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Catherine Burke, Delaney Burnard, Adam Polkinghorne, Jonathan Webb, Wilhelmina M Huston
The Australian northern quoll is an important predatory marsupial carnivore that is currently endangered due to inappropriate fire regimes, predation, and the spread of invasive cane toads. The microbiota of Australian marsupials has not been extensively studied, but is thought to play a role in their health. This study provides an initial characterization of the cloacal microbiota of the northern quoll, as well as other marsupials including possums and kangaroos which were opportunistically sampled. The northern quoll cloaca microbiota was dominated by Enterococcus and Lactobacillus and had a relatively high proportion of members of the Proteobacteria phylum, which has been observed in other carnivorous marsupials...
July 12, 2018: Microorganisms
José Alberto Núñez-Díaz, Milena Fumanal, Ana do Vale, Catalina Fernández-Díaz, Miguel Ángel Moriñigo, María Carmen Balebona
Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida ( Phdp ) is responsible for disease outbreaks in marine aquaculture worldwide. Solea senegalensis , a valuable fish species for aquaculture in the south of Europe, is frequently affected by this pathogen. It is well established that bacteria respond to environmental signals and, in the case of pathogens, this ability may determine the outcome of their interaction with the host. Determination of gene expression under in vivo conditions constitutes a valuable tool in the assessment of microbial pathogenesis...
July 12, 2018: Microorganisms
Juan-José Escuder-Rodríguez, María-Eugenia DeCastro, María-Esperanza Cerdán, Esther Rodríguez-Belmonte, Manuel Becerra, María-Isabel González-Siso
Cellulases are a heterogeneous group of enzymes that synergistically catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the major component of plant biomass. Such reaction has biotechnological applications in a broad spectrum of industries, where they can provide a more sustainable model of production. As a prerequisite for their implementation, these enzymes need to be able to operate in the conditions the industrial process requires. Thus, cellulases retrieved from extremophiles, and more specifically those of thermophiles, are likely to be more appropriate for industrial needs in which high temperatures are involved...
July 10, 2018: Microorganisms
Courtney R A Toth, Carolina Berdugo-Clavijo, Corynne M O'Farrell, Gareth M Jones, Andriy Sheremet, Peter F Dunfield, Lisa M Gieg
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as naphthalene are widespread, recalcitrant pollutants in anoxic and methanogenic environments. A mechanism catalyzing PAH activation under methanogenic conditions has yet to be discovered, and the microbial communities coordinating their metabolism are largely unknown. This is primarily due to the difficulty of cultivating PAH degraders, requiring lengthy incubations to yield sufficient biomass for biochemical analysis. Here, we sought to characterize a new methanogenic naphthalene-degrading enrichment culture using DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) and metagenomic analyses...
July 10, 2018: Microorganisms
Danielly C Moreira, Manoel M E Oliveira, Cintia M Borba
Paecilomyces spp. and Byssochlamys spp. are heat-resistant fungi important to industry because they can cause food and beverage spoilage, incurring economic loss. The consequences of food or beverage fungal colonization is the loss of nutritional value, structure and taste, and the possibility of producing toxic secondary metabolites that may result in medical problems. Furthermore, these fungi can infect animals and humans and it is unknown if contaminated foods may be fomites. P. variotii is the principal agent of food spoilage or contamination and it is most frequently associated with human hyalohyphomycosis with clinical manifestations including peritonitis, cutaneous and disseminated infections, among others...
July 5, 2018: Microorganisms
Anders Schouw, Francesca Vulcano, Irene Roalkvam, William Peter Hocking, Eoghan Reeves, Runar Stokke, Gunhild Bødtker, Ida Helene Steen
Abyssivirga alkaniphila strain L81T , recently isolated from a black smoker biofilm at the Loki’s Castle hydrothermal vent field, was previously described as a mesophilic, obligately anaerobic heterotroph able to ferment carbohydrates, peptides, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The strain was classified as a new genus within the family Lachnospiraceae . Herein, its genome is analyzed and A. alkaniphila is reassigned to the genus Vallitalea as a new strain of V. guaymasensis , designated V. guaymasensis strain L81...
