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Frontiers in Medicine

Emmanuel Amabebe, Steven Reynolds, Victoria Stern, Graham Stafford, Martyn Paley, Dilly O C Anumba
Changes in vaginal microbiota that is associated with preterm birth (PTB) leave specific metabolite fingerprints that can be detected in the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) using metabolomics techniques. In this study, we characterize and validate the CVF metabolite profile of pregnant women presenting with symptoms of threatened preterm labor (PTL) by both (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and enzyme-based spectrophotometry. We also determine their predictive capacity for PTB, singly, and in combination, with current clinical screening tools - cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (FFN) and ultrasound cervical length (CL)...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Sulev Kõks, Maris Keermann, Ene Reimann, Ele Prans, Kristi Abram, Helgi Silm, Gea Kõks, Kulli Kingo
BACKGROUND: Several studies have been published that investigated potential links between transcriptome changes and psoriasis using microarrays and RNA-seq technologies, but no previous study has analyzed expression profile of alternatively spliced transcripts in psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: Identification of potential alternatively spliced RNA isoforms with disease-specific expression profile. METHODS: Using our published RNA sequencing data from lesional psoriatic (LP), non-lesional psoriatic (NLP), and normal control skin (C), we analyzed the differential expression of RNA splicing variants...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Eleftheria Chaini, Nikolaos D Chainis, Anastasios Ioannidis, Maria Magana, Chryssoula Nikolaou, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Melina-Vassiliki Liakata, Panagiotis Katopodis, Leonidas Papastavrou, George P Tegos, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou
Lactobacilli are human commensals found in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. Although generally conceived as non-pathogenic microorganisms, the existence of several reports implicating them in certain severe pathological entities renders this species as opportunistic pathogens. The case of a 58-year-old woman with mixed Lactobacillus infection is described. The patient was admitted in an outpatient clinic with community acquired pneumonia, and on the third day of hospitalization she presented rapid pneumonia deterioration...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Dina Tsukrov, Alicia McFarren, Alfred Morgenstern, Frank Bruchertseifer, Eugene Dolce, Miroslaw K Gorny, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Joan W Berman, Ellie Schoenbaum, Barry S Zingman, Arturo Casadevall, Ekaterina Dadachova
Eliminating virally infected cells is an essential component of any HIV eradication strategy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT), a clinically established method for killing cells using radiolabeled antibodies, was recently applied to target HIV-1 gp41 antigen expressed on the surface of infected cells. Since gp41 expression by infected cells is likely downregulated in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), we evaluated the ability of RIT to kill ART-treated infected cells using both in vitro models and lymphocytes isolated from HIV-infected subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Adam Ogna, Julie Nardi, Helene Prigent, Maria-Antonia Quera Salva, Cendrine Chaffaut, Laure Lamothe, Sylvie Chevret, Djillali Annane, David Orlikowski, Frederic Lofaso
BACKGROUND: Restrictive respiratory failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neuromuscular diseases (NMD). Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is used to treat hypoventilation, and its efficiency is mostly assessed by daytime blood gases or nocturnal oxygen saturation monitoring (SpO2). Non-invasive transcutaneous measure of CO2 (TcCO2) allows to directly assess nocturnal hypercapnia and to detect residual hypoventilation with a higher sensitivity than SpO2. We aimed to compare the prognostic value of nocturnal SpO2 and TcCO2 in ventilated adult NMD patients...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Shruti Erramilli, Praveen Mannam, Constantine A Manthous
Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Catherine Qiu Hua Chan, Lian Leng Low, Kheng Hock Lee
Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Virginia Leiro-Fernández, Diana Valverde, Rafael Vázquez-Gallardo, Lucía Constenla-Caramés, Víctor Del Campo-Pérez, Alberto Fernández-Villar
AIMS: To evaluate the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQB1*0201 and DQA1*0102 in the risk of antituberculosis drug (ATD)-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) in a cohort of tuberculosis patients of Caucasian origin from Spain. METHODS: Matched case-control study including active tuberculosis (TB) patients from Spain (Caucasian) treated with first-line ATD (Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Pyrazinamide). Presence or absence of HLA class II DQB1*0201 and DQA1*0102 alleles were compared between cases and controls...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Melanie E Cusso, Kenneth J Donald, Tien K Khoo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms "Parkinson's," "Parkinson," and "Parkinsonism" in conjunction with "exercise," "physical activity," "physiotherapy," "occupational therapy," "physical therapy," "rehabilitation," "dance," and "martial arts...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Ram Venkatesh Anantha, Christopher Ryan Shaler, Courtney Erin Meilleur, Jeremy Parfitt, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A short-interval, two-stage approach termed associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) increases the number of patients with extensive malignant disease of the liver and a small future liver remnant (FLR) that can undergo liver resection. While this approach results in accelerated liver hypertrophy of the FLR, it remains unknown whether this phenomenon is restricted to liver parenchymal cells. In the current study, we evaluated whether ALPPS alters the immunological composition of the deportalized lobe (DL) and the FLR...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Rebecca Fischler, Anne-Pascale Meert, Jean-Paul Sculier, Thierry Berghmans
