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Military Medical Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30086798/medical-management-of-victims-contaminated-with-radionuclides-after-a-dirty-bomb-attack
#1
Alexis Rump, Benjamin Becker, Stefan Eder, Andreas Lamkowski, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
A wide spectrum of scenarios may lead to radiation incidents and the liberation of radioactive material. In the case of a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb", there is a risk of mechanical and thermal trauma, external irradiation, superficial contamination and incorporation of radioactive material. The first treatment priority must be given to the care of trauma patients with life-threatening injuries, as the health effects of radiation occur with latency. Radionuclide incorporation will lead to a longer-lasting irradiation from inside the body, associated with a higher risk of stochastic radiation effects (e...
August 6, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078379/multi-family-therapy-for-veteran-and-refugee-families-a-delphi-study
#2
Elisa van Ee
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has an extensive impact on family relationships. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of empirically supported interventions addressing family functioning and PTSD. In the Netherlands, it is considered good clinical practice to offer multi-family therapy (MFT) to veteran and refugee families. MFT for traumatized families aims to address the dysfunctional family patterns that have evolved to address the consequences with trauma...
August 6, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056803/lung-epithelial-cell-derived-il-25-negatively-regulates-lps-induced-exosome-release-from-macrophages
#3
Zhi-Gang Li, Melanie J Scott, Tomasz Brzóska, Prithu Sundd, Yue-Hua Li, Timothy R Billiar, Mark A Wilson, Ping Wang, Jie Fan
BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major component of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) following pulmonary and systemic infection. Alveolar macrophages (AMϕ) are at the center of ALI pathogenesis. Emerging evidence has shown that cell-cell interactions in the lungs play an important regulatory role in the development of acute lung inflammation. However, the underneath mechanisms remain poorly addressed. In this study, we explore a novel function of lung epithelial cells (LEPCs) in regulating the release of exosomes from AMϕ following LPS stimulation...
July 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049289/prevalence-of-musculoskeletal-injuries-and-a-proposal-for-neuromuscular-training-to-prevent-lower-limb-injuries-in-brazilian-army-soldiers-an-observational-study
#4
Michele Zukauskas de Andrade Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Pinfildi
BACKGROUND: The activities carried out by soldiers in the army involve great physical demands and require intense trainings to perform combat-specific tasks. Musculoskeletal injury is a potential threat to the health and physical integrity of the soldier. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries among soldiers and to propose a training protocol to prevent the most frequent injuries. METHODS: This observational (cross-sectional) study recruited a sample of 103 soldiers who required medical attention, from a total 202 new battalion soldiers...
July 27, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045754/effect-of-heavy-load-carriage-on-cardiorespiratory-responses-with-varying-gradients-and-modes-of-carriage
#5
Subhojit Chatterjee, Tirthankar Chatterjee, Debojyoti Bhattacharyya, Suranjana Sen, Madhusudan Pal
BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of different uphill and downhill gradients on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of soldiers while carrying heavy military loads in two different modes. METHODS: Eight physically fit male soldiers with a mean age 32.0 ± 2.0 years, a mean height of 169.5 ± 4.9 cm, and a mean weight of 63.8 ± 8.4 kg volunteered for this study. Each volunteer completed treadmill walking trials at a speed of 3...
July 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976254/impact-of-prehospital-medical-evacuation-medevac-transport-time-on-combat-mortality-in-patients-with-non-compressible-torso-injury-and-traumatic-amputations-a-retrospective-study
#6
Joseph K Maddry, Crystal A Perez, Alejandra G Mora, Jill D Lear, Shelia C Savell, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: In combat operations, patients with traumatic injuries require expeditious evacuation to improve survival. Studies have shown that long transport times are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Limited data exist on the influence of transport time on patient outcomes with specific injury types. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the duration of time from the initial request for medical evacuation to arrival at a medical treatment facility on morbidity and mortality in casualties with traumatic extremity amputation and non-compressible torso injury (NCTI)...
June 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970166/chinese-expert-consensus-on-echelons-treatment-of-pelvic-fractures-in-modern-war
#7
Zhao-Wen Zong, Si-Xu Chen, Hao Qin, Hua-Ping Liang, Lei Yang, Yu-Feng Zhao
The characteristics and treatment of pelvic fractures vary between general conditions and modern war. An expert consensus has been reached based on pelvic injury epidemiology and the concepts of battlefield treatment combined with the existing levels of military medical care in modern warfare. According to this consensus, first aid, emergency treatment and early treatment of pelvic fractures are introduced in three separate levels. In Level I facilities, simple triage and rapid treatment following the principles of advanced trauma life support are recommended to evaluate combat casualties during the first-aid stage...
