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Neurology and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707076/correlation-of-changes-in-patient-reported-quality-of-life-with-physician-rated-global-impression-of-change-in-patients-with-narcolepsy-participating-in-a-clinical-trial-of-sodium-oxybate-a-post-hoc-analysis
#1
Richard K Bogan, Jed Black, Todd Swick, Mortimer Mamelak, Ruzica Kovacevic-Ristanovic, Kathleen F Villa, Fannie Mori, Jacques Montplaisir
INTRODUCTION: Narcolepsy patients report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than the general population, as measured by the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). This analysis evaluated whether changes in SF-36 correlated with physician-rated Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C). METHODS: Data were from 209 of 228 narcolepsy patients participating in an 8-week clinical trial of sodium oxybate. Changes from baseline for SF-36 subscales (Physical Functioning, Role Physical, Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Social Functioning, Role Emotional, and Mental Health) and the summary scores were evaluated for correlation with CGI-C overall and by treatment group...
July 13, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733962/editorial-introduction-to-the-special-issue-from-the-international-symposium-on-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-disorders
#2
EDITORIAL
Marwan N Sabbagh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733961/a-review-of-biomarkers-for-neurodegenerative-disease-will-they-swing-us-across-the-valley
#3
REVIEW
Thomas G Beach
Measures of the severity of cognitive impairment or parkinsonism are the usual endpoints in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but are critically hampered by their lack of disease sensitivity and specificity. Due to the high failure rate of clinical trials, the rate of regulatory approval for efficacious new drugs has stagnated in the past few decades, with the gap between basic science discovery and clinical application metaphorically termed the "Valley of Death". While the causes for this are probably multiple and complex, the usage of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints, particularly when they are molecularly-specific for the disease, has achieved some success in cancer trials, and it is likely that neurodegenerative disease trials would benefit from the same approach...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733960/a-review-of-fluid-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-moving-from-csf-to-blood
#4
REVIEW
Kaj Blennow
A set of core cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau) and β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42). These biomarkers reflect some of the key aspects of AD pathophysiology, including neuronal degeneration, tau phosphorylation with tangle formation, and Aβ aggregation with deposition of the peptide into plaques. The core AD CSF biomarkers have been validated clinically in numerous studies, and found to have a very high diagnostic performance to identify AD, both in the dementia and in the mild cognitive impairment stages of the disease...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733959/increasing-precision-of-clinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-a-combined-algorithm-incorporating-clinical-and-novel-biomarker-data
#5
REVIEW
Marwan N Sabbagh, Lih-Fen Lue, Daniel Fayard, Jiong Shi
Establishing the in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementias relies on clinical criteria; however, the accuracy of these criteria can be limited. The diagnostic accuracy is 77% for a clinical diagnosis of AD, even among experts. We performed a review through PubMed of articles related to specific diagnostic modalities, including APOE genotyping, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography (PET), amyloid PET, tau PET, computed tomography (CT), single-photon emission CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and B12 and thyroid-stimulating hormone screening, to determine the specificity and sensitivity of each test used in the clinical diagnosis of AD...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733958/the-study-of-postmortem-human-synaptosomes-for-understanding-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-neurological-disorders-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Jia-Fong Jhou, Hwan-Ching Tai
Synaptic dysfunction is thought to play important roles in the pathophysiology of many neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Over the past few decades, there have been systematic efforts to collect postmortem brain tissues via autopsies, leading to the establishment of dozens of human brain banks around the world. From cryopreserved human brain tissues, it is possible to isolate detached-and-resealed synaptic terminals termed synaptosomes, which remain metabolically and enzymatically active...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733957/a-review-of-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-down-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Ni-Chung Lee, Yin-Hsiu Chien, Wuh-Liang Hwu
Down syndrome (Trisomy 21; DS) is a unique disease known to be associated with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). The initial presentation of AD in DS is usually difficult to recognize, owing to the underlying intellectual disabilities. Using biomarkers as a prediction tool for detecting AD in at-risk people with DS may benefit patient care. The objective of this review is to discuss the utility of biomarkers in DS on the basis of the pathophysiology of the disease and to provide an update on recent studies in this field...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733956/amyloid-beta-and-tau-as-alzheimer-s-disease-blood-biomarkers-promise-from-new-technologies
#8
REVIEW
