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Military Medical Research

Zhao-Wen Zong, Zhi-Nong Wang, Si-Xu Chen, Hao Qin, Lian-Yang Zhang, Yue Shen, Lei Yang, Wen-Qiong Du, Can Chen, Xin Zhong, Lin Zhang, Jiang-Tao Huo, Li-Ping Kuai, Li-Xin Shu, Guo-Fu Du, Yu-Feng Zhao
The emergency treatment of thoracic injuries varies of general conditions and modern warfare. However, there are no unified battlefield treatment guidelines for thoracic injuries in the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). An expert consensus has been reached based on the epidemiology of thoracic injuries and the concept of battlefield treatment combined with the existing levels of military medical care in modern warfare. Since there are no differences in the specialized treatment for thoracic injuries between general conditions and modern warfare, first aid, emergency treatment, and early treatment of thoracic injuries are introduced separately in three levels in this consensus...
October 4, 2018: Military Medical Research
Gang Xu, Yu-Qi Gao, Yi-Xing Gao, Gang Wu, Jian-Yang Zhang, Wen-Xiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia is a primary cause of mountain sickness and a common pathological condition in patients with heart failure, shock, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Thus far, little advancement in countering hypoxic damage has been achieved, and one of the main reasons is the absence of an ideal algorithm or calculation method to normalize hypoxia tolerance scores when evaluating an animal model. In this study, we improved a traditional calculation formula for assessment of hypoxia tolerance...
September 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Xue-Rong Miao, Qian-Bo Chen, Kai Wei, Kun-Ming Tao, Zhi-Jie Lu
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic impairment disorder that occurs after exposure to traumatic events. This disorder can result in a disturbance to individual and family functioning, causing significant medical, financial, and social problems. This study is a selective review of literature aiming to provide a general outlook of the current understanding of PTSD. There are several diagnostic guidelines for PTSD, with the most recent editions of the DSM-5 and ICD-11 being best accepted. Generally, PTSD is diagnosed according to several clusters of symptoms occurring after exposure to extreme stressors...
September 28, 2018: Military Medical Research
Ismael Flecha, Jason F Naylor, Steven G Schauer, Ryan A Curtis, Cord W Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Junctional hemorrhage surpassed extremity hemorrhage as the leading cause of preventable death after the resurgence of limb tourniquets during the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Junctional tourniquets (JTQs) were developed in response to this injury pattern. Published data for JTQ efficacy are limited and do not incorporate nonmedical, military first responders. We compared the time for effective placement and scores for device satisfaction between two different JTQs, stratified by combat lifesaver (CLS) and combat medics...
September 13, 2018: Military Medical Research
Xiao-Rui Zhang, Wen-Xia Zhou, Yong-Xiang Zhang
AEOL-10150 is a broad-spectrum metalloporphyrin superoxidase dismutase (SOD) mimic specifically designed to neutralize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Research has shown that AEOL-10150 is a potent medical countermeasure against national security threats including sulfur mustard (SM), nerve agent exposure and radiation pneumonitis following a radiological/nuclear incident sufficient to cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). AEOL-10150 performed well in animal safety studies, and two completed phase 1 safety studies in patients demonstrated that the drug was safe and well tolerated, indicating that AEOL-10150 has potential as a new catalytic antioxidant drug...
September 6, 2018: Military Medical Research
Jia-Jun Feng, Jia Le See, Abby Choke, Adrian Ooi, Si Jack Chong
BACKGROUND: The pubic region is often involved in accidental hot water or soup-spill burns. Most of these wounds are superficial partial thickness burns. Due to their proximity to the urinary system, as well as vaginal and anal openings, these burns are easily contaminated. Daily dressings are routinely prescribed as the sole treatment. The cumbersome dressing process is uncomfortable and embarrassing for patients. Biobrane™ is a bilayered biosynthetic dressing. Its coverage of superficial partial thickness burns promotes wound healing and allows one-time application...
