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Current Opinion in Psychology

William Hirst, Alin Coman
The shared reality of a community rests in part on the collective memories held by members of that community. Surprisingly, psychologists have only recently begun to study collective memories, an area of interest in the social sciences for several decades. The present paper adopts the perspective that remembering is often an act of communication. One consequence of communicative acts of remembering is that speaker and listeners can come to share the same memories, thereby providing a foundation on which to build a collective memory...
February 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Jessica A Sommerville, Elizabeth A Enright
Concerns about fairness are central to mature moral judgments. We review research regarding the origins of a sensitivity to distributive fairness, and how it relates to early sharing. Infants' sensitivity to fairness appears to be commensurate with that of school-age children: infants notice violations to fairness norms and evaluate individuals based on their fair or unfair behavior. However, it may differ in other ways: there is no evidence that infants punish unfair individuals. Sharing behavior plays a role in both the developmental emergence of, and subsequent individual differences in, infants' fairness concerns...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Michelle Dugas, Arie W Kruglanski
We draw on the theory of lay epistemics to understand how universal processes of knowledge formation drive the emergence, and determine the consequences of shared reality in groups. In particular, we highlight the role in these processes of the need for cognitive closure and credible epistemic authorities. Whereas the former construct explains why people seek a shared reality, the latter clarifies who the reality is shared with. In this connection, we review relevant bodies of empirical evidence that bear on the epistemic underpinnings of shared reality phenomena...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
John T Jost, Sander van der Linden, Costas Panagopoulos, Curtis D Hardin
Ideological belief systems arise from epistemic, existential, and relational motives to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord. According to system justification theory, however, some ideologies-such as those that are conservative, religious, and legitimizing of the status quo-are especially appealing to people whose epistemic, existential, and relational motives are chronically or temporarily heightened. In this article, we focus on relational motivation, describing evidence that conservatives are more likely than liberals to: prioritize values of conformity and tradition; possess a strong desire to share reality with like-minded others; perceive within-group consensus when making political and non-political judgments; be influenced by implicit relational cues and sources who are perceived as similar to them; and maintain homogenous social networks and favor an 'echo chamber' environment that is conducive to the spread of misinformation...
January 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Elizabeth C Pinel
I-sharing, or believing one has the same in-the-moment experience as another person, constitutes a specific way in which people may share reality. I-sharing research underscores its significance for interpersonal and intergroup outcomes. I-sharing fosters liking for people who differ from us in objective and sometimes important ways, and counteracts robust tendencies to favor ingroup members and dehumanize outgroup members. Research and theory indicate that existential isolation-feeling alone in one's experience-explains the potency of I-sharing, insofar as people with high levels of existential isolation are especially drawn to those with whom they have reason to believe they I-share...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Maya Rossignac-Milon, E Tory Higgins
We propose a framework outlining the development of shared reality in close relationships. In this framework, we attempt to integrate disparate close relationship phenomena under the conceptual umbrella of shared reality. We argue that jointly satisfying epistemic needs-making sense of the world together-plays an important but under-appreciated role in establishing and maintaining close relationships. Specifically, we propose that dyads progress through four cumulative phases in which new forms of shared reality emerge...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Alison Ledgerwood, Y Andre Wang
Humans routinely navigate a multitude of potential social influences, ranging from specific individual's opinions to general social norms and group values. Whereas specific social influences afford opportunities to achieve shared inner states with particular individuals, general social influences afford opportunities to achieve shared inner states with broader groups. We review recent theory and evidence examining how people tune into different kinds of social influence in the service of shared reality. We argue that the distance of an attitude object (e...
January 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Gerald Echterhoff, Bjarne Schmalbach
Communication is a key arena and means for shared-reality creation. Most studies explicitly devoted to shared reality have focused on the opening part of a conversation, that is, a speaker's initial message to an audience. The aspect of communication examined by this research is the evaluative adaptation (tuning) of the messages to the audience's attitude or judgment. The speaker's shared-reality creation is typically assessed by the extent to which the speaker's evaluative representation of the topic matches the audience-tuned view expressed in the message...
December 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Garriy Shteynberg
I review the recent literature on shared attention, instances in which one's personal perspective is also another's. As described by Shteynberg [6••], shared attention involves the activation of a psychological perspective that is personal and plural and irreducibly collective-a perspective in which the world is experienced from 'our attention'. When shared attention is perceived, information under shared attention receives deeper cognitive processing. By updating mutual knowledge, shared attention facilitates communication and, quite possibly, the creation of shared attitudes and beliefs...
