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Current Opinion in Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227834/personality-pathology-grows-up-adolescence-as-a-sensitive-period
#1
REVIEW
Carla Sharp, Kiana Wall
There is mounting evidence that personality pathology, in particular, borderline pathology is a valid and reliable construct in adolescence, with prevalence, phenomenology, stability and risk factors similar to that of adult borderline personality disorder. Scientific evidence also delineates a marked separation of course and outcome of adolescent borderline personality disorder from other disorders and supports the efficacy of disorder-specific treatment. The current article addresses recent findings in these areas which point to adolescence as a sensitive period for the development for personality pathology...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223070/trusting-others-shared-reality-in-testimonial-learning
#2
REVIEW
Annelise Pesch, Sarah Suárez, Melissa A Koenig
Much of early learning depends on others, and the transmission of testimony presents children with a range of opportunities to learn about and from other people. Much work has focused on children's ability to select or prefer particular sources of information based on various epistemic (e.g. accuracy, reliability, perceptual access, expertise) and moral (e.g. benevolence, group membership, honesty) characteristics. Understanding the mechanisms by which such selective preferences emerge has been couched primarily in frameworks that treat testimony as a source of inductive evidence, and that treat children's trust as an evidence-based inference...
November 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197700/romantic-relationships-as-shared-reality-defense
#3
REVIEW
Sandra L Murray, Veronica Lamarche, Mark D Seery
A model of meaning maintenance in relationships is proposed to explain how relationships function to regulate threats to shared systems of meaning posed by life's capricious and unexpected events. This model assumes that people flexibility compensate for unexpected events in the world by affirming the expected in their relationship and compensate for unexpected events in the relationship by affirming the expected in the world. Supportive evidence is reviewed that reveals how people in more or less satisfying relationships flexibly maintain a sense of life's meaning in the face of unexpected events...
November 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175756/shared-identity-in-organizational-stress-and-change
#4
REVIEW
Rolf van Dick, Valeria Ciampa, Shuang Liang
The social identity approach has been found very useful for the understanding of a range of phenomena within and across organizations. It has been applied in particular to analyze employees' stress and well-being at work and their reactions to organizational change. In this paper, we argue that there is a mismatch between the theoretical notion of shared identities in teams and organizations and empirical research, which largely focuses on the individual employee's identification with his or her social categories at work...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197698/emergence-of-shared-reference-and-shared-minds-in-infancy
#5
REVIEW
Ulf Liszkowski
The emergence of a social-interactional 'infrastructure' of communication in infancy has remained underspecified until recently. I argue and show that firstly, the ability for shared reference is firmly established around 12 months of age when infants begin to point, enabling a meeting of shared minds; secondly, interactions entailing different perspectives and minds emerge only thereafter, based on prior interactional experiences; thirdly, the emergence of shared reference is itself mediated by interaction and caregivers' assistance in goal-directed activities...
November 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197699/what-is-unique-about-shared-reality-insights-from-a-new-comparison-species
#6
REVIEW
Angie M Johnston, Molly Byrne, Laurie R Santos
We introduce a new comparison species-domesticated dogs (Canis familaris)-that can shed light on the evolutionary origins of shared reality. Given that dogs share many basic building blocks of shared reality (e.g. representing others' perceptions, emotions, and behaviors) they provide an ideal species for pinpointing unique aspects of shared reality in humans. In particular, current research with dogs underscores two aspects of shared reality that may be special to humans. First, humans may be unique in our tendency to share reality involuntarily...
November 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169083/political-aspects-of-shared-reality
#7
REVIEW
Chadly Stern, Peter Ondish
The political world permeates people's everyday experiences. In this article, we review recent research concerning how the pursuit, creation, and maintenance of shared reality underlie important political phenomena. We address three general points. First, we discuss how the desire to share reality shapes the political attitudes that people adopt. Second, we outline how the existence of competing representations of reality can lead to prolonged political conflicts that are challenging to overcome. Third, we consider how and why shared reality contributes to social stasis and change...
November 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156322/the-development-and-importance-of-shared-reality-in-the-domains-of-opinion-morality-and-religion
#8
REVIEW
Larisa Heiphetz
The importance of shared reality emerges early in human development. Infants and young children notice when others share their beliefs, and information about shared beliefs influences their social judgments. This article reviews recent research on the importance of shared beliefs in three domains that have been widely investigated over the past several years-opinions, moral views, and religious beliefs. I argue that shared religious beliefs appear especially influential and suggest several reasons why this might be the case, including the perceived link between religion and morality as well as the strong role that religious beliefs play in personal identity...
November 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182951/the-aetiology-of-borderline-personality-disorder-bpd-contemporary-theories-and-putative-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Catherine Winsper
This article presents an overview of current knowledge regarding the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). It begins with a brief synopsis of early research and theory, and discusses how changing conceptualisations of BPD have impacted on our aetiological knowledge. Contemporary theories are described and presented within a developmental psychopathology framework. Deficient co-regulation and social communication in infancy are purported to underpin emotional dysregulation and social cognition deficits across development...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174920/editorial-overview-inequality-and-social-class-the-psychological-and-behavioral-consequences-of-inequality-and-social-class-a-theoretical-integration
#10
EDITORIAL
Hazel Rose Markus, Nicole M Stephens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174489/social-transmission-and-shared-reality-in-cultural-dynamics
#11
REVIEW
Yoshihisa Kashima, Boyka Bratanova, Kim Peters
Micro cultural dynamics are concerned with the mechanisms of transmission, retention, and modification of cultural information in social networks. When interacting individuals mutually recognize that they share psychological reactions to given cultural information, it may be grounded as an aspect of their shared reality under specifiable conditions. The interpretation of cultural information as socially verified shared reality provides a basis for further dissemination of the information and coordinated social action...
