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Emerging Microbes & Infections

Liguo Liu, Fengting Jiang, Lihong Chen, Bing Zhao, Jie Dong, Lilian Sun, Yafang Zhu, Bo Liu, Yang Zhou, Jian Yang, Yanlin Zhao, Qi Jin, Xiaobing Zhang
Whole-genome sequencing was used to analyze the profiles of isoniazid (INH) resistance-related mutations among 188 multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and mono-INH-resistant isolates collected in a recent Chinese national survey. Mutations were detected in 18 structural genes and two promoter regions in 96.8% of 188 resistant isolates. There were high mutation frequencies in katG, the inhA promoter, and ahpC-oxyR regulator regions in INH-resistant isolates with frequencies of 86...
November 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Yu-Na Lee, Sun-Ha Cheon, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Gyeong-Beom Heo, You-Chan Bae, Seong-Joon Joh, Myoung-Heon Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee
In this study, we characterized H7 subtype low-pathogenicity (LP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) isolated from wild bird habitats in the Republic of Korea from 2010 to early 2017. Through national surveillance, 104 H7 IAVs were isolated, accounting for an average of 14.9% of annual IAV isolations. In early 2017, H7 subtypes accounted for an unusually high prevalence (43.6%) of IAV detections in wild birds. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the viruses isolated in the winter of 2016-2017 fell within cluster II of group C, belonging to the Eurasian lineage of H7 IAVs...
November 15, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Hannah Romo, Joan L Kenney, Bradley J Blitvich, Aaron C Brault
Previous studies demonstrated an insect-specific flavivirus, Nhumirim virus (NHUV), can suppress growth of West Nile virus (WNV) and decrease transmission rates in NHUV/WNV co-inoculated Culex quinquefasciatus. To assess whether NHUV might interfere with transmission of other medically important flaviviruses, the ability of NHUV to suppress viral growth of Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) was assessed in Aedes albopictus cells. Significant reductions in ZIKV (100,000-fold) and DENV-2 (10,000-fold) were observed in either cells concurrently inoculated with NHUV or pre-inoculated with NHUV...
November 15, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Zeng Wang, Xiaozhan Zhang, Ruoqian Yan, Panpan Yang, Yanyang Wu, Dongdong Yang, Chuanzhou Bian, Jun Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Cong Chen, Zuliang Liu, Liguo Liu, Yan Xiao, Jianmin Wang, Qi Jin
H7N9 influenza virus has been circulating among humans for five epidemic waves since it was first isolated in 2013 in China. The recent increase in H7N9 infections during the fifth outbreak in China has caused concerns of a possible pandemic. In this study, we describe a previously characterized human monoclonal antibody, HNIgGA6, obtained by isolating rearranged heavy-chain and light-chain genes from patients who had recovered from H7N9 infections. HNIgGA6 recognized multiple HAs and neutralized the infectivity of 11 out of the 12 H7N9 strains tested, as well as three emerging HPAI H7N9 isolates...
November 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Adriana Osickova, Nataliya Balashova, Jiri Masin, Miroslav Sulc, Jana Roderova, Tomas Wald, Angela C Brown, Evan Koufos, En Hyung Chang, Alexander Giannakakis, Edward T Lally, Radim Osicka
Kingella kingae is a member of the commensal oropharyngeal flora of young children. Improvements in detection methods have led to the recognition of K. kingae as an emerging pathogen that frequently causes osteoarticular infections in children and a severe form of infective endocarditis in children and adults. Kingella kingae secretes a membrane-damaging RTX (Repeat in ToXin) toxin, RtxA, which is implicated in the development of clinical infections. However, the mechanism by which RtxA recognizes and kills host cells is largely unexplored...
November 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Kang Zheng, Man Xu, Yongjian Xiao, Haodang Luo, Yafeng Xie, Jian Yu, Manyi Tan, Yumeng Li, Feijun Zhao, Tiebing Zeng, Yimou Wu
Plasmid DNA encoding flagellin FlaB3 was used as a vaccination candidate for the evaluation of immunogenicity and protection against Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum dissemination. First, intramuscular injection of the flagellin encoded by the plasmid DNA into New Zealand rabbits elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. Total IgG production increased in response to flagellin. In addition, serum IFN-γ secretion and CD8+ cells were substantially greater in the rabbits immunized with the plasmid encoding flagellin FlaB3 than those in the rabbits immunized with recombinant flagellin...
