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Central-European Journal of Immunology

Saeed Bazregari, Gholamreza Azizi, Marzieh Tavakol, Mohammad Hosein Asgardoon, Fatemeh Kiaee, Naeimeh Tavakolinia, Amir Valizadeh, Hassan Abolhassani, Asghar Aghamohammadi
Introduction: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. PID patients suffer from a variety of complications. The aim of this study was to determine the infectious and non-infectious complications among PID patients. Material and methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed on recorded data of 202 PID patients who were diagnosed with eight major categories: common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), X-linked agammaglobulinemia, hyper-IgM syndrome, hyper IgE syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), ataxia telangiectasia, hereditary angioedema and leukocyte adhesion deficiency...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Oksana Boyarchuk, Liubov Volyanska, Liubov Dmytrash
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) is a disorder that has multiple symptoms and affects various organs and systems. Despite the great variability of clinical manifestations, common 22q11.2 DS includes congenital heart defect, immunodeficiency, characteristic facial features, palatal defects, developmental and/or learning disabilities, and hypocalcaemia. We present the cases of three patients with 22q11.2 DS that we have observed. Heart defects were revealed in all cases, and tetralogy of Fallot in one of them...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Hulya Anil, Koray Harmanci, Rahmi T Tekin, Abdulkadir Kocak
Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare, potentially life-threatening, drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction that includes rash, hematologic abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. The pathogenesis of DRESS syndrome is partially understood. Various medications have been described as the cause of DRESS syndrome. Phenytoin and allopurinol are the most commonly reported culprit drugs, although more than 50 drugs can induce DRESS syndrome. Members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily are the most commonly involved enzymes in metabolism of drugs such as phenytoin...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Hanna Szymanik-Grzelak, Joanna Przychodzeń, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, MaŁgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) concomitant with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in children is rarely diagnosed. We report a case of a 15-year-old girl with butterfly patch, generalized edema, leg pain, anemia (Hb 74 g/l), thrombocytopenia (5 x 109 /l), schistocytes in peripheral blood smear, acute kidney injury (eGFR 27 ml/min/1.73 m2 ), proteinuria, and erythrocyturia. The direct Coombs test was positive, and warm antibodies (IgG) were detected on red blood cells. ANA in titer 1 : 2560, low serum C3 and C4 complement level, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) activity < 4% and the presence of ADAMTS13 inhibitor were detected...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Maria Daniel, Anna Adamowicz-Salach, Hanna Szymanik-Grzelak
Paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria (PCH) is a form of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) characterised by a sudden onset of haemoglobinuria, either spontaneously or following exposure to cold. In children, it is commonly seen following a viral illness or after immunisation. Diagnosis of PCH is confirmed by a positive Donath Landsteiner (DL) test in which biphasic haemolysins are detected. However, in a real clinical setting, the serological diagnosis of PCH is not always easy. PCH can cause tubular renal injury, which in turn can lead to renal impairment...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Magdalena Malinowska, Beata Tokarz-Deptuła, Wiesław Deptuła
Butyrophilins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily are new immune system regulators because they are present on lymphocytes, dendritic cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils, and they exert a stimulatory and (or) inhibitory effect on them. The role of butyrophilins is associated and results from their similarity to the regulatory B7 protein family involved in the modulation of immune phenomena. Butyrophilins are glycoproteins built of two extracellular immunoglobulin domains, stabilized with disulfide bonds: constant IgC, and variable IgV and a transmembrane region...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Weronika Kurowska, Ewa H Kuca-Warnawin, Anna Radzikowska, Włodzimierz Maśliński
