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James F White, Kathryn L Kingsley, Satish K Verma, Kurt P Kowalski
In this paper, we describe a mechanism for the transfer of nutrients from symbiotic microbes (bacteria and fungi) to host plant roots that we term the 'rhizophagy cycle.' In the rhizophagy cycle, microbes alternate between a root intracellular endophytic phase and a free-living soil phase. Microbes acquire soil nutrients in the free-living soil phase; nutrients are extracted through exposure to host-produced reactive oxygen in the intracellular endophytic phase. We conducted experiments on several seed-vectored microbes in several host species...
September 17, 2018: Microorganisms
Nora Allan, Trina A Knotts, Risa Pesapane, Jon J Ramsey, Stephanie Castle, Deana Clifford, Janet Foley
The Amargosa vole is a highly endangered rodent endemic to a small stretch of the Amargosa River basin in Inyo County, California. It specializes on a single, nutritionally marginal food source in nature. As part of a conservation effort to preserve the species, a captive breeding population was established to serve as an insurance colony and a source of individuals to release into the wild as restored habitat becomes available. The colony has successfully been maintained on commercial diets for multiple generations, but there are concerns that colony animals could lose gut microbes necessary to digest a wild diet...
September 12, 2018: Microorganisms
Mohit Bibra, Venkat Reddy Kunreddy, Rajesh K Sani
The aim of the current study was to optimize the production of xylanase, and its application for ethanol production using the lignocellulosic biomass. A highly thermostable crude xylanase was obtained from the Geobacillus sp. strain DUSELR13 isolated from the deep biosphere of Homestake gold mine, Lead, SD. Geobacillus sp. strain DUSELR13 produced 6 U/mL of the xylanase with the beechwood xylan. The xylanase production was improved following the optimization studies, with one factor at a time approach, from 6 U/mL to 19...
September 5, 2018: Microorganisms
Eleni Nikouli, Alexandra Meziti, Efthimia Antonopoulou, Eleni Mente, Konstantinos A Kormas
This study investigated the profile of the autochthonous gut bacterial communities in adult individuals of Sparus aurata and Dicentrarchus labrax reared in sea cages in five distantly located aquaculture farms in Greece and determine the impact of geographic location on them in order to detect the core gut microbiota of these commercially important fish species. Data analyses resulted in no significant geographic impact in the gut microbial communities within the two host species, while strong similarities between them were also present...
September 1, 2018: Microorganisms
Linda A Amaral-Zettler, Victor Schmidt, Katherine F Smith
There is broad interest in disease spread through the pet trade, but empirical research on hosts and pathogens in transit along actual trade routes is notably absent. Using next-generation DNA sequencing, and partnering with the ornamental fish industry, we tracked shifts in microbial community and potential pathogen structure associated with Sailfin Tang ( Zebrasoma desjardinii ) along the United States (U.S.) leg of an international supply chain. We observed striking changes in microbial diversity and composition of potential pathogens, including increased dominance of vibrios of fishes in transit...
August 25, 2018: Microorganisms
Hasan Ufuk Celebioglu, Birte Svensson
The key role of diet and environment in human health receives increasing attention. Thus functional foods, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics with beneficial effects on health and ability to prevent diseases are in focus. The efficacy of probiotic bacteria has been connected with their adherence to the host epithelium and residence in the gut. Several in vitro techniques are available for analyzing bacterial interactions with mucin and intestinal cells, simulating adhesion to the host in vivo. Proteomics has monitored and identified proteins of probiotic bacteria showing differential abundance elicited in vitro by exposure to food components, including potential prebiotics (e...
August 21, 2018: Microorganisms
Emilio M Ungerfeld, Mary Beth Leigh, Robert J Forster, Perry S Barboza
We studied the relationship between fiber digestion and the composition of the bacterial community in the rumen of muskoxen at the start and the end of the annual window of plant growth from spring to fall. Eight ruminally cannulated castrated males were fed brome hay or triticale straw (69.6% vs. 84.6% neutral detergent fiber, respectively) that were similar in fiber content to the sedges consumed by wild muskoxen (64.5 to 71.7% neutral detergent fiber). Muskoxen digested fiber from both forages faster and to a greater extent when straw rather than hay was consumed...
