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Current Opinion in Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503986/subjective-inflation-phenomenology-s-get-rich-quick-scheme
#1
REVIEW
J D Knotts, Brian Odegaard, Hakwan Lau, David Rosenthal
How do we explain the seemingly rich nature of visual phenomenology while accounting for impoverished perception in the periphery? This apparent mismatch has led some to posit that rich phenomenological content overflows cognitive access, whereas others hold that phenomenology is in fact sparse and constrained by cognitive access. Here, we review the Rich versus Sparse debate as it relates to a phenomenon called subjective inflation, wherein minimally attended or peripheral visual perception tends to be subjectively evaluated as more reliable than attended or foveal perception when objective performance is matched...
November 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503896/the-question-of-mindfulness-connection-with-ethics-and-compassion
#2
REVIEW
Jinpa Thupten
This opinion paper examines the fundamental question of contemporary mindfulness' connection with ethics and compassion, while adding the voice of the Indo-Tibetan Buddhist perspectives on the current debate on mindfulness and its relation to the Buddhist concept of sati and satipaṭṭhāna meditation. Drawing attention to the threefold training of morality, concentration, and wisdom constituting an important context in Buddhism, the paper argues that in today's secular context, mindfulness practice seemed to have become divorced from its larger ethical framework and soteriological context of a method for attaining liberation, and turned into a technique for quieting the mind and enhancing focus and awareness...
November 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481655/mindfulness-and-the-contemplative-life-pathways-to-connection-insight-and-purpose
#3
REVIEW
Cortland J Dahl, Richard J Davidson
Despite the growing popular and scientific interest in mindfulness and other forms of meditation, there are important gaps in our understanding of the full range of contemplative practices and the manner in which specific forms of meditation may contribute to well-being. In this article, we discuss the relationship between mindfulness and other forms of meditation, such as those related to prosocial qualities, cognitive insight, and meaning and purpose. We propose that mindfulness plays an important role as a foundation for other contemplative practices...
November 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472540/neurobiology-of-value-driven-attention
#4
REVIEW
Brian A Anderson
What we pay attention to is influenced by reward learning. Converging evidence points to the idea that associative reward learning changes how visual stimuli are processed in the brain, rendering learned reward cues difficult to ignore. Behavioral evidence distinguishes value-driven attention from other established control mechanisms, suggesting a distinct underlying neurobiological process. Recently, studies have begun to explore the neural substrates of this value-driven attention mechanism. Here, I review the progress that has been made in this area, and synthesize the findings to provide an integrative account of the neurobiology of value-driven attention...
November 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472539/what-is-a-preattentive-feature
#5
REVIEW
Jeremy M Wolfe, Igor S Utochkin
The concept of a preattentive feature has been central to vision and attention research for about half a century. A preattentive feature is a feature that guides attention in visual search and that cannot be decomposed into simpler features. While that definition seems straightforward, there is no simple diagnostic test that infallibly identifies a preattentive feature. This paper briefly reviews the criteria that have been proposed and illustrates some of the difficulties of definition.
November 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496975/impairments-of-attention-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Paresh A Malhotra
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is characteristically perceived as primarily being a disorder of episodic memory, with prominent attentional impairments more typically being associated with other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Dementia with Lewy Bodies. However, attention is also affected early on in Alzheimer's, particularly in individuals with young onset and atypical syndromes. In addition, some initial symptoms that are apparently due to episodic memory loss may be secondary to failures of attentional processes...
November 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472541/the-role-of-alpha-oscillations-in-spatial-attention-limited-evidence-for-a-suppression-account
#7
REVIEW
Joshua J Foster, Edward Awh
Covert spatial attention allows us to prioritize visual processing at relevant locations. A fast growing literature suggests that alpha-band (8-12 Hz) oscillations play a key role in this core cognitive process. It is clear that alpha-band activity tracks both the locus and timing of covert spatial orienting. There is limited evidence, however, for the widely embraced view that alpha oscillations suppress irrelevant visual information during spatial selection. Extant evidence is equally compatible with an account in which alpha activity enables spatial selection through signal enhancement rather than distractor suppression...
November 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30445377/editorial-overview-attachment-in-adulthood-a-dynamic-field-with-a-rich-past-and-a-bright-future
#8
EDITORIAL
Jeffry A Simpson, Gery C Karantzas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428402/computational-modelling-approaches-to-meditation-research-why-should-we-care
#9
REVIEW
Marieke van Vugt, Amir Moye, Swagath Sivakumar
Computational modeling and meditation are not frequently mentioned in the same breath. However, in this article we argue that computational modeling can provide insights into the mechanisms by which meditation produces its effects on cognition. Moreover, computational modeling allows the researcher to make predictions about how effects of meditation will generalize to other contexts such as other tasks, which can be tested in subsequent experiments. In addition, computational theories can help to clarify similarities and differences between meditation practices, which is crucial for mapping out the space of contemplative practices...
November 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30442572/editorial-overview-new-advances-in-social-neuroscience-from-neural-computations-to-social-structures
#10
EDITORIAL
David M Amodio, Christian Keysers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30423507/assessment-of-mindfulness-by-self-report
#11
REVIEW
Ruth Baer
Assessment of mindfulness is essential to understanding its relationships with psychological functioning. Currently, mindfulness is most often assessed with self-report questionnaires. Although additional work is required, mindfulness questionnaires have reasonable psychometric properties and are making important contributions to the understanding of mindfulness and its effects on health and wellbeing. For example, measurement of mindfulness as a multidimensional construct shows that present-moment awareness can be unhelpful unless accompanied by a nonjudgmental, nonreactive stance; moreover, nonjudgment and nonreactivity may be only weakly related to present-moment awareness in people with no meditation experience...
