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Forensic Science Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257717/metabolism-and-toxicological-analysis-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-biological-fluids-and-tissues
#1
REVIEW
B C Presley, S M R Gurney, K S Scott, S L Kacinko, B K Logan
Synthetic cannabinoids, which began proliferating in the United States in 2009, have gone through numerous iterations of modification to their chemical structures. More recent generations of compounds have been associated with significant adverse outcomes following use, including cognitive and psychomotor impairment, seizures, psychosis, tissue injury and death. These effects increase the urgency for forensic and public health laboratories to develop methods for the detection and identification of novel substances, and apply these to the determination of their metabolism and disposition in biological samples...
July 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257716/driving-under-the-influence-of-non-alcohol-drugs-an-update-part-ii-experimental-studies
#2
REVIEW
M C Strand, H Gjerde, J Mørland
Experimental studies on the impairing effects of drugs of relevance to driving-related performance published between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed. Studies with on-the-road driving, driving simulators, and performance tests were included for benzodiazepines and related drugs, cannabis, opioids, stimulants, GHB, ketamine, antihistamines, and antidepressants. The findings in these experimental studies were briefly discussed in relation to a review of epidemiological studies published recently. The studies mainly concluded that there may be a significant psychomotor impairment after using benzodiazepines or related drugs, cannabis, opioids, GHB, or ketamine...
July 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841722/international-trends-in-alcohol-and-drug-use-among-vehicle-drivers
#3
REVIEW
A S Christophersen, J Mørland, K Stewart, H Gjerde
Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints...
January 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841721/chemical-derivatization-for-forensic-drug-analysis-by-gc-and-lc-ms
#4
REVIEW
D L Lin, S M Wang, C H Wu, B G Chen, R H Liu
Utilizing chemical derivatization (CD) to improve gas chromatographic (GC) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of drugs has been abundantly studied and widely practiced, while in liquid chromatography (LC) and LC-MS, application of CD approaches is still at an early stage. Silylation, acylation, and alkylation are common CD reactions, long adopted by GC and GC-MS (including GC-MS/MS) methodologies, to improve analytes' stability and/or to optimize their extraction/separation and detection efficiencies. Highly polar and nonvolatile analytes are not amenable to GC-MS analysis without the CD step; however, CD can improve LC-MS analysis of highly polar analytes, especially those with low molecular weights...
January 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287115/forensic-science-educational-programs-united-kingdom-uk-ireland
#5
Yung-Chun Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287114/20th-scientific-meeting-of-the-society-of-hair-testing
#6
D Ropero-Miller, E Umpierrez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287113/the-forensic-technology-center-of-excellence-recent-and-upcoming-activities
#7
J D Ropero-Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287112/nist-forensic-science-research-update
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287111/forensic-science-around-the-world
#9
J Teitelbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227254/metabolism-and-disposition-of-prescription-opioids-a-review
#10
REVIEW
A Z DePriest, B L Puet, A C Holt, A Roberts, E J Cone
Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed for acute and chronic pain, but are subject to abuse. Consequently, toxicology testing programs are frequently implemented for both forensic and clinical applications. Understanding opioid metabolism and disposition is essential for assessing risk of toxicity and, in some cases, providing additional information regarding risk of therapeutic failure. Opioids significantly metabolized by the cytochromeP450 (CYP450) enzyme system maybe subjectto drug-drug interactions, including codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol...
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227253/driving-under-the-influence-of-non-alcohol-drugs-an-update-part-i-epidemiological-studies
#11
REVIEW
H Gjerde, M C Strand, J Mørland
Epidemiological studies of the association between drug use and involvement in road traffic crashes (RTCs) published from January 1998 to February 2015 have been reviewed. Cohort andpopulation studies compared RTC involvement among drug users and non-drug users, case-control studies compared drug use among RTC-involved and non-RTC-involved drivers, and responsibility studies and case-crossover studies were performed for RTC-involved drivers. Difficulties associated with the types of studies are discussed with a special focus on case-control studies...