June 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958545/biological-effects-of-radiation-on-cancer-cells
#8
REVIEW
Jin-Song Wang, Hai-Juan Wang, Hai-Li Qian
With the development of radiotherapeutic oncology, computer technology and medical imaging technology, radiation therapy has made great progress. Research on the impact and the specific mechanism of radiation on tumors has become a central topic in cancer therapy. According to the traditional view, radiation can directly affect the structure of the DNA double helix, which in turn activates DNA damage sensors to induce apoptosis, necrosis, and aging or affects normal mitosis events and ultimately rewires various biological characteristics of neoplasm cells...
June 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848381/infectious-diseases-during-the-european-union-training-mission-mali-eutm-mli-a-four-year-experience
#9
Hagen Frickmann, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Florian Geiselbrechtinger, Nagpal Hoysal
BACKGROUND: The European Union Training Mission Mali (EUTM MLI) is a multinational military training deployment to the Western African tropical nation of Mali. Based on routinely collected disease and non-battle injury surveillance data, this study quantifies the true impact of infectious diseases for this tropical mission and potential seasonal variations in infectious disease threats. METHODS: Categorized health events during the EUTM MLI mission and associated lost working days were reported using the EpiNATO-2 report...
May 31, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843821/on-orbit-sleep-problems-of-astronauts-and-countermeasures
#10
REVIEW
Bin Wu, Yue Wang, Xiaorui Wu, Dong Liu, Dong Xu, Fei Wang
Sufficient sleep duration and good sleep quality are crucial to ensure normal physical and mental health, cognition and work performance for the common people, as well as astronauts. On-orbit sleep problem is very common among astronauts and has potential detrimental influences on the health of crewmembers and the safety of flight missions. Sleep in space is becoming a new medical research frontier. In this review we summarized on-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and six kinds of causes, and we presented the effects of lack of sleep on performance as well as mental and physical health, then we proposed seven kinds of countermeasures for sleep disturbance in spaceflight, including pharmacologic interventions, light treatment, crew selection and training, Traditional Chinese Medicine and so on...
May 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793555/factors-affecting-use-of-ballistics-gelatin-in-laboratory-studies-of-bacterial-contamination-in-projectile-wounds
#11
Jessica J Evans, Aaron Bost, Karim H Muci-Küchler, Linda C DeVeaux
BACKGROUND: Ballistics gelatin is a common tissue surrogate used in bacterial contamination models for projectile wounds. Although these studies have demonstrated that bacteria are transferred from the surface of the gelatin to the wound track by a projectile, quantifiable results have been inconsistent and not repeatable in successive tests. METHODS: In this study, five areas of a typical contamination model in which bacterial recovery or survival are affected were identified for optimization...
May 25, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784038/chronic-traumatic-ankle-and-foot-osteomyelitis-a-nationwide-case-control-study
#12
Maryam Hosseini, Mostafa Allami, Mohammadreza Soroush, Fateme Babaha, Javad Minooeefar, Davood Rahimpoor
BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis (OM) is an atypical consequence of ankle-foot trauma which is associated with long-term mental and physical morbidity and persistent pain. This study aimed to assess the health status of OM patients with war-related ankle-foot injuries. METHODS: A total of 1129 veterans with ankle-foot injuries participated in a case-control study (2014-2016). Thirty patients with chronic OM of the ankle-foot were compared with 90 non-OM participants as the control group...
May 15, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807538/effects-of-spaceflight-and-simulated-microgravity-on-microbial-growth-and-secondary-metabolism
#13
REVIEW
Bing Huang, Dian-Geng Li, Ying Huang, Chang-Ting Liu
Spaceflight and ground-based microgravity analog experiments have suggested that microgravity can affect microbial growth and metabolism. Although the effects of microgravity and its analogs on microorganisms have been studied for more than 50 years, plausible conflicting and diverse results have frequently been reported in different experiments, especially regarding microbial growth and secondary metabolism. Until now, only the responses of a few typical microbes to microgravity have been investigated; systematic studies of the genetic and phenotypic responses of these microorganisms to microgravity in space are still insufficient due to technological and logistical hurdles...
