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Emerging Microbes & Infections

Pai Pang, Weiyi Duan, Shuchun Liu, Shuang Bai, Yanan Ma, Ruiwu Li, Fayu Liu, Changfu Sun
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and major health concern. Head and neck tuberculosis (HNTB) is relatively rare, but can arise in many regions, including the lymph nodes, larynx, oral cavity and pharynx. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 60 patients diagnosed with HNTB in our department between March 2005 and January 2016. A review and summary of previous HNTB articles published in PubMed since 1885 was also performed. The subjects consisted of 17 males and 43 females, and the average age of patients was 45 ± 14...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Rui Zhu, Tong Cheng, Zhichao Yin, Dongxiao Liu, Longfa Xu, Yongchao Li, Wei Wang, Jian Liu, Yuqiong Que, Xiangzhong Ye, Qiyi Tang, Qinjian Zhao, Shengxiang Ge, Shuizhen He, Ningshao Xia
Human enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common causative agents infecting human, causing many harmful diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina (HA), myocarditis, encephalitis, and aseptic meningitis. EV-related diseases pose a serious worldwide threat to public health. To gain comprehensive insight into the seroepidemiology of major prevalent EVs in humans, we firstly performed a serological survey for neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), Coxsackie virus A6 (CV-A6), Coxsackie virus A10 (CV-A10), Coxsackie virus B3 (CV-B3), Coxsackie virus B5 (CV-B5), Echovirus 25 (ECHO25), and Echovirus 30 (ECHO30) among the healthy population in Xiamen City in 2016, using micro-neutralization assay...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Chao Zhang, Xueyang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wenlong Dai, Jing Xie, Liping Ye, Hongli Wang, Huan Chen, Qingwei Liu, Sitang Gong, Lanlan Geng, Zhong Huang
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been increasingly associated with severe respiratory illness and neurological complications in children worldwide. However, no vaccine is currently available to prevent EV-D68 infection. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of developing a virus-like particle (VLP)-based EV-D68 vaccine. We found that co-expression of the P1 precursor and 3CD protease of EV-D68 in Pichia pastoris yeast resulted in the generation of EV-D68 VLPs, which were composed of processed VP0, VP1, and VP3 capsid proteins and were visualized as ~30 nm spherical particles...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Yazhou Lin, Yucheng Jiao, Ye Yuan, Zezhu Zhou, Yuehuan Zheng, Jiaqi Xiao, Changwei Li, Zhe Chen, Peng Cao
Evidence suggests that intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) can be induced by Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the pathological changes in degenerated human intervertebral discs (IVDs) infected with P. acnes. Compared with P. acnes-negative samples, P. acnes-positive IVDs showed increased apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) concomitant with severe IVDD. Then, a P. acnes-inoculated IVD animal model was established, and severe IVDD was induced by P...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Peter R Moore, Andrew F van den Hurk, John S Mackenzie, Alyssa T Pyke
Dengue is the most common cause of mosquito-borne viral disease in humans, and is endemic in more than 100 tropical and subtropical countries. Periodic outbreaks of dengue have been reported in Papua New Guinea (PNG), but there is only limited knowledge of its endemicity and disease burden. To help elucidate the status of the dengue viruses (DENVs) in PNG, we performed envelope (E) gene sequencing of DENV serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4) obtained from infected patients who traveled to Australia or from patients diagnosed during local DENV transmission events between 2001 and 2016...
December 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Hai-Feng Lu, Ang Li, Ting Zhang, Zhi-Gang Ren, Kang-Xin He, Hua Zhang, Jie-Zuan Yang, Qi-Xia Luo, Kai Zhou, Chun-Lei Chen, Xia-Liang Chen, Zhong-Wen Wu, Lan-Juan Li
Secondary bacterial lung infection (SBLI) is a serious complication in patients with H7N9 virus infection, and increases disease severity. The oropharyngeal (OP) microbiome helps prevent colonisation of respiratory pathogens. We aimed to investigate the OP microbiome of H7N9 patients with/without secondary bacterial pneumonia using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. OP swab samples were collected from 51 H7N9 patients (21 with SBLI and 30 without) and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) and used for comparative composition, diversity and richness analyses of microbial communities...
