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Emerging Microbes & Infections

Jing Yao, Xingran Du, Sixia Chen, Yan Shao, Kaili Deng, Mingzi Jiang, Jingning Liu, Ziyan Shen, Xiaolin Chen, Ganzhu Feng
The intracellular survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has a central role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Mtb Rv2346c is a member of 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target family of proteins, which are known to inhibit the host immune responses to promote bacillary persistence in macrophages. However, the mechanism through which Rv2346c participates in Mtb pathogenesis is unclear. In the present study, recombinant Rv2346c protein was synthesized and used to treat Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-infected macrophages...
September 19, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jie Song, Yajie Hu, Hongzhe Li, Xing Huang, Huiwen Zheng, Yunguang Hu, Jingjing Wang, Xi Jiang, Jiaqi Li, Zening Yang, Haitao Fan, Lei Guo, Haijing Shi, Zhanlong He, Fengmei Yang, Xi Wang, Shaozhong Dong, Qihan Li, Longding Liu
Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a member of the Picornaviridae family and causes mild and self-limiting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. CA16 infection can also progress to central nervous system (CNS) complications; however, the underlying mechanism by which CA16 penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and then causes CNS damage remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of CA16 neurotropic tropism by establishing an in vitro BBB model with CA16 infection and an in vivo CA16 rhesus monkey infant infection model...
September 19, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Sascha Knauf, Jan F Gogarten, Verena J Schuenemann, Hélène M De Nys, Ariane Düx, Michal Strouhal, Lenka Mikalová, Kirsten I Bos, Roy Armstrong, Emmanuel K Batamuzi, Idrissa S Chuma, Bernard Davoust, Georges Diatta, Robert D Fyumagwa, Reuben R Kazwala, Julius D Keyyu, Inyasi A V Lejora, Anthony Levasseur, Hsi Liu, Michael A Mayhew, Oleg Mediannikov, Didier Raoult, Roman M Wittig, Christian Roos, Fabian H Leendertz, David Šmajs, Kay Nieselt, Johannes Krause, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Ming Tan, Lunbiao Cui, Xiang Huo, Ming Xia, Fengjuan Shi, Xiaoyan Zeng, Pengwei Huang, Weiming Zhong, Weiwei Li, Ke Xu, Liling Chen, Minghao Zhou, Xi Jiang
Avian influenza H7N9 viruses are an important public health concern due to their high mortality rate and potentials for future pandemics. We investigated human susceptibility to H7N9 viruses using recombinant H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA) proteins as a probe and found a strong association between H7N9 infections and HA binding among saliva samples from 32 patients and 60 uninfected controls in Jiangsu province, China, during the 2016 epidemic season. We also found that sialyl Lex (SLex ) antigen that was recognized by H7N9 HA was associated with H7N9 virus infection...
September 19, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Dan Hu, Changqiang Zhu, Lele Ai, Ting He, Yi Wang, Fuqiang Ye, Lu Yang, Chenxi Ding, Xuhui Zhu, Ruicheng Lv, Jin Zhu, Bachar Hassan, Youjun Feng, Weilong Tan, Changjun Wang
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the causative agent of the large SARS outbreak in 2003, originated in bats. Many SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have been detected in bats, particularly those that reside in China, Europe, and Africa. To further understand the evolutionary relationship between SARS-CoV and its reservoirs, 334 bats were collected from Zhoushan city, Zhejiang province, China, between 2015 and 2017. PCR amplification of the conserved coronaviral protein RdRp detected coronaviruses in 26.65% of bats belonging to this region, and this number was influenced by seasonal changes...
September 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Wenyu Yang, Xin Yin, Lizheng Guan, Mei Li, Shujie Ma, Jianzhong Shi, Guohua Deng, Yasuo Suzuki, Hualan Chen
H7N9 influenza viruses emerged in 2013 and have caused severe disease and deaths in humans in China. Some H7N9 viruses circulating in chickens have mutated to highly pathogenic viruses that have caused several disease outbreaks in chickens. Studies have shown that when the H7N9 highly pathogenic viruses replicate in ferrets or humans, they easily acquire certain mammalian-adapting mutations and become highly lethal in mice and highly transmissible in ferrets by respiratory droplet, creating the potential for human-to-human transmission...
