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Current Opinion in Psychology

Ofra Mayseless, Micha Popper
Attachment theory has inspired a new view on the topic of leadership, enabling a better understanding of leader-follower relations by acknowledging how attachment dynamics and the evolutionary foundations of human relationships apply in organizational contexts. Early research mainly focused on individual differences and demonstrated the association between attachment orientations (security, anxiety, and avoidance) the emergence of leaders and their behaviors (i.e., leadership style). More recent research has focused on the attachment orientations of both leaders and followers, the role of moderating and mediating variables, and the provision of secure-base support and caring orientations of leaders...
August 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Lorne Campbell, Sarah Ce Stanton
Two theoretical perspectives guide much of the research on adult romantic relationships: attachment theory and interdependence theory. Each of these theoretical perspectives acknowledges the importance of trust, or perceptions of partners' dependability and faith in the future of the relationship. Whereas attachment theory conceptualizes trust as a component of individual differences in attachment representations, interdependence theoretical approaches conceptualize trust as a unique construct that develops within new relationships...
August 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Edward D Barker, Susanna Roberts, Esther Walton
The recent interest in epigenetics within mental health research, from a developmental perspective, stems from the potential of DNA methylation to index both exposure to adversity and vulnerability for mental health problems. Genome-wide technology has facilitated epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS), permitting 'hypothesis-free' examinations in relation to adversity and/or mental health problems. In EWAS, rather than focusing on a priori established candidate genes, the genome is screened for DNA methylation, thereby enabling a more comprehensive representation of variation associated with complex disease...
July 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
W David Hill, Sarah E Harris, Ian J Deary
Intelligence, as measured by standardised tests of cognitive function, such as IQ-type tests, is predictive of psychiatric diagnosis and psychological wellbeing. Using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data, a measure of the shared genetic effect across traits, can be quantified; because this can be done across samples, the confounding effects of psychiatric diagnosis do not influence the magnitude of these relationships. It is now known that there are genetic effects that act across intelligence and psychiatric diagnoses, which provide a partial explanation for the phenotypic link between intelligence and mental health...
July 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
John P Quinn, Abigail L Savage, Vivien J Bubb
Over 98% of our genome is non-coding and is now recognised to have a major role in orchestrating the tissue specific and stimulus inducible gene expression pattern which underpins our wellbeing and mental health. The non-coding genome responds functionally to our environment at all levels, encompassing the span from psychological to physiological challenge. The gene expression pattern, termed the transcriptome, ultimately gives us our neurochemistry. Therefore a major modulator of mental wellbeing is how our genes are regulated in response to life experiences...
July 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Aylar Pour Mohammad, Aimee Drolet
Past research has highlighted the role of time horizon view (i.e. the perception of remaining time as either limited or expansive) in goal salience and goal pursuit. Past studies have consistently found that age is associated with an increased focus on emotion. The present article focuses on the perception that time is limited as a key reason for older (versus young) adults' increased focus on emotions. This article investigates some important effects of aging and time horizon view on consumers' goals and preferences using Socioemotional Selectivity Theory...
July 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Daniel Capron, Michael Anestis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Ian J Deary, Sarah E Harris, W David Hill
The associations between higher intelligence test scores from early life and later good health, fewer illnesses, and longer life are recent discoveries. Researchers are mapping the extent of these associations and trying to understanding them. Part of the intelligence-health association has genetic origins. Recent advances in molecular genetic technology and statistical analyses have revealed that: intelligence and many health outcomes are highly polygenic; and that modest but widespread genetic correlations exist between intelligence and health, illness and mortality...
July 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Michael Rocque, Grant Duwe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Anne B Arnett, Sandy Trinh, Raphael A Bernier
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally heterogeneous disorder with a strong genetic component, as evidenced by decades of twin and family studies. In recent years, enhanced methods of genomic sequencing have revealed that structural variation and mutations to both coding and non-coding regions of single, candidate genes may account for more than 30% of ASD cases. The current review highlights a genotype-first approach that builds upon these molecular findings to parse the heterogeneity of ASD. Advantages of this approach include strong potential for precision medicine diagnosis and treatment, as well as opportunity to advance basic science research on neurodevelopmental disorders...
July 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Cassie Mogilner
Spotlighting the logistically and existentially foundational resource of time, this review identifies that the extent to which people focus on time, the amount of time people have, and the ways people spend their time all have a significant impact on happiness. This synthesis of the past decade of research on time and happiness advises that people should (1) focus on time (not money), (2) have neither too little nor too much time, and (3) spend the time they have deliberately.