December 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Lee Anna Clark, Hallie Nuzum, Eunyoe Ro
Impairment in personality functioning (briefly, personality impairment) is the core pathology in personality disorder (PD) and an essential indicator of PD-severity. It also is a difficult construct to define and assess. We argue that personality-impairment severity is a latent construct that can be modeled with four indicators: within-PD comorbidity, problematic course/prognosis of both PD and comorbid clinical syndromes, PD-associated psychosocial dysfunction, and features of DSM-5-II borderline PD (BPD)...
December 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
John M Levine
This paper reviews recent work on socially-shared cognition in small groups. Major attention is devoted to the impact of information and preference sharing on the achievement of group consensus and the consequences of consensus (and dissensus) for the group and its members. The literature is organized in terms of the task context in which sharing occurs (i.e., group problem-solving/decision-making tasks vs. group-productivity tasks). Topics covered include information sharing in hidden-profile situations, regulation of socio-cognitive conflict, shared mental models, transactive memory systems, and group discussions involving collective action...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Namkje Koudenburg
One of the central goals within communication is to establish whether people are on the same wavelength. Although such assessment can occur objectively, by exchanging and comparing viewpoints, people may also derive a sense of shared reality subjectively, through micro-dynamics in the form of conversation that inform them whether their views are shared. The present review outlines the role of these micro-dynamics in developing and regulating a shared reality. It focuses on three different contexts: intergroup communication, computer mediated communication and communication within intimate relationships...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Brad J Bushman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Carla Sharp, Kiana Wall
There is mounting evidence that personality pathology, in particular, borderline pathology is a valid and reliable construct in adolescence, with prevalence, phenomenology, stability and risk factors similar to that of adult borderline personality disorder. Scientific evidence also delineates a marked separation of course and outcome of adolescent borderline personality disorder from other disorders and supports the efficacy of disorder-specific treatment. The current article addresses recent findings in these areas which point to adolescence as a sensitive period for the development for personality pathology...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Annelise Pesch, Sarah Suárez, Melissa A Koenig
Much of early learning depends on others, and the transmission of testimony presents children with a range of opportunities to learn about and from other people. Much work has focused on children's ability to select or prefer particular sources of information based on various epistemic (e.g. accuracy, reliability, perceptual access, expertise) and moral (e.g. benevolence, group membership, honesty) characteristics. Understanding the mechanisms by which such selective preferences emerge has been couched primarily in frameworks that treat testimony as a source of inductive evidence, and that treat children's trust as an evidence-based inference...
November 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Lotte Veenstra, Brad J Bushman, Sander L Koole
Some people are more prone to aggression than others. These individual differences are associated with trait anger, a personality dimension that relates to the frequency, intensity, and duration with which people experience angry feelings. Trait anger is an important antecedent of state anger and aggression. People with high trait anger tend to perceive situations as hostile and are less capable of controlling their hostile thoughts and feelings. Moreover, people with high trait anger display heightened approach motivation in threatening situations...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Arlin James Benjamin, Brad J Bushman
In some societies, weapons are plentiful and highly visible. This review examines recent trends in research on the weapons effect, which is the finding that the mere presence of weapons can prime people to behave aggressively. The General Aggression Model provides a theoretical framework to explain why the weapons effect occurs. This model postulates that exposure to weapons increases aggressive thoughts and hostile appraisals, thus explaining why weapons facilitate aggressive behavior. Data from meta-analytic reviews are consistent with the General Aggression Model...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Delroy L Paulhus, Shelby R Curtis, Daniel N Jones
Aggression is often construed as a unitary trait fully captured by the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). Our review of the literature questions that assumption in several respects. Instead of a top-down approach, we argue for a bottom-up conception based on the Dark Tetrad of personality, that is, narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism. We highlight research showing that each member of the tetrad responds to different provocations. We conclude that the unitary trait conception of aggression has yielded more confusion than understanding...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Sietse F de Boer
Escalated interpersonal aggression and violence are common symptoms of multiple psychiatric disorders and represent a significant global health issue. Current therapeutic strategies are limited due to a lack of understanding about the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying the 'vicious' shift of normal adaptive aggression into violence, and the environmental triggers that cause it. Development of novel animal models that validly capture the salient features of human violent actions combined with newly emerging technologies for mapping, measuring, and manipulating neuronal activity in the brain significantly advance our understanding of the etiology, neuromolecular mechanisms, and potential therapeutic interventions of excessive aggressive behaviors in humans...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Johnie J Allen, Craig A Anderson, Brad J Bushman
The General Aggression Model (GAM) is a comprehensive, integrative, framework for understanding aggression. It considers the role of social, cognitive, personality, developmental, and biological factors on aggression. Proximate processes of GAM detail how person and situation factors influence cognitions, feelings, and arousal, which in turn affect appraisal and decision processes, which in turn influence aggressive or nonaggressive behavioral outcomes. Each cycle of the proximate processes serves as a learning trial that affects the development and accessibility of aggressive knowledge structures...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
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