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Emerging Microbes & Infections

Jiayu Wang, Zheng Teng, Wei Chu, Fanghao Fang, Xiaoqing Cui, Xiaokui Guo, Xi Zhang, Bruce R Thorley, Yongzhang Zhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
William G Valiant, Yan-Jang S Huang, Dana L Vanlandingham, Stephen Higgs, Mark G Lewis, Joseph J Mattapallil
Structural similarities between Zika (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) leads to the induction of cross-reactive responses. We have previously demonstrated that ZIKV exposed macaques significantly enhance DENV viremia. Here we show that this enhancement of DENV infection occurred in the presence of high levels of DENV cross-reactive IgG1 subclass of binding antibodies (bAb) with low DENV neutralizing antibody (nAb) activity (<1:10). The DENV-2 nAb titres after ZIKV infection were, however, higher than those induced in DENV-2 only infected animals suggesting that ZIKV induced low titres of cross-nAb against DENV...
July 13, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Cristina Domingo, Rémi N Charrel, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Hervé Zeller, Chantal Reusken
Yellow fever (YF) remains a public health issue in endemic areas despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. In 2015-2016, urban outbreaks of YF were declared in Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and a sylvatic outbreak has been ongoing in Brazil since December 2016. Of great concern is the risk of urban transmission cycles taking hold in Brazil and the possible spread to countries with susceptible populations and competent vectors. Vaccination remains the cornerstone of an outbreak response, but a low vaccine stockpile has forced a sparing-dose strategy, which has thus far been implemented in affected African countries and now in Brazil...
July 12, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Sufei Tian, Chen Rong, Hua Nian, Fushun Li, Yunzhuo Chu, Shitong Cheng, Hong Shang
For the first time, we identified 15 cases of Candida auris in Shenyang, China, and then performed a risk factor assessment for these patients compared with 30 control subjects who were hospitalized in the same ward during the same period of time as the infected patients. We found that diarrhea, gastrointestinal decompression, infection, or colonization with other Candida isolates (especially Candida albicans) and tetracycline antibiotics were all risk factors for C. auris infection or colonization. Diarrhea and tetracycline antibiotics were independent risk factors...
July 11, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Rong Zhang, Ning Dong, Yonglu Huang, Hongwei Zhou, Miaomiao Xie, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Yanyan Hu, Jiachang Cai, Sheng Chen
Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) strains that also exhibit resistance to tigecycline and colistin have become a major clinical concern, as these two agents are the last-resort antibiotics used for treatment of CRKP infections. A leukemia patient infected with CRKP was subjected to follow-up analysis of variation in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of CRKP strains isolated from various specimens at different stages of treatment over a period of 3 years. Our data showed that (1) carbapenem treatment led to the emergence of CRKP in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the patient, which subsequently caused infections at other body sites as well as septicemia; (2) treatment with tigecycline led to the emergence of tigecycline-resistant CRKP, possibly through induction of the expression of a variant tet(A) gene located in a conjugative plasmid; (3) colistin treatment was effective in clearing CRKP from the bloodstream but led to the emergence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae strains as well as colistin-resistant CRKP in the GI tract due to inactivation of the mgrB gene; and (4) tigecycline- and colistin-resistant CRKP could persist in the human GI tract for a prolonged period even without antibiotic selection pressure...
July 9, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Tong Chen, Xuwu Xiang, Haijun Xu, Xuechao Zhang, Bibi Zhou, Youyun Yang, Yongliang Lou, X Frank Yang
Little is known about how Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease pathogen, adapts and survives in the tick vector. We previously identified a bacterial CarD N-terminal-like (CdnL) protein, LtpA (BB0355), in B. burgdorferi that is preferably expressed at lower temperatures, which is a surrogate condition mimicking the tick portion of the enzootic cycle of B. burgdorferi. CdnL-family proteins, an emerging class of bacterial RNAP-interacting transcription factors, are essential for the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Myxococcus xanthus...
