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Royal Society Open Science

Karin H Olsson, Maria Norevik Andrén, Therése Larsson, Charlotta Kvarnemo
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160326.].
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Julianan Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Eswar Kumar Nadendla, Romain A Studer, Susana Alvarez, Angel R de Lera, Shigehiro Kuraku, William Bourguet, Michael Schubert, Vincent Laudet
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.150484.].
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Frédéric Angelier, Charline Parenteau, Colette Trouvé, Nicole Angelier
Although the transfer of wild animals to captivity is crucial for conservation purposes, this process is often challenging because some species or individuals do not adjust well to captive conditions. Chronic stress has been identified as a major concern for animals held on long-term captivity. Surprisingly, the first hours or days of captivity have been relatively overlooked. However, they are certainly very stressful, because individuals are being transferred to a totally novel and confined environment. To ensure the success of conservation programmes, it appears crucial to better understand the proximate causes of interspecific and interindividual variability in the sensitivity to these first hours of captivity...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Johannes Cairns, Sebastián Coloma, Kaarina Sivonen, Teppo Hiltunen
Interactions between nitrogen-fixing (i.e. diazotrophic) cyanobacteria and their viruses, cyanophages, can have large-scale ecosystem effects. These effects are mediated by temporal alterations in nutrient availability in aquatic systems owing to the release of nitrogen and carbon sources from cells lysed by phages, as well as by ecologically important changes in the diversity and fitness of cyanobacterial populations that evolve in the presence of phages. However, ecological and evolutionary feedbacks between phages and nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are still relative poorly understood...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
C M Kemper, I Tomo, J Bingham, S S Bastianello, J Wang, S E Gibbs, L Woolford, C Dickason, D Kelly
Cases of morbillivirus have been recorded in the Southern Hemisphere but have not been linked to significant marine mammal mortality. Post-mortems were conducted on 58 carcasses (44 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, two common bottlenose dolphins, 12 short-beaked common dolphins) from South Australia during 2005-2013, including an unusual mortality event (UME) in St Vincent Gulf Bioregion (SVG) during 2013. Diagnostic pathology, circumstance of death, body condition, age and stomach contents were documented for Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Takuya Umedachi, Takeshi Kano, Akio Ishiguro, Barry A Trimmer
All animals use mechanosensors to help them move in complex and changing environments. With few exceptions, these sensors are embedded in soft tissues that deform in normal use such that sensory feedback results from the interaction of an animal with its environment. Useful information about the environment is expected to be embedded in the mechanical responses of the tissues during movements. To explore how such sensory information can be used to control movements, we have developed a soft-bodied crawling robot inspired by a highly tractable animal model, the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Sara Encarnação, Fernando P Santos, Francisco C Santos, Vered Blass, Jorge M Pacheco, Juval Portugali
The recent rise of the civil sector as a main player of socio-political actions, next to public and private sectors, has largely increased the complexity underlying the interplay between different sectors of our society. From urban planning to global governance, analysis of these complex interactions requires new mathematical and computational approaches. Here, we develop a novel framework, grounded on evolutionary game theory, to envisage situations in which each of these sectors is confronted with the dilemma of deciding between maintaining a status quo scenario or shifting towards a new paradigm...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Hoang Vu Phan, Thi Kim Loan Au, Hoon Cheol Park
This study used numerical and experimental approaches to investigate the role played by the clap-and-fling mechanism in enhancing force generation in hovering insect-like two-winged flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FW-MAV). The flapping mechanism was designed to symmetrically flap wings at a high flapping amplitude of approximately 192°. The clap-and-fling mechanisms were thereby implemented at both dorsal and ventral stroke reversals. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was constructed based on three-dimensional wing kinematics to estimate the force generation, which was validated by the measured forces using a 6-axis load cell...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Çağlar Akçay, Ádám Z Lendvai, Mark Stanback, Mark Haussmann, Ignacio T Moore, Fran Bonier
Life-history theory predicts that optimal strategies of parental investment will depend on ecological and social factors, such as current brood value and offspring need. Parental care strategies are also likely to be mediated in part by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid hormones. Here, we present an experiment in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), a biparental songbird with wide geographical distribution, asking whether parental care is strategically adjusted in response to signals of offspring need and brood value and if so, whether glucocorticoids are involved in these adjustments...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
E V Dontsov
This paper develops a closed-form approximate solution for a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture whose behaviour is determined by an interplay of three competing physical processes that are associated with fluid viscosity, fracture toughness and fluid leak-off. The primary assumption that permits one to construct the solution is that the fracture behaviour is mainly determined by the three-process multiscale tip asymptotics and the global fluid volume balance. First, the developed approximation is compared with the existing solutions for all limiting regimes of propagation...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Sara L Hermann, Saisi Xue, Logan Rowe, Elizabeth Davidson-Lowe, Andrew Myers, Bahodir Eshchanov, Christie A Bahlai
The timing of events in the life history of temperate insects is most typically primarily cued by one of two drivers: photoperiod or temperature accumulation over the growing season. However, an insect's phenology can also be moderated by other drivers like rainfall or the phenology of its host plants. When multiple drivers of phenology interact, there is greater potential for phenological asynchronies to arise between an organism and those with which it interacts. We examined the phenological patterns of a highly seasonal group of fireflies (Photinus spp...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Cameron M Hudson, Gregory P Brown, Richard Shine
