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Respiratory Medicine Case Reports

Elisabet Periche Pedra, Melinda Rita Koborzan, Fabrizio Sbraga, Arnau Blasco Lucas, David Toral Sepúlveda
Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a mode of extracorporeal life support that has been used to support cardiopulmonary disease refractory to conventional therapy. The experience with the use of ECMO in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is still limited. The aim of this study was to report clinical outcomes in adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure refractory to mechanical ventilation treated with ECMO. Methods: Between July 2011 and October 2017, 18 adult patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure refractory to mechanical ventilation were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of an acute care tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Fatehi Elzein, Ahmed Elzein, Nazik Mohammed, Ramiz Alswailem
A 26-year-old woman was diagnosed with and treated for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 2002. She was admitted 11 years later with nephrotic-range proteinuria and lupus nephritis and received two doses of rituximab after failing on steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. Four months later, she presented with fever and joint pain/swelling. Gram stains, joint aspirates, and blood culture all yielded negative results for bacteria. She was discharged after treatment for a possible flare of lupus, but two weeks later, she presented again with a cough and shortness of breath in addition to the flare symptoms...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Dezhi Li, Li Xu, Dianjie Lin, Shujuan Jiang, Saran Feng, Ling Zhu
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a most dangerous complication that needs prompt treatment to reduce potentially death. There are many well-known prognostic factors indicate the morbidity and mortality in various thromboembolic events. Persistent eosinophilia in peripheral blood can lead to tissue infiltration and even organ damage, but the urgent event of thromboembolism in pulmonary provoked by eosinophil eosinophilia in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is relative an unusual presentation. In this paper, we present two cases of patients with multiple PE and deep vein thrombosis secondary to the idiopathic HES...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Hideaki Yamakawa, Tamiko Takemura, Tomohisa Baba, Takashi Ogura
We report a case of pathological emphysema formation in a never-smoker with scleroderma-related interstitial pneumonia. We realized the importance of pulmonary vasculopathy causing the coexistence of emphysema and fibrosis in scleroderma. Our discovery provides novel information that emphysema can occur in patients with scleroderma-related interstitial pneumonia who have never smoked.
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Tahir Majeed, Ajaz Koul, Talib Khan, Sahil Hassan
We report a case of a 65-year-old male, who presented with respiratory complaints of cough and breathlessness, managed initially as respiratory tract infection. However, the patient did not improve, and a thorough examination and imaging revealed herniation of a gut segment into the thorax. The patient was operated and respiratory symptoms improved dramatically.
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Kenneth K Sakata, Janani S Reisenauer, Ryan M Kern, David E Midthun, James P Utz, Shanda H Blackmon, John J Mullon, Dennis A Wigle
Introduction: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a feared complication of pulmonary resection. Fistula plugs (FP) have been described as an adequate treatment in anorectal disease. We describe our early experience placing an FP in the treatment of BPF. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 5 patients for whom a FP was placed for BPF at our institution. Demographic data, initial perioperative information, method and technique of FP placement, and success is reported...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Lining Wang, Ning Li, Ling Zhou, Xiaoyan Chen, Wei Tang
Erythroderma is occasionally associated with lung cancer. Here we report a 69-year-old male who has history of melanoma from 8 years ago presented with erythroderma associated with skin, soft tissue and pulmonary infection. CT chest showed a single enlarging right upper lobe lung nodule. Biopsy showed evidence of adenocarcinoma, and eventually proven to be metastatic melanoma. The patient improved after antibiotics and antifungal treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case of melanoma metastasis presented as erythroderma as paraneoplastic syndrome...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Philipose Jobin, Siddiqui Faraz, Wong Jiyoung, Wiesel Shimshon, Esper Ziad, Elsayegh Dany
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare and life-threatening event which is characterized by bleeding into the alveolar spaces of the lung. Etiology of DAH can be broadly divided into immune and non-immune mediated disease. In the absence of infection or malignancy, an immunological workup is required to find the cause of alveolar bleed. Rarely, there is a failure to establish a definitive etiology in patients with DAH. In those scenarios, patients who do not respond to steroids, plasmapheresis should be considered as a rescue treatment to prevent catastrophic outcomes...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Tomás Almorza, Mercedes Herrera-Juárez, Antonio Lalueza
Acute mediastinitis (AM) is a rare and deadly disease without appropriate treatment. It is usually due to invasive medical procedures, being uncommon the spontaneous onset. We report a case of 49-year-old patient whose starting symptoms were dyspnea and oppressive epigastric pain.
