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Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911152/non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-patients-with-indwelling-vascular-catheters-the-role-of-sickle-cell-anaemia
#1
Babatunde Edun, Ansal Shah, Martin Durkin, Melanie Whitmire, Shanetta Patterson Williams, Helmut Albrecht, Majdi Al-Hasan, Sharon Weissman
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined risk factors for nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) bloodstream infections (BSI) involving indwelling vascular catheters (IDVC). Sickle cell anaemia (HbSS/SC) is known to affect several aspects of the immune system leading to relative immune deficiency. The purpose of this retrospective nested case-control study was to determine if HbSS/SC is a risk factor for NTM BSI among individuals with IDVCs. METHODS: All NTM IDVC infections (cases) at two tertiary hospitals from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911143/factors-predicting-life-threatening-infections-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-adult-patients
#2
Se Yoon Park, Taeeun Kim, Young Rock Jang, Min-Chul Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of acute respiratory illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from self-limiting upper respiratory infection to severe lower respiratory infection in elderly persons as well as young children. However, there are limited data on risk factors for life-threatening infections that could guide the appropriate use of antiviral agents in adult patients with RSV. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study from October 2013 to September 2015...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911140/effect-of-secondary-preventive-therapy-on-recurrence-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-systematic-review
#3
Wassilis Sc Bruins, Frank van Leth
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900889/campylobacter-jejuni-strains-coresistant-to-tetracycline-and-ciprofloxacin-in-patients-with-gastroenteritis-in-croatia
#4
Merica Carev, Ana Kovačić, Anita Novak, Marija Tonkić, Ana Jerončić
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter jejuni strains are rapidly emerging worldwide. Here, we aimed to determine the antibiotic-resistance patterns and genetic structure of C. jejuni from stool samples of symptomatic patients in Dalmatia, the largest Croatian county. METHODS: In a population-based laboratory surveillance programme for campylobacteriosis in Dalmatia from May 2012 to May 2013, C. jejuni (n = 76) were collected from stool samples of all the patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis and matched positive outpatients (n = 77)...
November 30, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900884/pericardial-effusion-as-a-paradoxical-reaction-on-treatment-with-second-line-antituberculous-agents
#5
Ira Shah, Sunayna Gurnani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887037/failure-of-crp-decline-within-three-days-of-hospitalization-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#6
Stine Bang Andersen, Gertrud Baunbæk Egelund, Andreas Vestergaard Jensen, Pelle Trier Petersen, Gernot Rohde, Pernille Ravn
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during hospitalization could improve management and ultimately reduce mortality levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate CRP on the 3rd day (CRP3) of hospitalization as a predictor for 30 days mortality. METHODS: A retrospective multicentre cohort study of adult patients admitted with CAP at three Danish hospitals...
November 25, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866452/efficacy-of-debridement-antibiotic-therapy-and-implant-retention-within-three-months-during-postoperative-instrumented-spine-infections
#7
Heidi Wille, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy, Arnaud Desclaux, Hervé Dutronc, Marc-Olivier Vareil, Véronique Dubois, Jean-Marc Vital, Michel Dupon
BACKGROUND: Postoperative instrumented spine infection (PISI) is a severe complication of invasive spine procedures. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients treated for PISI between 1st January 2008 and 31st December 2012 in a French University Hospital. The objectives of this study were to describe the outcome of patients treated with debridement-irrigation, antibiotic therapy and implant retention (DAIR) within three months after the occurrence of PISI and to identify factors associated with relapse...
November 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866450/recognizing-healthcare-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#8
Emily M Schaaf, Pui-Ying Iroh Tam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866446/clinical-and-serological-one-year-follow-up-of-patients-after-the-bite-of-ixodes-ricinus-ticks-infected-with-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato
#9
Violeta T Briciu, Mirela Flonta, Doina F Ţăţulescu, Fabian Meyer, Daniela Sebah, Dumitru Cârstina, Andrei D Mihalca, Călin M Gherman, Cecilia Hizo-Teufel, Ingrid Huber, Volker Fingerle, Mihaela Lupșe
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing Lyme borreliosis (LB) after the bite of a Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infected tick in Romania is unknown. METHODS: The present prospective study, performed in 2010-2011 in a hospital in Romania, has followed-up clinical and serological outcome of patients that presented with B. burgdorferi positive Ixodes (I.) ricinus bite. A second group of patients, including age, sex and residence-matched individuals bitten by B...
November 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829327/virulence-factors-and-clinical-patterns-of-hypermucoviscous-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-urine
#10
Youn Jeong Kim, Sang Il Kim, Yang Ree Kim, Seong Heon Wie, Hae Kyung Lee, Soo-Young Kim, Yeon-Joon Park
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae with hypermucoviscosity (HM) phenotype is generally more virulent than HM-negative strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HM phenotype among urinary isolates and to compare the virulence factors, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and clinical characteristics of HM-positive and -negative K. pneumoniae isolated from urine of hospitalized patients. METHODS: From June to October 2013, a total of 81 non-repetitive K...
November 9, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822975/risk-and-prognosis-of-bacteremia-and-fungemia-among-first-time-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Lars Skov Dalgaard, Mette Nørgaard, Johan Vestergaard Povlsen, Orla Morrissey, Bente Jespersen, Søren Jensen-Fangel, Lars J Østergaard, Henrik Carl Schønheyder, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections are common complications in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Little is known about incidence rates of bacteremia and fungemia (BAF) in KTRs. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we used medical and administrative registries to identify episodes of BAF among KTRs in the Central Denmark and North Denmark Regions during 1995-2010. KTRs were followed from the date of their first transplantation to the earliest of BAF, graft loss, death, emigration or 31 December 2010...
