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Military Medical Research

Katrin Schuy, Simone Dors, Loni Brants, Marie Horzetzky, Gerd Willmund, Andreas Ströhle, Peter Zimmermann, Heinrich Rau, Stefan Siegel
BACKGROUND: Military families who have a family member with a mental illness see themselves confronted with many demands. Stigmatization is one of these challenges. Stigmatization affects not only the individual who suffers from a mental illness but also other family members via stigma by association and vicarious stigma. Stigma by association occurs when mental illness stigma spills over to individuals associated with an individual with a mental illness. Vicarious stigma describes the suffering of family members when they note the impact of stigma on their relative with mental illness...
November 29, 2018: Military Medical Research
Hui Zhang, Yong-Wen Feng, Yong-Ming Yao
Recently, the definition of sepsis was concluded to be a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Severe patients always present with uncorrectable hypotension or hyperlactacidemia, which is defined as septic shock. The new definition emphasizes dysregulation of the host response and multiple organ dysfunction, which is partially attributed to metabolic disorders induced by energy crisis and oxidative stress. Mitochondria are a cellular organelle that are well known as the center of energy production, and mitochondrial damage or dysfunction is commonly induced in septic settings and is a predominant factor leading to a worse prognosis...
November 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Anisong Pilakasiri, Prasit Mahakit
BACKGROUND: It is crucial for the army to know the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome in active-duty army personnel. Little information has been reported on the prevalence of OSA and clinical features in active-duty army personnel. This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of snoring and risk of developing OSA in active-duty army personnel in Thailand and to identify the co-morbidities of OSA. In total, 1107 participants who were aged 20-60 years and were deployed to the three southernmost provinces of Thailand were enrolled...
November 7, 2018: Military Medical Research
Joseph John Bevelacqua, Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi
This commentary addresses the article by Wu et al. entitled "On-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and countermeasures". In this article, the authors discussed the sleep problems of astronauts. Despite its challenging topic, the paper authored by Wu et al. has at least one major shortcoming. This issue is related to the observation that the sleep pattern of astronauts can be disturbed by light flash phenomenon. Since the first report by astronaut E.E. Aldrin in 1969, many astronauts have reported light flashes...
October 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Christian T Bautista, Eyako K Wurapa, Warren B Sateren, Bruce P Hollingsworth, Jose L Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Historically, sexually transmitted infections have affected the health of the U.S. military. To determine whether gonorrhea, bacterial vaginosis, genital herpes, and trichomoniasis are predictors of repeat chlamydia diagnoses among U.S. Army women, medical data reported into the Defense Medical Surveillance System during the 2006-2012 period were analyzed. METHODS: For all inpatient and outpatient medical records, the first and second International Classification of Diseases, version 9 (ICD-9) diagnostic positions were reviewed for each chlamydia case to determine the occurrence of repeat diagnoses...
October 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Elahe Faraji, Mostafa Allami, Nafiseh Feizollahi, Amir Karimi, Amir Yavari, Mohammadreza Soroush, Majid Moudi
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to identify health concerns of veterans with high-level lower extremity amputations. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional study, general practitioners, an orthopedic specialist, psychologists, psychiatrists, physiotherapist and prosthetists examined 100 veterans using a short-form health-related quality of life questionnaire (SF-36) that assessed their ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and life satisfaction (SWLS) after hip disarticulation or hemi-pelvectomy amputations...
October 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Florian Bösch, Martin K Angele, Irshad H Chaudry
Despite efforts in prevention and intensive care, trauma and subsequent sepsis are still associated with a high mortality rate. Traumatic injury remains the main cause of death in people younger than 45 years and is thus a source of immense social and economic burden. In recent years, the knowledge concerning gender medicine has continuously increased. A number of studies have reported gender dimorphism in terms of response to trauma, shock and sepsis. However, the advantageous outcome following trauma-hemorrhage in females is not due only to sex...