July 9, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Gui-Ping Wen, Chang-Rong Chen, Xiu-Yu Song, Zi-Min Tang, Wen-Fang Ji, Si-Ling Wang, Ke Zhang, Jun Zhang, Shan-Hai Ou, Zi-Zheng Zheng, Ning-Shao Xia
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is emerging as a potential threat to the safety of blood transfusions. In many countries and regions endemic for HEV, such as China, blood donors are not routinely tested for HEV infection. In this study, 11747 eligible blood donors were screened for anti-HEV immunoglobulin M (IgM)/immunoglobulin G (IgG) and HEV RNA and antigen in China. Twenty-four donors who were positive for both HEV antigen and RNA were followed for ≥ 70 days, and none of these donors reported clinical hepatitis or illness...
July 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
LiuLin Luo, Wen Cao, WeiWei Chen, RanRan Zhang, LinJie Jing, HuiPing Chen, FangYou Yu, Jun Yue
Different Mycobacterium spp. infections may indicate varied treatment regimens in the clinic. Thus, the species-level identification of Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important tasks for a clinical microbiology laboratory. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid and accurate method for the identification of mycobacteria, this method lacks a comprehensive evaluation of the identification accuracy for clinically collected mycobacteria using VITEK MS Knowledge Base Version 3...
July 4, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Francesco Renzi, Estelle Hess, Melanie Dol, Dunia Koudad, Elodie Carlier, Maria Ohlén, Edward Moore, Guy Richard Cornelis
Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a dog oral commensal bacterium that causes rare but life-threatening generalized infections in humans who have been in contact with its animal hosts. Two other dog commensals, Capnocytophaga canis and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi, cause rare, mild local infections. To date, nine capsular serovars have been described in C. canimorsus. Here, we serotyped 112 strains of Capnocytophaga spp. isolated from human infections. The C. canimorsus strains (86 of 96, 89.6%) belonged to serovars A, B, or C with relative frequencies of approximately 30% for each serovar...
July 4, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Saúl Levy-Blitchtein, Ignasi Roca, Stefany Plasencia-Rebata, William Vicente-Taboada, Jorge Velásquez-Pomar, Laura Muñoz, Javier Moreno-Morales, Maria J Pons, Juana Del Valle-Mendoza, Jordi Vila
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the top-ranked pathogen in the World Health Organization priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. It emerged as a global pathogen due to the successful expansion of a few epidemic lineages, or international clones (ICs), producing acquired class D carbapenemases (OXA-type). During the past decade, however, reports regarding IC-I isolates in Latin America are scarce and are non-existent for IC-II and IC-III isolates. This study evaluates the molecular mechanisms of carbapenem resistance and the epidemiology of 80 non-duplicate clinical samples of A...
July 4, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Cyril Savin, Anne-Sophie Le Guern, Matthieu Lefranc, Sylvie Brémont, Elisabeth Carniel, Javier Pizarro-Cerdá
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Xiaoming Wang, Yao Wang, Ying Zhou, Jiyun Li, Wenjuan Yin, Shaolin Wang, Suxia Zhang, Jianzhong Shen, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang
The rapid increase in carbapenem resistance among gram-negative bacteria has renewed focus on the importance of polymyxin antibiotics (colistin or polymyxin E). However, the recent emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants (mcr-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -7), especially mcr-1, in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a serious threat to global health. Here, we characterized a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-8, located on a transferrable 95,983-bp IncFII-type plasmid in Klebsiella pneumoniae...
July 4, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Eugénie Baudon, Daniel K W Chu, Dao Duy Tung, Pham Thi Nga, Hoang Vu Mai Phuong, Nguyen Le Khanh Hang, Le Thi Thanh, Nguyen Thanh Thuy, Nguyen Cong Khanh, Lê Quynh Mai, Nguyen Viet Khong, Benjamin J Cowling, Marisa Peyre, Malik Peiris
Swine are an important intermediate host for emergence of pandemic influenza. Vietnam is the largest swine producer in South East Asia. Systematic virological and serological surveillance of swine influenza viruses was carried out in Northern Vietnam from May 2013 to June 2014 with monthly sampling of pigs in local and large collective slaughterhouses and in a live pig market. Influenza A seroprevalence in the local slaughterhouses and in the large collective slaughterhouse was 48.7% and 29.1%, respectively...