The most specific autoimmunity known for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is reflected by generation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). Presence of ACPA in established RA is associated with disease severity, while generation of ACPA at early developmental phases of RA can have a strong predictive value for progressing to the full-blown disease. Hence, development of ACPA may be of crucial importance to the pathogenesis of RA. Therefore, a lot of effort has been put recently to investigate the feature of ACPA at early developmental stages of RA (before disease onset) and functional activities of these autoantibodies...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Monika Walankiewicz, Ewelina Grywalska, Grzegorz Polak, Jan Kotarski, Dorota J Siwicka-Gieroba, Jacek Roliński
Although previous decades contributed to major progress in targeted therapy of many malignancies, the treatment of gynaecological cancers remains a challenging task. In the evidence of rising cancer mortality, the search for new methods of treatment is a dire need. Exploring the mechanisms of interaction between tumour cells and host immune response may allow the introduction of new, effective therapies - not as toxic and far more efficient than conventional methods of cancer treatment. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is typically diagnosed at advanced stages...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Barbara Joanna Bałan, Ewa Zygmanowska, Dorota Magdalena Radomska-Leśniewska
Pancreatic cancer, with a total five-year survival rate below 5%, represents a disease with a high level of malignancy. Some of the pancreatic cancer bad prognosis factors are nutrition disorders. Malnutrition, neither recognized nor properly referred to by the healthcare system, leads to well-documented negative health consequences in hospitalized patients including their impaired immunity, delayed post-surgery wound healing, a high risk of infectious complications, morbidity and mortality. There are numerous factors contributing to the development of pancreatic cancer, including telomerases, inflammation, angiogenesis, epigenetics and genetics factors, miRNA, pancreatic cancer stem cells...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Dorota Magdalena Radomska-Leśniewska, Barbara Joanna Bałan, Piotr Skopiński
Co-operation of the endogenous and exogenous defense system maintains redox homeostasis and is essential for health. The endogenous defense system includes enzymatic (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase) and non-enzymatic, low molecular-weight scavengers (e.g. glutathione, ascorbic acid). Pathogenesis of many serious diseases (e.g. cancer, ischemic heart disease) includes oxidative stress which can disturb angiogenesis, the process of formation of new blood vessels sprouting from the existing one. Antioxidants, through reduction of oxidative stress and influence on neovascularization, may modulate progress and results of therapy in those diseases where such processes play an important role...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Fatina I Fadel, Manal F Elshamaa, Ahmed Salah, Eman A Elghoroury, Safaa Abd El-Rahman, Mona Hamed Ibrahim, Solaf Kamel
Introduction: Fc gamma receptor (FcγR) IIa is considered the most widely distributed of the three classes of Fc receptors, and it expresses an allelic polymorphism. This type of polymorphism may modify the immune response and may be an important factor for some diseases. The aim of the study reported herein was to evaluate the association between the FcγRIIa polymorphism and susceptibility to both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and acute kidney graft rejection (AR) in children who have undergone renal transplantation...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Hikmet T Nacaroglu, Semiha Bahceci Erdem, Sait Karaman, Selcuk Yazici, Demet Can
Introduction: Bronchiectasis (BE) is a parenchymal lung disease evolving as a result of recurrent lung infections and chronic inflammation. Although it has been shown in adult studies that mean platelet volume (MPV) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can be used as biomarkers of airway inflammation, knowledge is limited in the paediatric age group. The aim of our study is to investigate the potential of MPV and NLR as biomarkers that may indicate acute exacerbations of non-cystic fibrosis BE in children...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Lyudmila L Akhmaltdinova, Meruyert A Gazalieva, Saule B Akhmetova
Introduction: Multiple drug intolerance is a serious complication of drug therapy and is an issue of allergology. The aim of the study was the investigation of cytokine status in patients with drug hypersensitivity and multiple drug hypersensitivity. Material and methods: 19 patients with multiple drug hypersensitivity, 34 patients with hypersensitivity to one drug, and 35 non-allergic subjects were involved. Only women were included in the study. A multiplex assay of 27 cytokines and chemokines was performed using xMap technology (Human Cytokine Panel I by Bio-Rad)...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Małgorzata Mazurek-Mochol, Edyta Majorczyk, Jadwiga Banach, Elżbieta Dembowska, Piotr Kuśnierczyk, Krzysztof Safranow, Andrzej Pawlik