August 20, 2018: Microorganisms
Richard C Summerbell, Cecile Gueidan, Josep Guarro, Akif Eskalen, Pedro W Crous, Aditya K Gupta, Josepa Gené, Jose F Cano-Lira, Arien van Iperen, Mieke Starink, James A Scott
Acremonium is known to be regularly isolated from food and also to be a cause of human disease. Herein, we resolve some sources of confusion that have strongly hampered the accurate interpretation of these and other isolations. The recently designated type species of the genus Acremonium , A. alternatum , is known only from a single isolate, but it is the closest known relative of what may be one of the planet's most successful organisms, Acremonium sclerotigenum/egyptianum , shown herein to be best called by its earliest valid name, A...
August 16, 2018: Microorganisms
Murthy N Darisipudi, Maria Nordengrün, Barbara M Bröker, Vincent Péton
Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) is a dangerous pathogen as well as a frequent colonizer, threatening human health worldwide. Protection against S. aureus infection is challenging, as the bacteria have sophisticated strategies to escape the host immune response. To maintain equilibrium with S. aureus , both innate and adaptive immune effector mechanisms are required. Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical players at the interface between the two arms of the immune system, indispensable for inducing specific T cell responses...
August 15, 2018: Microorganisms
Sayaka Tsuchida, Steven Kakooza, Pierre Philippe Mbehang Nguema, Eddie M Wampande, Kazunari Ushida
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) reside in a wide range of mammals, such as autochthonous intestinal bacteria. In this paper, we present the phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of gorilla-specific LAB. Lactobacillus gorillae -previously isolated from the wild and captive western lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla )-were successfully isolated from wild mountain gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla beringei ) in addition to other captive and wild western lowland gorillas. The strains from wild gorillas could ferment D-xylose, arbutine, cellobiose, and trehalose better than those from captive gorillas...
August 14, 2018: Microorganisms
Tamás Marik, Chetna Tyagi, Gordana Racić, Dávid Rakk, András Szekeres, Csaba Vágvölgyi, László Kredics
Trichoderma koningiopsis and T. gamsii belong to clade Viride of Trichoderma , the largest and most diverse group of this genus. They produce a wide range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including peptaibols with antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. The unusual amino acid residues of peptaibols, i.e., α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), isovaline (Iva), and the C-terminal 1,2-amino alcohol make them unique among peptides. In this study, the peptaibiomes of T. koningiopsis and T. gamsii were investigated by HPLC-ESI-MS...
August 12, 2018: Microorganisms
Kathrin I Mohr
The discovery of new antibiotics is mandatory with regard to the increasing number of resistant pathogens. One approach is the search for new antibiotic producers in nature. Among actinomycetes, Bacillus species, and fungi, myxobacteria have been a rich source for bioactive secondary metabolites for decades. To date, about 600 substances could be described, many of them with antibacterial, antifungal, or cytostatic activity. But, recent cultivation-independent studies on marine, terrestrial, or uncommon habitats unequivocally demonstrate that the number of uncultured myxobacteria is much higher than would be expected from the number of cultivated strains...
August 11, 2018: Microorganisms
Mariana R Pilotto, André N A Goncalves, Felipe N Vieira, Walter Q Seifert, Evelyne Bachère, Rafael D Rosa, Luciane M Perazzolo
We provide a global overview of the intestinal bacteriome of Litopenaeus vannamei in two rearing systems and after an oral challenge by the White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). By using a high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology, we identified and compared the composition and abundance of bacterial communities from the midgut of shrimp reared in the super-intensive biofloc technology (BFT) and clear seawater system (CWS). The predominant bacterial group belonged to the phylum Proteobacteria, followed by the phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes...
August 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Yun Zhang, Chengrong Peng, Zhicong Wang, Jinli Zhang, Lijie Li, Shun Huang, Dunhai Li
Numerous experimental simulations with different warming scenarios have been conducted to predict how algae will respond to warming, but their conclusions are sometimes contradictory to each other. This might be due to a failure to consider interspecific interactions. In this study, the dominant diatom species in a seasonal succession were isolated and verified to adapt to different temperature ranges by constant temperature experiment. Both unialgal and mixed cultures were exposed to two fluctuant temperature treatments that simulated the temperature variations from early spring to summer, with one treatment 4 °C higher (warming scenario) than the other...