October 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Zhao-Wen Zong, Zhi-Nong Wang, Si-Xu Chen, Hao Qin, Lian-Yang Zhang, Yue Shen, Lei Yang, Wen-Qiong Du, Can Chen, Xin Zhong, Lin Zhang, Jiang-Tao Huo, Li-Ping Kuai, Li-Xin Shu, Guo-Fu Du, Yu-Feng Zhao
The emergency treatment of thoracic injuries varies of general conditions and modern warfare. However, there are no unified battlefield treatment guidelines for thoracic injuries in the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). An expert consensus has been reached based on the epidemiology of thoracic injuries and the concept of battlefield treatment combined with the existing levels of military medical care in modern warfare. Since there are no differences in the specialized treatment for thoracic injuries between general conditions and modern warfare, first aid, emergency treatment, and early treatment of thoracic injuries are introduced separately in three levels in this consensus...
October 4, 2018: Military Medical Research
Gang Xu, Yu-Qi Gao, Yi-Xing Gao, Gang Wu, Jian-Yang Zhang, Wen-Xiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is a primary cause of mountain sickness and a common pathological condition in patients with heart failure, shock, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thus far, little advancement in countering hypoxic damage has been achieved, and one of the main reasons is the absence of an ideal algorithm or calculation method to normalize hypoxia tolerance scores when evaluating an animal model. In this study, we improved a traditional calculation formula for assessment of hypoxia tolerance...
September 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Xue-Rong Miao, Qian-Bo Chen, Kai Wei, Kun-Ming Tao, Zhi-Jie Lu
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic impairment disorder that occurs after exposure to traumatic events. This disorder can result in a disturbance to individual and family functioning, causing significant medical, financial, and social problems. This study is a selective review of literature aiming to provide a general outlook of the current understanding of PTSD. There are several diagnostic guidelines for PTSD, with the most recent editions of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 being best accepted. Generally, PTSD is diagnosed according to several clusters of symptoms occurring after exposure to extreme stressors...
September 28, 2018: Military Medical Research
Ismael Flecha, Jason F Naylor, Steven G Schauer, Ryan A Curtis, Cord W Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Junctional hemorrhage surpassed extremity hemorrhage as the leading cause of preventable death after the resurgence of limb tourniquets during the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Junctional tourniquets (JTQs) were developed in response to this injury pattern. Published data for JTQ efficacy are limited and do not incorporate nonmedical, military first responders. We compared the time for effective placement and scores for device satisfaction between two different JTQs, stratified by combat lifesaver (CLS) and combat medics...
September 13, 2018: Military Medical Research
Xiao-Rui Zhang, Wen-Xia Zhou, Yong-Xiang Zhang
AEOL-10150 is a broad-spectrum metalloporphyrin superoxidase dismutase (SOD) mimic specifically designed to neutralize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Research has shown that AEOL-10150 is a potent medical countermeasure against national security threats including sulfur mustard (SM), nerve agent exposure and radiation pneumonitis following a radiological/nuclear incident sufficient to cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). AEOL-10150 performed well in animal safety studies, and two completed phase 1 safety studies in patients demonstrated that the drug was safe and well tolerated, indicating that AEOL-10150 has potential as a new catalytic antioxidant drug...
September 6, 2018: Military Medical Research
Jia-Jun Feng, Jia Le See, Abby Choke, Adrian Ooi, Si Jack Chong
BACKGROUND: The pubic region is often involved in accidental hot water or soup-spill burns. Most of these wounds are superficial partial thickness burns. Due to their proximity to the urinary system, as well as vaginal and anal openings, these burns are easily contaminated. Daily dressings are routinely prescribed as the sole treatment. The cumbersome dressing process is uncomfortable and embarrassing for patients. Biobrane™ is a bilayered biosynthetic dressing. Its coverage of superficial partial thickness burns promotes wound healing and allows one-time application...
