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Emerging Microbes & Infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400594/histo-blood-group-antigens-as-receptors-for-rotavirus-new-understanding-on-rotavirus-epidemiology-and-vaccine-strategy
#1
REVIEW
Xi Jiang, Yang Liu, Ming Tan
The success of the two rotavirus (RV) vaccines (Rotarix and RotaTeq) in many countries endorses a live attenuated vaccine approach against RVs. However, the lower efficacies of both vaccines in many low- and middle-income countries indicate a need to improve the current RV vaccines. The recent discovery that RVs recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as potential receptors has significantly advanced our understanding of RV diversity, evolution and epidemiology, providing important new insights into the performances of current RV vaccines in different populations and emphasizing a P-type-based vaccine approach...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400593/rickettsial-seropositivity-in-the-indigenous-community-and-animal-farm-workers-and-vector-surveillance-in-peninsular-malaysia
#2
Kai Ling Kho, Fui Xian Koh, Lailatul Insyirah Mohd Hasan, Li Ping Wong, Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi, Awang Bulgiba, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan Nizam, Sun Tee Tay
Rickettsioses are emerging zoonotic diseases that are often neglected in many countries in Southeast Asia. Rickettsial agents are transmitted to humans through exposure to infected arthropods. Limited data are available on the exposure of indigenous community and animal farm workers to the aetiological agents and arthropod vectors of rickettsioses in Peninsular Malaysia. Serological analysis of Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia felis was performed for 102 individuals from the indigenous community at six rural villages and 87 workers from eight animal farms in Peninsular Malaysia in a cross-sectional study...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400592/recent-emergence-of-a-novel-porcine-pestivirus-interference-with-classical-swine-fever-diagnosis
#3
Alexander Postel, Denise Meyer, Anja Petrov, Paul Becher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400591/pathogenicity-and-transmission-of-a-swine-influenza-a-h6n6-virus
#4
Hailiang Sun, Bryan S Kaplan, Minhui Guan, Guihong Zhang, Jianqiang Ye, Li-Ping Long, Sherry Blackmon, Chun-Kai Yang, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Nan Zhao, Jim Cooley, David F Smith, Ming Liao, Carol Cardona, Lei Li, George Peng Wang, Richard Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Subtype H6 influenza A viruses (IAVs) are commonly detected in wild birds and domestic poultry and can infect humans. In 2010, a H6N6 virus emerged in southern China, and since then, it has caused sporadic infections among swine. We show that this virus binds to α2,6-linked and α2,3-linked sialic acids. Mutations at residues 222 (alanine to valine) and 228 (glycine to serine) of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) affected its receptor-binding properties. Experiments showed that the virus has limited transmissibility between ferrets through direct contact or through inhalation of infectious aerosolized droplets...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400590/diversity-and-role-of-cave-dwelling-hematophagous-insects-in-pathogen-transmission-in-the-afrotropical-region
#5
REVIEW
Judicaël Obame-Nkoghe, Eric-Maurice Leroy, Christophe Paupy
The progressive anthropization of caves for food resources or economic purposes increases human exposure to pathogens that naturally infect cave-dwelling animals. The presence of wild or domestic animals in the immediate surroundings of caves also may contribute to increasing the risk of emergence of such pathogens. Some zoonotic pathogens are transmitted through direct contact, but many others require arthropod vectors, such as blood-feeding insects. In Africa, hematophagous insects often play a key role in the epidemiology of many pathogens; however, their ecology in cave habitats remains poorly known...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352124/discovery-and-genetic-analysis-of-novel-coronaviruses-in-least-horseshoe-bats-in-southwestern-china
#6
Lihua Wang, Shihong Fu, Yuxi Cao, Hailin Zhang, Yun Feng, Weihong Yang, Kai Nie, Xuejun Ma, Guodong Liang
To investigate bat coronaviruses (CoVs), we collected 132 rectal swabs and urine samples from five bat species in three countries in southwestern China. Seven CoVs belonging to distinct groups of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoVs and α-CoVs were detected in samples from least horseshoe bats. Samples from other bat species were negative for these viruses, indicating that the least horseshoe bat represents one of the natural reservoirs and mixers for strains of CoVs and has a pivotal role in the evolution and dissemination of these viruses...