December 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Na-Young Ha, Yuri Kim, Chan-Ki Min, Hong-Il Kim, Nguyen Thi Hai Yen, Myung-Sik Choi, Jae-Seung Kang, Yeon-Sook Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho
Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi infection, has been a serious public health issue in the Asia-Pacific region, with rising incidence and sporadic outbreaks. However, human protective immunity against specific antigens has been poorly characterized for this bacterium. In addition, immunity produced in early vaccine trials or even after natural infections, did not last long and had poor cross-reactivity among various genotypes. Here, we systematically investigated the kinetics and magnitude of specific adaptive immunity against two membrane antigens, 56 kDa type-specific antigen (TSA56) and surface cell antigen A (ScaA), that are involved in bacterial adhesion and invasion of the host in 64 recovered scrub typhus patients...
December 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Feixue Wei, Wei Sheng, Xin Wu, Kai Yin, Jian Lan, Yue Huang, Xinjing Ma, Ya Zheng, Sijie Zhuang, Shoujie Huang, Yingying Su, Mingqiang Li, Ting Wu, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia
To determine the incidence of anogenital warts (AGWs) in the Chinese general population, we compared the data from a prospective study and from the National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). A cohort study including 2378 women and 2309 men aged 18-55 years old enrolled from Liuzhou, China, was conducted with three scheduled visits at 6-month intervals from May 2014 to March 2016. And, a questionnaire survey was performed to collect the diagnosis history of AGWs at the enrollment visit. The data on reported AGW cases of Liuzhou in the NNDRS from 2006 to 2015 were also analyzed...
December 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Siddharth Sridhar, Simon Kf Lo, Fanfan Xing, Jin Yang, Haiyan Ye, Jasper Fw Chan, Jade Ll Teng, Chuan Huang, Cyril Cy Yip, Susanna Kp Lau, Patrick Cy Woo
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in China. Recently, a shift in molecular epidemiology from hepatitis E genotype 1 (HEV-1) to hepatitis E genotype 4 (HEV-4) has been observed in Northern China, marking a switch from human-to-human transmission to zoonosis. However, similar data from cities in Southern China are lacking. This observational study of human hepatitis E cases in Shenzhen, a metropolitan city in the Pearl River Delta region, aimed to describe the clinical features and molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E in Southern China...
December 20, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Laure Diancourt, Elodie Calvez, Mathias Vandenbogaert, Olivia O'Connor, Anita Teissier, Morgane Pol, Maite Aubry, Oumar Faye, Douglas Tou, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Valérie Caro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Shuwen Deng, Lili Zhang, Yanfeng Ji, Paul E Verweij, Kin Ming Tsui, Ferry Hagen, Jos Houbraken, Jacque F Meis, Parida Abliz, Xiaodong Wang, Jingjun Zhao, Wanqing Liao
This study investigated the triazole phenotype and genotypic of clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from China. We determined the triazole susceptibility profiles of 159 A. fumigatus isolates collected between 2011 and 2015 from four different areas in China tested against 10 antifungal drugs using the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 method. For the seven itraconazole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates identified in the study, the cyp51A gene, including its promoter region, was sequenced and the mutation patterns were characterized...
December 6, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Philip Meade, Neus Latorre-Margalef, David E Stallknecht, Florian Krammer
Avian influenza viruses pose a serious zoonotic threat, in part because current seasonal influenza virus vaccines only offer strain-specific protection, instead of heterosubtypic or universal protection against influenza virus infection. Understanding the humoral response to vaccination and natural infection in the broadest context possible is important to developing defenses against influenza zoonosis. Protein microarrays are a novel platform well suited to assaying the humoral immune response broadly and efficiently...
December 6, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Meng-Jung Chiang, Faik N Musayev, Martina Kosikova, Zhengshi Lin, Yamei Gao, Philip D Mosier, Bashayer Althufairi, Zhiping Ye, Qibing Zhou, Umesh R Desai, Hang Xie, Martin K Safo
The M gene segment of influenza A virus has been shown to be a contributing factor to the high growth phenotype. However, it remains largely unknown why matrix protein 1 (M1), the major structural protein encoded by M gene, exhibits pH-dependent conformational changes during virus replication. Understanding the mechanisms underlying efficient virus replication can help to develop strategies not only to combat influenza infections but also to improve vaccine supplies. M(NLS-88R) and M(NLS-88E) are two M1 mutants differing by only a single amino acid: G88R vs G88E...
