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Current Opinion in Psychology

Joseph A Schwartz, Christopher A Jodis, Kasi M Breen, Brittnee N Parker
Recently, research focusing on the implications of brain injuries for deleterious outcomes spanning a wide range of developmental domains has flourished. Findings from this literature suggest that brain injury is a potent source of risk for negative outcomes including neurodegenerative diseases, cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, and psychiatric diagnoses. Despite this evidence, few studies have examined the extent to which these findings represent a causal relationship. This review outlines the expansive literature in this developing area and provides a discussion of potential threats to internal validity...
September 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Tony W Buchanan, William R Lovallo
Advances in stress research have yielded new insights into how stress exposure, in combination with genetics, can contribute to poor health outcomes. We review these topics with a special emphasis on early life stress and vulnerability to addiction. The direct effects of stress and our compensatory responses can modify our physiology and behavior during future stress episodes. These consequences can influence health, including an increased propensity for addiction. The relation between stress and health is not uniform across individuals...
September 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
John S Anderson, Jess Shade, Emily DiBlasi, Andrey A Shabalin, Anna R Docherty
Psychiatric conditions are highly polygenic, meaning that genetic risk arises from many hundreds or thousands of genetic variants. Psychiatric genomics and psychological science are increasingly using polygenic risk scoring-the integration of all common genetic variant effects into a single risk metric-to model latent risk and to predict mental health outcomes. This review discusses the use of these scores in psychology and psychiatry to date, important methodological considerations, and potential of scoring methods for informing psychological science...
September 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Michael G Vaughn, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Dylan B Jackson
Polysubstance misuse is a costly and complex behavioral phenotype that is concurrent with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Research on genetic and psychosocial influences suggests that a life course framework composed of a transactional etiology sheds light on the complex nature of polysubstance misuse. Further, given the extensive comorbidity with mental illness and behavioral dysregulation, viewing polysubstance misuse as asymmetrical in the population is helpful for guiding broad decision-making around prevention and policy...
September 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Peter Mende-Siedlecki
While a great deal of initial work in social neuroscience addressed the functional bases of our first impressions, our social evaluations of other people are anything but static. Just as our impressions can change, so too has our understanding of the neural underpinnings supporting this dynamic form of social learning. First, I review initial neuroimaging work on behavior-based impression updating, which observed that a distributed network of regions works in concert to revise trait representations in light of new behavioral information...
August 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Yuri Kim, James J Lee
Heritable variation in fitness-survival and reproduction-is the fuel of evolution by natural selection. Many human societies have dramatically reduced mortality before and during the prime reproductive years, making fertility a reasonably good proxy for the whole of fitness in much of our species. For this reason, empirical knowledge regarding the genetics of fertility must be an essential part of any framework for understanding past and ongoing trends in human adaptive evolution. Here we use R.A. Fisher's analysis of human fertility as a starting point and find strong support from more recent research for his main contentions: fertility is a moderately heritable trait, where much of the genetic influences are shared with psychological characteristics...
August 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Joseph D Deak, Alex P Miller, Ian R Gizer
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a significant and ongoing public health concern with 12-month prevalence estimates of ∼5.6%. Quantitative genetic studies suggest a heritability of approximately 50% for AUD, and as a result, significant efforts have been made to identify specific variation within the genome related to the etiology of AUD. Given the limited number of replicable findings that have emerged from genome-wide linkage and candidate gene association studies, more recent efforts have focused on the use of genome-wide association studies (GWAS)...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Arianna M Gard, Hailey L Dotterer, Luke W Hyde
Understanding the etiology of antisocial behavior (i.e. violence, criminality, rule-breaking), is essential to the development of more effective prevention and intervention strategies. We provide a summary of the genetic correlates of antisocial behavior, drawing upon findings from behavioral, molecular, and statistical genetics. Across methodologies, our review highlights the centrality of environmental moderators of genetic effects, and how behavioral heterogeneity in antisocial behavior is an important consideration for genetic studies...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Charleen D Adams
The epidemiologic study of DNA methylation (DNAm) and mental health is a burgeoning area, but confounding and reverse causation remain important to know about. Whether use of non-brain tissues is appropriate when investigating brain phenotypes depends on the hypothesis and whether the goal is causality or to identify biomarkers. Look-ups of the correspondence between DNAm in blood and brain and use of Mendelian randomization (MR) can be done to follow-up, to some degree, on the causal nature of some findings...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Richard C Crist, Benjamin C Reiner, Wade H Berrettini
Opioid use disorder (OUD) affects millions of people worldwide and the risk of developing the disorder has a significant genetic component according to twin and family studies. Identification of the genetic variants underlying this inherited risk has focused on two different methods: candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The most studied candidate genes have included the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1), the delta-opioid receptor (OPRD1), the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Ofra Mayseless, Micha Popper
Attachment theory has inspired a new view on the topic of leadership, enabling a better understanding of leader-follower relations by acknowledging how attachment dynamics and the evolutionary foundations of human relationships apply in organizational contexts. Early research mainly focused on individual differences and demonstrated the association between attachment orientations (security, anxiety, and avoidance) the emergence of leaders and their behaviors (i.e., leadership style). More recent research has focused on the attachment orientations of both leaders and followers, the role of moderating and mediating variables, and the provision of secure-base support and caring orientations of leaders...
