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Current Opinion in Psychology

Joshua D Miller, Chelsea Sleep, Donald R Lynam
We review the trait model (i.e., Criterion B) included as a central piece of the alternative model of personality disorder (PD) included in DSM-5. The pathological traits are organized into five domains with 25 facets that overlap substantially with basic personality models (e.g., five-factor model). These PD traits can be reliably assessed using a variety of measures; however, questions of poor discriminant validity have been raised. Concerns were raised that this model would result in the loss of clinically meaningful constructs (e...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Brianna J Turner, Hyejin M Jin, Michael D Anestis, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Kim L Gratz
This paper reviews current literature on the links between personality pathology and intentional self-harm, including nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. Specifically, this review highlights recent advances stemming from longitudinal, epidemiological, and health registry studies, as well as emerging research on pathological personality traits and intentional self-harm, and integrates current knowledge across dimensional and categorical frameworks to provide recommendations for clinical practice and future research...
September 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Aaron L Pincus
This paper links Criterion A of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition Alternative Model for Personality Disorders with the contemporary interpersonal model of personality pathology. Advances in interpersonal theory and assessment are outlined to demonstrate that Criterion A's self (identity, self-direction) and interpersonal (empathy, intimacy) impairments are related to the interpersonal meta-constructs and agency and communion and are operationalized by perceptual, behavioral, and affective mechanisms of the interpersonal situation framework...
September 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Markus Paulus
A majority of current work indicates that the different types of prosocial behavior in young children (helping, sharing, comforting) are not related to each other. Here, I review recent studies that examined the relations between prosocial actions as well as the antecedents and correlates of the particular domains of prosociality. I argue that in addition to different social-cognitive demands also different motivations are involved in early prosocial action, and that prosociality is thus a concept that encompasses-at least early in development-heterogeneous behaviors and motivations...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Anthony Bateman, Chloe Campbell, Patrick Luyten, Peter Fonagy
In this paper we conceptualize borderline personality disorder as a disorder of mentalizing, social cognition, and loss of resilience. Several treatment approaches are effective, and meta-analyses suggest that there are few substantive differences in effectiveness between them and between specialized and non-specialized approaches. We propose that these findings arise because of shared mechanisms of change, congruent with current thinking both about the existence of a general 'p' factor of psychopathology and a reconceptualization of personality disorders as involving a lack of resilience resulting from problems with epistemic trust and salutogenesis, the capacity to derive benefit from the social environment...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Kathleen W Reardon, Eric J Mercadante, Jennifer L Tackett
The reliable and valid assessment of personality disorders (PDs) faces several challenges in different domains. In particular, the variety of methods, settings, and informants relevant for PD assessment raises questions about best practices. Additionally, issues surrounding assessment across the lifespan, including youth and the elderly, further complicate PD assessment. We review these issues here and point toward future directions in PD assessment, with an emphasis on the utility of dimensional PD assessment...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Andrew E Skodol
Personality disorders impair social, occupational, leisure, and global functioning more than a significant disorder such as major depressive disorder. Impairment is found in clinical and community populations. Impairment is independent of co-occurring other mental disorders. Impairment is more stable over time than are the diagnoses themselves. Personality traits are also impairing and may be more predictive of outcomes over time, but a hybrid of personality disorder features and normal range personality traits may be the most predictive model...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Nicholas R Eaton, Ashley L Greene
Multiple studies have reported community prevalence rates of personality disorders (PDs), but these studies differed in terms of diagnostic criteria, assessment instruments, communities sampled, and size, producing widely ranging estimates. We take a meta-analytic approach to characterizing PD community prevalence rates by comparing results from two reviews that pooled previous studies. Overall, particular PD rates are low in community samples, but the presence of any PD is relatively high, with approximately one person in seven experiencing personality psychopathology...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Cheryl A King, Alejandra Arango, Cynthia Ewell Foster
A comprehensive public health strategy for adolescent suicide prevention includes upstream prevention strategies, strategies for risk recognition, and services for those at risk. Interpersonal trauma and substance use are important prevention targets as each is associated with risk for suicide attempts. Multiple prevention programs target these factors; however, the Family Check-Up, designed to reduce substance use and behavioral problems, also has been associated with reduced suicide risk. Several youth screening instruments have shown utility, and a large-scale trial is underway to develop a computerized adaptive screen...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Bruno Chiurliza, Megan L Rogers, Matthew E Schneider, Carol Chu, Thomas E Joiner
Suicidal behavior contains several dynamic elements. Due to its complexity, empirical science may approach suicide through various avenues. One underutilized approach is taking an evolutionary perspective. Our review of the literature presents two evolutionary processes that may be implicated in suicidal behavior, namely eusocial behavior and antipredator response behaviors. Studies have indicated that aspects of suicidal behavior parallel self-sacrificial behavior in eusocial animals, and that systems similar to hyperarousal-shutdown systems involved in antipredator behaviors may be activated among suicidal individuals...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Thomas A Widiger, Cristina Crego, Stephanie L Rojas, Joshua R Oltmanns