Invasive species often exhibit rapid evolutionary changes, and can provide powerful insights into the selective forces shaping phenotypic traits that influence dispersal rates and/or sexual interactions. Invasions also may modify sexual dimorphism. We measured relative lengths of forelimbs and hindlimbs of more than 3000 field-caught adult cane toads (Rhinella marina) from 67 sites in Hawai'i and Australia (1-80 years post-colonization), along with 489 captive-bred individuals from multiple Australian sites raised in a 'common garden' (to examine heritability and reduce environmental influences on morphology)...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Edward D Farrell, Jeanette E L Carlsson, Jens Carlsson
The recently developed approach for microsatellite genotyping by sequencing (GBS) using individual combinatorial barcoding was further improved and used to assess the genetic population structure of boarfish (Capros aper) across the species' range. Microsatellite loci were developed de novo and genotyped by next-generation sequencing. Genetic analyses of the samples indicated that boarfish can be subdivided into at least seven biological units (populations) across the species' range. Furthermore, the recent apparent increase in abundance in the northeast Atlantic is better explained by demographic changes within this area than by influx from southern or insular populations...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Dingjie Lu, Yi Min Xie, Qing Li, Xiaodong Huang, Yang Fan Li, Shiwei Zhou
The size effects that reveal the dramatic changes of mechanical behaviour at nanoscales have traditionally been analysed for regular beam systems. Here, the method of using finite-element analysis is explored with the intention of evaluating the size effects for complex nanostructures. The surface elasticity theory and generalized Young-Laplace equation are integrated into a beam element to account for the size effects in classical Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. Computational results match well with the theoretical predictions on the size effect for a cantilever beam and a cubic unit cell containing 24 horizontal/vertical ligaments...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
C J Logan, L E B Kruuk, R Stanley, A M Thompson, T H Clutton-Brock
Research on relative brain size in mammals suggests that increases in brain size may generate benefits to survival and costs to fecundity: comparative studies of mammals have shown that interspecific differences in relative brain size are positively correlated with longevity and negatively with fecundity. However, as yet, no studies of mammals have investigated whether similar relationships exist within species, nor whether individual differences in brain size within a wild population are heritable. Here we show that, in a wild population of red deer (Cervus elaphus), relative endocranial volume was heritable (h(2) = 63%; 95% credible intervals (CI) = 50-76%)...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Laurène Trudelle, Salvatore Cerchio, Alexandre N Zerbini, Ygor Geyer, François-Xavier Mayer, Jean-Luc Jung, Maxime R Hervé, Stephane Pous, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, Howard C Rosenbaum, Olivier Adam, Jean-Benoit Charrassin
Assessing the movement patterns and key habitat features of breeding humpback whales is a prerequisite for the conservation management of this philopatric species. To investigate the interactions between humpback whale movements and environmental conditions off Madagascar, we deployed 25 satellite tags in the northeast and southwest coast of Madagascar. For each recorded position, we collated estimates of environmental variables and computed two behavioural metrics: behavioural state of 'transiting' (consistent/directional) versus 'localized' (variable/non-directional), and active swimming speed (i...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Robert R Jackson, Chan Deng, Fiona R Cross
On the basis of 1115 records of Evarcha culicivora feeding in the field, we can characterize this East African jumping spider (Salticidae) as being distinctively stenophagic. We can also, on the basis of laboratory prey-choice experiments, characterize E. culicivora as having a specialized prey-classification system and a hierarchy of innate preferences for various categories of mosquitoes and other arthropods. Prey from the field belonged to 10 arthropod orders, but 94.5% of the prey records were dipterans...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Mohammad Soltani, Abhyudai Singh
Expression of many genes varies as a cell transitions through different cell-cycle stages. How coupling between stochastic expression and cell cycle impacts cell-to-cell variability (noise) in the level of protein is not well understood. We analyse a model where a stable protein is synthesized in random bursts, and the frequency with which bursts occur varies within the cell cycle. Formulae quantifying the extent of fluctuations in the protein copy number are derived and decomposed into components arising from the cell cycle and stochastic processes...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Fredrik Christiansen, Katherine A McHugh, Lars Bejder, Eilidh M Siegal, David Lusseau, Elizabeth Berens McCabe, Gretchen Lovewell, Randall S Wells
Food provisioning of wildlife is a major concern for management and conservation agencies worldwide because it encourages unnatural behaviours in wild animals and increases each individual's risk for injury and death. Here we investigate the contributing factors and potential fitness consequences of a recent increase in the frequency of human interactions with common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Sarasota Bay, Florida. A rising proportion of the local long-term resident dolphin community is becoming conditioned to human interactions through direct and indirect food provisioning...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Alan Chan, Jack A Tuszynski
Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer today in women. The main avenue of diagnosis is through manual examination of histopathology tissue slides. Such a process is often subjective and error-ridden, suffering from both inter- and intraobserver variability. Our objective is to develop an automatic algorithm for analysing histopathology slides free of human subjectivity. Here, we calculate the fractal dimension of images of numerous breast cancer slides, at magnifications of 40×, 100×, 200× and 400×...
December 2016: Royal Society Open Science
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