July 4, 2018: Microorganisms
Anna H Kaksonen
Microorganisms play an essential role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements, and thereforethey hold potential for various environmental and industrial applications[...].
July 2, 2018: Microorganisms
Elliot Curtis-Harper, Victoria K Pearson, Stephen Summers, John C Bridges, Susanne P Schwenzer, Karen Olsson-Francis
Evidence indicates that Gale crater on Mars harboured a fluvio-lacustrine environment that was subjected to physio-chemical variations such as changes in redox conditions and evaporation with salinity changes, over time. Microbial communities from terrestrial environmental analogues sites are important for studying such potential habitability environments on early Mars, especially in laboratory-based simulation experiments. Traditionally, such studies have predominantly focused on microorganisms from extreme terrestrial environments...
June 30, 2018: Microorganisms
Sebastian Hans, Matthias Gimpel, Florian Glauche, Peter Neubauer, Mariano Nicolas Cruz-Bournazou
Metabolic engineering and genome editing strategies often lead to large strain libraries of a bacterial host. Nevertheless, the generation of competent cells is the basis for transformation and subsequent screening of these strains. While preparation of competent cells is a standard procedure in flask cultivations, parallelization becomes a challenging task when working with larger libraries and liquid handling stations as transformation efficiency depends on a distinct physiological state of the cells. We present a robust method for the preparation of competent cells and their transformation...
June 25, 2018: Microorganisms
Sarah J Wolfson, Abigail W Porter, Lee J Kerkhof, Lora M McGuinness, Roger C Prince, Lily Y Young
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common organic contaminants found in anoxic environments. The capacity for PAH biodegradation in unimpacted environments, however, has been understudied. Here we investigate the enrichment, selection, and sustainability of a microbial community from a pristine environment on naphthalene as the only amended carbon source. Pristine coastal sediments were obtained from the Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve in Tuckerton, New Jersey, an ecological reserve which has no direct input or source of hydrocarbons...
June 25, 2018: Microorganisms
Ashely Bennett, Michelle M Ponder, Julia Garcia-Diaz
Phoma species are phytopathogens that are widely distributed in the environment, most commonly found in aquatic systems and soil. Phoma spp. have the potential to be pathogenic in plants, animals and humans; the latter is a rare occurrence. However, as our immunocompromised population increases, so do the reports of these infections. Medical advances have allowed for the increase in solid organ transplantation; chemotherapies to treat malignancies; and the use of other immunosuppressive agents, which have resulted in a greater population at risk when exposed to diverse fungi including Phoma spp...
June 23, 2018: Microorganisms
Thaina M da Costa, Carolina R de Oliveira, Henry F Chambers, Som S Chatterjee
β-lactam antibiotics are excellent drugs for treatment of staphylococcal infections, due to their superior efficacy and safety compared to other drugs. Effectiveness of β-lactams is severely compromised due to resistance, which is widespread among clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus . β-lactams inhibit bacterial cells by binding to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), which perform the penultimate steps of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Among PBPs of S. aureus , PBP2a has received the most attention for the past several decades due to its preeminent role in conferring both high-level and broad-spectrum resistance to the entire class of β-lactam drugs...
June 22, 2018: Microorganisms
Karl Peebo, Peter Neubauer
Depending on the environmental conditions, cells adapt their metabolism and specific growth rate. Rearrangements occur on many different levels such as macromolecular composition, gene and protein expression, morphology and metabolic flux patterns. As the interplay of these processes also determines the output of a recombinant protein producing system, having control over specific growth rate of the culture is advantageous. Continuous culture methods were developed to grow cells in a constant environment and have been used for decades to study basic microbial physiology in a controlled and reproducible manner...