August 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Emma M Marshall, Patricia A Frazier
The purpose of this paper is to review recent research on posttrauma reactions (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] symptoms and self-reported posttraumatic growth [PTG]) using attachment theory as a framework. Attachment orientations are significantly related to PTSD symptoms: insecure attachment orientations (particularly attachment anxiety) are positively associated with PTSD symptoms whereas attachment security is negatively associated with PTSD symptoms. Although associations appear to be reciprocal, research typically focuses on insecure attachment orientations predicting PTSD symptoms and the possible mechanisms of those relations, particularly a lack of social support...
August 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Theodore Ea Waters, Glenn I Roisman
Research suggests that, among other things, attachment representations take the form of a cognitive script. Evidence in support of this perspective suggests that this `secure base script' is learned in the context of early caregiving experiences, stable across time and context in adulthood, and a guide for adult attachment behavior. However, in a field as mature as adult attachment, newer constructs such as secure base script must address the `old wine in a new bottle' critique. This article presents a brief overview of the extant literature on the secure base script and concludes by framing these findings in the larger context of adult attachment research aimed at addressing this critique...
August 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Lorne Campbell, Sarah Ce Stanton
Two theoretical perspectives guide much of the research on adult romantic relationships: attachment theory and interdependence theory. Each of these theoretical perspectives acknowledges the importance of trust, or perceptions of partners' dependability and faith in the future of the relationship. Whereas attachment theory conceptualizes trust as a component of individual differences in attachment representations, interdependence theoretical approaches conceptualize trust as a unique construct that develops within new relationships...
August 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Edward D Barker, Susanna Roberts, Esther Walton
The recent interest in epigenetics within mental health research, from a developmental perspective, stems from the potential of DNA methylation to index both exposure to adversity and vulnerability for mental health problems. Genome-wide technology has facilitated epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), permitting 'hypothesis-free' examinations in relation to adversity and/or mental health problems. In EWAS, rather than focusing on a priori established candidate genes, the genome is screened for DNA methylation, thereby enabling a more comprehensive representation of variation associated with complex disease...
July 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
W David Hill, Sarah E Harris, Ian J Deary
Intelligence, as measured by standardised tests of cognitive function, such as IQ-type tests, is predictive of psychiatric diagnosis and psychological wellbeing. Using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, a measure of the shared genetic effect across traits, can be quantified; because this can be done across samples, the confounding effects of psychiatric diagnosis do not influence the magnitude of these relationships. It is now known that there are genetic effects that act across intelligence and psychiatric diagnoses, which provide a partial explanation for the phenotypic link between intelligence and mental health...
July 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
John P Quinn, Abigail L Savage, Vivien J Bubb
Over 98% of our genome is non-coding and is now recognised to have a major role in orchestrating the tissue specific and stimulus inducible gene expression pattern which underpins our wellbeing and mental health. The non-coding genome responds functionally to our environment at all levels, encompassing the span from psychological to physiological challenge. The gene expression pattern, termed the transcriptome, ultimately gives us our neurochemistry. Therefore a major modulator of mental wellbeing is how our genes are regulated in response to life experiences...
July 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Aylar Pour Mohammad, Aimee Drolet
Past research has highlighted the role of time horizon view (i.e. the perception of remaining time as either limited or expansive) in goal salience and goal pursuit. Past studies have consistently found that age is associated with an increased focus on emotion. The present article focuses on the perception that time is limited as a key reason for older (versus young) adults' increased focus on emotions. This article investigates some important effects of aging and time horizon view on consumers' goals and preferences using Socioemotional Selectivity Theory...
July 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Daniel Capron, Michael Anestis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Gerald Echterhoff, E Tory Higgins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
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