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Navita Sinha, Timothy A Kral
Methanogens have been considered models for life on Mars for many years. In order to survive any exposure at the surface of Mars, methanogens would have to endure Martian UVC radiation. In this research, we irradiated hydrated and desiccated cultures of slightly halophilic Methanococcus maripaludis and non-halophilic Methanobacterium formicicum for various time intervals with UVC (254 nm) radiation. The survivability of the methanogens was determined by measuring methane concentrations in the headspace gas samples of culture tubes after re-inoculation of the methanogens into their growth-supporting media following exposure to UVC radiation...
May 12, 2018: Microorganisms
Eivind B Drejer, Sigrid Hakvåg, Marta Irla, Trygve Brautaset
Although Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are the most prominent bacterial hosts for recombinant protein production by far, additional species are being explored as alternatives for production of difficult-to-express proteins. In particular, for thermostable proteins, there is a need for hosts able to properly synthesize, fold, and excrete these in high yields, and thermophilic Bacillaceae represent one potentially interesting group of microorganisms for such purposes. A number of thermophilic Bacillaceae including B...
May 10, 2018: Microorganisms
Andrew Willetts, Pamela Masters, Carol Steadman
For the first time, the differential rates of synthesis of all the key monooxygenases involved in the catabolism by Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007 of bicyclic ( rac )-camphor to ∆2,5 -3,4,4-trimethylpimelyl-CoA, the first aliphatic pathway intermediate, have been determined to help establish the relevant induction profile of each of the oxygen-dependent enzymes. The efficacy of both relevant substrates and pathway metabolites as inducers has been established. Further, inhibitors with characterised functionality have been used to indicate that the pertinent regulatory controls operate at the level of transcription of the corresponding genes...
May 7, 2018: Microorganisms
Ashlesha Kaushik, Helen Kest
Osteoarticular infections (OSI) are a significant cause of hospitalizations and morbidity in young children. The pediatric patient with OSI presents unique challenges in diagnosis and management due to higher morbidity, effect on growth plate with associated long-lasting sequelae, and challenges in early identification and management. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), first described in the 1960s, has evolved rapidly to emerge as a predominant cause of OSI in children, and therefore empiric treatment for OSI should include an antibiotic effective against MRSA...
May 4, 2018: Microorganisms
Cécile Formosa-Dague, Mickaël Castelain, Hélène Martin-Yken, Karen Dunker, Etienne Dague, Marit Sletmoen
Bacterial adhesion is currently the subject of increased interest from the research community, leading to fast progress in our understanding of this complex phenomenon. Resent research within this field has documented the important roles played by glycans for bacterial surface adhesion, either through interaction with lectins or with other glycans. In parallel with this increased interest for and understanding of bacterial adhesion, there has been a growth in the sophistication and use of sensitive force probes for single-molecule and single cell studies...
May 4, 2018: Microorganisms
Antonio Milton Vieira Gomes, Talita Souza Carmo, Lucas Silva Carvalho, Frederico Mendonça Bahia, Nádia Skorupa Parachin
Recombinant protein production emerged in the early 1980s with the development of genetic engineering tools, which represented a compelling alternative to protein extraction from natural sources. Over the years, a high level of heterologous protein was made possible in a variety of hosts ranging from the bacteria Escherichia coli to mammalian cells. Recombinant protein importance is represented by its market size, which reached $1654 million in 2016 and is expected to reach $2850.5 million by 2022. Among the available hosts, yeasts have been used for producing a great variety of proteins applied to chemicals, fuels, food, and pharmaceuticals, being one of the most used hosts for recombinant production nowadays...
April 29, 2018: Microorganisms
Fábio C Carneiro, Simone S Weber, Osmar N Silva, Ana Cristina Jacobowski, Marcelo H S Ramada, Maria L R Macedo, Octávio L Franco, Nádia S Parachin
Protease inhibitors have a broad biotechnological application ranging from medical drugs to anti-microbial agents. The Inga laurina trypsin inhibitor (ILTI) previously showed a great in vitro inhibitory effect under the adherence of Staphylococcus species, being a strong candidate for use as an anti-biofilm agent. Nevertheless, this is found in small quantities in its sources, which impairs its utilization at an industrial scale. Within this context, heterologous production using recombinant microorganisms is one of the best options to scale up the recombinant protein production...
April 28, 2018: Microorganisms
Luis Pianciola, Marta Rivas
There is great geographical variation in the frequency of Escherichia coli O157 infections that correlates with important differences in the bovine reservoir of each country. Our group carried out a broad molecular characterization of human and bovine E. coli O157 strains circulating in Argentina using different methodologies. Our data allows us to conclude that in Argentina, a high homogeneity is observed in both cattle and human strains, with almost exclusive circulation of strains belonging to the hypervirulent clade 8 described by Manning...
April 27, 2018: Microorganisms
Miguel Toribio-Mateas
An extensive body of evidence documents the importance of the gut microbiome both in health and in a variety of human diseases. Cell and animal studies describing this relationship abound, whilst clinical studies exploring the associations between changes in gut microbiota and the corresponding metabolites with neurodegeneration in the human brain have only begun to emerge more recently. Further, the findings of such studies are often difficult to translate into simple clinical applications that result in measurable health outcomes...
April 25, 2018: Microorganisms
Rebecca L Mickol, Sarah K Laird, Timothy A Kral
Although the martian environment is currently cold and dry, geomorphological features on the surface of the planet indicate relatively recent (<4 My) freeze/thaw episodes. Additionally, the recent detections of near-subsurface ice as well as hydrated salts within recurring slope lineae suggest potentially habitable micro-environments within the martian subsurface. On Earth, microbial communities are often active at sub-freezing temperatures within permafrost, especially within the active layer, which experiences large ranges in temperature...
