Read by QxMD icon Read

Royal Society Open Science

Alexandra Probst, Demetrios Gatziolis, Jean Lienard, Nikolay Strigul
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.172192.].
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Dovid Y Kozlovsky, Carrie L Branch, Angela M Pitera, Vladimir V Pravosudov
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.171604.].
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Linchao Zhou, Leonardo da Costa Sousa, Bruce E Dale, Jia-Xun Feng, Venkatesh Balan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.171529.].
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Jeremy K M Sanders, Anthony Stace
We introduce 14 articles published as part of the 'New talent' special collection of invited articles to showcase some of the exciting work being funded by the Royal Society. As Royal Society University Research Fellows or Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship holders, the contributors to this collection are rising stars in their areas of research. This collection also illustrates the close collaboration between Royal Society Open Science and the Royal Society of Chemistry. The collection spans the range of the chemical and material sciences, reflecting the breadth of research areas receiving Royal Society grant support...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yanluo Xie, Kemeng Xiao, Yang Sun, Yufeng Gao, Han Yang, Heng Xu
An improved method was applied for remediating cadmium and copper co-contaminated soil and reducing the metal concentration in Rhizoma chuanxiong . Pot experiments were conducted with six amendments (composed with bentonite, phosphate, humic acid, biochar, sepiolite powder, etc.). The results showed that soil pH, biological activities (soil enzymatic activities and microbial counts) and R. chuanxiong biomass were greatly improved with the addition of amendments in all treatments, especially in T3 and T6. Also, amendments effectively decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde and H2 O2 in R...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Lindell Bromham, Xia Hua, Marcel Cardillo, Hilde Schneemann, Simon J Greenhill
A growing number of studies seek to identify predictors of broad-scale patterns in human cultural diversity, but three sources of non-independence in human cultural variables can bias the results of cross-cultural studies. First, related cultures tend to have many traits in common, regardless of whether those traits are functionally linked. Second, societies in geographical proximity will share many aspects of culture, environment and demography. Third, many cultural traits covary, leading to spurious relationships between traits...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
David Bierbach, Tim Landgraf, Pawel Romanczuk, Juliane Lukas, Hai Nguyen, Max Wolf, Jens Krause
Responding towards the actions of others is one of the most important behavioural traits whenever animals of the same species interact. Mutual influences among interacting individuals may modulate the social responsiveness seen and thus make it often difficult to study the level and individual variation in responsiveness. Here, open-loop biomimetic robots that provide standardized, non-interactive social cues can be a useful tool. These robots are not affected by the live animal's actions but are assumed to still represent valuable and biologically relevant social cues...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Brendan J Barrett, Claudio M Monteza-Moreno, Tamara Dogandžić, Nicolas Zwyns, Alicia Ibáñez, Margaret C Crofoot
Habitual reliance on tool use is a marked behavioural difference between wild robust (genus Sapajus ) and gracile (genus Cebus ) capuchin monkeys. Despite being well studied and having a rich repertoire of social and extractive foraging traditions, Cebus sp. rarely use tools and have never been observed using stone tools. By contrast, habitual tool use by Sapajus is widespread. We review theory and discuss factors which might explain these differences in patterns of tool use between Cebus and Sapajus . We then report the first case of habitual stone tool use in a gracile capuchin: a population of white-faced capuchins ( Cebus capucinus imitator ) in Coiba National Park, Panama who habitually rely on hammerstone and anvil tool use to access structurally protected food items in coastal areas including Terminalia catappa seeds, hermit crabs, marine snails, terrestrial crabs and other items...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Madlen Stange, Daniel Núñez-León, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Per Jensen, Laura A B Wilson
The process of domestication has long fascinated evolutionary biologists, yielding insights into the rapidity with which selection can alter behaviour and morphology. Previous studies on dogs, cattle and pigeons have demonstrated that domesticated forms show greater magnitudes of morphological variation than their wild ancestors. Here, we quantify variation in skull morphology, modularity and integration in chickens and compare those to the wild fowl using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
V Rodríguez-Lugo, T V K Karthik, D Mendoza-Anaya, E Rubio-Rosas, L S Villaseñor Cerón, M I Reyes-Valderrama, E Salinas-Rodríguez
Wet chemical synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanostructures was carried out with different solution pH values (9, 10 and 11) and sintering temperatures (300°C, 500°C, 700°C and 900°C). The effects of pH and sintering temperature on the structural and morphological properties of nanocrystalline HAp powders were presented. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were performed to obtain the crystalline structure, chemical composition, morphology and particle size of the HAp powders...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
J M Anne, Y H Boon, B Saad, M Miskam, M M Yusoff, M S Shahriman, N N M Zain, V Lim, M Raoov
In this work, we reported the synthesis, characterization and adsorption study of two β-cyclodextrin (βCD) cross-linked polymers using aromatic linker 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and aliphatic linker 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (1,6-HDI) to form insoluble βCD-TDI and βCD-HDI. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on both polymers as an adsorbent was studied in batch adsorption experiments. Both polymers were well characterized using various tools that include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and scanning electron microscopy, and the results obtained were compared with the native βCD...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Cameron A Smith, Christian A Yates
