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Forensic Science Review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691916/social-and-ethical-aspects-of-forensic-genetics-a-critical-review
#1
REVIEW
R Williams, M Wienroth
This review describes the social and ethical responses to the history of innovations in forensic genetics and their application to criminal investigations. Following an outline of the three recurrent social perspectives that have informed these responses (crime management, due process, and genetic surveillance), it goes on to introduce the repertoire of ethical considerations by describing a series of key reports that have shaped subsequent commentaries on forensic DNA profiling and databasing. Four major ethical concerns form the focus of the remainder of the paper (dignity, privacy, justice, and social solidarity), and key features of forensic genetic practice are examined in the light of these concerns...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691915/forensic-individual-age-estimation-with-dna-from-initial-approaches-to-methylation-tests
#2
REVIEW
A Freire-Aradas, C Phillips, M V Lareu
Individual age estimation is a key factor in forensic science analysis that can provide very useful information applicable to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. Forensic age inference was initially based on morphological inspection or radiography and only later began to adopt molecular approaches. However, a lack of accuracy or technical problems hampered the introduction of these DNA-based methodologies in casework analysis. A turning point occurred when the epigenetic signature of DNA methylation was observed to gradually change during an individual´s lifespan...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119268/greenish-blue-gastric-content-literature-review-and-case-report-on-acute-copper-sulphate-poisoning
#3
REVIEW
E Nastoulis, M V Karakasi, C M Couvaris, S Kapetanakis, A Fiska, P Pavlidis
A literature review of cases of acute poisoning by copper sulfate was conducted, emphasizing therapeutic interventions, and a new fatality case is reported. Specifically, the relevant literature was reviewed for incidence rates, sociodemographic variables, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic outcome of copper sulfate poisoning. Results conclude that copper sulfate poisoning incidence varies in different regions. It is rare in western countries, while it is very common in South Asian countries...
January 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119267/forensic-snp-genotyping-with-snapshot-technical-considerations-for-the-development-and-optimization-of-multiplexed-snp-assays
#4
REVIEW
M Fondevila, C Børsting, C Phillips, M de la Puente, Euroforen-NoE Consortium, A Carracedo, N Morling, M V Lareu
This review explores the key factors that influence the optimization, routine use, and profile interpretation of the SNaPshot single-base extension (SBE) system applied to forensic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Despite being a mainly complimentary DNA genotyping technique to routine STR profiling, use of SNaPshot is an important part of the development of SNP sets for a wide range of forensic applications with these markers, from genotyping highly degraded DNA with very short amplicons to the introduction of SNPs to ascertain the ancestry and physical characteristics of an unidentified contact trace donor...
January 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119266/drugs-in-hair-part-i-metabolisms-of-major-drug-classes
#5
REVIEW
R M White
Currently, hair can be reliably tested for the presence of drugs. However, one major drawback to the use of parent drugs is the question of potential external or environmental contamination. The analysis of metabolites to confirm the use of the parent drugs was proposed in this short review. The development of hair as a test matrix and the incorporation of xenobiotics, in general, into the hair matrix were discussed. What constitutes an appropriate metabolite for drug testing to mirror the use of a parent drug was proposed and discussed...
January 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257717/metabolism-and-toxicological-analysis-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-in-biological-fluids-and-tissues
#6
REVIEW
B C Presley, S M R Gurney, K S Scott, S L Kacinko, B K Logan
Synthetic cannabinoids, which began proliferating in the United States in 2009, have gone through numerous iterations of modification to their chemical structures. More recent generations of compounds have been associated with significant adverse outcomes following use, including cognitive and psychomotor impairment, seizures, psychosis, tissue injury and death. These effects increase the urgency for forensic and public health laboratories to develop methods for the detection and identification of novel substances, and apply these to the determination of their metabolism and disposition in biological samples...
July 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257716/driving-under-the-influence-of-non-alcohol-drugs-an-update-part-ii-experimental-studies
#7
REVIEW
M C Strand, H Gjerde, J Mørland
Experimental studies on the impairing effects of drugs of relevance to driving-related performance published between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed. Studies with on-the-road driving, driving simulators, and performance tests were included for benzodiazepines and related drugs, cannabis, opioids, stimulants, GHB, ketamine, antihistamines, and antidepressants. The findings in these experimental studies were briefly discussed in relation to a review of epidemiological studies published recently. The studies mainly concluded that there may be a significant psychomotor impairment after using benzodiazepines or related drugs, cannabis, opioids, GHB, or ketamine...