Lih-Fen Lue, Andre Guerra, Douglas G Walker
The utility of the levels of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and tau in blood for diagnosis, drug development, and assessment of clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not been established. The lack of availability of ultra-sensitive assays is one critical issue that has impeded progress. The levels of Aβ species and tau in plasma and serum are much lower than levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Furthermore, plasma or serum contain high levels of assay-interfering factors, resulting in difficulties in the commonly used singulex or multiplex ELISA platforms...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733955/detection-of-plasma-biomarkers-using-immunomagnetic-reduction-a-promising-method-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Shieh-Yueh Yang, Ming-Jang Chiu, Ta-Fu Chen, Herng-Er Horng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The development of assay technologies able to diagnose early-stage AD is important. Blood tests to detect biomarkers, such as amyloid and total Tau protein, are among the most promising diagnostic methods due to their low cost, low risk, and ease of operation. However, such biomarkers in blood occur at extremely low levels and are difficult to detect precisely. In the early 2000s, a highly sensitive assay technology, immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), was developed...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508250/a-real-world-analysis-of-treatment-patterns-for-cholinesterase-inhibitors-and-memantine-among-newly-diagnosed-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#10
Nawal Bent-Ennakhil, Florence Coste, Lin Xie, Myrlene Sanon Aigbogun, Yuexi Wang, Furaha Kariburyo, Ann Hartry, Onur Baser, Peter Neumann, Howard Fillit
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative form of dementia. Pharmacological therapies for symptomatic treatment, such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine, have been available in the USA since 2000. Over the past decade, few studies have analyzed real-world anti-dementia treatment patterns in the USA. This study evaluated monotherapy AChEIs and memantine treatment patterns among newly diagnosed AD patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Medicare data and the Minimum Data Set from 2008 to 2012...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455812/treatment-patterns-among-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-or-without-psychiatric-or-neurologic-comorbidities-in-sweden-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Vanja Sikirica, Per A Gustafsson, Charles Makin
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children/adolescents and occurs frequently with psychiatric/neurologic comorbidities. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of psychiatric/neurologic comorbidities on pharmacotherapy patterns among patients with ADHD in Sweden. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using medical records from a regional database in Sweden. Patients aged 6-17 years, with ≥1 prescription for ADHD medication between July 1, 2007 and June 30, 2009, and continuously active in the database for ≥12 months before and after their prescription index date were selected...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316064/depression-among-hiv-aids-patients-on-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-southwest-regional-hospitals-of-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Pleasure Atoh Ngum, Peter Nde Fon, Roland Cheofor Ngu, Vincent Siysi Verla, Henri Namme Luma
INTRODUCTION: HIV patients are now having longer life expectancies with the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the issue of mental illness has surfaced with depression being the most common in these patients, which has markedly reduced patient adherence to ART. In Cameroon, the management of HIV/AIDS does not incorporate psychiatric manifestations and depression is therefore underdiagnosed. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of depressive symptoms and their association with adherence to ART among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in the Southwest Regional Hospitals of Cameroon...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211024/comparative-effectiveness-research-of-disease-modifying-therapies-for-the-management-of-multiple-sclerosis-analysis-of-a-large-health-insurance-claims-database
#13
Aaron Boster, Jacqueline Nicholas, Ning Wu, Wei-Shi Yeh, Monica Fay, Michael Edwards, Ming-Yi Huang, Andrew Lee
INTRODUCTION: Limited data are available on the real-world effectiveness of newer oral disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the real-world effectiveness of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), fingolimod, teriflunomide, and injectable DMTs in routine clinical practice based on US claims data. METHODS: Patients newly-initiating DMF, interferon beta (IFNβ), glatiramer acetate (GA), teriflunomide, or fingolimod in 2013 were identified in the Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims Databases (N = 6372)...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176189/number-needed-to-treat-in-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-trials
#14
REVIEW
Macaulay Okwuokenye, Annie Zhang, Amy Pace, Karl E Peace
Clinicians are expected to select a therapy based on their appraisal of evidence on benefit-to-risk profiles of therapies. In the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), evidence is typically expressed in terms of risk (proportion) of event, risk reduction, relative and hazard rate reduction, or relative reduction in the mean number of magnetic resonance imaging lesions. Interpreting treatment effect using these measures from a RRMS clinical trial is fairly reliable; however, this might not be the case when treatment effect is expressed in terms of the number needed to treat (NNT)...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093681/quantifying-the-benefits-of-dimethyl-fumarate-over-%C3%AE-interferon-and-glatiramer-acetate-therapies-on-work-productivity-outcomes-in-ms-patients