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Yasmin Jahan, Atiqur Rahman
Pneumonia is a major cause of child mortality among children under five years, worldwide. Pneumonia infection may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi in single or in both lungs. According to recent criteria developed by World Health Organization (WHO) in September (2013), pneumonia can be classified into severe pneumonia, pneumonia and no pneumonia. Most of the deaths occur from severe pneumonia and management of severe childhood pneumonia requires early identification, prompt referral and the availability of intensive quality of care...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Emiri Tsumiyama, Hideaki Yamakawa, Shintaro Sato, Tomohiro Oba, Tomotaka Nishizawa, Rie Kawabe, Keiichi Akasaka, Masako Amano, Teppei Kamikawa, Masanobu Horikoshi, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Hidekazu Matsushima
We herein report the first case, to our knowledge, of tracheobronchial ulcer with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA 5) antibody-positive interstitial lung disease (ILD). A 53-year-old man complained of shoulder and wrist pain and was suspected of having polymyalgia rheumatica at another hospital. Thereafter, treatment with prednisolone was started. Although his arthralgia improved, he suffered from progressive dyspnea on exertion and an abnormal shadow was noted on chest X-ray, so he was transferred to our hospital...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Elham Karamooz, Vanessa L Yap, Alan F Barker, Mark L Metersky
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a rare pulmonary infection, often associated with zoonotic transmission. It has been described in immunocompromised patients and those with underlying pulmonary disease. However, there are no case series describing the spectrum of disease caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Here, we report three cases of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and highlight the pathophysiology of the microbe...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Amjad Kanj, Ayman O Soubani, Hussam Tabaja, Said El Zein, Mirna Fares, Nadim Kanj
A gossypiboma refers to a surgical sponge or gauze accidentally retained inside a patient during a procedure. It is more commonly encountered after abdominal surgeries. When seen in the thorax, it is usually located within the pleural cavity. We report a case of a 42-year old woman who was found to have a gossypiboma mimicking a simple aspergilloma twenty years after a left thoracotomy. The surgical gauze identified on a CT-scan of her chest appears to have migrated into her lung airways.
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Ryan Hyde, Martin Runnstrom, Austin Anderson, Leonard Riley, Ali Ataya
A 26 year old female presented for recurrent blood tinged sputum during the previous year with development of frank hemoptysis three days prior to admission. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) was confirmed with serial lavages. The patient had no history of autoimmune disease, vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity including miscarriages or pre-eclampsia. High dose steroids were initiated along with noninvasive ventilatory support. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe mitral regurgitation and a vegetation on the mitral valve; transesophageal echocardiogram determined the lesion highly suggestive of Libman-Sachs endocarditis...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Nathalie Foray, Taylor Stone, Alexander Johnson, Mirza Ali, Shreedhar Kulkarni, John Gao, Rajagopal Sreedhar
Background: Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion has been associated with many cancers; most commonly small cell carcinoma of the lung and bronchial carcinoid tumors. Usually, patients who confer this diagnosis have poor prognosis. Case presentation: A 66-year-old female presented with worsening shortness of breath and weakness over three days. Initial laboratory derangements included severe hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Treatment included high amounts of potassium chloride and acetazolamide...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Hazim S Bukamur, Emhemmid Karem, Serag Fares, Mohammed Al-Ourani, Amro Al-Astal
Pneumomediastinum is a rare, potentially life-threatening complication of PCP that occurs in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. We are presenting a rare case pneumomediastinum caused by pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia in a HIV-negative patient with history of diffuse B-cell lymphoma on R CHOP chemotherapy. What is unique about our case is that the patient developed pneumomediastinum while in the hospital, on atovaquone that improved when switched to clindamycin and primaquine with improvement in her respiratory status...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Masahiro Nemoto, Satoshi Noma, Ayumu Otsuki, Kei Nakashima, Koichi Honma, Takeshi Johkoh, Junya Fukuoka, Masahiro Aoshima
Myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (MPO-ANCA) is well-known as a serological marker for small-vessel vasculitis. However, when a smoker with interstitial lung disease (ILD) exhibits serum ANCA positivity without systemic vasculitis, diagnosis is a matter of debate; the relationship between smoking and ANCA is unknown. We report a case of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with elevated MPO-ANCA. Surgical lung biopsy showed emphysema and fibrotic interstitial pneumonia without vasculitis...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Stefanie Bader, Christian Faul, Stephan Raab, Martin Schwaiblmair, Thomas M Berghaus
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare complication of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We report a patient with pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and therapy-refractory, right-sided pneumothorax due to persistent air leak (PAL) despite prolonged chest tube placement and multiple pleurodesis attempts. Due to the patient's morbidity, we evaluated if the PAL can be sealed by unidirectional endobronchial valves (EBVs). After occlusion of the right upper lobe by a balloon catheter, the air leak flow-rate decreased from 800 ml/min to 250 ml/min...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Saad Habib, Abdul Hasan Siddiqui, Mohammed Azam, Faraz Siddiqui, Michel Chalhoub
Actinomycosis is an uncommon infectious disease caused predominantly by Actinomyces israelii. Actinomycosis usually involves the cervicofacial, thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic region, dissemination is uncommon. Actinomyces viscosus are commensal organisms that make up the normal flora of the oropharynx of humans and has rarely been reported to cause disease. Here, we report a unique case of disseminated actinomycosis with lung and brain lesions caused by Actinomyces viscosus resembling lung cancer with metastasis in a 74 year old male...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Saeed Albogami, Abdelfattah A Touman
Background: Pulmonary aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms have various etiologies; however, the term Rasmussen's pseudoaneurysm refers specifically to a focal dilatation of a branch of the pulmonary artery into adjacent tuberculous cavity. The incidence of such tuberculosis related pulmonary vascular complication is extremely rare, hence, under recognized by many physicians. Management of pulmonary pseudoaneurysms is challenging as they present by life-threatening hemoptysis. Furthermore, contrary to the most causes of massive hemoptysis their bleeding is of pulmonary rather than bronchial artery origin...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
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