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Forensic Science Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064967/applications-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-forensic-science-ii-analysis-considerations-spectral-interpretation-and-examination-of-evidence
#1
REVIEW
E M Suzuki, P Buzzing
There have been several significant advances in Raman spectroscopy instrumentation during the past few decades, and this method is now a fully mature analytical technique on par with its counterpart, infrared spectroscopy. The latter method experienced a quantum leap in use in the forensic science laboratory following the introduction of inexpensive FT-IR spectrometers in the 1980s, but forensic scientists have been slower to embrace Raman spectroscopy. However, this promising technique is finally making some inroads into the forensic science laboratory, and to facilitate this process, this article presents a comprehensive review of Raman spectroscopy; it emphasizes how and why this underutilized method can be a very valuable tool for the analysis of a wide variety of evidentiary materials...
July 2018: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064966/applications-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-forensic-science-i-principles-comparison-to-infrared-spectroscopy-and-instrumentation
#2
REVIEW
E M Suzuki, P Buzzing
There have been several significant advances in Raman spectroscopy instrument technology during the past few decades, including the introduction of several new laser sources, the development of holographic gratings, efficient Rayleigh line rejection filters, and CCD array detectors, and the advent of FT-Raman spectrometers. In view of these developments, Raman spectroscopy is now a fully mature analytical technique on par with its counterpart, infrared spectroscopy. The latter technique experienced a quantum leap in use in the forensic science laboratory following the introduction of inexpensive FT-IR spectrometers in the 1980s, but forensic scientists have been slower to embrace Raman spectroscopy...
July 2018: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273571/toward-a-systematic-classification-of-textile-damages
#3
REVIEW
T G Schulman, R S Samlal-Soedhoe, J van der Weerd
The accuracy of textile damage analyses was evaluated by laboratory tests carried out by trained experts. The analyzed damages were prepared by various methods, including stabbing, cutting, shooting, heating/burning, etc. A number of damages were aged by household washing and tumble-drying procedures, addition of blood, or burying. The samples were analyzed by routine laboratory evaluation. The results indicate that the properties of a damage provide a good indication of the way a textile had been damaged. Nevertheless, scoring of the answers is not straightforward...
January 2018: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273570/instability-and-poor-recovery-of-cannabinoids-in-urine-oral-fluid-and-hair
#4
REVIEW
R M White
Cannabinoids including, but not limited to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxytetrahydrocannabinol, and (-)-11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid are known to toxicologists and synthetic chemists as difficult compounds because they are subject to numerous degradative pathways. It is the purpose of this short review article to discuss common pathways that result in the disappearance of cannabinoids - such as conjugate formation, adsorption to surfaces, chemical reactions, microbial action, thermal decomposition, chemical bonding, photosensitivity, sample handling, analytical methodology, and micelle trapping - and to point out possible ways to avoid such degradation...
January 2018: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273569/forensic-face-recognition-as-a-means-to-determine-strength-of-evidence-a-survey
#5
REVIEW
C G Zeinstra, D Meuwly, A Cc Ruifrok, R Nj Veldhuis, L J Spreeuwers
This paper surveys the literature on forensic face recognition (FFR), with a particular focus on the strength of evidence as used in a court of law. FFR is the use of biometric face recognition for several applications in forensic science. It includes scenarios of ID verification and open-set identification, investigation and intelligence, and evaluation of the strength of evidence. We present FFR from operational, tactical, and strategic perspectives. We discuss criticism of FFR and we provide an overview of research efforts from multiple perspectives that relate to the domain of FFR...
January 2018: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691916/social-and-ethical-aspects-of-forensic-genetics-a-critical-review
#6
REVIEW
R Williams, M Wienroth
This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691915/forensic-individual-age-estimation-with-dna-from-initial-approaches-to-methylation-tests
#7
REVIEW
A Freire-Aradas, C Phillips, M V Lareu
Individual age estimation is a key factor in forensic science analysis that can provide very useful information applicable to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. Forensic age inference was initially based on morphological inspection or radiography and only later began to adopt molecular approaches. However, a lack of accuracy or technical problems hampered the introduction of these DNA-based methodologies in casework analysis. A turning point occurred when the epigenetic signature of DNA methylation was observed to gradually change during an individual´s lifespan...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119268/greenish-blue-gastric-content-literature-review-and-case-report-on-acute-copper-sulphate-poisoning
#8
REVIEW
E Nastoulis, M V Karakasi, C M Couvaris, S Kapetanakis, A Fiska, P Pavlidis
A literature review of cases of acute poisoning by copper sulfate was conducted, emphasizing therapeutic interventions, and a new fatality case is reported. Specifically, the relevant literature was reviewed for incidence rates, sociodemographic variables, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic outcome of copper sulfate poisoning. Results conclude that copper sulfate poisoning incidence varies in different regions. It is rare in western countries, while it is very common in South Asian countries...
