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Royal Society Open Science

Jens Rydell, Johan Eklöf, Sonia Sánchez-Navarro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Domenico Delle Side, Vincenzo Nassisi, Cecilia Pennetta, Pietro Alifano, Marco Di Salvo, Adelfia Talà, Aleksei Chechkin, Flavio Seno, Antonio Trovato
We present an effective dynamical model for the onset of bacterial bioluminescence, one of the most studied quorum sensing-mediated traits. Our model is built upon simple equations that describe the growth of the bacterial colony, the production and accumulation of autoinducer signal molecules, their sensing within bacterial cells, and the ensuing quorum activation mechanism that triggers bioluminescent emission. The model is directly tested to quantitatively reproduce the experimental distributions of photon emission times, previously measured for bacterial colonies of Vibrio jasicida, a luminescent bacterium belonging to the Harveyi clade, growing in a highly drying environment...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Junichi Miyazaki, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Akiko Makabe, Ayu Takahashi, Kazuya Kitada, Junji Torimoto, Yohei Matsui, Eiji Tasumi, Takazo Shibuya, Kentaro Nakamura, Shunsuke Horai, Shun Sato, Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi, Hayato Kanzaki, Satoshi Nakagawa, Miho Hirai, Yoshihiro Takaki, Kyoko Okino, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Hidenori Kumagai, Chong Chen
Since the initial discovery of hydrothermal vents in 1977, these 'extreme' chemosynthetic systems have been a focus of interdisciplinary research. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the semi-enclosed East China Sea between the Eurasian continent and the Ryukyu arc, hosts more than 20 known vent sites but all within a relatively narrow depth range (600-1880 m). Depth is a significant factor in determining fluid temperature and chemistry, as well as biological composition. However, due to the narrow depth range of known sites, the actual influence of depth here has been poorly resolved...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Marie-Jeanne Perrot-Minnot, Loan Banchetry, Frank Cézilly
Anxiety is an emotional state generally expressed as sustained apprehension of the environment and elevated vigilance. It has been widely reported in vertebrates and, more recently, in a few invertebrate species. However, its fitness value remains elusive. We investigated anxiety-like behaviour and its consequences in an amphipod crustacean, using electric shock as aversive stimuli, and pharmacological assays. An anxiety-like state induced by electric shocks in Gammarus fossarum was expressed through increased sheltering behaviour in the absence of predation risk, thereby showing the pervasive nature of such behavioural response...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Azhar Iqbal, Virginie Masson, Derek Abbott
Selten's game is a kidnapping model where the probability of capturing the kidnapper is independent of whether the hostage has been released or executed. Most often, in view of the elevated sensitivities involved, authorities put greater effort and resources into capturing the kidnapper if the hostage has been executed, in contrast with the case when a ransom is paid to secure the hostage's release. In this paper, we study the asymmetric game when the probability of capturing the kidnapper depends on whether the hostage has been executed or not and find a new uniquely determined perfect equilibrium point in Selten's game...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Xiankun Huang, Han Yuan, Jian Zhao, Ning Mei
Low-speed marine diesel flue gas denitrification is in great demand in the ship transport industry. This research proposes an ammonia supply system which can be used for flue gas denitrification of low-speed marine diesel. In this proposed ammonia supply system, ammonium bicarbonate is selected as the ammonia carrier to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide by thermal decomposition. The diesel engine exhaust heat is used as the heating source for ammonium bicarbonate decomposition and ammonia gas desorption. As the ammonium bicarbonate decomposition is critical to the proper operation of this system, effects have been observed to reveal the performance of the thermal decomposition chamber in this paper...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Yu Gao, He Yu, Cheng Shi, Guiyan Zhao, Yanfeng Bi, Baotong Xu, Fu Ding, Yaguang Sun, Zhenhe Xu