#15
Andrew Lee, James Pike, Michael R Edwards, Jennifer Petrillo, John Waller, Eddie Jones
INTRODUCTION: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a novel oral therapy used for the treatment of relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In two 2-year pivotal Phase 3 trials in patients with RRMS, DMF significantly reduced disease activity based on both clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. However, there is currently a lack of comparative data which explore the relationship between work productivity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes in RRMS and how these differ among RRMS therapies, including DMF...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078634/natalizumab-for-achieving-relapse-free-t1-gadolinium-enhancing-lesion-free-and-t2-lesion-free-status-in-japanese-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-phase-2-trial-subanalysis
#16
Takahiko Saida, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shuji Kishida, Takashi Yamamura, Nobuhisa Ohtsuka, Qunming Dong, J T Tibung
INTRODUCTION: In a phase 2 trial of natalizumab in Japanese patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), treatment-related changes in relapses, brain lesions, and disability worsening were found to be comparable with those observed in the phase 3 studies of natalizumab in primarily non-Asian RRMS patients. METHODS: This subanalysis of the placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of natalizumab in Japanese RRMS patients (n = 94) evaluated the effects of natalizumab versus placebo on the proportion of patients who achieved relapse-free, T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion-free, and new/newly enlarged T2 lesion-free status, defined as "no evidence of inflammatory disease activity" (NEDA)-like status, after 24 weeks of treatment...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054240/risk-of-adverse-outcomes-for-older-people-with-dementia-prescribed-antipsychotic-medication-a-population-based-e-cohort-study
#17
Michael Dennis, Laura Shine, Ann John, Amanda Marchant, Joanna McGregor, Ronan A Lyons, Sinead Brophy
INTRODUCTION: Over recent years there has been growing evidence of increased risk of mortality associated with antipsychotic use in older people with dementia. Although this concern combined with limited evidence of efficacy has informed guidelines restricting antipsychotic prescription in this population, the use of antipsycotics remains common. Many published studies only report short-term outcomes, are restricted to examining mortality and stroke risk or have other limitations. The aim of this study was to assess adverse outcomes associated with the use of antipsychotics in older people living with dementia in Wales (UK)...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921221/safety-and-efficacy-of-natalizumab-in-japanese-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-open-label-extension-study-of-a-phase-2-trial
#18
Takahiko Saida, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shuji Kishida, Takashi Yamamura, Nobuhisa Ohtsuka, Yan Ling, Shinichi Torii, Nisha Lucas, Geoffrey Kuesters, Deb Steiner, J T Tibung
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of natalizumab was evaluated in Japanese patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in a 24-week, phase 2 bridging study. An open-label, 2-year extension study from this trial was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of natalizumab treatment in Japanese patients. METHODS: A total of 97 patients (43 previously on placebo; 54 previously on natalizumab) who had completed the bridging study were treated with 300 mg natalizumab every 4 weeks...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915429/high-risk-pml-patients-switching-from-natalizumab-to-alemtuzumab-an-observational-study
#19
Simona Malucchi, Marco Capobianco, Marianna Lo Re, Maria Malentacchi, Alessia di Sapio, Manuela Matta, Francesca Sperli, Antonio Bertolotto
INTRODUCTION: The choice of therapy in patients withdrawing from natalizumab treatment is still an open question and neurologists need strategies to manage this group of patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate if alemtuzumab is able to control the disease when used in patient who have stopped natalizumab. METHODS: 16 patients stopped natalizumab treatment after a median number of 20 infusions (range 12-114); all the patients were responders to natalizumab (neither clinical nor radiological activity during natalizumab therapy) and the reason for stopping was the risk of PML for all of them...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896785/prescription-patterns-of-medications-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-japan-from-2010-to-2015-a-descriptive-pharmacy-claims-database-study
#20
Kimiko Kadohara, Izumi Sato, Yuko Doi, Masaru Arai, Yosuke Fujii, Toshiyuki Matsunaga, Koji Kawakami
INTRODUCTION: Although four kinds of Alzheimer's disease (AD) drugs are available at present there was only one drug until 2011 in Japan. This study aimed to elucidate prescription trends of these medications for AD in Japanese outpatients before and after the new drug releases in 2011. METHODS: This descriptive study of pharmacy claims databases analyzed outpatient prescription data from community pharmacies across Japan. The study patients were 20 years or older and first administered medications for AD (donepezil, memantine, rivastigmine, or galantamine) between January 2010 and September 2014...
June 2017: Neurology and Therapy
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