September 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Xinyu Zhang, Dan Ren, Tuofan Li, Huayan Zhou, Xiaoyu Liu, Xiaobo Wang, Hao Lu, Wei Gao, Yajuan Wang, Xiaoyan Zou, Huaichang Sun, Jianqiang Ye
Since the first isolation from human, astroviruses have been detected in many species. Wide host range and occasional cross-transmission of astrovirus pose a risk for zoonotic infection. Here, novel astroviruses were identified from goslings with recent epidemic gout disease in China. A virus, designated as GD, was efficiently isolated from a diseased gosling using LMH cells. Genome of GD amplified using 5' and 3' RACE was 7183nt in full length. Sequence analysis revealed the genome of GD was <60.8% homology with others deposited in Genbank...
September 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
C Raina MacIntyre, Amalie Dyda, Chau Minh Bui, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Sharon K Greene, Robert Fitzhenry, Bruce Gutelius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Ni Luh Putu Indi Dharmayanti, Sharmi W Thor, Natosha Zanders, Risza Hartawan, Atik Ratnawati, Yunho Jang, Marisela Rodriguez, David L Suarez, Gina Samaan, Pudjiatmoko, C Todd Davis
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus is endemic in Indonesian poultry and has caused sporadic human infection in Indonesia since 2005. Surveillance of H5N1 viruses in live bird markets (LBMs) during 2012 and 2013 was carried out to provide epidemiologic and virologic information regarding viral circulation and the risk of human exposure. Real-time RT-PCR of avian cloacal swabs and environmental samples revealed influenza A-positive specimens, which were then subjected to virus isolation and genomic sequencing...
August 22, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Aileen Y Chang, Rebecca Lynch, Karen Martins, Liliana Encinales, Andrés Á Cadena Bonfanti, Nelly Pacheco, St Patrick Reid, Osvaldo E Lara Sarabia, Henry J González Torres, Stella Mejia Castillo, Onaldo Barrios Taborda, Magda Alarcon Gomez, Brenda Guerra Duran, Victor Martinez Giraldo, Angélica Benitez Ospino, Alexandra Porras, Alejandro R Mendoza, Grace Mantus, Guangzhao Li, Jin Peng, Priyanka Kamalapathy, Lil G Avendaño Echavez, Kimberly A Dowd, Monica Rengifo-Pardo, Pedro Pablo Barraza, Dennys Jiménez Hernàndez, Andrés González Coba, Katya De La Hoz Mendoza, Jeffrey M Bethony, Gary L Simon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Lihong He, Dongyang Luo, Fan Yang, Chunhao Li, Xuegong Zhang, Haiteng Deng, Jing-Ren Zhang
The Lon protease selectively degrades abnormal proteins or certain normal proteins in response to environmental and cellular conditions in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanism(s) behind the substrate selection of normal proteins remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified 10 new substrates of F. tularensis Lon from a total of 21 candidate substrates identified in our previous work, the largest number of novel Lon substrates from a single study. Cross-species degradation of these and other known Lon substrates revealed that human Lon is unable to degrade many bacterial Lon substrates, suggestive of a "organism-adapted" substrate selection mechanism for the natural Lon variants...
August 17, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Maciej Grzybek, Mohammed Alsarraf, Katarzyna Tołkacz, Jolanta Behnke-Borowczyk, Beata Biernat, Joanna Stańczak, Aneta Strachecka, Leszek Guz, Klaudiusz Szczepaniak, Jerzy Paleolog, Jerzy M Behnke, Anna Bajer
Rodents are known to play a significant role as reservoir hosts for TBEV. During three sequential expeditions at 4-year intervals to three ecologically similar study sites in NE Poland, we trapped bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and then tested their blood for the presence of specific antiviral antibodies to TBEV. The strongest effects on seroprevalence were the extrinsic factors, site of capture of voles and year of sampling. Seroprevalence increased markedly with increasing host age, and our analysis revealed significant interactions among these three factors...
August 15, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Ning Dong, Xuemei Yang, Rong Zhang, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
The recent convergence of genetic elements encoding phenotypic carbapenem-resistance and hypervirulence within a single Klebsiella pneumoniae host strain represents a major public concern. To obtain a better understanding of the genetic characteristic of this emerging 'superbug', the complete genomes of 3 isolates of ST11 carbapenemase-producing hypervirulent K. pneumoniae were generated using the Oxford nanopore MinION platform. Comparative whole-genome analysis identified 13 SNPs and 3 major regions of indels in the chromosomes of the clonally disseminated isolates...