Uniform monodisperse LuPO4:Eu3+/Tb3+ hollow microspheres with diameters of about 2.4 µm have been successfully synthesized by the combination of a facile homogeneous precipitation approach, an ion-exchange process and a calcination process. The possible formation mechanism for the hollow microspheres was presented. Furthermore, the luminescence properties revealed that the LuPO4:Eu3+ and LuPO4:Tb3+ phosphors show strong orange-red and green emissions under ultraviolet excitation, respectively, which endows this material with potential application in many fields, such as light display systems and optoelectronic devices...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Laurie Mitchell, Karen L Cheney, Fabio Cortesi, N Justin Marshall, Misha Vorobyev
Humans group components of visual patterns according to their colour, and perceive colours separately from shape. This property of human visual perception is the basis behind the Ishihara test for colour deficiency, where an observer is asked to detect a pattern made up of dots of similar colour with variable lightness against a background of dots made from different colour(s) and lightness. To find out if fish use colour for object segregation in a similar manner to humans, we used stimuli inspired by the Ishihara test...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Sean A Williamson, Roger G Evans, S Charlie Manolis, Grahame J Webb, Richard D Reina
Hypoxia within the oviducts maintains embryonic arrest in turtles at the pre-ovipositional stage, which expands the timeframe over which nesting can occur without compromising embryo survival. The arrest can be extended post-oviposition through incubation of eggs in hypoxia. We determined whether crocodilian embryos have this same capacity. We also tested whether increased oxygen availability during incubation alters hatching success. We incubated freshly laid saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) eggs (N = 83) at 32°C in one of five treatments; control (normoxia; 21% O2), 3-day and 6-day hypoxia (1% O2), or 3-day and 6-day hyperoxia (42% O2)...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Tian Hang, Hui-Jiuan Chen, Shuai Xiao, Chengduan Yang, Meiwan Chen, Jun Tao, Han-Ping Shieh, Bo-Ru Yang, Chuan Liu, Xi Xie
Extraordinary water-repelling properties of superhydrophobic surfaces make them novel candidates for a great variety of potential applications. A general approach to achieve superhydrophobicity requires low-energy coating on the surface and roughness on nano- and micrometre scale. However, typical construction of superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-nano structure through top-down fabrication is restricted by sophisticated fabrication techniques and limited choices of substrate materials. Micro-nanoscale topographies templated by conventional microparticles through surface coating may produce large variations in roughness and uncontrollable defects, resulting in poorly controlled surface morphology and wettability...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Sihuan Zhang, Han Xu, Xinfeng Liu, Qing Yang, Chuanying Pan, Chuzhao Lei, Ruihua Dang, Hong Chen, Xianyong Lan
In practical production, almost all rams and about 50% of ewes are used to fatten. Researchers have proved that ewe ovariectomy could improve the productivity significantly, but the specific molecular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, five independent cDNA libraries (three and two from ovariectomized and normal ewe longissimus dorsi samples, respectively) were constructed to thoroughly explore the global transcriptome, further to reveal how the ovariectomized ewes influence muscle development by Illumina2000 sequencing technology...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Zhijun Jin, Haiyan Xiao, Wei Zhou, Dongqiao Zhang, Xiaohong Peng
Different generations of poly(propylene imine) (G n -PPI) terminated with N-containing 15-membered triolefinic macrocycle (G n M) (n = 2, 3, 4, 5) were prepared. The bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts G n M-(Pt x /Pd10-x ) (x = 0, 3, 5, 7, 10) were prepared by the synchronous ligand-exchange reaction between G n M and the complexes of Pt(PPh3)4 and Pd(PPh3)4. The structure and catalytic properties of G n M-(Pt x /Pd10-x ) were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Xinting Wei, Yueqiang Li, Wenli Xu, Kaixuan Zhang, Jie Yin, Shaozhen Shi, Jiazhen Wei, Fangfang Di, Junxue Guo, Can Wang, Chaofan Chu, Ning Sui, Baoli Chen, Yingtian Zhang, Hongguo Hao, Xianxi Zhang, Jinsheng Zhao, Huawei Zhou, Shuhao Wang
Three-dimensional (3D) graphene composites have drawn increasing attention in energy storage/conversion applications due to their unique structures and properties. Herein, we synthesized 3D honeycomb-like Ni3S2@graphene oxide composite (3D honeycomb-like Ni3S2@GO) by a one-pot hydrothermal method. We found that positive charges of Ni2+ and negative charges of NO3- in Ni(NO3)2 induced a transformation of graphene oxide with smooth surface into graphene oxide with wrinkled surface (w-GO). The w-GO in the mixing solution of Ni(NO3)2/thioacetamide/H2O evolved into 3D honeycomb-like Ni3S2@GO in solvothermal process...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Yi-Heng Lu, Kang Li, Yu-Wei Lu