July 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Hannah L Giasson, Hsiao-Wen Liao, Laura L Carstensen
Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) is a life-span theory of motivation grounded in the subjective awareness of human mortality. The cardinal postulate is that time horizons shape the relative priority placed on emotionally meaningful and knowledge-seeking goals. Because goals are always set in temporal contexts, and time left in life is inversely related to chronological age, SST predicts systematic age differences in goal pursuit. The theory has garnered considerable empirical support. In this paper, we consider the role of age-related time acceleration on goal setting and argue that it may interact with the more gradual age-related changes in time horizons presumed in SST...
July 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Arietta Slade, Jeremy Holmes
Attachment theory provides a model for understanding (1) development within the context of the child's primary, and formative relationships, and (2) an adult's orientation toward lifelong intimate connections, social relationships, and autonomous exploration. Psychotherapy researchers have linked measures of patient attachment with therapeutic alliance, process, and outcomes. Studies of ruptures and discourse analysis distinguish in-session behaviors associated with different patterns of insecure attachments, and identify distinct ways of working with them...
July 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Lisa M Diamond
Attachment theory suggests that at all stages of life, regular contact with attachment figures fosters a fundamental sense of safety and security. Yet an increasing number of romantic couples undergo prolonged physical separations from one another, rangingfrom several weeks to several years, and involving widely varying opportunities for communication and contact. This article reviews contemporary research on the implications of such separations for attachment-related dynamics, including relationship satisfaction and psychobiological attunement between partners...
July 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Anne-Laure Sellier, Tamar Avnet
To schedule activities and transition from one activity to the next, humans can rely on the external clock (clock-time style) or on their internal sense (event-time style). This article discusses how relying on an external time cue versus an internal time cue can markedly shape the way people perceive the social world, beyond its mere purpose of organizing activities. First, research shows that individuals' reliance on clock-time or event-time is not a mere cultural artifact, but also constitutes a way to self-regulate...
June 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
B Kyu Kim, Gal Zauberman
Many decisions people make involve intertemporal tradeoffs between current and future costs and benefits. Because outcomes in such decisions are separated by time (i.e., delay), the perception of time should play an important role. Traditionally, researchers have treated time as objective information (i.e., calendar time) and examined the effect of different delays on intertemporal preference. Recently, researchers have started to take into account the subjective nature of future time perception and to use psychological (subjective) time rather than objective calendar time as a focal explanatory variable for intertemporal preference...
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Hal E Hershfield
People often have difficulty making decisions that maximize well-being over time, and researchers have explored various reasons for why such poor `intertemporal' decision-making may arise. In this article, I review a body of work that has focused on how the relationship between current and future selves may influence judgments and decisions. Namely, I spotlight research suggesting that the future self is often thought of as another person and how feelings about this `other' person impact decisions across domains...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Debra M Zeifman
The application of Bowlby's Attachment Theory (AT) to sexual pair bonds has sparked wide ranging investigations which largely support, and further elaborate, key tenets of AT. Most notably, adults, like children, derive security from, and function optimally, when they feel they have the commitment of a loving other. Recent neuroscience findings further support the premise that parent-child and sexual pair bonds share some of the same neural architecture and physiology. The application of AT to adult pair bonds has also provoked controversy and raised empirical questions that warrant greater attention...
June 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Miriam E Weaverdyck, Carolyn Parkinson
The computational demands associated with navigating large, complexly bonded social groups are thought to have significantly shaped human brain evolution. Yet, research on social network representation and cognitive neuroscience have progressed largely independently. Thus, little is known about how the human brain encodes the structure of the social networks in which it is embedded. This review highlights recent work seeking to bridge this gap in understanding. While the majority of research linking social network analysis and neuroimaging has focused on relating neuroanatomy to social network size, researchers have begun to define the neural architecture that encodes social network structure, cognitive and behavioral consequences of encoding this information, and individual differences in how people represent the structure of their social world...
May 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Anthony M Evans, David G Rand
We review two fundamentally different ways that decision time is related to cooperation. First, studies have experimentally manipulated decision time to understand how cooperation is related to the use of intuition versus deliberation. Current evidence supports the claim that time pressure (and, more generally, intuition) favors cooperation. Second, correlational studies reveal that self-paced decision times are primarily related to decision conflict, not the use of intuition or deliberation. As a result, extreme cooperation decisions occur more quickly than intermediate decisions, and the relative speed of highly cooperative versus non-cooperative decisions depends on details of the design and participant pool...
May 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
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