March 29, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352123/axl-is-not-essential-for-zika-virus-infection-in-the-mouse-brain
#7
Feng Li, Pei-Rong Wang, Lin-Bing Qu, Chang-Hua Yi, Fu-Chun Zhang, Xiao-Ping Tang, Li-Guo Zhang, Ling Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325923/clinical-features-and-viral-quasispecies-characteristics-associated-with-infection-by-the-hepatitis-b-virus-g145r-immune-escape-mutant
#8
Yuan Xue, Ming-Jie Wang, Zhi-Tao Yang, De-Min Yu, Yue Han, Dao Huang, Dong-Hua Zhang, Xin-Xin Zhang
Coexistence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) is an uncommon phenomenon, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Amino-acid (aa) substitution from glycine to arginine at aa 145 (G145R), in the major hydrophilic region, has been reported in patients with HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistence. However, there is limited knowledge about the clinical features and viral quasispecies characteristics associated with G145R mutant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
March 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325922/variability-in-h9n2-haemagglutinin-receptor-binding-preference-and-the-ph-of-fusion
#9
Thomas P Peacock, Donald J Benton, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Pengxiang Chang, Joshua E Sealy, Juliet E Bryant, Stephen R Martin, Holly Shelton, John W McCauley, Wendy S Barclay, Munir Iqbal
H9N2 avian influenza viruses are primarily a disease of poultry; however, they occasionally infect humans and are considered a potential pandemic threat. Little work has been performed to assess the intrinsic biochemical properties related to zoonotic potential of H9N2 viruses. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate H9N2 haemagglutinins (HAs) using two well-known correlates for human adaption: receptor-binding avidity and pH of fusion. Receptor binding was characterized using bio-layer interferometry to measure virus binding to human and avian-like receptor analogues and the pH of fusion was assayed by syncytium formation in virus-infected cells at different pHs...
March 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325921/zika-virus-genome-biology-and-molecular-pathogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Anyou Wang, Stephanie Thurmond, Leonel Islas, Kingyung Hui, Rong Hai
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging RNA virus in the widespread Flavivirus genus. Recently, ZIKV has rapidly spread around the world and has been implicated in human disease, including neurological disorders, triggering public and scientific attention. Understanding how ZIKV causes disease is the highest priority, yet little is known about this virus. Here we examine the currently published data from ZIKV studies to provide the latest understanding of ZIKV genome biology and molecular pathogenesis. The ZIKV genome evolved rapidly from the Flavivirus genus and diverged from the members of this genus, even within the dengue virus cluster to which ZIKV belongs...
March 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270655/insight-into-live-bird-markets-of-bangladesh-an-overview-of-the-dynamics-of-transmission-of-h5n1-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses
#11
Jasmine C M Turner, Mohammed M Feeroz, M Kamrul Hasan, Sharmin Akhtar, David Walker, Patrick Seiler, Subrata Barman, John Franks, Lisa Jones-Engel, Pamela McKenzie, Scott Krauss, Richard J Webby, Ghazi Kayali, Robert G Webster
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been recognized as threats to public health in Bangladesh since 2007. Although live bird markets (LBMs) have been implicated in the transmission, dissemination, and circulation of these viruses, an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of avian transmission of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses at the human-animal interface has been lacking. Here we present and evaluate epidemiological findings from active surveillance conducted among poultry in various production sectors in Bangladesh from 2008 to 2016...
March 8, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223683/metataxonomics-reveal-vultures-as-a-reservoir-for-clostridium-perfringens
#12
Xiangli Meng, Shan Lu, Jing Yang, Dong Jin, Xiaohong Wang, Xiangning Bai, Yumeng Wen, Yiting Wang, Lina Niu, Changyun Ye, Ramon Rosselló-Móra, Jianguo Xu
The Old World vulture may carry and spread pathogens for emerging infections since they feed on the carcasses of dead animals and participate in the sky burials of humans, some of whom have died from communicable diseases. Therefore, we studied the precise fecal microbiome of the Old World vulture with metataxonomics, integrating the high-throughput sequencing of almost full-length small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplicons in tandem with the operational phylogenetic unit (OPU) analysis strategy...