July 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841722/international-trends-in-alcohol-and-drug-use-among-vehicle-drivers
#8
REVIEW
A S Christophersen, J Mørland, K Stewart, H Gjerde
Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints...
January 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841721/chemical-derivatization-for-forensic-drug-analysis-by-gc-and-lc-ms
#9
REVIEW
D L Lin, S M Wang, C H Wu, B G Chen, R H Liu
Utilizing chemical derivatization (CD) to improve gas chromatographic (GC) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of drugs has been abundantly studied and widely practiced, while in liquid chromatography (LC) and LC-MS, application of CD approaches is still at an early stage. Silylation, acylation, and alkylation are common CD reactions, long adopted by GC and GC-MS (including GC-MS/MS) methodologies, to improve analytes' stability and/or to optimize their extraction/separation and detection efficiencies. Highly polar and nonvolatile analytes are not amenable to GC-MS analysis without the CD step; however, CD can improve LC-MS analysis of highly polar analytes, especially those with low molecular weights...
January 2016: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287115/forensic-science-educational-programs-united-kingdom-uk-ireland
#10
Yung-Chun Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287114/20th-scientific-meeting-of-the-society-of-hair-testing
#11
D Ropero-Miller, E Umpierrez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287113/the-forensic-technology-center-of-excellence-recent-and-upcoming-activities
#12
J D Ropero-Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287112/nist-forensic-science-research-update
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26287111/forensic-science-around-the-world
#14
J Teitelbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227254/metabolism-and-disposition-of-prescription-opioids-a-review
#15
REVIEW
A Z DePriest, B L Puet, A C Holt, A Roberts, E J Cone
Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed for acute and chronic pain, but are subject to abuse. Consequently, toxicology testing programs are frequently implemented for both forensic and clinical applications. Understanding opioid metabolism and disposition is essential for assessing risk of toxicity and, in some cases, providing additional information regarding risk of therapeutic failure. Opioids significantly metabolized by the cytochromeP450 (CYP450) enzyme system maybe subjectto drug-drug interactions, including codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol...
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227253/driving-under-the-influence-of-non-alcohol-drugs-an-update-part-i-epidemiological-studies
#16
REVIEW
H Gjerde, M C Strand, J Mørland
Epidemiological studies of the association between drug use and involvement in road traffic crashes (RTCs) published from January 1998 to February 2015 have been reviewed. Cohort andpopulation studies compared RTC involvement among drug users and non-drug users, case-control studies compared drug use among RTC-involved and non-RTC-involved drivers, and responsibility studies and case-crossover studies were performed for RTC-involved drivers. Difficulties associated with the types of studies are discussed with a special focus on case-control studies...
July 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227138/a-review-of-forensic-science-management-literature
#17
REVIEW
M M Houck, W P McAndrew, M Porter, B Davies
The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol...
January 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227137/an-improved-forensic-science-information-search
#18
REVIEW
J Teitelbaum
Although thousands of search engines and databases are available online, finding answers to specific forensic science questions can be a challenge even to experienced Internet users. Because there is no central repository for forensic science information, and because of the sheer number of disciplines under the forensic science umbrella, forensic scientists are often unable to locate material that is relevant to their needs. The author contends that using six publicly accessible search engines and databases can produce high-quality search results...
January 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227136/the-genetics-of-skin-hair-and-eye-color-variation-and-its-relevance-to-forensic-pigmentation-predictive-tests
#19
REVIEW
O Maroñas, J Söchtig, Y Ruiz, C Phillips, Á Carracedo, M V Lareu
This review examines the potential application of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based predictive tests for skin, hair, and eye color to forensic analysis in support of police investigations lacking DNA database matches or eyewitness testimony. Brief descriptions of the biology of melanogenesis and the main genes involved are presented in order to understand the basis of common pigmentation variation in humans. We outline the most recently developed forensically sensitive multiplex tests that can be applied to investigative analyses...
January 2015: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26227031/forensic-analysis-in-the-wakayama-arsenic-case
#20
REVIEW
Y Kimura
In the Wakayama poisoned curry incident in July 1998, 67 inhabitants were killed or injured by eating arsenic-laced curry at a neighborhood summer festival in Wakayama, a local city 400 km southwest of Tokyo. Heavy elements at ppm level, including arsenic, were discovered in the curry using SPring-8, a synchrotron radiation facility, as the tool for forensic analysis. This material evidence resulted in the accused being convicted and sentenced to death. Further analysis and review by other experts indicated the data presented in the trial were not enough to definitively identify the suspect as the murderer...
July 2014: Forensic Science Review
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