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Central-European Journal of Immunology

Marcin Kosmalski, Łukasz Mokros, Piotr Kuna, Andrzej Witusik, Tadeusz Pietras
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common pathologies of that organ. The development of the disease involves a variety of mechanisms, including insulin resistance, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, endotoxins from the intestinal flora and genetic predispositions. Additionally, clinical data suggest that the presence of NAFLD is associated with excessive activation of the immune system. For practical purposes, attention should be paid to the moment when the subjects predisposed to NAFLD develop inflammatory infiltration and signs of fibrosis in the liver (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis - NASH)...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Jerzy Jankun, Omar A Khan, Hesham I Mostafa, Puneet Sindhwani, Ewa Skrzypczak-Jankun
Proteolytic and antiproteolytic enzymes play a critical role in the physiology and pathology of different stages of human life. One of the important members of the proteolytic family is the plasminogen activation system (PAS), which includes several elements crucial for this review: the 50 kDa glycoprotein plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) that inhibits tissue-type (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). These two convert plasminogen into its active form named plasmin that can lyse a broad spectrum of proteins...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Ümit Yaşar
Anil et al. (2017) report a patient who presented with drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptom (DRESS) syndrome. It may be induced by various drugs. In the mentioned report DRESS syndrome has been attributed to phenytoin use. CYP2C9 is a genetically polymorphic enzyme, and decreased metabolism of many drugs has been reported in the subjects carrying variants of rs1799853 and rs1057910, which were designated as CYP2C9*2 and *3. rs3758581, the variant investigated by Anil et al., is a genetic variant of CYP2C19 (not that of CYP2C9, as stated and discussed in the report)...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Anna Osiecka-Iwan, Anna Hyc, Dorota M Radomska-Lesniewska, Adrian Rymarczyk, Piotr Skopinski
In physiological conditions chondrocytes are protected from contact with immunocompetent cells by the extracellular matrix, and transplanted fragments of allogeneic cartilage are not rejected. Cartilage produced by allogeneic chondrocytes, however, evokes the immune response of the recipient and is gradually destroyed. Immunisation by allogeneic chondrocytes is induced by the contact of their surface molecules with cells of the immune system. Chondrocytes constitutively express class I and, in some species, class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Marta Legatowicz-Koprowska
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently defined systemic inflammatory and fibrous condition of unknown etiology and multiple clinical presentations. Characteristic features include elevated serum IgG4 levels in approximately 70% of patients; diffuse lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates rich in IgG4(+) cells; a "storiform" fibrosis pattern; and obliterative phlebitis affecting various organs. The disease responds well to corticosteroid treatment, with a second-line therapy involving B-cell-directed immunosuppressive biologic agents...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Weronika Ratajczak, Paulina Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, Beata Tokarz-Deptuła, Wiesław Deptuła
This article reviews immunological memory cells, currently represented by T and B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, which determine a rapid and effective response against a second encounter with the same antigen. Among T lymphocytes, functions of memory cells are provided by their subsets: central memory, effector memory, tissue-resident memory, regulatory memory and stem memory T cells. Memory T and B lymphocytes have an essential role in the immunity against microbial pathogens but are also involved in autoimmunity and maternal-fetal tolerance...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Barbara Szpotowicz-Czech, Magdalena Wiecek, Jadwiga Szymura, Marcin Maciejczyk, Zbigniew Szygula
Aim of the study: The aim of our research was to examine the influence of single whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) on chosen immune system indicators including the heat shock protein HSP-70. Material and methods: The study was carried out among ten young and healthy men (mean age 22.4 ±1.65, with a body mass index of 22.91 ±2.39 kg/m2 ). The participants were subjected to single whole-body cryostimulation (at -130°C temperatures) in a special cryogenic chamber for 3 minutes...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Edyta Machura, Maria Szczepańska, Bogdan Mazur, Katarzyna Ziora, Alicja Kasperska-Zając
