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Neuroscience Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672650/evaluation-of-knee-proprioception-and-factors-related-to-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Nathalie Ribeiro Artigas, Giovana Duarte Eltz, Alexandre Severo do Pinho, Vanessa Bielefeldt Leotti Torman, Arlete Hilbig, Carlos R M Rieder
Background. Changes in proprioception may contribute to postural instability in individuals with neurological disorders. Objectives. Evaluate proprioception in the lower limbs of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and the association between proprioception and cognitive ability, motor symptoms, postural instability, and disease severity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional, controlled study that evaluated proprioception in PD patients and healthy age- and sex-matched individuals. Kinetic postural proprioception of the knee was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex® Multi-Joint System 4 Pro)...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635393/ips-interest-in-the-eeg-of-patients-after-a-single-epileptic-seizure
#2
Fatima Zahra Taoufiqi, Jamal Mounach, Amal Satte, Hamid Ouhabi, Aboubaker El Hessni
Objective. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of pathological cerebral activity responses to intermittent rhythmic photic stimulation (IPS) after a single epileptic seizure. Patients and Methods. One hundred and thirty-seven EEGs were performed at the Neurophysiology Department of Mohamed V Teaching Military Hospital in Rabat. Clinical and EEG data was collected. Results. 9.5% of our patients had photoparoxysmal discharges (PPD). Incidence was higher in males than in females, but p value was not significant (p = 0...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635392/an-outcome-study-of-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-among-iranian-population
#3
Ali Haghnegahdar, Mahsa Sedighi
Background and Aim. First-line treatment strategy for managing cervical disc herniation is conservative measures. In some cases, surgery is indicated either due to signs/symptoms of severe/progressive neurological deficits, or because of persistence of radicular pain despite 12 weeks of conservative treatment. Success for treatment of cervical disc herniation using ACDF has been successfully reported in the literature. We aim to determine the outcome of ACDF in treatment of cervical disc herniation among Iranians...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525257/cerebral-blood-flow-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-patterns-during-the-tilt-test-in-common-orthostatic-syndromes
#4
Peter Novak
Objective. The head-up tilt test is widely used for evaluation of orthostatic intolerance. Although orthostatic symptoms usually reflect cerebral hypoperfusion, the cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) profile in orthostatic syndromes is not well described. This study evaluated CBFv and cardiovascular patterns associated with the tilt test in common orthostatic syndromes. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed the tilt test of patients with history of orthostatic intolerance. The following signals were recorded: ECG, blood pressure, CBFv using transcranial Doppler, respiratory signals, and end tidal CO2...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433469/young-adult-male-rats-vulnerability-to-chronic-mild-stress-is-reflected-by-anxious-like-instead-of-depressive-like-behaviors
#5
Herrera-Pérez José Jaime, Benítez-Coronel Venus, Jiménez-Rubio Graciela, Hernández-Hernández Olivia Tania, Martínez-Mota Lucía
In a previous study, we found that chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm did not induce anhedonia in young-adult male rats but it reduced their body weight gain. These contrasting results encouraged us to explore other indicators of animal's vulnerability to stress such as anxious-like behaviors, since stress is an etiologic factor also for anxiety. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the vulnerability of these animals to CMS using behavioral tests of depression or anxiety and measuring serum corticosterone. Male Wistar rats were exposed to four weeks of CMS; the animals' body weight and sucrose preference (indicator of anhedonia) were assessed after three weeks, and, after the fourth week, some animals were evaluated in a behavioral battery (elevated plus maze, defensive burying behavior, and forced swimming tests); meanwhile, others were used to measure serum corticosterone...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433468/transcription-factor-eb-is-selectively-reduced-in-the-nuclear-fractions-of-alzheimer-s-and-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-brains
#6
Hongjie Wang, Ruizhi Wang, Shaohua Xu, Madepalli K Lakshmana
Multiple studies suggest that autophagy is strongly dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as evidenced by accumulation of numerous autophagosomes, lysosomes with discontinuous membranes, and aggregated proteins in the patients' brains. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) was recently discovered to be a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. To examine whether aberrant autophagy in AD and ALS is due to alterations in TFEB expression, we systematically quantified the levels of TFEB in these brains by immunoblotting...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413732/supramaximal-stimulus-intensity-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-chronic-demyelinating-neuropathy
#7
Vivien Parker, Jodi Warman Chardon, Julie Mills, Claire Goldsmith, Pierre R Bourque
