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Intensive Care Medicine Experimental

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873263/effects-of-volume-resuscitation-on-the-microcirculation-in-animal-models-of-lipopolysaccharide-sepsis-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Nchafatso G Obonyo, Jonathon P Fanning, Angela S Y Ng, Leticia P Pimenta, Kiran Shekar, David G Platts, Kathryn Maitland, John F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Recent research has identified an increased rate of mortality associated with fluid bolus therapy for severe sepsis and septic shock, but the mechanisms are still not well understood. Fluid resuscitation therapy administered for sepsis and septic shock targets restoration of the macro-circulation, but the pathogenesis of sepsis is complex and includes microcirculatory dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to systematically review data comparing the effects of different types of fluid resuscitation on the microcirculation in clinically relevant animal models of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864774/comparison-of-an-automatic-analysis-and-a-manual-analysis-of-conjunctival-microcirculation-in-a-sheep-model-of-haemorrhagic-shock
#2
Philip-Helge Arnemann, Michael Hessler, Tim Kampmeier, Andrea Morelli, Hugo Karel Van Aken, Martin Westphal, Sebastian Rehberg, Christian Ertmer
BACKGROUND: Life-threatening diseases of critically ill patients are known to derange microcirculation. Automatic analysis of microcirculation would provide a bedside diagnostic tool for microcirculatory disorders and allow immediate therapeutic decisions based upon microcirculation analysis. METHODS: After induction of general anaesthesia and instrumentation for haemodynamic monitoring, haemorrhagic shock was induced in ten female sheep by stepwise blood withdrawal of 3 × 10 mL per kilogram body weight...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822777/critical-role-of-endogenous-histamine-in-promoting-end-organ-tissue-injury-in-sepsis
#3
Mizuki Hattori, Mitsuaki Yamazaki, Wakana Ohashi, Satoshi Tanaka, Kohshi Hattori, Kenichiro Todoroki, Toshio Fujimori, Hiroshi Ohtsu, Naoyuki Matsuda, Yuichi Hattori
BACKGROUND: Histamine assumes an important role as a major mediator in various pathologic disorders associated with inflammation and immune reactions. However, the involvement of histamine in the pathological conditions and symptoms of sepsis remains entirely unknown. In this study, we establish that histamine is identified as a contributory mediator to promoting the development of organ injury in sepsis. METHODS: Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene knockout (HDC(-/-)) mice, histamine H1-/H2-receptor gene-double knockout (H1R(-/-)/H2R(-/-)) mice, and their littermate wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761886/comparison-between-effects-of-pressure-support-and-pressure-controlled-ventilation-on-lung-and-diaphragmatic-damage-in-experimental-emphysema
#4
Gisele de A Padilha, Lucas F B Horta, Lillian Moraes, Cassia L Braga, Milena V Oliveira, Cíntia L Santos, Isalira P Ramos, Marcelo M Morales, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Regina C S Goldenberg, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro L Silva, Patricia R M Rocco
BACKGROUND: In patients with emphysema, invasive mechanical ventilation settings should be adjusted to minimize hyperinflation while reducing respiratory effort and providing adequate gas exchange. We evaluated the impact of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on pulmonary and diaphragmatic damage, as well as cardiac function, in experimental emphysema. METHODS: Emphysema was induced by intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase in Wistar rats, once weekly for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726105/exploring-alternative-routes-for-oxygen-administration
#5
Elisa Damiani, Alex Dyson, Lucia Zacchetti, Abele Donati, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia may compromise cell metabolism and organ function. Supplemental oxygen (O2) at high concentrations may prove ineffective, and issues relating to hyperoxia, barotrauma, mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal oxygenation are well documented. Old reports suggest the potential safety and efficacy of alternative routes for O2 administration, such as intravenous or intestinal. We re-explored these routes in rat models of hypoxemia. METHODS: Hypoxemia was induced in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized rats by breathing a hypoxic gas mix (FiO2 0...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704481/heparin-binding-protein-is-important-for-vascular-leak-in-sepsis
#6
Peter Bentzer, Jane Fisher, HyeJin Julia Kong, Mattias Mörgelin, John H Boyd, Keith R Walley, James A Russell, Adam Linder
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma levels of heparin-binding protein (HBP) are associated with risk of organ dysfunction and mortality in sepsis, but little is known about causality and mechanisms of action of HBP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that HBP is a key mediator of the increased endothelial permeability observed in sepsis and to test potential treatments that inhibit HBP-induced increases in permeability. METHODS: Association between HBP at admission with clinical signs of increased permeability was investigated in 341 patients with septic shock...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686339/a-new-approach-to-selective-brain-cooling-by-a-ranque-hilsch-vortex-tube
#7
Mohammad Fazel Bakhsheshi, Yong Wang, Lynn Keenliside, Ting-Yim Lee