August 7, 2018: Microorganisms
Masafumi Yoshinaga, Stephanie How, Damien Blanco, Ian S Murdoch, Matteo Grudny, Samantha L Powers, Nelson Molina, Barry P Rosen, Aaron Z Welch
Selenium-enriched yeast (selenium yeast) are one of the most popular sources of selenium supplementation used in the agriculture and human nutritional supplements industries. To enhance the production efficiency of selenium yeast, we sought to develop a method to identify, and ultimately select for, strains of yeast with enhanced selenium accumulation capabilities. Selenite resistance of four genetically diverse strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was assayed in various conditions, including varying carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and phosphate amounts, and they were correlated with selenium accumulation in a commercially relevant selenium-containing growth medium...
August 6, 2018: Microorganisms
Tong Liu, Li Sun, Åke Nordberg, Anna Schnürer
This study investigated whether biogas reactor performance, including microbial community development, in response to a change in substrate composition is influenced by initial inoculum source. For the study, reactors previously operated with the same grass⁻manure mixture for more than 120 days and started with two different inocula were used. These reactors initially showed great differences depending on inoculum source, but eventually showed similar performance and overall microbial community structure...
August 5, 2018: Microorganisms
Monika Novak Babič, Jerneja Zupančič, João Brandão, Nina Gunde-Cimerman
Clean drinking water and sanitation are fundamental human rights recognized by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly and the Human Rights Council in 2010 (Resolution 64/292). In modern societies, water is not related only to drinking, it is also widely used for personal and home hygiene, and leisure. Ongoing human population and subsequent environmental stressors challenge the current standards on safe drinking and recreational water, requiring regular updating. Also, a changing Earth and its increasingly frequent extreme weather events and climatic changes underpin the necessity to adjust regulation to a risk-based approach...
August 3, 2018: Microorganisms
Anthony P Corfield
Glycoproteins are major players in the mucus protective barrier in the gastrointestinal and other mucosal surfaces. In particular the mucus glycoproteins, or mucins, are responsible for the protective gel barrier. They are characterized by their high carbohydrate content, present in their variable number, tandem repeat domains. Throughout evolution the mucins have been maintained as integral components of the mucosal barrier, emphasizing their essential biological status. The glycosylation of the mucins is achieved through a series of biosynthetic pathways processes, which generate the wide range of glycans found in these molecules...
August 2, 2018: Microorganisms
Atsushi Ueda, Atsushi Kobayashi, Sayaka Tsuchida, Takuji Yamada, Koichi Murata, Hiroshi Nakamura, Kazunari Ushida
Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we compared the cecal microbial composition of wild living Japanese rock ptarmigans ( Lagopus muta japonica ) in different locations of Japanese mountains, and the dominant cecal microbial structure of wild Japanese rock ptarmigans is elucidated. Coriobacteraceae and Lachnospraceae were the two dominant bacterial families in all samples analyzed...
July 28, 2018: Microorganisms
Emilie U Andersen-Ranberg, Christopher J Barnes, Linett Rasmussen, Alejandro Salgado-Flores, Carsten Grøndahl, Jesper B Mosbacher, Anders J Hansen, Monica Alterskjær Sundset, Niels Martin Schmidt, Christian Sonne
Muskoxen ( Ovibos moschatus ) are ruminants adapted to a high-fibre diet. There is increasing interest in the role that gut microbes play in the digestion and utilization of these specialized diets but only limited data available on the gut microbiome of high-Arctic animals. In this study, we metabarcoded the 16S rRNA region of faecal samples from muskoxen of Northeast Greenland, Northwest Greenland and Norway, and quantified the effects of physiological and temporal factors on bacterial composition. We found significant effects of body mass, year of sampling and location on the gut bacterial communities of North East Greenland muskoxen...
July 25, 2018: Microorganisms
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