August 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Lunzhi Yuan, Xuan Liu, Liang Zhang, Yali Zhang, Yao Chen, Xiaoling Li, Kun Wu, Jiali Cao, Wangheng Hou, Yuqiong Que, Jun Zhang, Hua Zhu, Quan Yuan, Qiyi Tang, Tong Cheng, Ningshao Xia
The human liver chimeric mouse with primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) engraftment has been demonstrated to be a useful animal model to study hepatitis B virus (HBV) pathogenesis and evaluate anti-HBV drugs. However, the disadvantages of using PHHs include the inability for cellular expansion in vitro, limited donor availability, individual differences, and ethical issues, necessitating the development of alternatives. To obtain in vitro expandable hepatocytes, we optimized the hepatic differentiation procedure of the human liver progenitor cell line, HepaRG, using four functional small molecules (4SM) and enriched the precursor hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs)...
August 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Shan Jin, Qibin Liao, Jian Chen, Linxia Zhang, Qian He, Huanzhang Zhu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Jianqing Xu
The latent reservoir of HIV-1 presents a major barrier to viral eradication. The mechanism of the establishment and maintenance of the latent viral reservoir is not yet fully understood, which hinders the development of effective curative strategies. In this study, we identified two inhibitory genes, TSC1 and DEPDC5, that maintained HIV-1 latency by suppressing the mTORC1 pathway. We first adapted a genome-wide CRISPR screening approach to identify host factors required for HIV latency in a T-cell-based latency model and discovered two inhibitory genes, TSC1 and DEPDC5, which are potentially involved in HIV-1 latency...
August 8, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Areej Alhhazmi, Gregory J Tyrrell
The Group B streptococcus (GBS) can express a capsular polysaccharide (CPS). There are ten recognized CPSs (Ia, Ib, and II-IX). A GBS isolate is considered nontypeable (NT) when CPS cannot be identified as one of ten types. Two groups of GBS NT isolates were studied, isolates without surface sialic acid (sia(-)) and isolates with surface sialic acid (sia(+)). The first objective was to characterize NT sia(-) isolates that failed CPS identification by an immunodiffusion antisera typing assay and a RT-PCR capsule typing assay...
August 8, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Magdalena Agnieszka Budzinska, Nicholas Adam Shackel, Stephan Urban, Thomas Tu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) integration into the host cell genome occurs early on in infection and reportedly induces pro-oncogenic changes in hepatocytes that drive HCC initiation. However, it remains unclear when these changes occur during hepatocarcinogenesis. Extensive expansion of hepatocyte clones with a selective advantage was shown to occur prior to cancer formation during the HBeAg-seroconversion phase of chronic HBV infection. We hypothesized that since integrations occur during the early stages of infection, cell phenotype could be altered and induce a selection advantage (e...
August 8, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Xiaobing Duan, Muhammad Ikram Anwar, Zhanxue Xu, Ling Ma, Guosheng Yuan, Yiyi Chen, Xi Liu, Jinyu Xia, Yuanping Zhou, Yi-Ping Li
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis and liver cancer worldwide. Adaptive mutations play important roles in the development of the HCV replicon and its infectious clones. We and others have previously identified the p7 mutation F772S and the co-presence of NS4A mutations in infectious HCV full-length clones and chimeric recombinants. However, the underlying mechanism of F772S function remains incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the functional role of F772S using an efficient JFH1-based reporter virus with Core-NS2 from genotype 2a strain J6, and we designated J6-p7/JFH1-4A according to the strain origin of the p7 and NS4A sequences...
August 8, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Raymond Kiu, Lindsay J Hall
Clostridium perfringens, a rapid-growing pathogen known to secrete an arsenal of >20 virulent toxins, has been associated with intestinal diseases in both animals and humans throughout the past century. Recent advances in genomic analysis and experimental systems make it timely to re-visit this clinically and veterinary important pathogen. This Review will summarise our understanding of the genomics and virulence-linked factors, including antimicrobial potentials and secreted toxins of this gut pathogen, and then its up-to-date clinical epidemiology and biological role in the pathogenesis of several important human and animal-associated intestinal diseases, including pre-term necrotising enterocolitis...
August 6, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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