Introduction: Among the broad spectrum of cytokines, interleukin 1-β (IL-1β) has been implicated in induction and subsequent aggravation of skin lesions in atopic dermatitis (AD). A considerable body of evidence suggests that vitamin D status also influences the risk and/or severity of AD. Material and methods: Fifty-seven children suffering from mild to severe AD were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 33 matched healthy children. In all the children serum concentrations of IL-1β/IL-1F2 and the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist IL-Ra/1F3 were measured...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Mehmet G Sönmez, Betül Kozanhan, Çigˇdem D Deniz, Yunus E Gögˇer, Muzaffer T Kilinç, Salim Neşeliogˇlu, Özcan Ere
Aim of the study: We aim to examine the relation between thiol/disulphide homeostasis and transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) results and evaluate whether it was effective on the distinction of benign and malign prostate disease. Material and methods: The study included 29 men histopathologically diagnosed as prostate adenocancer (Pca) (group 1), 30 men having benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) (group 2) and age match 30 healthy individuals in the control group (group 3)...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Zbigniew Baj, Zbigniew Zbróg, Adam Szuflet, Sylwia Mańka, Piotr Bartnicki, Ewa Majewska
Aim of the study: End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on chronic haemodialysis (HD) are immuno-compromised and prone to infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role as both primary sensors of pathogen invasion and activators of inflammatory reaction. To test if the immune impairment in HD patients is connected with the defective expression of the neutrophil TLRs, we aimed to examine their expression and chosen inflammatory indices. Material and methods: We tested CD14, TLR4, and TLR9 expressions on neutrophils using flow cytometry...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Małgorzata Mizerska-Wasiak, Łukasz Gajewski, Karolina Cichoń-Kawa, Jadwiga Małdyk, Katarzyna Dziedzic-Jankowska, Beata Leszczyńska, Agnieszka Rybi-Szumińska, Anna Wasilewska, Agnieszka Pukajło-Marczyk, Danuta Zwolińska, Beata Bieniaś, Przemysław Sikora, Maria Szczepańska, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Elżbieta Górska, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Introduction: GDIgA1 (galactose deficient IgA1) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and Henoch-Schönlein nephritis (HSN). Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to assess the relevance of serum GDIgA1 level as a prognostic marker in children with IgAN and HSN. Material and methods: 41 children were included to the study group (15 IgAN, 26 HSN) and 22 to the control group. The following parameters were evaluated at baseline and endpoint: proteinuria, erythrocyturia, serum creatinine, serum IgA, GFR...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Majid Mahmoodi, Hassan Abolhassani, Hossein Mozdarani, Nima Rezaei, Gholamreza Azizi, Reza Yazdani, Farideh Farzanfar, Hosein Rafiemanesh, Mohammad-Ali Mohagheghi, Kouros Divsalar, Rasoul Nasiri Kalmarzi, Asghar Ramyar, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the predominant antibody deficiency disorders, some evidence of which indicates that chromosome instability is present in these patients. An increased risk of cancer in patients with CVID has been documented. This study was undertaken to highlight radiation sensitivity in CVID patients and to clarify the genetic basis of this defect in these cases. Stimulated lymphocytes of the studied subjects were exposed to low-dose gamma-rays in the G2 phase or the G0 phase of the cell cycle and chromosomal aberrations were scored...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Toru Yago, Yuki Nanke, Manabu Kawamoto, Tsuyoshi Kobashigawa, Hisashi Yamanaka, Shigeru Kotake
IL-35 is known as a regulatory cytokine produced by regulatory T cells. It has also been reported that IL-35 suppresses the proliferation of Th17 cells, which is involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. However, in rheumatoid arthritis patients, the role of IL-35 is controversial, and the role of IL-35 in bone metabolism has not been clarified. We investigated the effect of IL-35 on human osteoclast differentiation and activation. We first evaluated the effect of rhIL-35 on human osteoclastogenesis from monocytes cultured alone, induced by soluble-RANKL...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Anna Szaflarska, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Anna Gruca, Katarzyna Szewczyk, Mirosław Bik-Multanowski, Marzena Lenart, Marta Surman, Ilona Kopyta, Ewa Głuszkiewicz, Magdalena Machnikowska-Sokołowska, Katarzyna Gruszczyńska, Anna Pituch-Noworolska, Maciej Siedlar
