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Emerging Microbes & Infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116222/specific-detection-of-dengue-and-zika-virus-antibodies-using-envelope-proteins-with-mutations-in-the-conserved-fusion-loop
#1
Alexandra Rockstroh, Beyene Moges, Luisa Barzon, Alessandro Sinigaglia, Giorgio Palù, Widuranga Kumbukgolla, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Andres Moreira-Soto, Jan Felix Drexler, Orlando C Ferreira, Sebastian Ulbert
Detection of antibodies is widely used for the diagnosis of infections with arthropod-borne flaviviruses including dengue (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Due to the emergence of ZIKV in areas endemic for DENV, massive co-circulation is observed and methods to specifically diagnose these infections and differentiate them from each other are mandatory. However, serological assays for flaviviruses in general, and for DENV and ZIKV in particular, are compromised by the high degree of similarities in their proteins which can lead to cross-reacting antibodies and false-positive test results...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116221/establishment-of-a-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-assay-for-imaging-hepatitis-b-virus-nucleic-acids-in-cell-culture-models
#2
Xiaonan Zhang, Lei Yue, Zhanqing Zhang, Zhenghong Yuan
While chronic hepatitis B remains a global public health problem, the detailed spatiotemporal dynamics of the key molecular events leading to the multiplication and egress of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are still largely unclear. Previously, we developed a chromogenic in situ hybridization assay for detection of HBV RNA, DNA and covalently closed circular DNA in clinical liver biopsies. Here, we report the establishment of a fluorescent in situ hybridization method for the visualization of HBV RNA, HBV core particle DNA and intranuclear DNA in a tetracycline-inducible HBV replication system (HepAD38) and a de novo infection system (HepG2-NTCP)...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116220/vector-competence-of-european-mosquitoes-for-west-nile-virus
#3
REVIEW
Chantal Bf Vogels, Giel P Göertz, Gorben P Pijlman, Constantianus Jm Koenraadt
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus of high medical and veterinary importance. The main vectors for WNV are mosquito species of the Culex genus that transmit WNV among birds, and occasionally to humans and horses, which are 'dead-end' hosts. Recently, several studies have been published that aimed to identify the mosquito species that serve as vectors for WNV in Europe. These studies provide insight in factors that can influence vector competence of European mosquito species for WNV. Here, we review the current knowledge on vector competence of European mosquitoes for WNV, and the molecular knowledge on physical barriers, anti-viral pathways and microbes that influence vector competence based on studies with other flaviviruses...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116219/a-comparative-study-on-the-characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-quasispecies-by-clone-based-sequencing-and-third-generation-sequencing
#4
Jing Li, Mingjie Wang, Demin Yu, Yue Han, Zhitao Yang, Lei Wang, Xinxin Zhang, Feng Liu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a high mutation rate due to the extremely high replication rate and the proofreading deficiency during reverse transcription. The generated variants with genetic heterogeneity are described as viral quasispecies (QS). Clone-based sequencing (CBS) is thought to be the 'gold standard' for assessing QS complexity and diversity of HBV, but an important issue about CBS is cost-effectiveness and laborious. In this study, we investigated the utility of the third-generation sequencing (TGS) DNA sequencing to characterize genetic heterogeneity of HBV QS and assessed the possible contribution of TGS technology in HBV QS studies...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116218/improvement-in-clinical-outcome-and-infection-control-using-molecular-diagnostic-techniques-for-early-detection-of-mdr-tuberculous-spondylitis-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#5
Wenjie Wu, Jingtong Lyu, Peng Cheng, Yuan Cheng, Zehua Zhang, Litao Li, Yonghong Zheng, Jianzhong Xu
There has been limited research on the therapeutic efficacy of molecular diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis. We attempted to determine whether the utilization of molecular diagnosis to detect multidrug-resistant spinal tuberculosis can improve clinical outcomes. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted from February 2009 to June 2015. Ninety-two consecutive culture-confirmed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients with spinal tuberculosis who were diagnosed clinically and by imaging were enrolled in the study...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116217/diversity-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronaviruses-in-109-dromedary-camels-based-on-full-genome-sequencing-abu-dhabi-united-arab-emirates
#6
Mohammed Farouk Yusof, Krista Queen, Yassir Mohammed Eltahir, Clinton R Paden, Zulaikha Mohamed Abdel Hameed Al Hammadi, Ying Tao, Yan Li, Abdelmalik Ibrahim Khalafalla, Mang Shi, Jing Zhang, Muzammil Sayed Ahmed Elhaj Mohamed, Mahmud Hamed Abd Elaal Ahmed, Ihsaan Abdulwahab Azeez, Oum Keltoum Bensalah, Ziyada Swar Eldahab, Farida Ismail Al Hosani, Susan I Gerber, Aron J Hall, Suxiang Tong, Salama Suhail Al Muhairi
