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Frontiers in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896268/challenges-for-relative-effectiveness-assessment-and-early-access-of-cancer-immunotherapies-in-europe
#1
Mira Pavlovic
Clinical endpoints relevant for relative effectiveness assessment (REA) reflect how patients feel, function, or survive. Outcome data requested by health technology assessment (HTA) bodies in Europe to support reimbursement of an anticancer drug are based on final endpoints coming from completed comparative phase 3 trials; overall survival improvement is the preferred criterion for the demonstration of the patient benefit in this field. Recent arrival of new treatments that target identified functional genetic mutations ("targeted therapies") or PD-1/PD-L1,2 axis ("immunotherapies") and their combinations have profoundly changed treatment strategies in cancers as they considerably improve patient survival, but also raise new challenges in REA and decision-making process in Europe as compared to the REA of "classical" chemotherapies...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896267/editorial-organ-fibrosis-triggers-pathways-and-cellular-plasticity
#2
EDITORIAL
Henricus A M Mutsaers, Peter Olinga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891503/tp53-gene-status-affects-survival-in-advanced-mycosis-fungoides
#3
Gitte Wooler, Linea Melchior, Elisabeth Ralfkiaer, Lise Mette Rahbek Gjerdrum, Robert Gniadecki
TP53 is frequently mutated in different types of neoplasms including leukemia and lymphomas. Mutations of TP53 have also been reported in mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common type of cutaneous lymphoma. However, little is known about the frequency, spectrum of mutations, and their prognostic significance in MF. In this study, we have optimized the protocol for Sanger sequencing of TP53 using DNA extracted from archival paraffin-embedded biopsies. Of 19 samples from patients with stage IIB MF or higher, 31% harbored mutations in TP53...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867935/processing-of-factor-xii-during-inflammatory-reactions
#4
REVIEW
Bernard Nico Jukema, Steven de Maat, Coen Maas
The contact system was originally identified as an obsolete part of the coagulation system, but it has been repeatedly implicated in inflammatory states, such as infection, as well as in allergic- and chronic inflammatory disease. Under these conditions, there is surprisingly little evidence that factor XII (FXII) acts as a coagulation factor, and its activity appears to be mainly directed toward activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. The contact system factors interact with pathogens as well as cells of the (innate) immune system on several levels...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843912/are-intensive-cares-worthwhile-for-breast-cancer-patients-the-experience-of-an-oncological-icu
#5
Virginie Destrebecq, Ameye Lieveke, Thierry Berghmans, Marianne Paesmans, Jean-Paul Sculier, Anne-Pascale Meert
PURPOSE: One among seven women will present with breast cancer for which major therapeutic advances led to a significant increase in survival and cure rates. During or after cancer treatment, severe complications may occur requiring admission in intensive care unit (ICU). Intensivists could be reluctant for accepting cancer patients in the ICU, and there are very few data about causes of admission and prognosis of patients with breast cancer admitted in the ICU for an acute complication...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833911/concurrent-resolution-of-chronic-diarrhea-likely-due-to-crohn-s-disease-and-infection-with-mycobacterium-avium-paratuberculosis
#6
Shoor V Singh, J Todd Kuenstner, William C Davis, Prabhat Agarwal, Naveen Kumar, Devendra Singh, Saurabh Gupta, Kundan K Chaubey, Ashok Kumar, Jyoti Misri, Sujatha Jayaraman, Jagdip S Sohal, Kuldeep Dhama
Examination of samples of stool from a 61-year-old male patient, presenting with the clinical symptoms of Crohn's disease (CD), revealed massive shedding of acid fast bacilli with the morphology of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle. MAP was cultured from the stool. Biotyping of the bacterium isolated from cultures of stool demonstrated, it was the Indian Bison biotype of MAP, the dominant biotype infecting livestock and humans in India. Based on this finding and because the patient was unresponsive to standard therapy used in India to treat patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, the patient was placed on a regimen of multi-antibiotic therapy, currently used to treat tuberculosis and CD...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790617/prediction-of-the-carcinogenic-potential-of-human-pharmaceuticals-using-repeated-dose-toxicity-data-and-their-pharmacological-properties
