied, including the surface morphologies, phase analysis of Ni-decorated h-BN powders and the residual Ni2+ concentration is measured in electroless plating bath. It is demonstrated that the deposition phenomena of nickel particles on h-BN surface is changed with the addition of ChCl-EG...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
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