June 21, 2018: Microorganisms
Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi, Médea Padra, János Tamás Padra, John Benktander, Sara K Lindén
Gastrointestinal infections cause significant challenges and economic losses in animal husbandry. As pathogens becoming resistant to antibiotics are a growing concern worldwide, alternative strategies to treat infections in farmed animals are necessary in order to decrease the risk to human health and increase animal health and productivity. Mucosal surfaces are the most common route used by pathogens to enter the body. The mucosal surface that lines the gastrointestinal tract is covered by a continuously secreted mucus layer that protects the epithelial surface...
June 18, 2018: Microorganisms
George Tetz, Victor Tetz
The pathogenesis of numerous human multifaceted devastating diseases, including a variety of neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota; however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Our recent human metagenome and phagobiota proteome analyses and studies in relevant animal models suggested that bacterial viruses might be implicated in the progression and maintenance of at least some pathologies, including those associated with protein misfolding...
June 16, 2018: Microorganisms
Kévin Gillois, Mathilde Lévêque, Vassilia Théodorou, Hervé Robert, Muriel Mercier-Bonin
Synthetic chemicals (environmental pollutants, food additives) are widely used for many industrial purposes and consumer-related applications, which implies, through manufactured products, diet, and environment, a repeated exposure of the general population with growing concern regarding health disorders. The gastrointestinal tract is the first physical and biological barrier against these compounds, and thus their first target. Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiota represents a major player in the toxicity of environmental pollutants and food additives; however, little is known on the toxicological relevance of the mucus/pollutant interplay, even though mucus is increasingly recognized as essential in gut homeostasis...
June 15, 2018: Microorganisms
Anton P Tyurin, Vera A Alferova, Vladimir A Korshun
Whole genome sequencing of actinomycetes has uncovered a new immense realm of microbial chemistry and biology. Most biosynthetic gene clusters present in genomes were found to remain “silent” under standard cultivation conditions. Some small molecules—chemical elicitors—can be used to induce the biosynthesis of antibiotics in actinobacteria and to expand the chemical diversity of secondary metabolites. Here, we outline a brief account of the basic principles of the search for regulators of this type and their application...
June 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Øivind Larsen, Gro Elin Kjæreng Bjerga
The discovery of new enzymes for industrial application relies on a robust discovery pipeline. Such a pipeline should facilitate efficient molecular cloning, recombinant expression and functional screening procedures. Previously, we have developed a vector set for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli . Here, we supplement the catalogue with vectors for expression in Bacillus. The vectors are made compatible with a versatile cloning procedure based on type IIS restriction enzymes and T4 DNA ligase, and encompass an effective counter-selection procedure and complement the set of vectors with options for secreted expression...
June 7, 2018: Microorganisms
Vera Meyer, Sascha Jung
The emergence and spread of pathogenic fungi resistant to currently used antifungal drugs represents a serious challenge for medicine and agriculture. The use of smart antimicrobials, so-called "dirty drugs" which affect multiple cellular targets, is one strategy to prevent resistance. Of special interest is the exploitation of the AFP family of antimicrobial peptides, which include its founding member AFP from Aspergillus giganteus . This latter is a highly potent inhibitor of chitin synthesis and affects plasma membrane integrity in many human and plant pathogenic fungi...
June 2, 2018: Microorganisms
Bélinda Ringot-Destrez, Zéa D'Alessandro, Jean-Marie Lacroix, Muriel Mercier-Bonin, Renaud Léonard, Catherine Robbe-Masselot
Mucus is the habitat for the microorganisms, bacteria and yeast that form the commensal flora. Mucins, the main macromolecules of mucus, and more specifically, the glycans that cover them, play essential roles in microbial gastrointestinal colonization. Probiotics and pathogens must also colonize mucus to have lasting positive or deleterious effects. The question of which mucin-harboured glycan motifs favour the adhesion of specific microorganisms remains very poorly studied. In the current study, a simple test based on the detection of fluorescent-labeled microorganisms raised against microgram amounts of mucins spotted on nitrocellulose was developed...
May 29, 2018: Microorganisms
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