January 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119267/forensic-snp-genotyping-with-snapshot-technical-considerations-for-the-development-and-optimization-of-multiplexed-snp-assays
#9
REVIEW
M Fondevila, C Børsting, C Phillips, M de la Puente, Euroforen-NoE Consortium, A Carracedo, N Morling, M V Lareu
This review explores the key factors that influence the optimization, routine use, and profile interpretation of the SNaPshot single-base extension (SBE) system applied to forensic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Despite being a mainly complimentary DNA genotyping technique to routine STR profiling, use of SNaPshot is an important part of the development of SNP sets for a wide range of forensic applications with these markers, from genotyping highly degraded DNA with very short amplicons to the introduction of SNPs to ascertain the ancestry and physical characteristics of an unidentified contact trace donor...
January 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119266/drugs-in-hair-part-i-metabolisms-of-major-drug-classes
#10
REVIEW
R M White
Currently, hair can be reliably tested for the presence of drugs. However, one major drawback to the use of parent drugs is the question of potential external or environmental contamination. The analysis of metabolites to confirm the use of the parent drugs was proposed in this short review. The development of hair as a test matrix and the incorporation of xenobiotics, in general, into the hair matrix were discussed. What constitutes an appropriate metabolite for drug testing to mirror the use of a parent drug was proposed and discussed...
January 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257717/metabolism-and-toxicological-analysis-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-biological-fluids-and-tissues
#11
REVIEW
B C Presley, S M R Gurney, K S Scott, S L Kacinko, B K Logan
Synthetic cannabinoids, which began proliferating in the United States in 2009, have gone through numerous iterations of modification to their chemical structures. More recent generations of compounds have been associated with significant adverse outcomes following use, including cognitive and psychomotor impairment, seizures, psychosis, tissue injury and death. These effects increase the urgency for forensic and public health laboratories to develop methods for the detection and identification of novel substances, and apply these to the determination of their metabolism and disposition in biological samples...
July 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257716/driving-under-the-influence-of-non-alcohol-drugs-an-update-part-ii-experimental-studies
#12
REVIEW
M C Strand, H Gjerde, J Mørland
Experimental studies on the impairing effects of drugs of relevance to driving-related performance published between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed. Studies with on-the-road driving, driving simulators, and performance tests were included for benzodiazepines and related drugs, cannabis, opioids, stimulants, GHB, ketamine, antihistamines, and antidepressants. The findings in these experimental studies were briefly discussed in relation to a review of epidemiological studies published recently. The studies mainly concluded that there may be a significant psychomotor impairment after using benzodiazepines or related drugs, cannabis, opioids, GHB, or ketamine...
July 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841722/international-trends-in-alcohol-and-drug-use-among-vehicle-drivers
#13
REVIEW
A S Christophersen, J Mørland, K Stewart, H Gjerde
Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints...
January 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841721/chemical-derivatization-for-forensic-drug-analysis-by-gc-and-lc-ms
#14
REVIEW
D L Lin, S M Wang, C H Wu, B G Chen, R H Liu
Utilizing chemical derivatization (CD) to improve gas chromatographic (GC) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of drugs has been abundantly studied and widely practiced, while in liquid chromatography (LC) and LC-MS, application of CD approaches is still at an early stage. Silylation, acylation, and alkylation are common CD reactions, long adopted by GC and GC-MS (including GC-MS/MS) methodologies, to improve analytes' stability and/or to optimize their extraction/separation and detection efficiencies. Highly polar and nonvolatile analytes are not amenable to GC-MS analysis without the CD step; however, CD can improve LC-MS analysis of highly polar analytes, especially those with low molecular weights...
January 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287115/forensic-science-educational-programs-united-kingdom-uk-ireland
#15
Yung-Chun Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287114/20th-scientific-meeting-of-the-society-of-hair-testing
#16
D Ropero-Miller, E Umpierrez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287113/the-forensic-technology-center-of-excellence-recent-and-upcoming-activities
#17
J D Ropero-Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287112/nist-forensic-science-research-update
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287111/forensic-science-around-the-world
#19
J Teitelbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227254/metabolism-and-disposition-of-prescription-opioids-a-review
#20
REVIEW
A Z DePriest, B L Puet, A C Holt, A Roberts, E J Cone
Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed for acute and chronic pain, but are subject to abuse. Consequently, toxicology testing programs are frequently implemented for both forensic and clinical applications. Understanding opioid metabolism and disposition is essential for assessing risk of toxicity and, in some cases, providing additional information regarding risk of therapeutic failure. Opioids significantly metabolized by the cytochromeP450 (CYP450) enzyme system maybe subjectto drug-drug interactions, including codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol...
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
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