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Frontiers in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725645/imaging-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-a-multimodality-update
#1
REVIEW
Thomas Semple, Mohammed R Akhtar, Catherine M Owens
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common form of infantile chronic lung disease and results in significant health-care expenditure. The roles of chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) are well documented but numerous recent advances in imaging technology have paved the way for newer imaging techniques including structural pulmonary assessment via lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional assessment via ventilation, and perfusion MRI and quantitative imaging techniques using both CT and MRI...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717637/phage-therapy-in-a-16-year-old-boy-with-netherton-syndrome
#2
Pikria Zhvania, Naomi Sulinger Hoyle, Lia Nadareishvili, Dea Nizharadze, Mzia Kutateladze
Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by a classical triad of clinical features, including congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, trichorrhexis invaginata, and atopic diathesis coupled with frequent bacterial infections (1). The genetic basis for the disease has been recently identified with mutations in gene SPINK5, which is involved in the regulation of formation of skin barriers. We report on a 16-year-old male with all the typical manifestations of NS, including atopic diathesis and ongoing serious staphylococcal infections and allergy to multiple antibiotics whose family sought help at the Eliava Phage Therapy Center when all other treatment options were failing...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713813/incidental-finding-of-an-aorto-right-atrial-fistula-in-a-patient-undergoing-repair-of-a-sinus-of-valsalva-aneurysm
#3
Byron R Rosero-Britton, Anthony Nguyen, Ibrahim Warsame, Muhammad Shabsigh, Luke Dong, James Wolfe, Bryan Whitson, Michael Essandoh
A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare malformation of the aortic root that can fistulize to another cardiac structure such as the right atrium. Although transthoracic echocardiography and computed tomography angiography have demonstrated utility for the diagnosis of a sinus of Valsalva-to-right atrial fistula, there are few cases where a misdiagnosis may occur. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography may be an essential imaging tool for the diagnosis and management of incidental findings such as a sinus of Valsalva-to-right atrial fistula during cardiac surgery and should be used routinely...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713812/the-biology-of-eosinophils-and-their-role-in-asthma
#4
REVIEW
Claire N McBrien, Andrew Menzies-Gow
This review will describe the structure and function of the eosinophil. The roles of several relevant cell surface molecules and receptors will be discussed. We will also explore the systemic and local processes triggering eosinophil differentiation, maturation, and migration to the lungs in asthma, as well as the cytokine-mediated pathways that result in eosinophil activation and degranulation, i.e., the release of multiple pro-inflammatory substances from eosinophil-specific granules, including cationic proteins, cytokines, chemokines growth factors, and enzymes...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702457/multiple-myeloma-cells-express-key-immunoregulatory-cytokines-and-modulate-the-monocyte-migratory-response
#5
Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Ana Flávia Fernandes Ribas Nardy, Erivan Schnaider Ramos-Junior, Luciana Conde, Jéssica Santos Lemos, Leonardo Marques da Fonseca, Juliana Echevarria Lima, Angelo Maiolino, Alexandre Morrot
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder that still remains incurable. The immune dysfunction of the host is a striking characteristic of MM, leading to tumor growth and reducing the survival rate of patients. Monocytes are precursors of conventional dendritic cells (DCs), a major player in the immunity mechanisms driving protective T cell responses against tumor. Herein, we report that human MM RPMI 8226 cell line shows a pronounced chemoattractant activity for monocytes and also expresses enhanced levels of the leukocyte chemotactic cytokines CXCL12, CCL5, MIP-1β, and CXCL10 in association with elevated levels of both key immunoregulatory interleukins such as IL-4 and IL-10...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702456/growing-pains-at-hospitals-opportunities-and-issues-of-service-expansion-in-maximum-care
#6
Juergen Hinkelmann, Joachim Paul Hasebrook, Thomas Volkert, Klaus Hahnenkamp
PURPOSE: Due to the demographic change morbidity raises the demand for medical hospital services as well as a need for medical specialization, while economic and human resources are diminishing. Unlike other industries hospitals do not have sufficient data and adequate models to relate growing demands and increasing performance to growth in staff capacity and to increase in staff competences. METHOD: Based on huge medical data sample covering the years from 2010 to 2014 with more than 150,000 operations of the Department for Anesthesiology at the University Hospital Muenster, Germany, comparisons are drawn between the development of medical services and the development of personnel capacity and expertise...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691008/fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-for-diagnosis-of-whipple-s-disease-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissue
#7
Peter Braubach, Torsten Lippmann, Didier Raoult, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Ioannis Anagnostopoulos, Steffen Zender, Florian Peter Länger, Hans-Heinrich Kreipe, Mark Philipp Kühnel, Danny Jonigk
Whipple's disease (WD) is a rare chronic systemic infection with a wide range of clinical symptoms, routinely diagnosed in biopsies from the small intestine and other tissues by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) diastase staining and immunohistological analysis with specific antibodies. The aim of our study was to improve the pathological diagnosis of WD. Therefore, we analyzed the potential of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for diagnosing WD, using a Tropheryma (T.) whipplei-specific probe. 19 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) duodenal biopsy specimens of 12 patients with treated (6/12) and untreated (6/12) WD were retrospectively examined using PAS diastase staining, immunohistochemistry, and FISH...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691007/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-the-current-status-and-unmet-needs-in-kidney-transplantation-in-southeast-asia
#8
REVIEW
Chitranon Chan-On, Minnie M Sarwal
To address the unmet needs in the face of a growing demand for end-stage renal failure management and kidney transplantation in Asia, we have conducted a critical analysis of published literature and national registries to evaluate clinical outcomes and the rates of organ donation in Southeast Asia and the challenges facing these regions with regards to regulation, choice of donor source, and funding. Based on the available data, suggestions are proposed for an advancement of rates of organ donation and access, with emphasis on improved regulation and public education...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691006/serum-vitamin-a-levels-may-affect-the-severity-of-ocular-graft-versus-host-disease
#9
Jiefeng Tong, Renjian Hu, Yingying Zhao, Yang Xu, Xiaoying Zhao, Xiuming Jin
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. In our cases, the diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency was suspected for GVHD patients. Serum vitamin A measurements were conducted to confirm clinical suspicions. Our study revealed significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin A in chronic liver GVHD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676850/current-therapeutic-approach-to-hypertrophic-scars
#10
REVIEW
Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Anamaria Jović, Lovorka Grgurević, Ivo Dumić-Čule, Krešimir Kostović, Romana Čeović, Branka Marinović
Abnormal scarring and its accompanying esthetic, functional, and psychological sequelae still pose significant challe nges. To date, there is no satisfactory prevention or treatment option for hypertrophic scars (HSs), which is mostly due to not completely comprehending the mechanisms underlying their formation. That is why the apprehension of regular and controlled physiological processes of scar formation is of utmost importance when facing hypertrophic scarring, its pathophysiology, prevention, and therapeutic approach...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674694/visualization-of-global-disease-burden-for-the-optimization-of-patient-management-and-treatment
#11
Winfried Schlee, Deborah A Hall, Niklas K Edvall, Berthold Langguth, Barbara Canlon, Christopher R Cederroth
BACKGROUND: The assessment and treatment of complex disorders is challenged by the multiple domains and instruments used to evaluate clinical outcome. With the large number of assessment tools typically used in complex disorders comes the challenge of obtaining an integrative view of disease status to further evaluate treatment outcome both at the individual level and at the group level. Radar plots appear as an attractive visual tool to display multivariate data on a two-dimensional graphical illustration...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674693/improving-the-prediction-of-total-surgical-procedure-time-using-linear-regression-modeling
#12
Eric R Edelman, Sander M J van Kuijk, Ankie E W Hamaekers, Marcel J M de Korte, Godefridus G van Merode, Wolfgang F F A Buhre
For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs), accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT) per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT) and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674692/polysaccharides-as-viscosupplementation-agents-structural-molecular-characteristics-but-not-rheology-appear-crucial-to-the-therapeutic-response
#13
REVIEW
Rita C Machado, Susana Capela, Francisco A C Rocha
INTRODUCTION: Most clinical studies and basic research document viscosupplementation (VS) in terms of effectiveness and safety, but only a few highlight its molecular mechanisms of action. Besides, there is generally focus on hyaluronic acid (HA) as being the most relevant polysaccharide to reach the clinical endpoints, attributing its effect mainly to its unique viscoelastic properties, related to a high-molecular weight and gel formulation. Usually, studies do not approach the possible biological pathways where HA may interfere, and there is a lack of reports on other biocompatible polysaccharides that could be of use in VS...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674691/influence-of-cigarette-smoking-on-rheumatoid-arthritis-risk-in-the-han-chinese-population
