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Translational Lung Cancer Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225213/inherited-lung-cancer-syndromes-targeting-never-smokers
#1
REVIEW
Hiromasa Yamamoto, Yasushi Yatabe, Shinichi Toyooka
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most of lung cancers develop sporadically and thus inherited lung cancers are rare. Several reports show that germline mutations in the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) such as R776G, R776H, T790M, V843I and P848L, predispose to develop lung cancer. Most lung cancer cases with germline EGFR T790M mutations had secondary EGFR somatic mutations. Never smokers with germline EGFR T790M mutations develop lung cancer more frequently than ever smokers...
August 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225212/ground-glass-nodules-of-the-lung-in-never-smokers-and-smokers-clinical-and-genetic-insights
#2
REVIEW
Yoshihisa Kobayashi, Chiara Ambrogio, Tetsuya Mitsudomi
Pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGNs) are hazy radiological findings on computed tomography (CT). GGNs are detected more often in never-smokers. Retrospective and prospective studies have revealed that approximately 20% of pure GGNs and 40% of part-solid GGNs gradually grow or increase their solid components, whereas others remain stable for years. Most persistent or growing GGNs are lung adenocarcinomas or their preinvasive lesions. To distinguish GGNs with growth from those without growth, GGNs should be followed for at least 5 years...
August 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225211/autochthonous-murine-models-for-the-study-of-smoker-and-never-smoker-associated-lung-cancers
#3
REVIEW
Esra A Akbay, James Kim
Lung cancer accounts for the greatest number of cancer deaths in the world. Tobacco smoke-associated cancers constitute the majority of lung cancer cases but never-smoker cancers comprise a significant and increasing fraction of cases. Recent genomic and transcriptomic sequencing efforts of lung cancers have revealed distinct sets of genetic aberrations of smoker and never-smoker lung cancers that implicate disparate biology and therapeutic strategies. Autochthonous mouse models have contributed greatly to our understanding of lung cancer biology and identified novel therapeutic targets and strategies in the era of targeted therapy...
August 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225210/lung-cancer-in-never-smokers-the-east-asian-experience
#4
REVIEW
Fei Zhou, Caicun Zhou
Approximately one third of all lung cancer patients in East Asia are never-smokers. Furthermore, the proportion of lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has been increasing over time. Never-smokers are more often diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in East Asia, a subtype largely defined by oncogenic drivers. In this subgroup of patients, as high as 90% of patients have been found to harbor well-known oncogenic mutations and can be successfully managed with targeted therapies inhibiting specific oncogenic mutant kinases...
August 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225209/a-quantitative-method-for-assessing-smoke-associated-molecular-damage-in-lung-cancers
#5
Kai Song, Jia-Hao Bi, Zhe-Wei Qiu, Rui Felizardo, Luc Girard, John D Minna, Adi F Gazdar
Background: While tobacco exposure is the cause of the vast majority of lung cancers, an important percentage arise in lifetime never smokers. Documenting the precise extent of tobacco induced molecular changes may be of importance. Also, the contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is difficult to assess. Methods: We developed and validated a quantitative method to assess the extent of tobacco related molecular damage by combing the most characteristic changes associated with tobacco smoke, the tumor mutation burden (TMB) and type of molecular changes present in lung cancers...
