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Journal of Biological Research

Xiao-Fei Guo, Wen-Ping Hu, Xian-Zheng Lang, Qiu-Ling Li, Xiang-Yu Wang, Ran Di, Qiu-Yue Liu, Xiao-Lin Liu, Yong-Fu An, Ming-Xing Chu
BACKGROUND: Alpha 1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) may affect the susceptibility of mastitis in dairy cattle for its possible role in the protection of lactoferrin from proteolytic degradation in the mammary. Milk somatic cell score (SCS) is a logarithmic transformation of the milk somatic cell count widely used as an index to evaluate mastitis. To study the relationships of α1-AT gene and SCS in Chinese Holstein cows, methods of PCR-SSCP, DNA sequencing, PCR-RFLP, and CRS-PCR technologies were used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms sites in α1-AT gene...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
Pavlos Pavlidis, Nikolaos Alachiotis
Positive selection occurs when an allele is favored by natural selection. The frequency of the favored allele increases in the population and due to genetic hitchhiking the neighboring linked variation diminishes, creating so-called selective sweeps. Detecting traces of positive selection in genomes is achieved by searching for signatures introduced by selective sweeps, such as regions of reduced variation, a specific shift of the site frequency spectrum, and particular LD patterns in the region. A variety of methods and tools can be used for detecting sweeps, ranging from simple implementations that compute summary statistics such as Tajima's D, to more advanced statistical approaches that use combinations of statistics, maximum likelihood, machine learning etc...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
Nikolaos S Ioakeimidis, Theodora Papamitsou, Soultana Meditskou, Zafiroula Iakovidou-Kritsi
The pathophysiological mechanisms which lead to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are not completely understood. Cardiac channelopathies are a well-established causative factor with long QT syndrome (LQTS) being the most frequent one, accounting for approximately 12% of SIDS cases. The genetic substrate of the above arrhythmogenic syndrome has been thoroughly described but only specific gene mutations or polymorphisms have been identified as SIDS causative. The review will focus on the prevalence of LQTS-induced SIDS or near-SIDS cases and the mutations held responsible...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
Nadia Z Shaban, Ahmed M Ahmed Zahran, Fatma H El-Rashidy, Ahmad S Abdo Kodous
BACKGROUND: Gamma (γ) ray, an electromagnetic radiation, is occasionally accompanying the emission of an alpha or beta particle. Exposure to such radiation can cause cellular changes such as mutations, chromosome aberration and cellular damage which depend upon the total amount of energy, duration of exposure and the dose. Ionizing radiation can impair spermatogenesis and can cause mutations in germ cells. In general, type B spermatogonia are sensitive to this type of radiation. The current study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of hesperidin (H), as a polyphenolic compound, on rat testis injury induced by γ-radiation...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
Spyros Sfenthourakis, Kostas A Triantis
The Aegean archipelago, comprising numerous islands and islets with great heterogeneity in topographic, geological, historical and environmental properties, offers an ideal natural laboratory for ecological and evolutionary research, and has been the stage for a very long interaction between human civilizations and local ecosystems. This work presents insights that have been gained from past and current relevant research in the area, highlighting also the importance of the Aegean archipelago as a useful model to address many major questions in biogeography, ecology and evolutionary processes...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
Aglaia Antoniou, Panagiotis Kasapidis, Georgios Kotoulas, Constantinos C Mylonas, Antonios Magoulas
BACKGROUND: Elucidating the patterns of the Atlantic Bluefin tuna [ABFT, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus, 1758)] population structure constitutes a challenging task of great importance. Most of the unique challenges stem from its biology, as well as the attributes of the marine realm in which it disperses. Accurate information is urgently needed for stock assessment, and the identification of critical features to the persistence and adaptation of populations in order to formulate and adopt effective strategies for ABFT conservation and management...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
Emmanuel D Ladoukakis, Eleftherios Zouros
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been studied intensely for "its own" merit. Its role for the function of the cell and the organism remains a fertile field, its origin and evolution is an indispensable part of the evolution of life and its interaction with the nuclear DNA is among the most important cases of genome synergism and co-evolution. Also, mtDNA was proven one of the most useful tools in population genetics and molecular phylogenetics. In this article we focus on animal mtDNA and discuss briefly how our views about its structure, function and transmission have changed, how these changes affect the information we have accumulated through its use in the fields of phylogeny and population structure and what are the most important questions that remain open for future research...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
Anastasia E Tzortzaki, Despoina Vokou, John M Halley
BACKGROUND: The abundant-centre hypothesis (ACH) assumes that a species becomes more abundant at the centre of its range, where the environmental conditions are most favorable. As we move away from this centre, abundance and occupancy decline. Although this is obvious intuitively, efforts to confirm the hypothesis have often failed. We investigated the abundance patterns of Campanula lingulata across its altitudinal range on Mt. Olympus, Greece, in order to evaluate the "abundant centre" hypothesis along an elevation gradient...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
Cigdem Selli, Yasemin Erac, Metiner Tosun
BACKGROUND: Real-time cellular analysis systems enable impedance-based label-free and dynamic monitoring of various cellular events such as proliferation. In this study, we describe the effects of initial cell seeding density on the anti-proliferative effects of transient gene silencing monitored via real-time cellular analysis. We monitored the real-time changes in proliferation of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma and A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells with different initial seeding densities following transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) silencing using xCELLigence system...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Renata Orłowska, Joanna Machczyńska, Sylwia Oleszczuk, Janusz Zimny, Piotr Tomasz Bednarek