The personality structure of persons within clinical populations may not be fundamentally different from the personality structure of persons who have not sought treatment for their maladaptive personality traits. Indeed, there has long been an interest in understanding personality disorders as maladaptive variants of general personality structure. Presented herein is an understanding of personality disorder from the perspective of basic personality research; more specifically, the five factor model (FFM) of general personality structure...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Anahita Bassir Nia, Matthew C Eveleth, Jonathan M Gabbay, Yonis J Hassan, Bosi Zhang, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a major mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 1-3%, characterized by a persistent pattern of instability in relationships, mood, impulse regulation, and sense of self. This results in impulsive self-damaging behavior, high suicide rates, and severe functional impairment. BPD has a complex, multifactorial etiology, resulting from an interaction among genetic and environmental substrates, and has moderate to high heritability based on twin and family studies...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Lindsey C Conkey, Diana J Whalen
Personality disorders are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, contributing to the high healthcare utilization seen in patients with these disorders. A growing literature supports a robust association of personality disorders and health problems. The primary aim of this article is to summarize the most recent research documenting the associations between personality disorders and health conditions. Extending past reviews, we discuss the association of personality disorders with chronic physical illnesses, sleep disturbances, pain conditions, and obesity...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Sabine C Herpertz, Katja Bertsch, Haang Jeung
The Criterion A of the DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders follows a functional approach to personality disorders which can be effectively related to abnormalities in brain circuits that are involved in processes related to the self and others. While brain circuits related to the self and others highly overlap supporting the notion of inseparable constructs, structural and functional neuroimaging data point to rather specific deviations in brain processes among the various types of personality disorders, with a focus on borderline and antisocial personality disorders...
September 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Kim Van Orden, Charlene Deming
Late life suicide prevention differs from suicide prevention for other age groups: first, the number of older adults worldwide is on the rise; second, late-life suicide receives much less attention in all societal spheres, from the media, to federal funding agencies, to healthcare initiatives. Recent findings indicate an association between internalized ageist stereotypes and reduced will to live. Recent research also addresses the role of cognitive control as a contributor to risk and as an intervention target (e...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Christopher J Hopwood, Wiebke Bleidorn
In this paper, we review recent findings related to stability and change in personality and personality disorder. Estimates of stability vary depending on a number of methodological and substantive factors. These factors include the type of stability being examined, the type of construct being assessed, the method being used to assess personality, how participants are sampled, and developmental trends in personality stability and change. We describe current evidence about personality stability with respect to each of these factors...
September 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Rebecca M Carey, Hazel Rose Markus
Social class shapes relational realities, which in turn situate and structure different selves and their associated psychological tendencies. We first briefly review how higher class contexts tend to foster independent models of self and lower class contexts tend to foster interdependent models of self. We then consider how these independent and interdependent models of self are situated in and adapted to different social class-driven relational realities. We review research demonstrating that in lower social class contexts, social networks tend to be small, dense, homogenous and strongly connected...
September 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Tiffany N Brannon, Gerald D Higginbotham, Kyshia Henderson
At the intersection of race and class the consequences of being working-class or middle-class are not so Black and White. Rather, established and emerging research suggests that race/ethnicity and social class intersect to differentially afford benefits and burdens. For instance, racial/ethnic minorities often do not reap the social, psychological or economic benefits of higher social class; yet, in some key life domains (e.g. health and mortality) racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S. seem to be buffered from some burdens of lower social class...
August 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Laura E Dreer, Xinyu Tang, Risa Nakase-Richardson, Mary Jo Pugh, Molly K Cox, Erin K Bailey, Jacob A Finn, Ross Zafonte, Lisa A Brenner
Research among a wide range of cohorts (e.g. civilian, military) has increasingly highlighted traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, including death by suicide. With this recognition, subsequent changes in clinical practice, such as TBI screenings among individuals seeking mental health services, as well as suicide risk assessment among individuals seeking rehabilitation services are essential. Information provided below is aimed at highlighting key and emerging findings regarding suicide and TBI, with the goal of encouraging providers and researchers to explore changing and expanding evidence-based clinical practices to match the needs of those living with a history of TBI...
August 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Cynthia S Levine
Beliefs, emotions, and other psychological resources can protect physical health. Notably, however, the particular ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that are associated with better health can vary with one's socioeconomic status (SES). Those that are most protective reflect what is afforded in and valued by the context. Specifically, in higher SES environments, where people often have the resources to be independent and influence their own destinies, beliefs that reflect independence and a focus on the individual predict better health...
August 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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