Reaction-diffusion systems are used to represent many biological and physical phenomena. They model the random motion of particles (diffusion) and interactions between them (reactions). Such systems can be modelled at multiple scales with varying degrees of accuracy and computational efficiency. When representing genuinely multiscale phenomena, fine-scale models can be prohibitively expensive, whereas coarser models, although cheaper, often lack sufficient detail to accurately represent the phenomenon at hand...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Christine M Konrad, Shane Gero, Timothy Frasier, Hal Whitehead
Sperm whales have a multi-level social structure based upon long-term, cooperative social units. What role kinship plays in structuring this society is poorly understood. We combined extensive association data (518 days, during 2005-2016) and genetic data (18 microsatellites and 346 bp mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences) for 65 individuals from 12 social units from the Eastern Caribbean to examine patterns of kinship and social behaviour. Social units were clearly matrilineally based, evidenced by greater relatedness within social units (mean r = 0...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Matthew D Herron, William C Ratcliff, Jacob Boswell, Frank Rosenzweig
The evolution of multicellularity was a major transition in evolution and set the stage for unprecedented increases in complexity, especially in land plants and animals. Here, we explore the genetics underlying a de novo origin of multicellularity in a microbial evolution experiment carried out on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . We show that large-scale changes in gene expression underlie the transition to a multicellular life cycle. Among these, changes to genes involved in cell cycle and reproductive processes were overrepresented, as were changes to C...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Yingtian Zhang, Shuxian Yu, Peipei Luo, Shisong Xu, Xianxi Zhang, Huawei Zhou, Jiyuan Du, Jie Yang, Nana Xin, Yuxia Kong, Junhai Liu, Baoli Chen, Jiaxing Lu
Resulting from the drastic increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration day by day, global warming has become a serious environmental issue nowadays. The fixation of CO2 to obtain desirable, economically competitive chemicals has recently received considerable attention. This work investigates the fixation of CO2 along with three bromopyridines via a facile electrochemical method using a silver cathode to synthesize picolinic acids, which are important industrial and fine chemicals. Cyclic voltammetry is employed to investigate the cyclic voltammetric behaviour of bromopyridines...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Ashley R Robart, Mali M K McGuire, Heather E Watts
The transition to a migratory state involves coordinated changes in physiology and behaviour. In species with regular, predictable (obligate) migrations, increasing day length triggers the expression of a spring migratory state and androgens play an important role in stimulating its development. By contrast, we know little about the environmental cues and endocrine mechanisms that regulate migration in species with less predictable (facultative) migrations. Here, we tested whether photoperiod stimulates a migratory state in a facultative nomadic migrant, the pine siskin ( Spinus pinus )...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Daniel Ferri, Pablo Gaviña, Margarita Parra, Ana M Costero, Jamal El Haskouri, Pedro Amorós, Virginia Merino, Adrián H Teruel, Félix Sancenón, Ramón Martínez-Máñez
Mesoporous silica microparticles were prepared, loaded with the dye safranin O ( M-Saf ) or with the drug budesonide ( M-Bud ) and capped by the grafting of a bulky azo derivative. Cargo release from M-Saf at different pH values (mimicking those found in the gastrointestinal tract) in the absence or presence of sodium dithionite (a reducing agent mimicking azoreductase enzyme present in the colon) was tested. Negligible safranin O release was observed at pH 6.8 and 4.5, whereas a moderate delivery at pH 1.2 was noted and attributed to the hydrolysis of the urea bond that linked the azo derivative onto the external surface of the inorganic scaffold...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Lanchao Ma, Shuixing Dai, Xiaowei Zhan, Xinyang Liu, Yu Li
Organic heterojunction is indispensable in organic electronic devices, such as organic solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes and so on. Fabrication of core-shell nanostructure provides a feasible and novel way to prepare organic heterojunction, which is beneficial for miniaturization and integration of organic electronic devices. Fabrication of nanotubes which constitute the core-shell structure in large quantity is the key for the realization of application. In this work, a simple and convenient method to prepare nanotubes using conjugated copolymer of perylene diimide and dithienothiophene (P(PDI-DTT)) was demonstrated...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Ka-Po Maggie Tang, Kam-Hong Chau, Chi-Wai Kan, Jin-Tu Fan
Increasing skin wetness tends to increase fabric-skin adhesion and friction, resulting in wear discomfort or skin injuries. Here, the magnitude estimation approach was used to assess the stickiness sensation perceived in fabrics. Seven fabric types were wetted by putting onto wet 'skin' surface and dried for different durations to achieve different wetness levels, simulating wearing conditions during the recovery period after sweating. Results showed that the relationship between magnitude estimates of stickiness and amount of water present in fabric demonstrated a power function...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Kornelius Kupczik, Viviana Toro-Ibacache, Gabriele A Macho
Plio-Pleistocene hominins from South Africa remain poorly understood. Here, we focus on how Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus exploited and-in part-partitioned their environment. Specifically, we explore the extent to which first maxillary molar roots (M1 ) are oriented and thus, by proxy, estimate the direction of loads habitually exerted on the chewing surface. Landmark-based shape analysis of M1 root reconstructions of 26 South African hominins and three East African Paranthropus boisei suggest that A...
August 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"