November 8, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822965/salmonella-dublin-patients-in-denmark-and-their-distance-to-cattle-farms
#12
Silvia Funke, Janus C H Anker, Steen Ethelberg
BACKGROUND: The Salmonella serotype Dublin is specifically adapted to cattle but may infect humans leading to severe disease. We described human S. Dublin cases and investigated a potential spatial relation between their addresses and cattle farms in Denmark. METHODS: We extracted S. Dublin patient surveillance data, 2000-2014, and performed descriptive analyses. We geocoded residential and cattle farm addresses and mapped their incidence by region, province and municipality...
November 8, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822960/limited-usefulness-of-the-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-patients-with-hiv-infections-and-negative-tuberculin-skin-test-results-in-a-country-with-an-intermediate-tuberculosis-burden
#13
Min Jae Kim, Eun Young Nam, Kyoung Un Park, Pyeong Gyun Choe, Wan Beom Park, Kyoung-Ho Song, Eu Suk Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Myoung-Don Oh, Nam Joong Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820968/safety-and-efficacy-of-daptomycin-in-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-a-prospective-and-multicenter-cohort-study-daptodom-trial
#14
Carlos Cervera, Pedro Sanroma, Víctor González-Ramallo, Cristina García de la María, Gemma Sanclemente, Nieves Sopena, Marcos Pajarón, Antonio Segado, Manuel Mirón, Francisco Antón, Andima Basterretxea, Ana Cuende, José M Miró
BACKGROUND: Daptomycin is an optimal choice for outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) because of its safety, once-daily administration and its activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Although daptomycin is increasingly being used in OPAT, limited information about its safety in this scenario is available. METHODS: We performed a prospective multicentre pilot study to evaluate the safety of daptomycin in outpatients with proved or suspected Gram-positive infections (DAPTODOM)...
November 8, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804313/antiretroviral-treatment-for-hiv-infection-swedish-recommendations-2016
#15
Jaran Eriksen, Jan Albert, Anders Blaxhult, Christina Carlander, Leo Flamholc, Magnus Gisslén, Filip Josephson, Olof Karlström, Lars Navér, Veronica Svedhem, Aylin Yilmaz, Anders Sönnerborg
The Swedish Medical Products Agency and the Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) have jointly published recommendations for the treatment of HIV infection on seven previous occasions (2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2014). In February 2016, an expert group under the guidance of RAV once more revised the guidelines. The most important updates in the present guidelines are as follows: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) has recently been registered. TAF has several advantages over tenofovir disoproxilfumarate (TDF) and is recommended instead of TDF in most cases...
November 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804311/systemic-matrix-metalloproteinase-8-response-in-chronic-tonsillitis
#16
Taru Ilmarinen, Triin Lont, Jaana Hagström, Taina Tervahartiala, Timo Sorsa, Caj Haglund, Eva Munck-Wickland, Torbjörn Ramqvist, Tina Dalianis, Leena-Maija Aaltonen
The development of several life-long diseases, such as coronary heart disease, is affected by low-grade systemic inflammation. Data on the potential long-term health effects of chronic tonsillitis are limited. Many inflammatory conditions present with enhanced systemic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 response. In head and neck cancer, high plasma level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 predicts poor prognosis. We analyzed S-MMP-8 with immunofluorometric assay and S-TIMP-1 with an immunosorbent assay in 175 consecutive patients undergoing tonsillectomy for benign tonsillar disease, and in 33 control patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma...
November 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766925/is-gentamicin-necessary-in-the-antimicrobial-treatment-for-group-b-streptococcal-infections-in-the-elderly-an-in-vitro-study-with-human-blood-products
#17
Corinne Ruppen, Laurent Decosterd, Parham Sendi
BACKGROUND: According to expert opinions, gentamicin should be administered as an adjunct to penicillin against severe group B streptococcal (GBS) infections. Whether the adjunct is important is of particular interest for elderly patients. Not only is the risk of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity higher in elderly persons, but their immune defence to bacterial infections may also be impaired. METHOD: Time-kill assays with human blood products, such as serum, neutrophilic granulocytes (opsonophagocytic assays) and whole blood from healthy, elderly volunteers were performed to evaluate the effect of gentamicin in combination with penicillin...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766921/clinical-efficacy-of-laninamivir-and-peramivir-in-patients-with-seasonal-influenza-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Yusuke Yoshino, Kazunori Seo, Ichiro Koga, Takatoshi Kitazawa, Yasuo Ota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766919/analysis-of-the-costs-for-the-laboratory-of-flow-cytometry-screening-of-urine-samples-before-culture
#19
Eeva-Liisa Paattiniemi, Santra Karumaa, Anna-Mari Viita, Pauliina Kärpänoja, Marjukka Mäkelä, Jaana Isojärvi, Hannu Sarkkinen
Urine culture samples comprise a large proportion of the workload in clinical microbiology laboratories, and most of the urine samples show no growth or insignificant growth. A flow cytometry-based analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Japan) has been used to screen out negative urine samples prior to culture in the Päijät-Häme district. We applied decision analytic modelling to analyze, from a laboratory perspective, the economic feasibility of the screening method as compared to culture only (conventional method) for diagnosis of urinary tract infection...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766918/endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-rinse-fluid-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-the-diagnosis-of-intrathoracic-tuberculous-lymphadenitis
#20
Viboon Boonsarngsuk, Siriwan Saengsri, Pitak Santanirand
BACKGROUND: Intrathoracic tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis is a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Although endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) can obtain a sample from the affected lymph node, the diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis by cytopathology remains inaccurate. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of EBUS-TBNA rinse fluid TB polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of intrathoracic TB lymphadenitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 102 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA for diagnostic evaluation of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
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