April 23, 2018: Microorganisms
Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu
Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly expanding farming systems in the world. Its rapid expansion has brought with it several pathogens infecting different fish species. As a result, there has been a corresponding expansion in vaccine development to cope with the increasing number of infectious diseases in aquaculture. The success of vaccine development for bacterial diseases in aquaculture is largely attributed to empirical vaccine designs based on inactivation of whole cell (WCI) bacteria vaccines. However, an upcoming challenge in vaccine design is the increase of intracellular bacterial pathogens that are not responsive to WCI vaccines...
April 22, 2018: Microorganisms
Federico Dorati, Glyn A Barrett, Maria Sanchez-Contreras, Tanya Arseneault, Mateo San José, David J Studholme, Jesús Murillo, Primitivo Caballero, Nicholas R Waterfield, Dawn L Arnold, Liz J Shaw, Robert W Jackson
Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning the ecological success of plant pathogens is critical to develop strategies for controlling diseases and protecting crops. Recent observations have shown that plant pathogenic bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas , exist in a range of natural environments away from their natural plant host e.g., water courses, soil, non-host plants. This exposes them to a variety of eukaryotic predators such as nematodes, insects and amoebae present in the environment. Nematodes and amoeba in particular are bacterial predators while insect herbivores may act as indirect predators, ingesting bacteria on plant tissue...
April 21, 2018: Microorganisms
Mohamed Amine Gomri, Agustín Rico-Díaz, Juan-José Escuder-Rodríguez, Tedj El Moulouk Khaldi, María-Isabel González-Siso, Karima Kharroub
Proteases have numerous biotechnological applications and the bioprospection for newly-thermostable proteases from the great biodiversity of thermophilic microorganisms inhabiting hot environments, such as geothermal sources, aims to discover more effective enzymes for processes at higher temperatures. We report in this paper the production and the characterization of a purified acid protease from strain OA30, a moderate thermophilic bacterium isolated from an Algerian hot spring. Phenotypic and genotypic study of strain OA30 was followed by the production of the extracellular protease in a physiologically-optimized medium...
April 12, 2018: Microorganisms
Sougata Roy, Rosemary Jagus, David Morse
Dinoflagellates are unicellular protists that feature a multitude of unusual nuclear features, including large genomes, packaging of DNA without histones, and multiple gene copies organized as tandem gene arrays. Furthermore, all dinoflagellate mRNAs experience trans-splicing with a common 22-nucleotide splice leader (SL) sequence. These features challenge some of the concepts and assumptions about the regulation of gene expression derived from work on model eukaryotes such as yeasts and mammals. Translational control in the dinoflagellates, based on extensive study of circadian bioluminescence and by more recent microarray and transcriptome analyses, is now understood to be a crucial element in regulating gene expression...
April 7, 2018: Microorganisms
Ulrich Stingl
Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...].
March 30, 2018: Microorganisms
Sharon Lafferty Doty
While plant-microbe symbioses involving root nodules (Rhizobia and Frankia) or the root-soil interface (rhizosphere) have been well studied, the intimate interaction of microbial endophytes with the plant host is a relatively new field of research.[...].
March 22, 2018: Microorganisms
Debra A Davis, Sparkle L Malone, Charles R Lovell
Drought has many consequences in the tidally dominated Spartina sp. salt marshes of the southeastern US; including major dieback events, changes in sediment chemistry and obvious changes in the landscape. These coastal systems tend to be highly productive, yet many salt marshes are also nitrogen limited and depend on plant associated diazotrophs as their source of 'new' nitrogen. A 4-year study was conducted to investigate the structure and composition of the rhizosphere diazotroph assemblages associated with 5 distinct plant zones in one such salt marsh...
March 15, 2018: Microorganisms
Yoshitake Orikasa, Yuji Oda, Takuji Ohwada
Rhizopus microsporus NBRC 32995 was found to hydrolyze fructooligosaccharides (FOS), as well as sucrose, almost completely into monosaccharides through the production of sufficient amounts of organic acids, indicating that the complete hydrolysis of FOS was caused by the secretion of β-fructofuranosidase from fungal cells. Thus, the sucA gene, encoding a β-fructofuranosidase, was amplified by degenerate PCR, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The total length of the sucA gene was 1590 bp, and the SucA protein of R...
March 13, 2018: Microorganisms
Pietro Speziale, Simonetta Rindi, Giampiero Pietrocola
Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide spectrum of diseases, including sepsis, pneumonia, arthritis, and endocarditis. Ineffective treatment of a number of staphylococcal infections with antibiotics is due to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant strains following decades of antibiotic usage. This has generated renewed interest within the scientific community in alternative therapeutic agents, such as anti- S. aureus antibodies. Although the role of antibodies in the management of S...
March 13, 2018: Microorganisms
Alejandro M Labella, M Dolores Castro, Manuel Manchado, Juan J Borrego
Phylogenetic relationships between species in the genus Photobacterium have been poorly studied despite pathogenic and ecological relevance of some of its members. This is the first phylogenetic study that includes new species of Photobacterium (validated or not) that have not been included in any of the previously described clades, using 16S rRNA sequences and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) in concatenated sequences of gyrB , gapA , topA , ftsZ and mreB housekeeping genes. Sequence analysis has been implemented using Maximum-parsimony (MP), Neighbour-joining (NJ) and Maximum likelihood (ML) treeing methods and the predicted evolutionary relationship between the Photobacterium clades was established on the basis of bootstrap values of >75% for 16S rRNA sequences and MLSA...
March 12, 2018: Microorganisms
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