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Current Opinion in Psychology

Katherine B Ehrlich
In this review, I outline how attachment experiences in adulthood are thought to be related to the immune system. After a brief primer on the two branches of the immune system, I describe a theoretical model that explains how adults' attachment orientation could influence various immune processes. I then review recent findings documenting novel associations between attachment orientation and measures of the immune system, including inflammatory processes and cellular immunity. I conclude with a discussion about future directions focused on how we can advance our understanding about the role of attachment in shaping immune processes in ways that could shape our health over the lifespan...
April 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Daniel S Hamermesh
I describe an economic approach to studying time use. The literature has applied this approach to analyzing: differences and changes in work time; the gender division of chores; the determinants of the split of time outside work; differences in time use and time stress by earnings and household income; how the artificial constructs of time zones and summer time affect what people do and when they do it; how and why non-work time is used differently by race, gender and age; and how people would use non-work time if they had more...
March 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Kenneth Lee Raby, Mary Dozier
Research with adoptive families offers novel insights into longstanding questions about the significance of attachment across the lifespan. We illustrate this by reviewing adoption research addressing two of attachment theory's central ideas. First, studies of children who were adopted after experiencing severe adversity offer powerful tests of the unique consequences of experiences in early attachment relationships. Although children who experience early maltreatment or institutionalization show remarkable recovery in the quality of their attachments after being placed with their adoptive families, experiencing pre-adoptive adversity also has long-lasting repercussions for these individuals' later attachment representations...
March 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Susan Johnson
The field of couple therapy-one of the most widely sought and practiced modality of therapy-has been revolutionized by the emergence of attachment science in the 21st century. We now understand not only the centrality of close relationships for human health and wellbeing, but also that the key to a healthy happy relationship is a secure attachment bond. Emotionally Focused Therapy is an attachment-based approach that aims to help couples create a secure attachment bond. Several outcome studies have shown that EFT helps to not only alleviate relationship distress but individual co-morbidities as well, with positive follow-up effects...
March 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
David A Sbarra, Jessica L Borelli
This paper uses attachment theory as a lens for reviewing contemporary research on how adults cope with marital separation and loss. The first section of the paper discusses the process of normative attachment reorganization, or the psychology of adaptive grief responses following relationship transitions. We argue that changes two processes, in particular, can be uses to track changes in this normative reorganization process: narrative coherence and self-concept clarity. The second section of the paper suggest that individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance shape the variability in this normative reorganization process, largely as a result of the characteristic ways in which these styles organize emotion-regulatory tendencies...
March 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Giorgio A Tasca
Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Omri Gillath, Gery Karantzas
Attachment security priming has been used to shed light on the cognitive processes related to attachment internal working models as well as the cognitive substrates of people's attachment-related affect and behavior. Security primes activate a sense of attachment security by making mental representations in one's memory more accessible and salient. In the current paper, we report on a qualitative synthesis of 20 studies published in the last two years to determine the effects of security priming. We found that supraliminally administered security priming (especially via guided imagery or visualization) is associated with beneficial effects across a diverse set of domains...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Ohad Szepsenwol, Jeffry A Simpson
In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individual differences in adult attachment mediate the adaptive calibration of reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation. We first present an integration of attachment theory and life history theory. Then, we discuss how early harsh and/or unpredictable environments may promote insecure attachment by hampering parents' ability to provide sensitive and reliable care to their children. Finally, we discuss how, in the context of harsh and/or unpredictable environments, different types of insecure attachment (i...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Roger Kobak, Guy Bosmans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Nickola C Overall
Power and dependence are fundamental to the development of attachment insecurity and attachment insecurity is central in defining different ways people regulate power. This paper applies an integrated power and attachment perspective to advance understanding of the diverse ways people attempt to negotiate dependence and power in adult relationships. The paper demonstrates how: (1) power is integral to the concerns and goals underlying attachment avoidance and anxiety, (2) the situations that activate attachment strategies represent specific power-relevant concerns and goals, (3) the reactions associated with avoidance and anxiety reflect distinct strategies to regulate dependence and control, and (4) partners counter with their own power regulation attempts...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Ksenia Meyza, Ewelina Knapska
While many consider empathy an exclusively human trait, non-human animals are capable of simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, as well as consolation and helping behavior. Rodent models are particularly useful for describing the neuronal background of these phenomena. They offer the possibility of employing single-cell resolution mapping of the neuronal activity as well as novel techniques for manipulation of in vivo activity, which are currently unavailable in human studies. Here, we review recent developments in the field of rodent empathy research with special emphasis on behavioral paradigms and data on neuronal correlates of emotional contagion...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Rebeca Mejía-Arauz, Barbara Rogoff, Andrew Dayton, Richard Henne-Ochoa
This paper contrasts two ways that shared thinking can be conceptualized: as negotiation, where individuals join their separate ideas, or collaboration, as people mutually engage together in a unified process, as an ensemble. We argue that these paradigms are culturally based, with the negotiation model fitting within an assumption system of separate entities-an assumption system we believe to be common in psychology and in middle-class European American society-and the collaboration model fitting within a holistic worldview that appears to be common in Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Lauri Nummenmaa, Juha M Lahnakoski, Enrico Glerean
Sociability and capability of shared mental states are hallmarks of the human species, and pursuing shared goals oftentimes requires coordinating both behaviour and mental states. Here we review recent work using indices of intersubject neural synchronisation for measuring similarity of mental states across individuals. We discuss the methodological advances and limitations in the analyses based on intersubject synchrony, and discuss how these kinds of model-free analysis techniques enable the investigation of the brain basis of complex social processes...