BACKGROUND: In vitro plant regeneration via androgenesis or somatic embryogenesis is capable of inducing (epi)mutations that may affect sexual progenies. While epimutations are associated with DNA methylation, mutations could be due to the movement of transposons. The common notion is that both processes are linked. It is being assumed that demethylation activates transposable elements (TEs). Analysis of methylation changes and their relation with TEs activation in tissue cultures requires uniquely derived donor plants (Ds), their regenerants (Rs) and respective progeny (Ps) that would allow discrimination of processes not related to changes introduced via in vitro cultures...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Seyyed Hamidreza Hashemi, Ghorbanali Nematzadeh, Gholamreza Ahmadian, Ahad Yamchi, Markus Kuhlmann
BACKGROUND: The use of stably expressed genes as normalizers has crucial role in accurate and reliable expression analysis estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Recent studies have shown that, the expression levels of common housekeeping genes are varying in different tissues and experimental conditions. The genomic DNA contamination in RNA samples is another important factor that also influence the interpretation of the data obtained from qPCR. It is estimated that the gDNA contamination in gene expression analysis lead to an overestimation of the RNA transcript level...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Kwang Hyun Ko
Mitochondrial Eve confirms the "out of Africa" theory, but the evidence also supports interbreeding between Homo sapiens and other hominins: Neanderthals, Denisovans, and Homo heidelbergensis. This article explains how interbreeding between early H. sapiens and archaic hominins occurred. The availability of edible insects in East Asia aided the spread of the unaggressive, highly cooperative Neanderthals, who interbred with H. sapiens in Asia, resulting in a higher admixture of Neanderthal DNA in East Asian populations...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Krishna Khairnar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Christina Gertrude Yap, Anuar Zaini, Iekhsan Othman
BACKGROUND: The Cytochrome P450 enzymes are commonly known for their major role in metabolism. Besides its metabolic role, CYP2E1 gene expression has been associated with the onset of diabetic nephropathy. CYP2E1 protein elevation has also been reported to be responsible for the production of reactive oxygen species. The aims of this study were (i) to optimize and validate a targeted proteomic approach for quantitating CYP2E1 and validating it as a suitable clinical test, (ii) to investigate the concurrency between ESI-LCMS-MS quantitated circulating CYP2E1 and gold standard indices in the context of outpatient point-of-care clinical settings involving various groups of diabetic patients and (iii) to investigate the concurrency profile of circulating CYP2E1 protein, CYP2E1 gene expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Limin Zhen, Jian Li, Mingran Zhang, Kun Yang
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas are the most aggressive brain tumors with extremely poor prognosis despite advances in treatment techniques. MiR-10b is highly expressed in glioblastoma and regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Here, we examined the role of MiR-10b on radiotherapy of glioblastomas. METHODS: MiR-10b mimic or anti-MiR-10b inhibitor was transfected in glioblastoma cells. WST-1 assay was used to examine the effect of MiR-10b on proliferation of transfected glioblastoma cells after radiation treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Ioannis A Giantsis, George P Laliotis, Olympia Stoupa, Melpomeni Avdi
BACKGROUND: Sheep's reproductive physiology in temperate latitudes (such as Greece), is characterized by seasonality and is also regulated by photoperiodic exposure. Melatonin is the key hormone involved in this regulation. However, the melatonin secretion and therefore the ewes reproductive activity underlies variation, proposed to be linked with the melatonin receptor subtype 1A (MNTR1A) gene structure. This study was designed to investigate the polymorphism of the MNTR1A gene in a local Greek sheep breed and to determine its potential association with reproductive seasonality...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Jichang Han, Lin Zhang, Song Wang, Guanpin Yang, Lu Zhao, Kehou Pan
BACKGROUND: Microalgae frequently grow in natural environment and long-term laboratory cultures in association with bacteria. Bacteria benefit the oxygen and extracellular substances generated by microalgae, and reimburse microalgae with carbon dioxide, vitamins and so on. Such synergistic relationship has aided in establishing an efficient microalga-bacterium co-culturing mode. Obviously, the mutually beneficial relationship can be strengthened with the increase of the densities of microalgae and bacteria...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Feiwei Yan, Haitao Hao
BACKGROUND: Polysaccharides are the major active ingredients responsible for the bioactivities of Laminaria japonica. However, the effects of L. japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on exercise endurance and oxidative stress have never been investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of LJP on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in a forced swimming mouse model. The animals were divided into four groups, namely the control (C), LJP-75, LJP-150, and LJP-300 groups, which received physiological saline and 75, 150, and 300 mg kg(-1) LJP, respectively, by gavage once a day for 28 days...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Ni Long, Xueliang Ren, Zhidan Xiang, Wenting Wan, Yang Dong
BACKGROUND: Nicotiana belongs to the Solanaceae family that includes important crops such as tomato, potato, eggplant, and pepper. Nicotiana species are of worldwide economic importance and are important model plants for scientific research. Here we present the comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of six wild diploid Nicotiana species. Wild relatives provide an excellent study system for the analysis of the genetic basis for various traits, especially disease resistance. RESULTS: Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed for leaves of six diploid Nicotiana species, i...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
Seunghyung Lee, Yong-Seung Lee, Sang-Hee Lee, Boo-Keun Yang, Choon-Keun Park
BACKGROUND: The regulation of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) on cryodamage on X- and Y-sperm during cryopreservation of semen was investigated. The semen was collected from ten healthy bulls of proven fertility by an artificial vagina. The bovine sperm treated with MBCD fresh solution (0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 mM). The sperms were evaluated for viability and acrosome damage using flow cytometry. Moreover, X- and Y-sperm in frozen-thawed bovine semen were sorted by flow cytometry after Hoechst 33342-dyed, and the viability and acrosome damage of sperms were analyzed...
December 2016: Journal of Biological Research
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