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified on the Arabian Peninsula in 2012 and is still causing cases and outbreaks in the Middle East. When MERS-CoV was first identified, the closest related virus was in bats; however, it has since been recognized that dromedary camels serve as a virus reservoir and potential source for human infections. A total of 376 camels were screened for MERS-Cov at a live animal market in the Eastern Region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE. In all, 109 MERS-CoV-positive camels were detected in week 1, and a subset of positive camels were sampled again weeks 3 through 6...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089591/could-zika-virus-emerge-in-mainland-china-virus-isolation-from-nature-in-culex-quinquefasciatus-2016
#7
Song Song, Yuanyuan Li, Shihong Fu, Hong Liu, Xiaolong Li, Xiaoyan Gao, Ziqian Xu, Guoping Liu, Dingming Wang, Zhenzao Tian, Jingzhu Zhou, Ying He, Wenwen Lei, Huanyu Wang, Bin Wang, Xiaoqing Lu, Guodong Liang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089590/campylobacter-fetus-meningitis-confirmed-by-a-16s-rrna-gene-analysis-using-the-minion-nanopore-sequencer-south-korea-2016
#8
Jangsup Moon, Narae Kim, Han Sang Lee, Hye-Rim Shin, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Sang Kun Lee, Kon Chu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089589/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-two-emergent-human-adenovirus-type-14-respiratory-pathogen-isolates-in-china-reveals-similar-yet-divergent-genomes
#9
Qiwei Zhang, Shuping Jing, Zetao Cheng, Zhiwu Yu, Shoaleh Dehghan, Amirhossein Shamsaddini, Yuqian Yan, Min Li, Donald Seto
Human adenovirus type 14 (HAdV-B14p) was originally identified as an acute respiratory disease (ARD) pathogen in The Netherlands in 1955. For approximately fifty years, few sporadic infections were observed. In 2005, HAdV-B14p1, a genomic variant, re-emerged and was associated with several large ARD outbreaks across the U.S. and, subsequently, in Canada, the U.K., Ireland, and China. This strain was associated with an unusually higher fatality rate than previously reported for both this prototype and other HAdV types in general...
November 1, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089588/hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-and-subtypes-circulating-in-mainland-china
#10
Ying Chen, Changshun Yu, Xueru Yin, Xiaolei Guo, Shangwei Wu, Jinlin Hou
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) exhibits global genotypic diversity. HCV genotyping plays an important role in epidemiological studies and clinical management. Herein, we report the results of HCV genotype and subtype detection in a large number of clinical samples, as performed by an independent laboratory in China. In total, four HCV genotypes and 18 subtypes were identified among 32 030 patients from 29 provinces and municipalities in China. Five dominant subtypes were detected from 98.84% of the samples: 1b (n=16 713, 52...
November 1, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044195/lack-of-evidence-for-zika-virus-transmission-by-culex-mosquitoes
#11
Christopher M Roundy, Sasha R Azar, Aaron C Brault, Gregory D Ebel, Anna-Bella Failloux, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Uriel Kitron, Laura D Kramer, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Jorge E Osorio, Igor D Paploski, Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec, Guilherme S Ribeiro, Scott A Ritchie, Laura B Tauro, Nikos Vasilakis, Scott C Weaver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044194/response-to-lack-of-evidence-for-zika-virus-transmission-by-culex-mosquitoes
#12
Constância Ayres, Duschinka Guedes, Marcelo Paiva, Mariana Donato, Priscilla Barbosa, Larissa Krokovsky, Sura Rocha, Karina Saraiva, Mônica Crespo, Tatiana Rezende, Gabriel Wallau, Rosângela Barbosa, Cláudia Oliveira, Maria Alice Melo-Santos, Lindomar Pena, Marli Cordeiro, Rafael Franca, André Oliveira, Christina Peixoto, Walter S Leal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018254/genetic-variation-of-sporothrix-globosa-isolates-from-diverse-geographic-and-clinical-origins-in-china
#13
Lipei Zhao, Yan Cui, Yu Zhen, Lei Yao, Ying Shi, Yang Song, Ruili Chen, Shanshan Li
Sporothrix globosa is the main causative agent of sporotrichosis, a common mycosis that usually affects the skin, in China. Despite increasing efforts in the molecular identification of this fungal pathogen, its modes of transmission and epidemiology remain poorly understood. The goals of this study were to assess the genetic diversity of S. globosa using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and to assess the correlation of AFLP profiles with the geographic origins, growth rates, clinical forms, and antifungal susceptibilities of S...
October 11, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018253/usutu-virus-austria-and-hungary-2010-2016
#14
Tamás Bakonyi, Károly Erdélyi, René Brunthaler, Ádám Dán, Herbert Weissenböck, Norbert Nowotny
Usutu virus (USUV, Flaviviridae) was first reported in Europe in Austria in 2001, where it caused wild bird (mainly blackbird) mortality until 2005. Since 2006 no further USUV cases were diagnosed in the country. However, the virus emerged in other European countries (Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Germany and the Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2011. In 2016, widespread USUV-associated wild bird mortality was observed in Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. In this study, we report the results of passive monitoring for USUV in Austria and Hungary between 2010 and 2016...