August 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Yves Jammes, Eva Ferrand, Corentin Fraud, Alain Boussuges, Jean Paul Weber
BACKGROUND: Heavy backpacks are often used by soldiers and firefighters. Weight carrying could reduce the speed and efficiency in task completion by altering the foot sole sensitivity and postural control. METHODS: In fifteen healthy subjects, we measured the changes in sensitivity to vibrations applied to the foot sole when standing upright or walking after load carrying (30% body weight). The participants were asked to judge different vibration amplitudes applied on the 2nd or 5th metatarsal head and the heel at two frequencies (25 and 150 Hz) to determine the vibration threshold and the global perceptual representation (Ѱ)of the vibration amplitude (Ф) given by the Stevens power function (Ѱ = k × Фn )...
August 17, 2018: Military Medical Research
Alexis Rump, Benjamin Becker, Stefan Eder, Andreas Lamkowski, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
A wide spectrum of scenarios may lead to radiation incidents and the liberation of radioactive material. In the case of a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb", there is a risk of mechanical and thermal trauma, external irradiation, superficial contamination and incorporation of radioactive material. The first treatment priority must be given to the care of trauma patients with life-threatening injuries, as the health effects of radiation occur with latency. Radionuclide incorporation will lead to a longer-lasting irradiation from inside the body, associated with a higher risk of stochastic radiation effects (e...
August 6, 2018: Military Medical Research
Elisa van Ee
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has an extensive impact on family relationships. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of empirically supported interventions addressing family functioning and PTSD. In the Netherlands, it is considered good clinical practice to offer multi-family therapy (MFT) to veteran and refugee families. MFT for traumatized families aims to address the dysfunctional family patterns that have evolved to address the consequences with trauma...
August 6, 2018: Military Medical Research
Zhi-Gang Li, Melanie J Scott, Tomasz Brzóska, Prithu Sundd, Yue-Hua Li, Timothy R Billiar, Mark A Wilson, Ping Wang, Jie Fan
BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major component of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) following pulmonary and systemic infection. Alveolar macrophages (AMϕ) are at the center of ALI pathogenesis. Emerging evidence has shown that cell-cell interactions in the lungs play an important regulatory role in the development of acute lung inflammation. However, the underneath mechanisms remain poorly addressed. In this study, we explore a novel function of lung epithelial cells (LEPCs) in regulating the release of exosomes from AMϕ following LPS stimulation...
July 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Michele Zukauskas de Andrade Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Pinfildi
BACKGROUND: The activities carried out by soldiers in the army involve great physical demands and require intense trainings to perform combat-specific tasks. Musculoskeletal injury is a potential threat to the health and physical integrity of the soldier. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries among soldiers and to propose a training protocol to prevent the most frequent injuries. METHODS: This observational (cross-sectional) study recruited a sample of 103 soldiers who required medical attention, from a total 202 new battalion soldiers...
July 27, 2018: Military Medical Research
Subhojit Chatterjee, Tirthankar Chatterjee, Debojyoti Bhattacharyya, Suranjana Sen, Madhusudan Pal
BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of different uphill and downhill gradients on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of soldiers while carrying heavy military loads in two different modes. METHODS: Eight physically fit male soldiers with a mean age 32.0 ± 2.0 years, a mean height of 169.5 ± 4.9 cm, and a mean weight of 63.8 ± 8.4 kg volunteered for this study. Each volunteer completed treadmill walking trials at a speed of 3...
July 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Joseph K Maddry, Crystal A Perez, Alejandra G Mora, Jill D Lear, Shelia C Savell, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: In combat operations, patients with traumatic injuries require expeditious evacuation to improve survival. Studies have shown that long transport times are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Limited data exist on the influence of transport time on patient outcomes with specific injury types. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the duration of time from the initial request for medical evacuation to arrival at a medical treatment facility on morbidity and mortality in casualties with traumatic extremity amputation and non-compressible torso injury (NCTI)...