March 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Jeffry A Simpson, W Steven Rholes
In this article, we discuss theory and research on how people who have different adult romantic attachment orientations fare across one of life's often happiest, but also most chronically stressful, events-the transition to parenthood. We first discuss central principles of attachment theory and then review empirical research revealing how two types of attachment insecurity-anxiety and avoidance-tend to prospectively predict unique patterns of relational and personal outcomes across this often challenging life event...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Gery C Karantzas, Daniel Romano, Juwon Lee
Attachment theory is an important framework from which to examine familial aged care. Despite this, the role of attachment in later-life caregiving remains unclear. The current study presents a systematic review of papers within the last five years on attachment and various outcomes related to familial aged care. For the caregiver, attachment anxiety was associated with poorer mental health, and attachment insecurity with a more controlling manner of caregiving. The few studies conducted with care recipients found that attachment insecurity was associated with greater self-appraisals of dementia symptoms and a lower sense of security...
March 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Gün R Semin
This review provides an overview of the research on communication and the 'Saying is Believing' paradigm in the context of different perspectives on communication. The process of 'audience tuning' is shaped by a variety of situated factors in contexts that affect the communicators' confidence in their message. The overwhelming common denominator is that the combination of features that create ambiguity yields the optimal condition for the formation of shared realities. I conclude with an argument that the implied invariance of memory processes in shared reality work needs to be more attentive to the regulatory function of memories driving the expression of shared realities...
March 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Maureen Zalewski, Jennifer K Lewis, Christina Gamache Martin
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an effective treatment for an increasing number of mental disorders. Its increased application to a range of disorders has been prompted by the recognition that DBT targets emotion dysregulation, which is a transdiagnostic feature underlying several forms of psychopathology. More recently, DBT has been used to target additional clinically relevant domains that are outside diagnostically bound categories, such as improving parenting quality as a means of preventing psychopathology in children of parents with psychopathology...
March 1, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Andrew M Chanen, Katherine N Thompson
Specialized treatments for personality disorder are usually offered late in the course of the disorder, to a small number of help-seeking individuals with entrenched disability. Intervention during the early stages of personality disorder might help to decrease the persistence and/or the severity of personality disorder and to prevent the cascading of secondary psychopathology and psychosocial disability. Research regarding the understanding of and appropriate treatment for early stage personality disorder is growing...
February 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Dorit Kliemann, Ralph Adolphs
Our ability to understand and think about the mental states of other people is referred to as 'mentalizing' or 'theory of mind'. It features prominently in all social behavior, is essential for maintaining relationships, and shows pronounced individual differences. Here we review new approaches to study the underlying psychological mechanisms and discuss how they could best be investigated using modern tools from social neuroscience. We list key desiderata for the field, such as validity, specificity, and reproducibility, and link them to specific recommendations for the future...
February 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
Attachment is transmitted from one generation to the next. Adult attachment has been shown to predict the security or insecurity of children's attachment relationship with their parents. In search for the mechanism of intergenerational transmission of attachment sensitive parenting has been the main focus of research during the past four decades. Meta-analytic work confirmed the role of sensitive parenting, but a large explanatory gap remains to be explained. Parental mentalization has not yet fulfilled its promise as a bridge across the transmission gap...
February 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
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