August 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225208/preface-lung-cancer-in-never-smokers
#6
Adi F Gazdar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050780/a-consensus-on-immunotherapy-from-the-2017-chinese-lung-cancer-summit-expert-panel
#7
REVIEW
Yi-Long Wu, Chang-Li Wang, Mei-Lin Liao, Zhong-Zhen Guan, Chen-Yan Gao, Shun Lu, Ming-Fang Zhao, Jie Wang, Xiao-Qing Liu, Jin-Ji Yang, Jun Liang, Wei-Min Mao, Bao-Hui Han, Xu-Chao Zhang, Yong Song, Ji-Feng Feng, Sheng-Lin Ma, Gang Wu, Cai-Cun Zhou, Ke-Neng Chen, Ying Cheng, Yong He, Chun Chen, Qun Wang, Ji-Zhen Lin, Bo Zhu, Yun-Peng Liu, Yi Hu, Gui-Bin Qiao, Qing Zhou, Qi-Bin Song, Nan Wu, Lin Wu, Cheng Huang, Xiao-Long Fu, Jian-Ping Xiong, Jie Hu, Cheng-Ping Hu, Jian-Hua Chang, Qiong Zhao, Jun Zhao, Peng-Hui Zhou, Zhi-Yong Ma, Yuan Chen, He-Long Zhang, Fan Yang, Jian-Jun Wang, Yue-Yin Pan, Xue-Ning Yang, Yun Fan, Zhe Liu, Wen Fan, Nong Yang, Yan-Fang Guan, Hao Sun, Wen-Zhao Zhong
The notable clinical success of cancer immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade suggests that it is likely to form the foundation of curative therapy for many malignancies. However, checkpoint blockades do not achieve sustained clinical response in most patients and thus amounts of problems needed to be figured out. Regarding these challenges, the 2017 Chinese Lung Cancer Summit expert panel organized a forum on the 14th Chinese Lung Cancer Summit to formally discuss these controversies. Five consensuses finally were reached to guide the application of checkpoint blockades...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050779/genome-wide-copy-number-analyses-of-samples-from-lace-bio-project-identify-novel-prognostic-and-predictive-markers-in-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Federico Rotolo, Chang-Qi Zhu, Elisabeth Brambilla, Stephen L Graziano, Ken Olaussen, Thierry Le-Chevalier, Jean-Pierre Pignon, Robert Kratzke, Jean-Charles Soria, Frances A Shepherd, Lesley Seymour, Stefan Michiels, Ming-Sound Tsao
Background: Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) provides modest benefit in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Genome-wide studies have identified gene copy number aberrations (CNA), but their prognostic implication is unknown. Methods: DNA from 1,013 FFPE tumor samples from three pivotal multicenter randomized trials (ACT vs. control) in the LACE-Bio consortium (median follow-up: 5.2 years) was successfully extracted, profiled using a molecular inversion probe SNP assay, normalized relative to a pool of normal tissues and segmented...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050778/real-world-data-of-nivolumab-for-previously-treated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-a-galician-lung-cancer-group-clinical-experience
#9
Mª Carmen Areses Manrique, Joaquín Mosquera Martínez, Jorge García González, Francisco Javier Afonso Afonso, Martín Lázaro Quintela, Natalia Fernández Núñez, Cristina Azpitarte Raposeiras, Margarita Amenedo Gancedo, Lucía Santomé Couto, Mª Rosario García Campelo, Jose Muñoz Iglesias, Alexandra Cortegoso Mosquera, Rocío Vilchez Simo, Joaquín Casal Rubio, Begoña Campos Balea, Iria Carou Frieiro, Guillermo Alonso-Jaudenes Curbera, Urbano Anido Herranz, Jesus García Mata, José Luis Fírvida Pérez
Background: Recently, immunotherapy has changed the standard of treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Outside clinical trials, data of real life is lacking. This is an observational study that represents the real world experience with nivolumab in pretreated NSCLC. Methods: Eligibility criteria included, histologically confirmed NSCLC, stage IIIB and IV, evaluable disease and at least one prior therapy. Patients received nivolumab until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050777/the-association-between-human-papillomavirus-presence-and-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutations-in-asian-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Hengrui Liang, Zhenkui Pan, Xiuyu Cai, Wei Wang, Chengye Guo, Jiaxi He, Yuehan Chen, Zhichao Liu, Bo Wang, Jianxing He, Wenhua Liang
Background: The etiology of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in non-smoker patients remains largely unknown. It has been widely proved that human papillomavirus (HPV) participates in the development of various cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation patients represent a large portion of non-smokers with NSCLC. We performed this meta-analysis to determine whether HPV infection in NSCLC tissue is associated with EGFR mutations compared with HPV negative controls. Methods: Online databases were searched up to June 30th 2017...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050776/the-prognostic-value-of-metformin-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Jianrong Zhang, Jieyu Wu, Qihua He, Wenhua Liang, Jianxing He
Background: The prognostic value of Metformin for concurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been controversial in previous individual studies and meta-analyses. In order to further investigate the value of this medication, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for patients with advanced or inoperable NSCLC. Methods: We searched articles from PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases; the time interval was from the inception date of the databases to 1 September 2017...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050775/the-180-splice-variant-of-ncam-containing-exon-18-is-specifically-expressed-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#12
Ann Vander Borght, Mieke Duysinx, Jos L V Broers, Monique Ummelen, Frank W Falkenberg, Christine Hahnel, Bernard A M van der Zeijst
Background: The Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) is a glycoprotein expressed as 120, 140 and/or 180 kDa isoforms, all derived through alternative splicing of a single gene. NCAM 120 contains no intracellular domain, whereas NCAM 140 and 180 have different intracellular domains determined by alternative splicing of exon 18. NCAM has been described as a biomarker to discriminate small cell lung cancer (SCLC) from non-SCLC (NSCLC). However, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) also express NCAM...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050774/extrapulmonary-neoplasms-in-lung-cancer-screening