November 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jana Sirmarova, Jiri Salat, Martin Palus, Vaclav Hönig, Helena Langhansova, Michael R Holbrook, Daniel Ruzek
Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) is a highly pathogenic tick-borne flavivirus enzootic to India. In humans, KFDV causes a severe febrile disease. In some infected individuals, hemorrhagic manifestations, such as bleeding from the nose and gums and gastrointestinal bleeding with hematemesis and/or blood in the stool, have been reported. However, the mechanisms underlying these hemorrhagic complications remain unknown, and there is no information about the specific target cells for KFDV. We investigated the interaction of KFDV with vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), which are key targets for several other hemorrhagic viruses...
November 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Thomas P Peacock, William T Harvey, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Richard Reeve, Munir Iqbal
Avian influenza A(H9N2) viruses are an increasing threat to global poultry production and, through zoonotic infection, to human health where they are considered viruses with pandemic potential. Vaccination of poultry is a key element of disease control in endemic countries, but vaccine effectiveness is persistently challenged by the emergence of antigenic variants. Here we employed a combination of techniques to investigate the genetic basis of H9N2 antigenic variability and evaluate the role of different molecular mechanisms of immune escape...
November 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Bin Ju, Dan Li, Li Ren, Jiali Hou, Yanling Hao, Hua Liang, Shuo Wang, Jiang Zhu, Min Wei, Yiming Shao
The isolation and characterization of monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) from natural HIV-1-infected individuals play very important roles in understanding nAb responses to HIV-1 infection and designing vaccines and therapeutics. Many broadly nAbs have been isolated from individuals infected with HIV-1 clade A, B, C, etc., but, as an important recombinant virus, the identification of broadly nAbs in CRF01_AE-infected individuals remains elusive. In this study, we used antigen-specific single B-cell sorting and monoclonal antibody expression to isolate monoclonal antibodies from a CRF01_AE-infected Chinese donor (GX2016EU04), a broad neutralizer based on neutralizing activity against a cross-clade virus panel...
November 1, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Yun Zhu, Changchong Li, Li Chen, Baoping Xu, Yunlian Zhou, Ling Cao, Yunxiao Shang, Zhou Fu, Aihuan Chen, Li Deng, Yixiao Bao, Yun Sun, Limin Ning, Chunyan Liu, Ju Yin, Zhengde Xie, Kunling Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Gen Li, Xudong Niu, Shiyu Yuan, Lu Liang, Yongxia Liu, Liping Hu, Jianzhu Liu, Ziqiang Cheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Dong Wei, De-Ming Yu, Ming-Jie Wang, Dong-Hua Zhang, Qi-Jian Cheng, Jie-Ming Qu, Xin-Xin Zhang
Seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses are recognized as major epidemic viruses, exhibiting complex seasonal patterns in regions with temperate climates. To investigate the influence of viral evolution and mutations on the seasonality of influenza, we performed a genome-wide analysis of samples collected from 62 influenza A/H3N2-infected patients in Shanghai during 2016-2017. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight segments of the influenza A virus revealed that there were two epidemic influenza virus strains circulating in the 2016-2017 winter season (2016-2017win) and 2017 summer season (2017sum)...
October 23, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Gang Lu, Lingshuang Sun, Jiajun Ou, Haibin Xu, Liyan Wu, Shoujun Li
A novel equine parvovirus, equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H), was first discovered in a horse that died of equine serum hepatitis in the USA in 2018. EqPV-H was shown to be a novel etiological agent associated with equine serum hepatitis. Following this initial report, no additional studies on EqPV-H have been published. In this study, a total of 143 serum samples were collected from racehorses at 5 separate farms in China and were analyzed to detect EqPV-H DNA via nested PCR. The results indicated a high prevalence of EqPV-H (11...