Objective. The ability to correctly identify chronic demyelinating neuropathy can have important therapeutic and prognostic significance. The stimulus intensity value required to obtain a supramaximal compound muscle action potential amplitude is a commonly acquired data point that has not been formally assessed as a diagnostic tool in routine nerve conduction studies to identify chronic neuropathies. We postulated that this value was significantly elevated in chronic demyelinating neuropathy. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed electrophysiology laboratory records to compare the stimulus intensity values recorded during median and ulnar motor nerve conduction studies...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314004/association-of-cognitive-abilities-and-brain-lateralization-among-primary-school-children-in-kuwait
#8
Jasem Y Al-Hashel, Samar Farouk Ahmed, Hanouf Al-Mutairi, Shahd Hassan, Nora Al-Awadhi, Mariam Al-Saraji
Background. Many studies have explored the cognitive variation between left- and right-handed individuals; however, the differences remain poorly understood. Aim of the Work. To assess the association between brain lateralization indicated by handedness and cognitive abilities. Material and Methods. A total of 217 students aged between 7 and 10 years of both genders were identified for the study. Males and females were equally distributed. All left-handed students were chosen. An equal group with right-handed students was randomly selected...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314003/sex-and-gender-differences-in-central-nervous-system-related-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Emanuela Zagni, Lucia Simoni, Delia Colombo
There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27243029/adaptive-neuromorphic-circuit-for-stereoscopic-disparity-using-ocular-dominance-map
#10
Sheena Sharma, Priti Gupta, C M Markan
Stereopsis or depth perception is a critical aspect of information processing in the brain and is computed from the positional shift or disparity between the images seen by the two eyes. Various algorithms and their hardware implementation that compute disparity in real time have been proposed; however, most of them compute disparity through complex mathematical calculations that are difficult to realize in hardware and are biologically unrealistic. The brain presumably uses simpler methods to extract depth information from the environment and hence newer methodologies that could perform stereopsis with brain like elegance need to be explored...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006905/how-extended-is-wernicke-s-area-meta-analytic-connectivity-study-of-ba20-and-integrative-proposal
#11
REVIEW
Alfredo Ardila, Byron Bernal, Monica Rosselli
Understanding the functions of different brain areas has represented a major endeavor of contemporary neurosciences. The purpose of this paper was to pinpoint the connectivity of Brodmann area 20 (BA20) (inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus) in language tasks. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA20 is involved. The DataBase of Brainmap was used; 11 papers corresponding to 12 experimental conditions with a total of 207 subjects were included in this analysis. Our results demonstrated seven clusters of activation including other temporal lobe areas (BA3, BA21), the insula, and the prefrontal cortex; minor clusters in the cingulate gyrus and the occipital lobe were observed; however, the volumes of all the activation clusters were small...
2016: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779531/the-progress-of-mitophagy-and-related-pathogenic-mechanisms-of-the-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-tumor
#12
REVIEW
Ying Song, Wei Ding, Yan Xiao, Kong-Jun Lu
Mitochondrion, an organelle with two layers of membrane, is extremely vital to eukaryotic cell. Its major functions are energy center and apoptosis censor inside cell. The intactness of mitochondrial membrane is important to maintain its structure and function. Mitophagy is one kind of autophagy. In recent years, studies of mitochondria have shown that mitophagy is regulated by various factors and is an important regulation mechanism for organisms to maintain their normal state. In addition, abnormal mitophagy is closely related to several neurodegenerative diseases and tumor...
2015: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26693475/fingolimod-real-world-experience-efficacy-and-safety-in-clinical-practice
#13
REVIEW
Joaquim Fonseca
Fingolimod is a multiple sclerosis treatment licensed in Europe since 2011. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in three large phase III trials, used in the regulatory submissions throughout the world. As usual, in these trials the inclusion and exclusion criteria were designed to obtain a homogeneous population, with interchangeable characteristics in the different treatment arms. Although this is the best strategy to achieve a robust answer to the investigation question, it does not guaranty the treatment efficacy in the clinical practice, since in the real world there are concomitant treatments, comorbidities, adherence, and persistence challenges...
2015: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26576411/do-three-different-passive-assessments-of-quadriceps-spasticity-relate-to-the-functional-activity-of-walking-for-children-diagnosed-with-cerebral-palsy
#14
Hank White, Tim L Uhl, Sam Augsburger
A stiff-knee gait pattern is frequently associated with several impairments including quadriceps spasticity in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). The relationship of clinical measures of quadriceps spasticity and the stiff-knee gait pattern in children diagnosed with CP has not been well established. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the ability of clinical measures of quadriceps spasticity (modified Ashworth scale [MAS], Ely tests, and pendulum test) to categorize a stiff-knee gait pattern in children with CP...