June 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Zhao-Wen Zong, Si-Xu Chen, Hao Qin, Hua-Ping Liang, Lei Yang, Yu-Feng Zhao
The characteristics and treatment of pelvic fractures vary between general conditions and modern war. An expert consensus has been reached based on pelvic injury epidemiology and the concepts of battlefield treatment combined with the existing levels of military medical care in modern warfare. According to this consensus, first aid, emergency treatment and early treatment of pelvic fractures are introduced in three separate levels. In Level I facilities, simple triage and rapid treatment following the principles of advanced trauma life support are recommended to evaluate combat casualties during the first-aid stage...
June 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Jin-Song Wang, Hai-Juan Wang, Hai-Li Qian
With the development of radiotherapeutic oncology, computer technology and medical imaging technology, radiation therapy has made great progress. Research on the impact and the specific mechanism of radiation on tumors has become a central topic in cancer therapy. According to the traditional view, radiation can directly affect the structure of the DNA double helix, which in turn activates DNA damage sensors to induce apoptosis, necrosis, and aging or affects normal mitosis events and ultimately rewires various biological characteristics of neoplasm cells...
June 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Hagen Frickmann, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Florian Geiselbrechtinger, Nagpal Hoysal
BACKGROUND: The European Union Training Mission Mali (EUTM MLI) is a multinational military training deployment to the Western African tropical nation of Mali. Based on routinely collected disease and non-battle injury surveillance data, this study quantifies the true impact of infectious diseases for this tropical mission and potential seasonal variations in infectious disease threats. METHODS: Categorized health events during the EUTM MLI mission and associated lost working days were reported using the EpiNATO-2 report...
May 31, 2018: Military Medical Research
Bin Wu, Yue Wang, Xiaorui Wu, Dong Liu, Dong Xu, Fei Wang
Sufficient sleep duration and good sleep quality are crucial to ensure normal physical and mental health, cognition and work performance for the common people, as well as astronauts. On-orbit sleep problem is very common among astronauts and has potential detrimental influences on the health of crewmembers and the safety of flight missions. Sleep in space is becoming a new medical research frontier. In this review we summarized on-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and six kinds of causes, and we presented the effects of lack of sleep on performance as well as mental and physical health, then we proposed seven kinds of countermeasures for sleep disturbance in spaceflight, including pharmacologic interventions, light treatment, crew selection and training, Traditional Chinese Medicine and so on...
May 30, 2018: Military Medical Research
Jessica J Evans, Aaron Bost, Karim H Muci-Küchler, Linda C DeVeaux
BACKGROUND: Ballistics gelatin is a common tissue surrogate used in bacterial contamination models for projectile wounds. Although these studies have demonstrated that bacteria are transferred from the surface of the gelatin to the wound track by a projectile, quantifiable results have been inconsistent and not repeatable in successive tests. METHODS: In this study, five areas of a typical contamination model in which bacterial recovery or survival are affected were identified for optimization...
May 25, 2018: Military Medical Research
Maryam Hosseini, Mostafa Allami, Mohammadreza Soroush, Fateme Babaha, Javad Minooeefar, Davood Rahimpoor
BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis (OM) is an atypical consequence of ankle-foot trauma which is associated with long-term mental and physical morbidity and persistent pain. This study aimed to assess the health status of OM patients with war-related ankle-foot injuries. METHODS: A total of 1129 veterans with ankle-foot injuries participated in a case-control study (2014-2016). Thirty patients with chronic OM of the ankle-foot were compared with 90 non-OM participants as the control group...
May 15, 2018: Military Medical Research
Bing Huang, Dian-Geng Li, Ying Huang, Chang-Ting Liu
Spaceflight and ground-based microgravity analog experiments have suggested that microgravity can affect microbial growth and metabolism. Although the effects of microgravity and its analogs on microorganisms have been studied for more than 50 years, plausible conflicting and diverse results have frequently been reported in different experiments, especially regarding microbial growth and secondary metabolism. Until now, only the responses of a few typical microbes to microgravity have been investigated; systematic studies of the genetic and phenotypic responses of these microorganisms to microgravity in space are still insufficient due to technological and logistical hurdles...
May 14, 2018: Military Medical Research
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