Introduction: In this study we describe a patient with gross deletion containing the BTK and TIMM8A genes. Mutations in these genes are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia and Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome, respectively. X linked agammaglobulinemia is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by low levels of B lymphocytes and recurrent microbial infections, whereas, Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with early onset of sensorineural deafness...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Anna Osiecka-Iwan, Piotr Skopinski, Dorota M Radomska-Lesniewska, Anna Hyc
The purpose of this work was to establish, whether rat chondrocyte associated antigen, transmembrane Tmp21 protein belonging to the p24 protein family may immunize rats and thus be included into the panel of immunogens potentially involved in cartilage pathology. For immunization of rats extract from cultured chondrocytes containing surface chondrocyte proteins suspended in incomplete Freund's adjuvant was used. Control animals were injected with incomplete Freund's adjuvant without chondrocyte extract. Morphological observations indicated that both in control and experimental animals occurred subperiosteal resorption of bone, suggesting that it arised as the response to adjuvant...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Ning Pu, Guochao Zhao, Shanshan Gao, Yutong Cui, Yadong Xu, Yang Lv, Abulimiti Nuerxiati, Wenchuan Wu
Previous fundamental or clinical trials of dendritic cell (DC) vaccine against pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) revealed the burgeoning neoadjuvant immunotherapy. Microarray studies indicated that multiple ingredients of the transfer growth factor beta (TGF-β) pathway were overexpressed in PDAC, which inhibited the intratumoral immune response. To explore whether the DC volume in tumor microenvironment contributes to the differentiation of T cell cohort and test the hypothesis that combining DC vaccine with TGF-β inhibitors will elevate the anti-tumor immune response, we managed to co-culture T cells in vitro with pancreatic cancer cells and DCs in different concentrations, and combine TGF-β blockage with DC vaccine therapy in a murine model of pancreatic cancer...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Lei Lei, Jianhui Li, Meiqing Liu, Xiaoming Hu, Ya Zhou, Shiming Yang
CD40L, a costimulatory molecule for dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells, can serve as an adjuvant for enhancing the specific immune response induced by DNA vaccine carrying tumor-associated antigens. In this study, we investigated the potential of CD40L as an adjuvant to enhance the anti-tumor effect mediated by a DNA vaccine based on the Epstein-Barr virus-latent membrane protein 2 (EBV-LMP2) antigen. The plasmids capable of expressing the fusion protein EBV-LMP2-CD40L were constructed. Expression vector pVAX1 and plasmid expressing the individual antigen EBV-LMP2 were used as control groups...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Halyna D Koval, Valentyna V Chopyak, Oleksandr M Kamyshnyi, Maciej K Kurpisz
Endometriosis is a disease of epidemiological gravity of unknown primary reason. A complex of constitutional factors including the immune system has been considered as its background. The aim of the study was to identify Th1 and Th2 cells as well as the T-regulatory subset in the endometrium of women with endometriosis associated with infertility upon transcription factors expression. Expression of T-bet, GATA3, and Foxp3 genes was examined using a method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the eutopic endometrial samples of 20 women with endometriosis associated with infertility and 20 women with infertility of tubal origin...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Ismail Koyuncu, Abdurrahman Kocyigit, Ahmet Ozer, Sahabettin Selek, Adnan Kirmit, Hasan Karsen
Serologic tests for brucellosis aim to detect antibodies produced against membranous lipopolysaccharide of bacteria. Diagnostic use of this method is limited due to false positiveness. This study evaluates an alternative antigen to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), outer membrane 28-precursor-protein, of Brucella melitensis Rev1 for its diagnostic value. Omp28 precursor of B. melitensis Rev1 was cloned, expressed, and purified. 6-His and sumo epitope tags were used to tag the protein at N-termini. Omp28 gene was amplified based on the ORF sequence and cloned into a pETSUMO vector...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Rokhsareh Sadeghi, Mandana Sattari, Fatemeh Dehghan, Solmaz Akbari
Introduction: Interleukin-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with a wide range of protective and destructive effects in periodontitis. The role of IL-23 is stabilisation and expansion of Th-17. The aim of this study was to assess whether patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis exhibit different gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) concentrations of IL-17 and IL-23 compared with clinically healthy subjects. Material and methods: GCF samples were obtained from 32 patients: 10 with chronic periodontitis (CP), 12 with aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and 10 healthy controls (HC)...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
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