May 14, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747689/association-between-acute-mountain-sickness-ams-and-age-a-meta-analysis
#14
Yu Wu, Chi Zhang, Yu Chen, Yong-Jun Luo
BACKGROUND: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a potentially lethal condition caused by acute hypoxia after ascending to altitudes higher than 2500 m in a short time. The main symptom of AMS is headache. Numerous risk factors of AMS have been examined, including gender, obesity, ascent rate, age and individual susceptibility. In previous studies, age was considered a predisposing factor for AMS. However, different opinions have been raised in recent years. To clarify the association between AMS and age, we conducted this meta-analysis...
May 11, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695298/pyruvate-is-a-prospective-alkalizer-to-correct-hypoxic-lactic-acidosis
#15
REVIEW
Ying Wang, Ya Huang, Jing Yang, Fang-Qiang Zhou, Lian Zhao, Hong Zhou
Type A lactic acidosis resulted from hypoxic mitochondrial dysfunction is an independent predictor of mortality for critically ill patients. However, current therapeutic agents are still in shortage and can even be harmful. This paper reviewed data regarding lactic acidosis treatment and recommended that pyruvate might be a potential alkalizer to correct type A lactic acidosis in future clinical practice. Pyruvate is a key energy metabolic substrate and a pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activator with several unique beneficial biological properties, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and the ability to activate the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) - erythropoietin (EPO) signal pathway...
April 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673398/assessment-of-orthotic-needs-in-iranian-veterans-with-ankle-and-foot-disorders
#16
Kamiar Ghoseiri, Mostafa Allami, Mohammad Reza Soroush
BACKGROUND: War-related traumas can lead to orthopedic and neurological disorders in victims. However, the scope of such disorders may expand months or even years after the trauma. Orthotic treatment as a rehabilitation process aims to enable people with disabilities to reach and maintain their optimal physical, sensory, intellectual, psychological, and social functional levels. This study aimed to investigate the rate of using orthoses among Iranian veterans with neuromuscular and skeletal disorders of the ankle and foot...
April 20, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598831/smoking-under-hypoxic-conditions-a-potent-environmental-risk-factor-for-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Md Saddam Hussain, Vishwas Tripathi
Autoimmune disease management presents a significant challenge to medical science. Environmental factors potentially increase the risk of developing inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus. Among various environmental stresses, cigarette smoke and hypoxia have both been reported to lead to an enhanced risk of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.In this review, we shed light on all reported mechanisms whereby cigarette smoke and a hypoxic environment can induce inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and discuss how hypoxic conditions influence the cigarette smoke-induced threat of inflammatory and autoimmune disease development...
March 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562934/diagnostic-performance-and-problem-analysis-of-commercial-tuberculosis-antibody-detection-kits-in-china
#18
Xue-Juan Bai, You-Rong Yang, Jian-Qin Liang, Hui-Ru An, Jie Wang, Yan-Bo Ling, Zhong-Yuan Wang, Xue-Qiong Wu
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of bacterium-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB is challenging clinically. The detection of the anti-TB antibody has an important, auxiliary, clinical diagnostic value. Therefore, TB antibody detection kits should be screened and evaluated, and the reagents with the highest sensitivity and specificity should be chosen and used clinically. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of 7 commercially available TB antibody detection kits (kits A, B, C, D, E, F and G) based on the gold immunoassay detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) G or IgM antibodies were simultaneously evaluated and compared in 62 TB cases and 56 non-TB cases in a laboratory...
March 22, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554942/radiation-induced-inflammation-and-autoimmune-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Rasoul Yahyapour, Peyman Amini, Saeed Rezapour, Mohsen Cheki, Abolhasan Rezaeyan, Bagher Farhood, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Hengameh Fallah, Masoud Najafi
Currently, ionizing radiation (IR) plays a key role in the agricultural and medical industry, while accidental exposure resulting from leakage of radioactive sources or radiological terrorism is a serious concern. Exposure to IR has various detrimental effects on normal tissues. Although an increased risk of carcinogenesis is the best-known long-term consequence of IR, evidence has shown that other diseases, particularly diseases related to inflammation, are common disorders among irradiated people. Autoimmune disorders are among the various types of immune diseases that have been investigated among exposed people...
March 20, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502534/a-hypothesis-study-on-bionic-active-noise-reduction-of-auditory-organs
#20
Qing-Qing Jiang, Ning Yu, Shi-Ming Yang
BACKGROUND: Noise exposure can lead to hearing loss and multiple system dysfunctions. As various forms of noise exist in our living environments, and our auditory organs are very sensitive to acoustic stimuli, it is a challenge to protect our hearing system in certain noisy environments. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: Herein, we propose that our hearing organ could serve as a noise eliminator for high intensity noise and enhance acoustic signal processing abilities by increasing the signal-noise ratio...
February 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
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