#14
Jian Yin, Dongyi He, Lei Jiang, Fang Cheng, Qian Guo, Shaolan Huang, Xiaofeng Zeng, Yi Liu, Matthew A Brown, Huji Xu
OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking has been shown in European populations to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility. This study aims to examine the association of smoking with RA in the Han Chinese population. METHODS: 718 Han Chinese RA patients and 404 healthy controls were studied. The associations of cigarette smoking (current, former or ever vs. never smokers, and pack-years of exposure) with RA, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) positive RA, IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) positive RA, and baseline radiographic erosions (modified van der Heijde-Sharp scores) were assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670579/assessment-of-circulating-protein-signatures-for-kidney-transplantation-in-pediatric-recipients
#15
Tara K Sigdel, Minnie M Sarwal
Identification and use of non-invasive biomarkers for kidney transplantation monitoring is an unmet need. A total of 121 biobanked sera collected from 111 unique kidney transplant (KT) patients (children and adolescent) and 10 age-matched healthy normal controls were used to profile serum proteins using semi-quantitative proteomics. The proteomics data were analyzed to identify panels of serum proteins that were specific to various transplant injuries, which included acute rejection (AR), BK virus nephropathy (BKVN), and chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN)...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670578/postgraduate-courses-in-pharmaceutical-medicine-in-italy
#16
REVIEW
Domenico Criscuolo
Italy has a significant tradition of excellence in the area of clinical trials (CTRs): important achievements in the clinical development of rifampicin and adriamycin, the two most famous drugs discovered in the research laboratories of two Italian pharmaceutical companies, paved the way to the establishment of a culture of clinical development, mainly in the areas of antimicrobials and oncology. Despite the fact that now the Italian market of pharmaceuticals is largely dominated by multinational companies with headquarters outside Italy, the contribution of Italian studies to the clinical development of new drugs is still significant...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664159/rediscovering-beta-2-microglobulin-as-a-biomarker-across-the-spectrum-of-kidney-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Christos P Argyropoulos, Shan Shan Chen, Yue-Harn Ng, Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Kamran Shaffi, Pooja P Singh, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
There is currently an unmet need for better biomarkers across the spectrum of renal diseases. In this paper, we revisit the role of beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) as a biomarker in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Prior to reviewing the numerous clinical studies in the area, we describe the basic biology of β2M, focusing in particular on its role in maintaining the serum albumin levels and reclaiming the albumin in tubular fluid through the actions of the neonatal Fc receptor...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664158/celastrol-a-spectrum-of-treatment-opportunities-in-chronic-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Rita Cascão, João E Fonseca, Luis F Moita
The identification of new bioactive compounds derived from medicinal plants with significant therapeutic properties has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Such is the case of the Tripterygium wilfordii (TW), an herb used in Chinese medicine. Clinical trials performed so far using its root extracts have shown impressive therapeutic properties but also revealed substantial gastrointestinal side effects. The most promising bioactive compound obtained from TW is celastrol. During the last decade, an increasing number of studies were published highlighting the medicinal usefulness of celastrol in diverse clinical areas...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660191/the-therapeutic-role-of-interleukin-1-inhibition-in-idiopathic-recurrent-pericarditis-current-evidence-and-future-challenges
#19
George Lazaros, Katerina Antonatou, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos
Recurrent pericarditis is a common complication of acute pericarditis (15-30%) for which, in most cases, no underlying etiology is found [idiopathic recurrent pericarditis (IRP)]. IRP is currently viewed as an autoinflammatory disease with characteristic recurrent episodes of sterile inflammation. According to the most recent Guidelines, the initial treatment regimen consists of a combination of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with colchicine followed by the addition of corticosteroids in resistant or intolerant cases...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660190/commentary-renal-function-estimation-and-cockcroft-gault-formulas-for-predicting-cardiovascular-mortality-in-population-based-cardiovascular-risk-heart-failure-and-post-myocardial-infarction-cohorts-the-heart-omics-in-ageing-homage-and-the-high-risk-myocardial
#20
COMMENT
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