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227138/a-review-of-forensic-science-management-literature
#12
REVIEW
M M Houck, W P McAndrew, M Porter, B Davies
The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol...
January 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227137/an-improved-forensic-science-information-search
#13
REVIEW
J Teitelbaum
Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results...
January 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227136/the-genetics-of-skin-hair-and-eye-color-variation-and-its-relevance-to-forensic-pigmentation-predictive-tests
#14
REVIEW
O Maroñas, J Söchtig, Y Ruiz, C Phillips, Á Carracedo, M V Lareu
This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses...
January 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227031/forensic-analysis-in-the-wakayama-arsenic-case
#15
REVIEW
Y Kimura
In the Wakayama poisoned curry incident in July 1998, 67 inhabitants were killed or injured by eating arsenic-laced curry at a neighborhood summer festival in Wakayama, a local city 400 km southwest of Tokyo. Heavy elements at ppm level, including arsenic, were discovered in the curry using SPring-8, a synchrotron radiation facility, as the tool for forensic analysis. This material evidence resulted in the accused being convicted and sentenced to death. Further analysis and review by other experts indicated the data presented in the trial were not enough to definitively identify the suspect as the murderer...
July 2014: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227030/tetrodotoxin-medicated-delay-in-aconitine-toxicity-a-murder-in-okinawa
#16
REVIEW
Y Ohno
Aconite (wolfsbane) plants, which belong to the genus Aconitum (Ranunculaceae family), contain highly toxic alkaloids, including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and jesaconitine, in all of their parts. The relevance of this plant material is illustrated by the case of a Japanese female who died suddenly in 1986 and was autopsied in Okinawa by the author. The detection in 1987 of Aconitum alkaloids in her blood using gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring (GC/SIM), which was newly developed for this case, demonstrated that she had died from aconite poisoning...
July 2014: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227029/murder-with-radioactive-polonium-metal
#17
REVIEW
T A Kato, D E Wozniak
The physical and biological aspects of polonium-210, one of the most hazardous radioisotopes, are summarized. Although this radioisotope is naturally occurring and rare, it received quite a bit of attention after it was used in the 2006 assassination of former Russian Intelligence member Alexander Litvinenko in London. Recent reports on the suspected murder of Yasser Arafat with polonium-210 are also discussed.
July 2014: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227028/murder-by-poisons-cases-in-taiwan-1999-2008
#18
REVIEW
K-P Shaw, H-T Chen
This review summarizes the findings from a retrospective study of 17,390 forensic autopsy cases of medicolegal investigations in Taiwan during the 1999-2008 period. Among this total, 1,874 cases involved illicit drugs and 750 involved household toxic chemicals. Rarely seen toxic substances, such as cyanide, corrosive poisons, ether, etc., were found in 6.4%percent; of homicide poisoning cases. Profiling the suspects' backgrounds may play a key role in correlating unique chemicals with the suspects' homicidal behavior...
July 2014: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227027/aum-shinrikyo-s-chemical-and-biological-weapons-more-than-sarin
#19
REVIEW
A T Tu
The radical religious group Aum Shinrikyo was founded in Japan in the 1980s and grew rapidly in the 1990s. Aum members perpetrated a mass murder in Matsumoto City in 1994, where they used sarin as a chemical weapon to poison approximately 500 civilians. On March 20, 1995, Aum deployed sarin in an even larger terrorist attack on the Tokyo Subway System, which poisoned some 6,000 people. After the Tokyo Subway attack, the Japanese Police arrested the sect's senior members. From 2005 through 2011, 13 of these senior members were sentenced to death...
July 2014: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227026/acute-and-long-term-impact-of-chemical-weapons-lessons-from-the-iran-iraq-war
#20
REVIEW
D D Haines, S C Fox
Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns...
July 2014: Forensic Science Review
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