November 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502664/all-together-now-utilizing-common-functional-change-principles-to-unify-cognitive-behavioral-and-mindfulness-based-therapies
#12
REVIEW
David M Fresco, Douglas S Mennin
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have made important contributions to resolving the global burden of mental illness. However, response rates are comparatively more modest for the distress disorders. Newer CBTs enriched with MBI components have emerged with promising findings for distress disorders but with a high degree of heterogeneity and, subsequently, an unclear path for determining the unique and synergistic contributions from CBTs and MBIs. We propose that one way to elucidate and improve upon this union is to identify common overarching principles (i...
October 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415087/inhibition-as-a-potential-resolution-to-the-attentional-capture-debate
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas Gaspelin, Steven J Luck
Physically salient stimuli, such as uniquely colored objects, seem to have an inherent power to capture our attention, but formal research on this topic has produced conflicting results and theories. Here, we review evidence that the attentional capture debate can be resolved by positing a new suppressive process. This suppressive process can occur before attentional shifting to prevent salient items from attracting attention. In the current article, we review converging evidence that salient items are suppressed to avoid attentional capture comes from studies of psychophysics, eye movements, single-unit recordings, and event-related potentials (ERPs)...
October 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502663/studying-the-experience-of-meditation-through-micro-phenomenology
#14
REVIEW
Claire Petitmengin, Martijn van Beek, Michel Bitbol, Jean-Michel Nissou, Andreas Roepstorff
Numerous scientific studies are conducted on the neurophysiological effects of meditation practices and on the neural correlates of meditative states. However, very few studies have been conducted on the experience associated with contemplative practice: what it is like to meditate - from moment to moment, at different stages of different forms of practice - remains almost invisible in contemporary contemplative science. Recently, 'micro-phenomenological' interview methods have been developed to help us become aware of lived experience and describe it with rigor and precision...
October 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390478/running-too-far-ahead-towards-a-broader-understanding-of-mindfulness-in-organisations
#15
REVIEW
Silke Rupprecht, Wibo Koole, Michael Chaskalson, Chris Tamdjidi, Michael West
Current workplace mindfulness research and interventions assume that teaching mindfulness will have beneficial effects for people and organizations. While research shows that mindfulness trainings may increase resilience of working adults, assuming that mindfulness will have independent effects on outcomes at different levels of an organization is not well grounded. We assert that mindfulness training would, however, be beneficial for organizations when tailored to that context and shaped by an understanding of organizational theory and practice...
October 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30359960/attention-or-salience
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
While attention is widely recognised as central to perception, the term is often used to mean very different things. Prominent theories of attention - notably the premotor theory - relate it to planned or executed eye movements. This contrasts with the notion of attention as a gain control process that weights the information carried by different sensory channels. We draw upon recent advances in theoretical neurobiology to argue for a distinction between attentional gain mechanisms and salience attribution...
October 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368108/accounting-for-attention-in-sequential-sampling-models-of-decision-making
#17
REVIEW
Ian Krajbich
When making decisions, people tend to shift their attention back and forth between stimuli, choosing options that they look at more overall and immediately before their responses. These relationships, and others, are well-described by sequential sampling models that assume that evidence for a given alternative is collected over time in proportion to its subjective value, amplified by attention. Furthermore, findings from a number of studies support a causal effect of attention on choice. This research is mostly focused on two-alternative forced choice, though some work has confirmed these relationships in multi-attribute and multi-alternative choice...
October 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390479/waking-up-to-the-problem-of-sleep-can-mindfulness-help-a-review-of-theory-and-evidence-for-the-effects-of-mindfulness-for-sleep
#18
REVIEW
Amanda J Shallcross, Pallavi D Visvanathan, Sarah H Sperber, Zoe T Duberstein
The high incidence of poor sleep and associated negative health consequences substantiates the need for effective behavioral sleep interventions. We offer an integrative model of sleep disturbance whereby key risk factors for compromised sleep quality and quantity are targeted through mindfulness practice-namely, experiential awareness, attentional control, and acceptance. Theoretical considerations and burgeoning evidence suggest that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) may be promising treatments for improving sleep outcomes...
October 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388494/the-neural-representational-geometry-of-social-perception
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan B Freeman, Ryan M Stolier, Jeffrey A Brooks, Benjamin S Stillerman
An emerging focus on the geometry of representational structures is advancing a variety of areas in social perception, including social categorization, emotion perception, and trait impressions. Here, we review recent studies adopting a representational geometry approach, and argue that important advances in social perception can be gained by triangulating on the structure of representations via three levels of analysis: neuroimaging, behavioral measures, and computational modeling. Among other uses, this approach permits broad and comprehensive tests of how bottom-up facial features and visual processes as well as top-down social cognitive factors and conceptual processes shape perceptions of social categories, emotion, and personality traits...
October 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368109/opportunity-cost-neglect-and-consideration-in-the-domain-of-time
#20
REVIEW
Stephen A Spiller
Every decision regarding a course of action incurs an opportunity cost. Such costs are relevant to the decision but often neglected. Opportunity costs are more likely to be considered when alternatives are top-of-mind or when the decision maker faces severe resource constraints. Considering opportunity costs of time may differ from that of money because people are less likely to mentally account for their time and more likely to have specific plans for specific units of time. The benefit from a course of action may be realized at a different point in time than its opportunity cost...
October 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
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