December 6, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Fachun Jiang, Ling Wang, Shuo Wang, Lin Zhu, Liyan Dong, Zhentang Zhang, Bi Hao, Fan Yang, Wenbin Liu, Yang Deng, Yun Zhang, Yajun Ma, Bei Pan, Yalin Han, Hongyan Ren, Guangwen Cao
The incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Qingdao, China was three times higher than that of the average national level. Here we characterized the epidemiology, ecological determinants and pathogen evolution of HFRS in Qingdao during 2007-2015. In this longitudinal study, a total of 1846 HFRS patients and 41 HFRS-related deaths were reported. HFRS in Qingdao peaked once a year in the fourth quarter. We built a time series generalized additive model, and found that meteorological factors in the previous quarter could accurately predict HFRS occurrence...
November 29, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Chong Li, Shuoguo Wang, Guoxia Bing, Robert A Carter, Zejiang Wang, Jinliang Wang, Chenxi Wang, Lan Wang, Gang Wu, Robert G Webster, Yongqiang Wang, Honglei Sun, Yipeng Sun, Jinhua Liu, Juan Pu
Influenza H9N2 subtype viruses and their reassortants (such as H7N9) are posing increasing threats to birds and humans in China. During 2009-2013, multiple novel subtype viruses with H9N2 original genes emerged in China. Yet, the genetic evolution of H9N2 viruses in various host organisms in China has not been systematically investigated since 2009. In the present study, we performed large-scale sequence analysis of H9N2 viral genomes from public databases, representing the spectrum of viruses isolated from birds, mammals and humans in China from 1994 to 2013, and updated the clade classification for each segment...
November 29, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Qian Wang, Yanyan Dai, Zhiwu Sun, Xiaojie Su, Yufeng Yu, Chen Hua, Wei Xu, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jing Xia, Ke-Chang Yao, Yue-Yue Liu, Guo-Jin You, Su-Yun Li, Ping Liu, Qin Zhao, Yi-Ping Wen Rui Wu, Xiao-Bo Huang, San-Jie Cao, Xin-Feng Han, Yong Huang
Fowl adenovirus (FAdV) has caused significant losses in chicken flocks throughout China in recent years. However, the current understanding of the genetic and pathogenic characteristics of the FAdV epidemic in southwestern China remains poorly understood. In this study, a total of 22 strains were isolated from liver samples of diseased chickens from farms in southwestern China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the hexon loop-1 gene showed that the 22 isolates were clustered into four distinct serotypes: FAdV serotype 4 (FAdV-4) (86...
November 29, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Shi-Lei Dong, Wei-Lin Hu, Yu-Mei Ge, David M Ojcius, Xu'ai Lin, Jie Yan
Leptospirosis caused by Leptospira is a zoonotic disease of global importance but it is considered as an emerging or re-emerging infectious disease in many areas in the world. Until now, the mechanisms about pathogenesis and transmission of Leptospira remains poorly understood. As eukaryotic and prokaryotic proteins can be denatured in adverse environments and chaperone-protease/peptidase complexes degrade these harmful proteins, we speculate that infection may also cause leptospiral protein denaturation, and the HslU and HslV proteins of L...
November 29, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Hao Li, Xue-Ying Fu, Jia-Fu Jiang, Rui-Xia Liu, Ran Li, Yuan-Chun Zheng, Wen-Jie Qi, Wei Liu, Wu-Chun Cao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Alexandra Rockstroh, Beyene Moges, Luisa Barzon, Alessandro Sinigaglia, Giorgio Palù, Widuranga Kumbukgolla, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Andres Moreira-Soto, Jan Felix Drexler, Orlando C Ferreira, Sebastian Ulbert
Detection of antibodies is widely used for the diagnosis of infections with arthropod-borne flaviviruses including dengue (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Due to the emergence of ZIKV in areas endemic for DENV, massive co-circulation is observed and methods to specifically diagnose these infections and differentiate them from each other are mandatory. However, serological assays for flaviviruses in general, and for DENV and ZIKV in particular, are compromised by the high degree of similarities in their proteins which can lead to cross-reacting antibodies and false-positive test results...
November 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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