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Cardiology Research

Rachel Stork Poeppelman, Joseph D Tobias
In utero , the ductus venosus connects the left portal vein to the inferior vena cava, allowing a portion of the venous blood to bypass the liver and return to the heart. After birth, the ductus venosus closes due to changes in intracardiac pressures and a decrease in endogenous prostaglandins. Failure of the ductus venosus to close may result in galactosemia, hypoxemia, encephalopathy with hyperammonia, and hepatic dysfunction. We report an infant with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) who developed coagulopathy and hyperammonia during the preoperative period secondary to patent ductus venosus (PDV)...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Marilena Renata Spiridon, Antoniu Octavian Petris, Eusebiu Vlad Gorduza, Anca Sabina Petras, Roxana Popescu, Lavinia Caba
Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is a rare monogenic disorder characterized by upper limb abnormalities, congenital heart defects and/or conduction abnormalities. It is determined by mutations of TBX5 gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Penetrance is complete, but variable expressivity is present, which gives sometimes diagnostic difficulties. Our case is a young adult with a personal history of preaxial polydactyly operated in infancy, multiple cardiac malformations (atrial septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, left ventricular non-compaction) and radiologic findings consistent with HOS...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Gurkirat Singh, Hemant Khemani, Rahul Singla, Shakil Shaikh, Vishal Patil, Narender Omprakash Bansal
Coronary artery aneurysm is defined as the localized dilatation of a coronary artery segment more than 1.5 times the size of adjacent normal segments. The aneurysms of the coronary arteries are rare. Coronary aneurysms can be congenital or acquired. The majority are atherosclerotic in origin. The primary complication is myocardial ischemia or infarction, sudden cardiac death with rupture being rare. Some aneurysms are diagnosed incidentally in arteries other than the culprit artery. Treatment options include medical management with anticoagulation, percutaneous intervention with covered stents or surgery...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Orathai Pachirat, Danon Kaewkes, Burabha Pussadhamma, George Watt
Infective endocarditis due to non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae is uncommon. We describe the case of a 42-year-old male with a history of mitral valve replacement with prosthetic valve for 4 years. He presented with fever, weight loss, dyspnea on exertion and orthopnea. The echocardiography demonstrated large vegetation attached on the left coronary cusp of the aortic valve with moderately severe aortic regurgitation but sparing of the prosthetic mitral valve. Three separate blood cultures grew Corynebacterium species...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Poornima Vinod, Ahmad Jabri, Vinayak Hegde, Joseph Lahorra, David Cutler
Cardiac intimal sarcomas are extremely rare, remarkably aggressive and least reported type of primary malignant tumors of the heart. Cardiac intimal sarcomas are encountered more commonly in the large arterial blood vessels including pulmonary artery and aorta, and are extremely rare in the heart. The mainstay of treatment is achievement of tumor-free margins with surgical resection, which is associated with improved survival. Here, we report a 66-year-old female with primary cardiac intimal sarcoma presented with functional mitral stenosis and heart failure...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Flavia Myrna, Dinaldo C Oliveira, Gloria Vinhas, Ivo Silva, Magno Teixeira, Andre Galembeck
Background: Catheters are extensively used for coronary angiographies. These devices are long, thin, and flexible tubes of variable diameters that are made of the following polymer compounds: polyamide, polyurethane and Teflon. The objectives of this study are to identify changes that occur in the polymeric structure of the catheters, including an analysis of microcracks, fissures, cuts, perforations, roughness, and porosity in the internal and external layers after the first, second, third, and seventh reprocessing...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Omar Chehab, Abdul Salam Qannus, Mahmoud Eldirani, Hussein Hassan, Hani Tamim, Habib A Dakik
Background: Limited data are available on the predictors of mortality in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in developing countries. In this study, we analyze the predictors for in--hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) in a large tertiary referral university hospital in Lebanon. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 503 patients admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center with AMI (228 with STEMI and 275 with NSTEMI)...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Bhupendra Verma, Amrita Singh, Ashwani K Saxena, Manu Kumar
Background: Several studies and meta-analyses have shown that direct stenting (DS) may improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). But in most cases, the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow remains ≤ 1 after wire placement. We used deflated balloon to facilitate DS in patients with totally occluded culprit arteries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and outcomes of this novel technique in patients with STEMI in real-world clinical practice...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Vikrant Deshmukh, Mukund Vasantrao Phutane, Kalyan Munde, Narendra Bansal
Background: A chronic total occlusion (CTO) is defined as an angiographically documented or clinically suspected complete interruption of antegrade coronary flow (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI)-0 flow) of greater than 3 months standing. Coronary CTOs represent the most technically challenging lesion subset that interventional cardiologists face. CTOs are identified in up to one third of patients referred for coronary angiography and remain seriously undertreated with percutaneous techniques...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Ana Valeria Garcia Ramirez, Eline de Almeida Soriano, Durval Ribas Filho, Idiberto Jose Zotarelli Filho
Background: Statistical data from the USA estimate that 5.7 million Americans over 20 years of age have congestive heart failure (CHF) and this number is expected to increase approximately 46.0% between 2012 and 2030. In Brazil, there are no epidemiological studies involving the incidence of heart failure; however, according to other countries, it can be estimated that up to 6.4 million Brazilians suffer from this syndrome. Randomized and controlled clinical studies on the efficacy of enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with CHF are lacking...