BACKGROUND: Target temperature management is the single most effective intervention and the gold standard in post-resuscitation care today. However, cooling the whole body below 33-34 °C can cause severe complications. Therefore, developing a selective brain cooling (SBC) approach which can be initiated early to induce rapid cooling and maintain the target temperature over 12-24 h before slowly rewarming brain temperature by itself alone would be advantageous. Vortex tubes are simple mechanical devices generating cold air from a stream of compressed air without applied chemical or energy...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682607/plasmadiafiltration-ameliorating-gut-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-and-improving-survival-in-porcine-sepsis-models
#8
Ming Xin Li, Jun Feng Liu, Jian Da Lu, Ying Zhu, Ding Wei Kuang, Jian Bing Xiang, Peng Sun, Wei Wang, Jun Xue, Yong Gu, Chuan Ming Hao
BACKGROUND: The object of this study is to explore whether the plasmadiafiltration (PDF) is more effective in improving the intestinal mucosal barrier function by removing more key large molecular inflammatory mediators and then prolonging the survival time. METHODS: Totally, 24 porcine sepsis models induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operation were randomly divided into three groups: PDF group, high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) group, and control group, and received 8 h treatment, respectively...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671340/effects-of-n-acetylcysteine-nac-supplementation-in-resuscitation-fluids-on-renal-microcirculatory-oxygenation-inflammation-and-function-in-a-rat-model-of-endotoxemia
#9
Bulent Ergin, Philippe Guerci, Lara Zafrani, Frank Nocken, Asli Kandil, Ebru Gurel-Gurevin, Cihan Demirci-Tansel, Can Ince
BACKGROUND: Modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress appears to limit sepsis-induced damage in experimental models. The kidney is one of the most sensitive organs to injury during septic shock. In this study, we evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration in conjunction with fluid resuscitation on renal oxygenation and function. We hypothesized that reducing inflammation would improve the microcirculatory oxygenation in the kidney and limit the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI)...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645151/transpulmonary-and-pleural-pressure-in-a-respiratory-system-model-with-an-elastic-recoiling-lung-and-an-expanding-chest-wall
#10
Per Persson, Stefan Lundin, Ola Stenqvist
BACKGROUND: We have shown in acute lung injury patients that lung elastance can be determined by a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) step procedure and proposed that this is explained by the spring-out force of the rib cage off-loading the chest wall from the lung at end-expiration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the expanding chest wall on pleural pressure during PEEP inflation by building a model with an elastic recoiling lung and an expanding chest wall complex...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612461/the-effects-of-early-high-volume-hemofiltration-on-prolonged-cardiac-arrest-in-rats-with-reperfusion-by-cardiopulmonary-bypass-a-randomized-controlled-animal-study
#11
Koichiro Shinozaki, Joshua W Lampe, Junhwan Kim, Tai Yin, Tong Da, Shigeto Oda, Hiroyuki Hirasawa, Lance B Becker
BACKGROUND: It is not yet clear whether hemofiltration can reduce blood cytokine levels sufficiently to benefit patients who suffer prolonged cardiac arrest (CA) treated with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We sought to assess effects of high-volume and standard volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) on blood cytokine levels and survival in a rat model of prolonged CA treated with CPB. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were subjected to 12 min of asphyxia to induce CA...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456956/gentisic-acid-sodium-salt-a-phenolic-compound-is-superior-to-norepinephrine-in-reversing-cardiovascular-collapse-hepatic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-lactic-acidemia-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-septic-shock-in-dogs
#12
Steven Mink, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Jose Gotes, Zhao-Qin Cheng, Krika Kasian, Paul Fernyhough
BACKGROUND: The development of lactic acidemia (LA) in septic shock (SS) is associated with an ominous prognosis. We previously showed that the mechanism of LA in SS may relate to impaired hepatic uptake of lactate, but the mechanism was not clear. Uptake of lactate by the liver occurs by a membrane-associated, pH-dependent, antiport system known as the monocarboxylate transporter. In the hepatocyte, lactate can then be metabolized by oxidative phosphorylation or converted to glucose in the cytosol...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447715/endothelial-bioreactor-system-ameliorates-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-septic-rats
#13
Shuai Ma, Yuli Lin, Bo Deng, Yin Zheng, Chuanming Hao, Rui He, Feng Ding
BACKGROUND: The endothelium is a potentially valuable target for sepsis therapy. We have previously studied an extracorporeal endothelial cell therapy system, called the endothelial bioreactor (EBR), which prolonged the survival time of endotoxemia sepsis in swine. To further study of the therapeutic effects and possible mechanisms, we established a miniature EBR system for septic rats induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). METHODS: In the miniature EBR system, the extracorporeal circulation first passed through a mini-hemofilter, and the ultrafiltrate (UF) was separated, then the UF passed through an EBR (a 1-mL cartridge containing approximately 2 × 10(6) endothelial cells grown on microcarriers) and interact with endothelial cells...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430881/sepsis-modeling-in-mice-ligation-length-is-a-major-severity-factor-in-cecal-ligation-and-puncture