August 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Yves Jammes, Eva Ferrand, Corentin Fraud, Alain Boussuges, Jean Paul Weber
BACKGROUND: Heavy backpacks are often used by soldiers and firefighters. Weight carrying could reduce the speed and efficiency in task completion by altering the foot sole sensitivity and postural control. METHODS: In fifteen healthy subjects, we measured the changes in sensitivity to vibrations applied to the foot sole when standing upright or walking after load carrying (30% body weight). The participants were asked to judge different vibration amplitudes applied on the 2nd or 5th metatarsal head and the heel at two frequencies (25 and 150 Hz) to determine the vibration threshold and the global perceptual representation (Ѱ)of the vibration amplitude (Ф) given by the Stevens power function (Ѱ = k × Фn )...
August 17, 2018: Military Medical Research
Alexis Rump, Benjamin Becker, Stefan Eder, Andreas Lamkowski, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
A wide spectrum of scenarios may lead to radiation incidents and the liberation of radioactive material. In the case of a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb", there is a risk of mechanical and thermal trauma, external irradiation, superficial contamination and incorporation of radioactive material. The first treatment priority must be given to the care of trauma patients with life-threatening injuries, as the health effects of radiation occur with latency. Radionuclide incorporation will lead to a longer-lasting irradiation from inside the body, associated with a higher risk of stochastic radiation effects (e...
August 6, 2018: Military Medical Research
Elisa van Ee
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has an extensive impact on family relationships. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of empirically supported interventions addressing family functioning and PTSD. In the Netherlands, it is considered good clinical practice to offer multi-family therapy (MFT) to veteran and refugee families. MFT for traumatized families aims to address the dysfunctional family patterns that have evolved to address the consequences with trauma...
August 6, 2018: Military Medical Research
Zhi-Gang Li, Melanie J Scott, Tomasz Brzóska, Prithu Sundd, Yue-Hua Li, Timothy R Billiar, Mark A Wilson, Ping Wang, Jie Fan
BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major component of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) following pulmonary and systemic infection. Alveolar macrophages (AMϕ) are at the center of ALI pathogenesis. Emerging evidence has shown that cell-cell interactions in the lungs play an important regulatory role in the development of acute lung inflammation. However, the underneath mechanisms remain poorly addressed. In this study, we explore a novel function of lung epithelial cells (LEPCs) in regulating the release of exosomes from AMϕ following LPS stimulation...
July 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Michele Zukauskas de Andrade Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Pinfildi
BACKGROUND: The activities carried out by soldiers in the army involve great physical demands and require intense trainings to perform combat-specific tasks. Musculoskeletal injury is a potential threat to the health and physical integrity of the soldier. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries among soldiers and to propose a training protocol to prevent the most frequent injuries. METHODS: This observational (cross-sectional) study recruited a sample of 103 soldiers who required medical attention, from a total 202 new battalion soldiers...
July 27, 2018: Military Medical Research
Subhojit Chatterjee, Tirthankar Chatterjee, Debojyoti Bhattacharyya, Suranjana Sen, Madhusudan Pal
BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of different uphill and downhill gradients on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of soldiers while carrying heavy military loads in two different modes. METHODS: Eight physically fit male soldiers with a mean age 32.0 ± 2.0 years, a mean height of 169.5 ± 4.9 cm, and a mean weight of 63.8 ± 8.4 kg volunteered for this study. Each volunteer completed treadmill walking trials at a speed of 3...
July 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Joseph K Maddry, Crystal A Perez, Alejandra G Mora, Jill D Lear, Shelia C Savell, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: In combat operations, patients with traumatic injuries require expeditious evacuation to improve survival. Studies have shown that long transport times are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Limited data exist on the influence of transport time on patient outcomes with specific injury types. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the duration of time from the initial request for medical evacuation to arrival at a medical treatment facility on morbidity and mortality in casualties with traumatic extremity amputation and non-compressible torso injury (NCTI)...
June 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
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