Introduction: Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent inflammatory, multifactorial diseases. Smoking is one of the most important environmental risk factors for the development and severity of periodontal disease. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and play an essential role in the regulation of NK cell activity, allowing natural killer (NK) cells to sense and respond to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of KIR gene presence/absence polymorphisms on the development of periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Małgorzata Nędzi-Góra, Renata Górska, Jolanta Kostrzewa-Janicka, Jan Kowalski
Modern research confirms the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathomechanism of periodontal tissue destruction. The aim of the study was to determine concentrations of MMP-8 and IL-1β in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with advanced chronic and aggressive periodontitis. The authors measured the concentrations of the above inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid of deep pockets (PD ≥ 6 mm) and shallow pockets (PD 4-5 mm) in 33 patients with advanced chronic periodontitis and in 16 patients with aggressive periodontitis...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Sławomir Lewicki, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Robert Zdanowski
In previous work we described the decline in the number of splenocytes of mice which during pregnancy and lactation were fed Rhodiola kirilowii. In this work we present the size of individual subpopulations of splenic lymphocytes in these mice. Experiments were performed on adult inbred female Balb/c mice, 8-9 weeks old, 20-22 g b.m., mated with adult males from the same strain. Females, from when the copulatory plug was noted up to the 28th day after delivery, were supplemented daily with lyophilized aqueous (RKW) or 50% hydro-ethanolic (RKW-A) extract (20 mg/kg b...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Lester Thoo, Mochamad Z Fahmi, Ihsan N Zulkipli, Natasha Keasberry, Adi Idris
Carbon dot (Cdot) nanoparticles are an emerging class of carbon nanomaterials with a promising potential for drug delivery and bio imaging applications. Although the interaction between Cdots and non-immune cell types has been well studied, Cdot interactions with macrophages have not been investigated. Exposure of Cdot nanoparticles to J774.1 cells, a murine macrophage cell line, resulted in minimal toxicity, where notable toxicity was only seen with Cdot concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/ml. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Cdots prepared from citric acid were internalized at significantly higher levels by macrophages compared with those prepared from bamboo leaves...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Hanna Szymanik-Grzelak, Elżbieta Kuźma-Mroczkowska, Piotr Skrzypczyk, Teresa Bielecka, Iwona Kotula, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are at greater risk of infections than the general population, due to immunodeficiency in the course of the disease and the treatment. In this study we present 4 children (2 girls, 2 boys), mean age 7.6 ±5.1 years, with NS/proteinuria and latent tuberculosis in 3 children and lymph node tuberculosis in 1 child. The reasons for testing these children for tuberculosis (TB) were the evaluation of the epidemiological status before treatment with corticosteroids (GCS), leukopenia and the relapse of NS, and non-nephrotic proteinuria...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Katarzyna Popko, Elżbieta Górska, Elżbieta Kuźma-Mroczkowska
Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is a common chronic illness characterized by massive proteinuria and hypo-albuminemia in children. Baseline treatment is 6 month-corticotherapy. In cases of steroid resistant/dependent INS several types of treatment are used, including course of methyloprednisolone "pulses", alkylating agents, cyclosporin A, levamisole and mycophenolate mofetil. It has been suggested that children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome had a significantly longer relapse-free period if rituximab (RTX) treatment was additionally applied...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Anna Gawda, Grzegorz Majka, Bernadeta Nowak, Janusz Marcinkiewicz
A number of epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5, PM < 1.0) and lung or cardiovascular diseases characterised by high mortality and morbidity. However, much less is known about the role of air pollution in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, which constitutes a significant problem in modern society. This paper summarises the state of current research regarding the influence of PM on the development and/or progression of autoimmune diseases...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
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