#14
Stéphanie Ruiz, Fanny Vardon-Bounes, Virginie Merlet-Dupuy, Jean-Marie Conil, Marie Buléon, Olivier Fourcade, Ivan Tack, Vincent Minville
BACKGROUND: The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model, a gold standard in sepsis research, is associated with an important variability in mortality. While the number of punctures and needle size is well described in CLP animal studies, the length of cecal ligation is often not. The relationship between cecal ligation and survival in mice is briefly reported in the literature; therefore, we devised an investigation in mice of the consequences of three standardized cecal ligation lengths on mortality and the severity of the ensued sepsis...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387528/transcriptional-reprogramming-of-metabolic-pathways-in-critically-ill-patients
#15
Marek Nalos, Grant Parnell, Robert Robergs, David Booth, Anthony S McLean, Benjamin M Tang
BACKGROUND: Critical illness causes a shift away from mitochondrial metabolism towards a greater dependence on glycolysis. This metabolic shift is thought to be associated with lactic acidosis, organ dysfunction and poor clinical outcomes. The current paradigm is that low oxygen supply causes regional hypoxia, which in turn drives such a metabolic shift. In this study, we evaluated whether the shift towards glycolysis can also occur in cells where oxygen supply is plentiful. METHODS: We used circulating blood cells from non-hypoxic critically ill patients (n = 47) as a model to study cellular metabolism in a normal oxygen milieu...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387527/the-effect-of-plasma-from-septic-icu-patients-on-healthy-rat-muscle-mitochondria
#16
Jonathan Grip, Towe Jakobsson, Nicolas Tardif, Olav Rooyackers
BACKGROUND: Although sepsis-induced organ failure is a major cause of death in ICU worldwide, the associated mitochondrial dysfunction is not fully characterized and there is presently no evidence of causality. In this study, we examined whether a central factor in septic plasma could directly affect respiratory function of healthy rat muscle mitochondria. METHODS: ICU patients with severe sepsis or septic shock were recruited within 24 h of admission together with age-matched controls...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357828/modulatory-effects-of-vagal-stimulation-on-neurophysiological-parameters-and-the-cellular-immune-response-in-the-rat-brain-during-systemic-inflammation
#17
Hanna Schweighöfer, Christoph Rummel, Joachim Roth, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of the vagus nerve has modulating, anti-inflammatory effects on the cellular immune response in the blood and the spleen, stabilizing brain function. Here, we aimed to investigate its potential effects on immune-to-brain communication focusing on neurophysiological readouts and leukocyte migration to the brain during severe sepsis-like endotoxemia. METHODS: Systemic inflammation was induced by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 mg/kg)...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352235/erratum-to-left-ventricular-function-during-porcine-resuscitated-septic-shock-with-pre-existing-atherosclerosis
#18
Benedikt L Nußbaum, Oscar McCook, Clair Hartmann, José Matallo, Martin Wepler, Elena Antonucci, Miriam Kalbitz, Markus Huber-Lang, Michael Georgieff, Enrico Calzia, Peter Radermacher, Sebastian Hafner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342821/microcirculatory-perfusion-shows-wide-inter-individual-variation-and-is-important-in-determining-shock-reversal-during-resuscitation-in-a-porcine-experimental-model-of-complex-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock
#19
Sam D Hutchings, David N Naumann, Sarah Watts, Callie Wilson, Clare Burton, Julia Wendon, Emrys Kirkman
BACKGROUND: Traumatic hemorrhagic shock (THS) is a leading cause of preventable death following severe traumatic injury. Resuscitation of THS is typically targeted at blood pressure, but the effects of such a strategy on systemic and microcirculatory flow remains unclear. Failure to restore microcirculatory perfusion has been shown to lead to poor outcomes in experimental and clinical studies. Systemic and microcirculatory variables were examined in a porcine model of complex THS, in order to investigate inter-individual variations in flow and the effect of microcirculatory perfusion on reversal of the shock state...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316442/lung-stress-strain-and-energy-load-engineering-concepts-to-understand-the-mechanism-of-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-vili
#20
EDITORIAL
Gary F Nieman, Joshua Satalin, Penny Andrews, Nader M Habashi, Louis A Gatto
It was recently shown that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality has not been reduced in over 15 years and remains ~40 %, even with protective low tidal volume (LVt) ventilation. Thus, there is a critical need to develop novel ventilation strategies that will protect the lung and reduce ARDS mortality. Protti et al. have begun to analyze the impact of mechanical ventilation on lung tissue using engineering methods in normal pigs ventilated for 54 h. They used these methods to assess the impact of a mechanical breath on dynamic and static global lung strain and energy load...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
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