INTRODUCTION: Acute renal failure (ARF) has a poor prognosis in patients with cancer requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Our aim is finding prognostic factors for hospital mortality in patients with cancer with ARF requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). METHODS: In this retrospective study, all patients with cancer with ARF treated with continuous venovenous filtration (CVVHDF) in the ICU of the Institut Jules Bordet, between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2012, were included...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Norihiro Yogo, Gregory Gahm, Bryan C Knepper, William J Burman, Philip S Mehler, Timothy C Jenkins
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and management of skin infections in nursing homes has not been adequately described. We reviewed the characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of skin infections among residents of nursing homes to identify opportunities to improve antibiotic use. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving 12 nursing homes in the Denver metropolitan area. For residents at participating nursing homes diagnosed with a skin infection between July 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, clinical and demographic information was collected through manual chart review...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Francesca Cainelli, Bruno Nardo, Dmitriy Viderman, Bartholomew Dzudzor, Kenneth Tachi, Sandro Vento
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Sergio Daniel Bergese, Erika G Puente, Maria A Antor, Adolfo L Viloria, Vedat Yildiz, Nicolas Alexander Kumar, Alberto A Uribe
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is among the most common distressing complications of surgery under anesthesia. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients who undergo craniotomy have incidences of nausea and vomiting as high as 50-70%. The main purpose of this pilot study is to assess the incidence of PONV by using two different prophylactic regimens in subjects undergoing a craniotomy. Thus, we designed this study to assess the efficacy and safety of triple therapy with the combination of dexamethasone, promethazine, and aprepitant versus ondansetron to reduce the incidence of PONV in patients undergoing craniotomy...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Jun Zhang, Jagteshwar Grewal, Linda C Chan, Antje Petersen, Mechthild M Gross
BACKGROUND: Rates of cesarean section increase worldwide, and the components of this increase are partially unknown. A strong role is prescribed to dystocia, and at the same time, the diagnosis of dystocia is highly subjective. Previous studies indicated that risk of cesarean is higher when women are admitted to the hospital early in the labor. METHODS: We examined data on 1,202 nulliparous women with singleton, vertex pregnancies and spontaneous labor onset. We selected three groups based on cervical dilatation at admission: early (0...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Tomoo Kishaba
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), particularly in young adults. Vital signs are usually normal except for temperature. On physical examination, general appearance is normal compared with that of typical pneumonia such as pneumococcal pneumonia patients. Mycoplasma sometimes causes ear infections such as otitis media. It is important to distinguish between typical pneumonia and atypical pneumonia such as mycoplasma pneumonia because having the right diagnosis allows for the use of the correct antibiotic to treat CAP while preventing development of drug-resistant bacteria and also decreasing medical cost...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Steven J Schiff, Julius Kiwanuka, Gina Riggio, Lan Nguyen, Kevin Mu, Emily Sproul, Joel Bazira, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Dickson Tumusiime, Eunice Nyesigire, Nkangi Lwanga, Kaleb T Bogale, Vivek Kapur, James R Broach, Sarah U Morton, Benjamin C Warf, Mary Poss
Neonatal sepsis (NS) is responsible for over 1 million yearly deaths worldwide. In the developing world, NS is often treated without an identified microbial pathogen. Amplicon sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene can be used to identify organisms that are difficult to detect by routine microbiological methods. However, contaminating bacteria are ubiquitous in both hospital settings and research reagents and must be accounted for to make effective use of these data. In this study, we sequenced the bacterial 16S rRNA gene obtained from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 80 neonates presenting with NS to the Mbarara Regional Hospital in Uganda...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Célia von Siebenthal, John-David Aubert, Periklis Mitsakis, Patrick Yerly, John O Prior, Laurent Pierre Nicod
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a rare disease, whose underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It is characterized by pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and vessels wall thickening, mainly intimal and medial layers. Several molecular pathways have been studied, but their respective roles remain unknown. Cardiac repercussions of PH are hypertrophy, dilation, and progressive right ventricular dysfunction. Multiple echocardiographic parameters are being used, in order to assess anatomy and cardiac function, but there are no guidelines edited about their usefulness...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
Satoshi Kimura, Nicoleta Stoicea, Byron Rafael Rosero Britton, Muhammad Shabsigh, Aly Branstiter, David L Stahl
INTRODUCTION: Research into the prevention of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has resulted in the development of a number of lung protective strategies, which have become commonplace in the treatment of critically ill patients. An increasing number of studies have applied lung protective ventilation in the operating room to otherwise healthy individuals. We review the history of lung protective strategies in patients with acute respiratory failure and explore their use in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
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