October 23, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Chunfeng Li, Yong-Qiang Deng, Shulong Zu, Natalie Quanquin, Jingzhe Shang, Min Tian, Xue Ji, Na-Na Zhang, Hao-Long Dong, Yan-Peng Xu, Ling-Zhai Zhao, Fu-Chun Zhang, Xiao-Feng Li, Aiping Wu, Genhong Cheng, Cheng-Feng Qin
Zika virus (ZIKV) has elicited global concern due to its unique biological features, unusual transmission routes, and unexpected clinical outcomes. Although ZIKV transmission through anal intercourse has been reported in humans, it remains unclear if ZIKV is detectable in the stool, if it can infect the host through the anal canal mucosa, and what the pathogenesis of such a route of infection might be in the mouse model. Herein, we demonstrate that ZIKV RNA can be recovered from stools in multiple mouse models, as well as from the stool of a ZIKV patient...
October 17, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Clara Torres-Barceló
Faced with the crisis of multidrug-resistant bacteria, bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria, have been reported to have both beneficial and detrimental effects with respect to disease management. Bacteriophages (phages) have important ecological and evolutionary impacts on their bacterial hosts and have been associated with therapeutic use to kill bacterial pathogens, but can lead to the transmission of antibiotic resistance. Although the process known as transduction has been reported for many bacterial species by classic and modern genetic approaches, its contribution to the spread of antibiotic resistance in nature remains unclear...
October 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Runfeng Li, Bing Yuan, Xueshan Xia, Sheng Zhang, Qiuling Du, Chunguang Yang, Na Li, Jin Zhao, Yunhui Zhang, Rongping Zhang, Yue Feng, Jianlin Jiao, Malik Peiris, Nanshan Zhong, Chris Ka Pun Mok, Zifeng Yang
Outbreaks of avian influenza virus continue to pose threats to human health. Animal models such as the mouse, ferret, and macaque are used to understand the pathogenesis of avian influenza virus infection in humans. We previously reported that the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, family Tupaiidae), which is regarded as a "low-level primate", has α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid receptor distributions similar to those of humans and is potentially a useful mammalian model for studying mild human influenza (H1N1) virus infection...
October 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Naoko Uno, Ted M Ross
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus that is endemic in many tropical and sub-tropical countries where the transmission vectors Aedes spp. mosquitoes resides. There are four serotypes of the virus. Each serotype is antigenically different, meaning they elicit heterologous antibodies. Infection with one serotype will create neutralizing antibodies to the serotype. Cross-protection from other serotypes is not long term, instead heterotypic infection can cause severe disease. This review will focus on the innate immune response to DENV infection and the virus evasion of the innate immune system by escaping recognition or inhibiting the production of an antiviral state...
October 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Kamal El Bissati, Pauline Levigne, Joseph Lykins, El Bachir Adlaoui, Amina Barkat, Amina Berraho, Majda Laboudi, Bouchra El Mansouri, Azeddine Ibrahimi, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Fred Quinn, Manoradhan Murugesan, Fouad Seghrouchni, Jorge Enrique Gómez-Marín, François Peyron, Rima McLeod
Globally, congenital toxoplasmosis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and outbreaks of infection with T. gondii represent a significant, emerging public health burden, especially in the developing world. This parasite is a threat to public health. Disease often is not recognized and is inadequately managed. Herein, we analyze the status of congenital toxoplasmosis in Morocco, Colombia, the United States, and France. We identify the unique challenges faced by each nation in the implementation of optimal approaches to congenital toxoplasmosis as a public health problem...
September 27, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jane K Fieldhouse, Xinye Wang, Kerry A Mallinson, Rick W Tsao, Gregory C Gray
Enteroviruses infect millions of humans annually worldwide, primarily infants and children. With a high mutation rate and frequent recombination, enteroviruses are noted to evolve and change over time. Given the evidence that human enteroviruses are commonly found in other mammalian species and that some human and animal enteroviruses are genetically similar, it is possible that enzootic enteroviruses may also be infecting human populations. We conducted a systematic review of the English and Chinese literature published between 2007 and 2017 to examine evidence that enteroviruses may be zoonotic...
September 26, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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