October 2018: Cardiology Research
Hassan Tahir, Sarina Sachdev, Landai Nguyen, Nikky Bardia, Bassam Omar, Michael V Cohen
Despite the development of ventricular assist devices, cardiac transplantation remains an important procedure for patients with advanced heart failure. The number of transplants done annually has remained stable because of lack of of donors. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction remains one of the most important reasons for seeking a donor heart. Myocardial stunning is an important cause of reversible systolic dysfunction. Electrical injury is a recognized cause of myocardial stunning with variable duration ranging from days to weeks...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
Shakil Sattar Ahmed Shaikh, Vikrant Deshmukh, Vishal Patil, Zahidullah Khan, Rahul Singla, Narender Omprakash Bansal
Among the congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, absent left circumflex artery (LCX) defect is extremely rare. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 48-year-old female who presented with a 4-month history of exertional chest pain with positive stress (treadmill) test. Conventional coronary angiogram showed a normal left anterior descending, absent LCX and a super-dominant right coronary artery (RCA) with prominent branches. Aortography also failed to show a separate ostium for the left circumflex artery...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
George Kassimis, Nicholas Weight, Nestoras Kontogiannis, Tushar Raina
Rotational atherectomy-assisted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on unprotected left main stem (LMS) bifurcation lesions is technically challenging. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has become a standard part of the PCI procedure for the treatment of LMS disease. There is limited experience in performing these cases via a transradial approach using a sheathless guiding catheter (SGC) system. We report a case of a symptomatic octogenarian patient with restrictive angina and significant LMS bifurcation disease, who was successfully treated transradially with the use of the 7...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
Shakil Sattar Ahmed Shaikh, Kalyan Munde, Vishal Patil, Mukund Phutane, Rahul Singla, Zahidullah Khan, Narender Omprakash Bansal
The posterior descending artery (PDA) supplying the posterior one-third of the inter-ventricular septum usually arises from the right coronary artery (RCA) or the left circumflex artery (LCX). PDA arising from the left anterior descending artery (LAD) is an extremely rare anomaly. Here we report a rare type of left dominant circulation in which a large LAD is continuing as PDA after winding round the apex in the presence of a diminutive RCA. Such a large LAD continuing as PDA is referred as "hyperdominant" or "superdominant"...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
Eliza Sharma, Suyash Dahal, Pratibha Sharma, Dipesh Kc Ghimire, Sumit Dahal
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is regularly associated with hyperkalemia that results in well-described changes on the electrocardiogram (EKG). However, ST-segment elevations on EKG mimicking acute myocardial infarction have rarely been described in the setting of DKA. Here we present a case of a 43-year-old male with DKA who had pseudoinfarction pattern of ST-segment elevation on EKG that resolved with treatment of DKA and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma around the condition.
August 2018: Cardiology Research
Mina Iskander, Ashraf Abugroun, Kerolus Shehata, Fady Iskander, Ayman Iskander
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is an acquired form of cardiomyopathy that is commonly seen among post-menopausal women. It is characterized by left ventricular apical ballooning, electrocardiographic changes and mild elevation of cardiac enzymes in the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis. TCM usually has benign course. However, on rare instance, it can result in life-threatening and fatal complications including acute cardiogenic shock, ventricular arrhythmias and ventricular wall rupture. We herein report a case of a 77-year-old female who developed TCM complicated with massive pericardial effusion and cardiac arrest...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
Milan Mahesh, Munish Sharma, Daniel An Mascarenhas
Background: Medical recycling and reutilization of cardiovascular implantableelectronic devices (CIEDs) have a significant impact not only in patientsof low-income countries but may also in certain patients in the UnitedStates who do not have sufficient medical insurance coverage. Themain determining factor for future utility and popularity of recycledmedical devices is thorough understanding about this topic amongstpublic and healthcare professional. To the best of our knowledge,there has been no study conducted so far at a community level to determinethe understanding in public and healthcare personnel about recyclingof medical devices including CIEDs...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
Takashi Hitsumoto
Background: Recent clinical studies have reported that impaired hemorheology is a significant cardiovascular risk factor, but there has been no prospective study of its relationship with cardiovascular events. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of whole blood passage time (WBPT), measured by a microchannel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN), as a predictor of primary cardiovascular events in patients with traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: The study enrolled 1,134 outpatients with traditional cardiovascular risk factors but no history of cardiovascular events (438 men and 696 women; mean ± standard deviation age, 67 ± 11 years)...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
John Daniel A Ramos, Elleen L Cunanan, Lauro L Abrahan, Marc Denver A Tiongson, Felix Eduardo R Punzalan
Background: Symptoms of mitral stenosis (MS) are worsened during tachycardia and exercise. Beta-blockers are used in controlling heart rate (HR) in MS, resulting in symptom improvement, but coming with significant side effects. Ivabradine has a selective action on the sinus node devoid of the usual side effects of beta-blockers. Small studies have recently investigated the role of ivabradine in MS in sinus rhythm. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of ivabradine, compared to beta-blockers, in terms of exercise duration, maximum HR achieved, resting HR, mean gradient, and working capacity among patients with MS in sinus rhythm...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
Arina Prihestri Nugraheni, Irsad Andi Arso, Erika Maharani
Background: Idiopathic outflow tract ventricular premature contraction (VPC) can evolve into ventricular tachycardia (VT) via triggered activity mechanism. Transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) might play a role in idiopathic outflow tract VT by inducing phase 2 early afterdepolarization (EAD) and serve as the functional substrate for VT. Tp-Te/QT ratio as an arrhythmogenesis index has been reported to be associated with the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia. This study aims to investigate the association between Tp-Te/QT ratio with VT incidence in idiopathic outflow tract VPC...
August 2018: Cardiology Research
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