July 2, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jorlan Fernandes, Alexandro Guterres, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, John Chamberlain, Kuiama Lewandowski, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Thayssa Alves Coelho, Charle Ferreira Crisóstomo, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea, Roger Hewson, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Mammarenavirus RNA was detected in Musser's bristly mouse (Neacomys musseri) from the Amazon region, and this detection indicated that rodents were infected with a novel mammarenavirus, with the proposed name Xapuri virus (XAPV), which is phylogenetically related to New World Clade B and Clade C viruses. XAPV may represent the first natural reassortment of the Arenaviridae family and a new unrecognized clade within the Tacaribe serocomplex group.
June 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Livia V Patrono, Liran Samuni, Victor M Corman, Leila Nourifar, Caroline Röthemeier, Roman M Wittig, Christian Drosten, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H Leendertz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Qi Su, Yang Li, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng Zhao
The avian leukosis virus subgroup K (ALV-K), a novel subgroup in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, has been difficult to isolate in the past due to its poor replication ability. However, according to the latest monitoring data, the replication ability and isolation rate of ALV-K have clearly increased, and new strains with mutations in the pol gene have also been found. To determine the effects of such mutations on the biological characteristics of ALV-K, a pair of infectious clones were constructed and rescued...
June 26, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Matthew R Gemmell, Susan Berry, Indrani Mukhopadhya, Richard Hansen, Hans L Nielsen, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Henrik Nielsen, Georgina L Hold
In recent years, an increasing number of Campylobacter species have been associated with human gastrointestinal (GI) diseases including gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancer. Campylobacter concisus, an oral commensal historically linked to gingivitis and periodontitis, has been increasingly detected in the lower GI tract. In the present study, we generated robust genome sequence data from C. concisus strains and undertook a comprehensive pangenome assessment to identify C. concisus virulence properties and to explain potential adaptations acquired while residing in specific ecological niche(s) of the GI tract...
June 26, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Shari L Lydy, Mauricio S Lascano, Josselyn E Garcia-Perez, Amanda J Williams-Newkirk, Mario J Grijalva
The seroprevalence and epidemiology of Bartonella bacilliformis infection in the Andean highlands of Ecuador is largely unknown. We conducted a sero-epidemiologic survey of 319 healthy children aged 1-15 years living in six rural, mountain communities in Loja Province, Ecuador. Blood was collected by finger stick onto filter paper and dried, and the eluted sera analyzed for antibodies to B. bacilliformis by rPap31 ELISA. Demographic, entomologic, and household variables were assessed to investigate associated risk factors for antibody seropositivity to B...
June 25, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Haiqin Jiang, Jiya Sun, Yanqing Chen, Zhiming Chen, Le Wang, Wei Gao, Ying Shi, Wenyue Zhang, Youming Mei, Santosh Chokkakula, Varalakshmi Vissa, Taijiao Jiang, Aiping Wu, Hongsheng Wang
A systems approach was used to explore the genome and transcriptome of Mycobacterium shigaense, a new opportunistic pathogen isolated from a patient with a skin infection, and the host response transcriptome was assessed using a macrophage infection model. The M. shigaense genome comprises 5,207,883 bp, with 67.2% G+C content and 5098 predicted coding genes. Evolutionarily, the bacterium belongs to a cluster in the phylogenetic tree along with three target opportunistic pathogenic strains, namely, M. avium, M...
June 22, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Yongjia Ji, Fengdi Zhang, Renfang Zhang, Yinzhong Shen, Li Liu, Jiangrong Wang, Junyang Yang, Qi Tang, Jingna Xun, Tangkai Qi, Zhenyan Wang, Wei Song, Yang Tang, Jun Chen, Hongzhou Lu
The roles of immunodeficiency and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in shaping the gut microbiota in HIV-1-infected subjects (HISs) have not been described thoroughly by time-series investigations. In this study, 36 antiretroviral-naïve HISs were enrolled to prospectively assess alterations in the fecal microbiota and plasma markers of microbial translocation and inflammation with cART. At baseline, the species α-diversity of the fecal microbiota was significantly lower in HISs with a CD4+ T cell count <300/mm3 than in HISs with a CD4+ T cell count >300/mm3 (Shannon index: Median 2...
June 22, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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