February 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223682/environmental-surfaces-used-in-entry-day-corralling-likely-contribute-to-the-spread-of-influenza-a-virus-in-swine-at-agricultural-fairs
#13
Sarah E Lauterbach, Michele M Zentkovich, Sarah W Nelson, Jacqueline M Nolting, Andrew S Bowman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196971/multilocus-sequence-typing-identifies-an-avian-like-chlamydia-psittaci-strain-involved-in-equine-placentitis-and-associated-with-subsequent-human-psittacosis
#14
LETTER
Martina Jelocnik, James Branley, Jane Heller, Shane Raidal, Susan Alderson, Francesca Galea, Melinda Gabor, Adam Polkinghorne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196970/neonatal-pigs-are-susceptible-to-experimental-zika-virus-infection
#15
LETTER
Joseph Darbellay, Kenneth Lai, Shawn Babiuk, Yohannes Berhane, Aruna Ambagala, Colette Wheler, Donald Wilson, Stewart Walker, Andrew Potter, Matthew Gilmour, David Safronetz, Volker Gerdts, Uladzimir Karniychuk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196969/mutation-in-clpc1-encoding-an-atp-dependent-atpase-involved-in-protein-degradation-is-associated-with-pyrazinamide-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
LETTER
Shuo Zhang, Jiazhen Chen, Wanliang Shi, Peng Cui, Jia Zhang, Sanghyun Cho, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096532/a-sensitive-and-specific-point-of-care-detection-assay-for-zaire-ebola-virus
#17
LETTER
Xiao-Ai Zhang, Sabrina Li, Jesus Ching, Hui-Ying Feng, Kun Yang, David L Dolinger, Long-Di Zhang, Pan-He Zhang, Wei Liu, Wu-Chun Cao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096531/the-first-imported-case-of-rift-valley-fever-in-china-reveals-a-genetic-reassortment-of-different-viral-lineages
#18
Jingyuan Liu, Yulan Sun, Weifeng Shi, Shuguang Tan, Yang Pan, Shujuan Cui, Qingchao Zhang, Xiangfeng Dou, Yanning Lv, Xinyu Li, Xitai Li, Lijuan Chen, Chuansong Quan, Qianli Wang, Yingze Zhao, Qiang Lv, Wenhao Hua, Hui Zeng, Zhihai Chen, Haofeng Xiong, Chengyu Jiang, Xinghuo Pang, Fujie Zhang, Mifang Liang, Guizhen Wu, George F Gao, William J Liu, Ang Li, Quanyi Wang
We report the first imported case of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in China. The patient returned from Angola, a non-epidemic country, with an infection of a new reassortant from different lineages of Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFVs). The patient developed multiorgan dysfunction and gradually recovered with continuous renal replacement therapy and a short regimen of methylprednisolone treatment. The disordered cytokines and chemokines in the plasma of the patient revealed hypercytokinemia, but the levels of protective cytokines were low upon admission and fluctuated as the disease improved...
January 18, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050022/an-isolate-of-vibrio-campbellii-carrying-the-pir-vp-gene-causes-acute-hepatopancreatic-necrosis-disease
#19
LETTER
Xuan Dong, Hailiang Wang, Guosi Xie, Peizhuo Zou, Chengcheng Guo, Yan Liang, Jie Huang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050021/systematic-active-surveillance-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-camels-in-egypt
#20
Mohamed A Ali, Mahmoud M Shehata, Mokhtar R Gomaa, Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed S Kayed, Ahmed N El-Taweel, Mohamed Atea, Nagla Hassan, Ola Bagato, Yassmin Moatasim, Sara H Mahmoud, Omnia Kutkat, Asmaa M Maatouq, Ahmed Osman, Pamela P McKenzie, Richard J Webby, Ghazi Kayali
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%...
January 4, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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