#13
REVIEW
Myrna C B Godoy, Charles S White, Jeremy J Erasmus, Carol C Wu, Mylene T Truong, Reginald F Munden, Caroline Chiles
A significant reduction in lung cancer specific mortality rate was demonstrated by the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) in participants who had annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. In addition to early detection of lung cancer, lung cancer screening (LCS) provides an opportunity to detect cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease), and extrapulmonary neoplasms, such as thyroid, breast, kidney, liver, esophageal, pancreatic and mediastinal tumors...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050773/coronary-artery-calcification-in-lung-cancer-screening
#14
REVIEW
James G Ravenel, John W Nance
Lung cancer screening has been shown in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) to result in a statistically significant decrease in lung cancer specific mortality. Also within that trial there was shown to be a 7% decrease in all-cause mortality. While the reasons for this benefit are not entirely clear, it may relate to the detection and treatment of other important findings. Smokers not only have a higher risk of lung cancer, but also increased risk of atherosclerosis. The latter can be detected by the discovery of aortic and/or coronary artery calcium on unenhanced CT...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050772/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-and-lung-cancer-screening
#15
REVIEW
Robert P Young, Raewyn J Hopkins
The primary aim of lung cancer screening is to improve survival from lung cancer by identifying early stage non-small cell lung cancers and prolong survival through their surgical removal. In a post-hoc analysis of 10,054 screening participants from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) we show that the risk of lung cancer, according to the PLCOm2012 model, is closely related to the likelihood of having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Those at greatest risk for lung cancer have the highest prevalence of COPD and greater likelihood of dying of a non-lung cancer cause...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050771/the-cytokinesis-blocked-micronucleus-assay-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-selection-of-lung-cancer-screening-participants
#16
Randa A El-Zein, Carol J Etzel, Reginald F Munden
Background: Despite the promising results of the National Lung Screening Trial in reducing lung cancer mortality among high risk smokers, several challenges remain to be addressed. These include the high false positive rates and the large number of smokers screened in order to prevent one lung cancer death. In addition, host genetic susceptibility has not been integrated into selection of who should be screened. These challenges highlight the need to develop robust ways to identify susceptible smokers for appropriate screening...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050770/blood-based-biomarkers-beyond-genomics-for-lung-cancer-screening
#17
REVIEW
Samir M Hanash, Edwin Justin Ostrin, Johannes F Fahrmann
While there is considerable interest at the present time in the development of so-called liquid biopsy approaches for cancer detection based notably on circulating tumor DNA, there are other types of potential biomarkers that show promise for lung cancer screening and early detection. Here we review approaches and some of the promising markers based on proteomics, metabolomics and the immune response to tumor antigens in the form of autoantibodies.
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050769/computer-aided-nodule-analysis-and-risk-yield-canary-characterization-of-adenocarcinoma-radiologic-biopsy-risk-stratification-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Ryan Clay, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Ronald Karwoski, Fabien Maldonado, Tobias Peikert, Brian Bartholmai
The majority of incidentally and screen-detected lung cancers are adenocarcinomas. Optimal management of these tumors is clinically challenging due to variability in tumor histopathology and behavior. Invasive adenocarcinoma (IA) is generally aggressive while adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) may be extremely indolent. Computer Aided Nodule Analysis and Risk Yield (CANARY) is a quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis tool that allows non-invasive assessment of tumor characteristics...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050768/lung-cancer-prediction-using-machine-learning-and-advanced-imaging-techniques
#19
REVIEW
Timor Kadir, Fergus Gleeson
Machine learning based lung cancer prediction models have been proposed to assist clinicians in managing incidental or screen detected indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Such systems may be able to reduce variability in nodule classification, improve decision making and ultimately reduce the number of benign nodules that are needlessly followed or worked-up. In this article, we provide an overview of the main lung cancer prediction approaches proposed to date and highlight some of their relative strengths and weaknesses...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050767/lung-cancer-screening-nodule-identification-and-characterization
#20
REVIEW
Ioannis Vlahos, Konstantinos Stefanidis, Sarah Sheard, Arjun Nair, Charles Sayer, Joanne Moser
The accurate identification and characterization of small pulmonary nodules at low-dose CT is an essential requirement for the implementation of effective lung cancer screening. Individual reader detection performance is influenced by nodule characteristics and technical CT parameters but can be improved by training, the application of CT techniques, and by computer-aided techniques. However, the evaluation of nodule detection in lung cancer screening trials differs from the assessment of individual readers as it incorporates multiple readers, their inter-observer variability, reporting thresholds, and reflects the program accuracy in identifying lung cancer...
June 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
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