2015: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26413499/evaluation-of-motor-neuron-excitability-by-cmap-scanning-with-electric-modulated-current
#15
Tiago Araújo, Rui Candeias, Neuza Nunes, Hugo Gamboa
Introduction. Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) scan is a noninvasive promissory technique for neurodegenerative pathologies diagnosis. In this work new CMAP scan protocols were implemented to study the influence of electrical pulse waveform on peripheral nerve excitability. Methods. A total of 13 healthy subjects were tested. Stimulation was performed with an increasing intensities range from 4 to 30 mA. The procedure was repeated 4 times per subject, using a different single pulse stimulation waveform: monophasic square and triangular and quadratic and biphasic square...
2015: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366406/change-in-motor-and-nonmotor-symptoms-severity-in-a-real-life-cohort-of-subjects-with-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Adib Jorge de Saráchaga, Amin Cervantes-Arriaga, Rodrigo Llorens-Arenas, Humberto Calderón-Fajardo, Mayela Rodríguez-Violante
Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive disorder. Rates of change in motor symptoms have been more studied compared to nonmotor symptoms. The objective was to describe these changes in a real-life cohort of subjects with PD. Methods. A cohort study was carried out from 2011 to 2013. Consecutive patients with PD were recruited from a movement disorders clinic. MDS-UPDRS, PDQ-8, and NMSS were applied to all subjects at an initial evaluation and a subsequent visit (21 ± 3 months). Disease severity was categorized using a recent classification of MDS-UPDRS severity...
2015: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26317113/sex-differences-and-the-impact-of-chronic-stress-and-recovery-on-instrumental-learning
#17
Angela L McDowell, Kathryn M H Fransen, Kevin S Elliott, Alhasan Elghouche, Polina V Kostylev, Pamela K O'Dea, Preston E Garraghty
We have previously shown that 21-day chronic restraint stress impacts instrumental learning, but overall few studies have examined sex differences on the impact of stress on learning. We further examined sex differences in response to extended 42-day chronic stress on instrumental learning, as well as recovery from chronic stress. Rats were tested in aversive training tasks with or without prior appetitive experience, and daily body weight data was collected as an index of stress. Relative to control animals, reduced body weight was maintained from day 22 through day 42 across the stress period for males, but not for females...
2015: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26317112/motorcycle-related-traumatic-brain-injuries-helmet-use-and-treatment-outcome
#18
Mathias Ogbonna Nnanna Nnadi, Olufemi Babatola Bankole, Beleudanyo Gbalipre Fente
Summary. With increasing use of motorcycle as means of transport in developing countries, traumatic brain injuries from motorcycle crashes have been increasing. The only single gadget that protects riders from traumatic brain injury is crash helmet. Objective. The objectives were to determine the treatment outcome among traumatic brain injury patients from motorcycle crashes and the rate of helmet use among them. Methods. It was a prospective, cross-sectional study of motorcycle-related traumatic brain injury patients managed in our center from 2010 to 2014...
2015: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26317111/age-and-sex-dependent-changes-in-androgen-receptor-expression-in-the-developing-mouse-cortex-and-hippocampus
#19
Houng-Wei Tsai, Saori Taniguchi, Jason Samoza, Aaron Ridder
During the perinatal period, male mice are exposed to higher levels of testosterone (T) than females, which promotes sexual dimorphism in their brain structures and behaviors. In addition to acting via estrogen receptors after being locally converted into estradiol by aromatase, T also acts directly through androgen receptor (AR) in the brain. Therefore, we hypothesized that AR expression in the developing mouse cortex and hippocampus was sexually dimorphic. To test our hypothesis, we measured and determined AR mRNA and protein levels in mouse cortex/hippocampus collected on the day of birth (PN0) and 7 (PN7), 14 (PN14), and 21 (PN21) days after birth...
2015: Neuroscience Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26317110/impact-of-age-and-duration-of-symptoms-on-surgical-outcome-of-single-level-microscopic-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-in-the-patients-with-cervical-spondylotic-radiculopathy
#20
Farzad Omidi-Kashani, Ebrahim Ghayem Hasankhani, Reza Ghandehari
We aim to evaluate the impact of age and duration of symptoms on surgical outcome of the patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) who had been treated by single-level microscopic anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We retrospectively evaluated 68 patients (48 female and 20 male) with a mean age of 41.2 ± 4.3 (ranged from 24 to 72 years old) in our Orthopedic Department, Imam Reza Hospital. They were followed up for 31.25 ± 4.1 months (ranged from 25 to 65 months). Pain and disability were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaires in preoperative and last follow-up visits...
2014: Neuroscience Journal
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