October 11, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018252/neutralization-of-zika-virus-by-germline-like-human-monoclonal-antibodies-targeting-cryptic-epitopes-on-envelope-domain-iii
#15
Yanling Wu, Shun Li, Lanying Du, Chunyu Wang, Peng Zou, Binbin Hong, Mengjiao Yuan, Xiaonan Ren, Wanbo Tai, Yu Kong, Chen Zhou, Lu Lu, Xiaohui Zhou, Shibo Jiang, Tianlei Ying
The Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has emerged as a global public health concern. Pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies against other flaviviruses could modulate immune responses to ZIKV infection by antibody-dependent enhancement, highlighting the importance of understanding the immunogenicity of the ZIKV envelope protein. In this study, we identified a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target domain III (DIII) of the ZIKV envelope protein from a very large phage-display naive antibody library...
October 11, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018251/epidemiology-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candidemia-isolates-of-non-albicans-candida-species-from-cancer-patients
#16
Ping-Feng Wu, Wei-Lun Liu, Min-Han Hsieh, Ing-Moi Hii, Yu-Lin Lee, Yi-Tsung Lin, Mao-Wang Ho, Chun-Eng Liu, Yen-Hsu Chen, Fu-Der Wang
Candidemia is a growing concern worldwide, and its species distribution has shifted toward non-albicans Candida in recent decades, especially in patients with malignancy. This study aimed to update the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans candidemia isolates from the cancer patients. Adult cancer patients with non-albicans candidemia were recruited, and clinical data were retrospectively collected from five medical centers in Taiwan from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2014. In vitro susceptibility was determined by the broth dilution method using a Sensititre YeastOne system and interpreted according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
October 11, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018250/molecular-analysis-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-vietnam-highlights-the-high-rate-of-pyrazinamide-resistance-associated-mutations-in-clinical-isolates
#17
Nguyen Quang Huy, Contamin Lucie, Tran Thi Thanh Hoa, Nguyen Van Hung, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Nguyen Thai Son, Nguyen Viet Nhung, Dang Duc Anh, Bañuls Anne-Laure, Nguyen Thi Van Anh
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key antibiotic in current anti-tuberculosis regimens. Although the WHO has stressed the urgent need to obtain data on PZA resistance, in high tuberculosis burden countries, little is known about the level of PZA resistance, the genetic basis of such resistance or its link with Mycobacterium tuberculosis families. In this context, this study assessed PZA resistance through the molecular analysis of 260 Vietnamese M. tuberculosis isolates. First-line drug susceptibility testing, pncA gene sequencing, spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing were performed...
October 11, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928418/novel-and-classical-human-astroviruses-in-stool-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-comprehensive-screening-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-switzerland
#18
Samuel Cordey, Diem-Lan Vu, Marie-Celine Zanella, Lara Turin, Aline Mamin, Laurent Kaiser
Classical human astroviruses (HAstV) are the third most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. Due to the lack of routine molecular assays, novel HAstV are underdiagnosed and the magnitude of their contribution to clinical disease remains unknown. To better understand their prevalence and the susceptible patient profile, we conducted a comprehensive screening of novel and classical HAstV in stool and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected for clinical care in a tertiary care hospital using a specially designed rRT-PCR panel for the detection of novel (MLB1-3 and VA1-4) and classical HAstV...
September 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928417/tick-borne-encephalitis-in-japan-republic-of-korea-and-china
#19
REVIEW
Kentaro Yoshii, Joon Young Song, Seong-Beom Park, Junfeng Yang, Heinz-Josef Schmitt
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes mild or moderate febrile illness in humans that may progress to encephalitis, leading to severe long-term complications and sometimes death. TBEV is prevalent in the Eurasian continent and has been isolated in China, Japan and Republic of Korea (ROK). The TBEV isolates from Japan are of the Far-Eastern subtype; in ROK, the isolates are of the Western subtype; and all TBEV isolates in China are of the Far-Eastern subtype, except one strain that was identified most recently as the Siberian subtype...
September 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928416/zika-virus-infection-confers-protection-against-west-nile-virus-challenge-in-mice
#20
Ángela Vázquez-Calvo, Ana-Belén Blázquez, Estela Escribano-Romero, Teresa Merino-Ramos, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Nereida Jiménez de Oya
Flaviviruses are RNA viruses that constitute a worrisome threat to global human and animal health. Zika virus (ZIKV), which was initially reported to cause a mild disease, recently spread in the Americas, infecting millions of people. During this recent epidemic, ZIKV infection has been linked to serious neurological diseases and birth defects, specifically Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Because information about ZIKV immunity remains scarce, we assessed the humoral response of immunocompetent mice to infection with three viral strains of diverse geographical origin (Africa, Asia and America)...
September 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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