Methane was directly converted to butene liquid fuel by microwave-induced non-oxidative catalytic dehydrogenation under 0.1-0.2 MPa. The results show that, under microwave heating in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor, in which nickel powder and NiO x -MoOy/SiO2 are used as the catalyst, the methane-hydrogen mixture is used as the raw material, with no acetylene detected. The methane conversion is more than 73.2%, and the selectivity of methane to butene is 99.0%. Increasing the hydrogen/methane feed volume ratio increases methane conversion and selectivity...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Guo-Hua Feng, Kuan-Yi Lee
This paper presents a study of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films hydrothermally grown on a dome-shaped titanium diaphragm. Few articles in the literature address the implementation of hydrothermal PZT films on curved-diaphragm substrates for resonators. In this study, a 50-μm-thick titanium sheet is embossed using balls of designed dimensions to shape a dome-shaped cavity array. Through single-process hydrothermal synthesis, PZT films are grown on both sides of the processed titanium diaphragm with good adhesion and uniformity...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
M Teague O'Mara, Sebastian Rikker, Martin Wikelski, Andries Ter Maat, Henry S Pollock, Dina K N Dechmann
Reduction in metabolic rate and body temperature is a common strategy for small endotherms to save energy. The daily reduction in metabolic rate and heterothermy, or torpor, is particularly pronounced in regions with a large variation in daily ambient temperature. This applies most strongly in temperate bat species (order Chiroptera), but it is less clear how tropical bats save energy if ambient temperatures remain high. However, many subtropical and tropical species use some daily heterothermy on cool days...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Yanwei Cao, Xiaoxuan Xiang, Renjun Pei, Yang Li, Yuting Yan, Xinhua Guo
A junction DNA nanostructure has been successfully built in lithium acetate buffer solution at a near-neutral pH value through the connection of two slipped junction structures that are formed by G-rich and C-rich strands. The GC-rich duplex junctions in the nanostructure can be switched to G-quadruplexes and i-motifs in weakly acidic potassium acetate solution, which leads to the assembly of DNA nanostructures composed of alternating quadruplex and duplex DNA structures. The transformation between different DNA nanoarchitectures may be applied to the operation of 'DNA nanomachines'...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Alexander L Vereshchaka, Anastasia A Lunina, Jørgen Olesen
Species within Gennadas differ from each other largely only in male (petasma) and female (thelycum) copulatory characters, which were restudied in scanning electron microscopy and used as a basis for phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-six petasma characters and 49 thelycum characters were identified. All 16 recognized species of Gennadas and Aristaeomorpha foliacea (outgroup) were included as terminals. Four robust monophyletic clades were retrieved, described and diagnosed as new species groups. The thelycum characters had greater impact on tree topology and supported deeper nodes than did the petasma characters...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Alfredo González-Espinoza, Hernán Larralde, Gustavo Martínez-Mekler, Markus Müller
We present a statistical analysis of music scores from different composers using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find different fluctuation profiles that correspond to distinct autocorrelation structures of the musical pieces. Further, we reveal evidence for the presence of nonlinear autocorrelations by estimating the DFA of the magnitude series, a result validated by a corresponding study of appropriate surrogate data. The amount and the character of nonlinear correlations vary from one composer to another...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Chi Zhang, Dajun Wu, Liming Shi, Yiping Zhu, Dayuan Xiong, Shaohui Xu, Rong Huang, Ruijuan Qi, Wenchao Zhang, Lianwei Wang, Paul K Chu
Nano energetic materials have attracted great attention recently owing to their potential applications for both civilian and military purposes. By introducing silicon microchannel plates (Si-MCPs) three-dimensional (3D)-ordered structures, monocrystalline MnMoO4 with a size of tens of micrometres and polycrystalline MnMoO4 nanoflakes are produced on the surface and sidewall of nickel-coated Si-MCP, respectively. The MnMoO4 crystals ripen controllably forming polycrystalline nanoflakes with lattice fringes of 0...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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