November 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172100/social-identities-and-shared-realities
#12
REVIEW
Michael A Hogg, Mark J Rinella
People are fundamentally motivated to establish a shared reality with others to validate their identity and experiences. Guided by social identity theory, we examine how social identity processes, such as self-categorization and depersonalization, create a shared identity and a sense of shared reality. Research demonstrates that internal states such as attitudes, feelings, and emotions are often shared among members of a group. Furthermore, research has shown that self-uncertainty motivates people to establish shared realities through group identification, often with highly entitative groups that are associated with a self-saturating reality that is shared absolutely...
November 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059578/issues-resolved-and-unresolved-in-pathological-narcissism
#13
REVIEW
Aidan Gc Wright, Elizabeth A Edershile
Narcissism is one of the oldest personality constructs, and yet debates about its definition and structure have been a topic of intense debate over the past decade. Recent independent reviews of the literature have proposed conceptually identical triarchic structural models of individual differences in pathological narcissism. In each model entitlement serves as the core of the construct, and its expression is moderated by basic personality/temperament to manifest in exhibitionism or vulnerability. However, the clinical observation that individuals high in pathological narcissism vacillate between grandiose and vulnerable states remains understudied and poorly understood...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059577/integrating-developmental-aspects-in-current-thinking-about-personality-pathology
#14
REVIEW
B De Clercq
The current review outlines some recent highlights from the developmental literature on personality pathology with regard to its conceptualization, development, assessment and clinical utility. Notable parallels with adult evidence are described, but also unique and age-specific issues are discussed. Finally, suggestions for future research that may stimulate a life-span and integrative perspective on personality pathology from childhood onwards are proposed.
October 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073530/age-related-outcomes-associated-with-personality-pathology-in-later-life
#15
REVIEW
Patrick J Cruitt, Thomas F Oltmanns
Methodological advances enable the latest research on personality pathology in later life to turn toward understanding the role personality pathology plays in age-related outcomes. Despite indications that some features of personality disorders fade in later life, a prevalence rate of approximately 10 percent has been established for adults aged 50 or older. Personality disorder features have been linked to suicidal ideation, poorer physical health, and cognitive decline in later life. Given these associations, the literature on treatment of personality disorders in this age group is surprisingly scant...
October 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111450/interpersonal-dysfunction-in-borderline-personality-a-decision-neuroscience-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Michael N Hallquist, Nathan T Hall, Alison M Schreiber, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by disadvantageous decisions that are often expressed in close relationships and associated with intense negative emotions. Although functional neuroimaging studies of BPD have described regions associated with altered social cognition and emotion processing, these correlates do not inform an understanding of how brain activity leads to maladaptive choices. Drawing on recent research, we argue that formal models of decision-making are crucial to elaborating theories of BPD that bridge psychological constructs, behavior, and neural systems...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985629/dsm-5-alternative-model-of-personality-disorder-testing-the-trait-perspective-captured-in-criterion-b
#17
REVIEW
Joshua D Miller, Chelsea Sleep, Donald R Lynam
We review the trait model (i.e., Criterion B) included as a central piece of the alternative model of personality disorder (PD) included in DSM-5. The pathological traits are organized into five domains with 25 facets that overlap substantially with basic personality models (e.g., five-factor model). These PD traits can be reliably assessed using a variety of measures; however, questions of poor discriminant validity have been raised. Concerns were raised that this model would result in the loss of clinically meaningful constructs (e...
September 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017093/personality-pathology-and-intentional-self-harm-cross-cutting-insights-from-categorical-and-dimensional-models
#18
REVIEW
Brianna J Turner, Hyejin M Jin, Michael D Anestis, Katherine L Dixon-Gordon, Kim L Gratz
This paper reviews current literature on the links between personality pathology and intentional self-harm, including nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. Specifically, this review highlights recent advances stemming from longitudinal, epidemiological, and health registry studies, as well as emerging research on pathological personality traits and intentional self-harm, and integrates current knowledge across dimensional and categorical frameworks to provide recommendations for clinical practice and future research...
September 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065382/dsm-models-of-personality-disorders
#19
REVIEW
John M Oldham
Personality disorders have been included in every edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic terms and revisions from the initial DSM to the current one (DSM-5) are described, and the continuing controversies regarding categorical versus dimensional models are reviewed, including a summary of the new Alternative Model for DSM-5 Personality Disorders, in Section III of DSM-5.
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065381/advances-in-transference-focused-psychotherapy-derived-from-the-study-of-borderline-personality-disorder-clinical-insights-with-a-focus-on-mechanism
#20
REVIEW
John F Clarkin, Nicole M Cain, Mark F Lenzenweger
The most current conceptualization of personality pathology emphasizes the assessment of the severity of selected domains of functioning involving lack of accurate perceptions of self and others that are common across the personality disorder categories. Advances in our understanding of personality pathology have stimulated further development of Transference-Focused Psychotherapy (TFP) for patients with borderline personality disorder, including treatment focus on both behavior and mental representations of self and others, the trajectory of change in TFP, and the extension of TFP principles to the entire domain of personality pathology...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
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