#7
REVIEW
Jan Willem van der Laan, Wenny H W Buitenhuis, Laura Wagenaar, Ans E M F Soffers, Eugene P van Someren, Cyrille A M Krul, Ruud A Woutersen
In an exercise designed to reduce animal use, we analyzed the results of rat subchronic toxicity studies from 289 pharmaceutical compounds with the aim to predict the tumor outcome of carcinogenicity studies in this species. The results were obtained from the assessment reports available at the Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands for 289 pharmaceutical compounds that had been shown to be non-genotoxic. One hundred forty-three of the 239 compounds not inducing putative preneoplastic lesions in the subchronic study did not induce tumors in the carcinogenicity study [true negatives (TNs)], whereas 96 compounds were categorized as false negatives (FNs) because tumors were observed in the carcinogenicity study...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790616/a-comprehensive-comparison-of-the-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-racecadotril-with-other-treatments-of-acute-diarrhea-in-adults
#8
REVIEW
Wolfgang Fischbach, Viola Andresen, Marion Eberlin, Tobias Mueck, Peter Layer
Racecadotril is a guideline-recommended treatment to alleviate symptoms of acute diarrhea. A systematic review of randomized studies was performed comparing efficacy and safety of treatment with racecadotril to that with placebo or active treatments in adults. In five double-blind studies, racecadotril and placebo had comparable tolerability, but racecadotril was more effective. This was consistent across multiple efficacy parameters including duration of diarrhea, number of diarrheic stools, abdominal pain, and meteorism; it was also consistent across countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785453/distributed-cognition-and-process-management-enabling-individualized-translational-research-the-nih-undiagnosed-diseases-program-experience
#9
Amanda E Links, David Draper, Elizabeth Lee, Jessica Guzman, Zaheer Valivullah, Valerie Maduro, Vlad Lebedev, Maxim Didenko, Garrick Tomlin, Michael Brudno, Marta Girdea, Sergiu Dumitriu, Melissa A Haendel, Christopher J Mungall, Damian Smedley, Harry Hochheiser, Andrew M Arnold, Bert Coessens, Steven Verhoeven, William Bone, David Adams, Cornelius F Boerkoel, William A Gahl, Murat Sincan
The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP) applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similar complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team, therefore, built the NIH UDP integrated collaboration system (UDPICS) to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777928/cervicovaginal-fluid-acetate-a-metabolite-marker-of-preterm-birth-in-symptomatic-pregnant-women
#10
Emmanuel Amabebe, Steven Reynolds, Victoria Stern, Graham Stafford, Martyn Paley, Dilly O C Anumba
Changes in vaginal microbiota that is associated with preterm birth (PTB) leave specific metabolite fingerprints that can be detected in the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) using metabolomics techniques. In this study, we characterize and validate the CVF metabolite profile of pregnant women presenting with symptoms of threatened preterm labor (PTL) by both (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and enzyme-based spectrophotometry. We also determine their predictive capacity for PTB, singly, and in combination, with current clinical screening tools - cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (FFN) and ultrasound cervical length (CL)...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774448/psoriasis-specific-rna-isoforms-identified-by-rna-seq-analysis-of-173-446-transcripts
#11
Sulev Kõks, Maris Keermann, Ene Reimann, Ele Prans, Kristi Abram, Helgi Silm, Gea Kõks, Kulli Kingo
BACKGROUND: Several studies have been published that investigated potential links between transcriptome changes and psoriasis using microarrays and RNA-seq technologies, but no previous study has analyzed expression profile of alternatively spliced transcripts in psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: Identification of potential alternatively spliced RNA isoforms with disease-specific expression profile. METHODS: Using our published RNA sequencing data from lesional psoriatic (LP), non-lesional psoriatic (NLP), and normal control skin (C), we analyzed the differential expression of RNA splicing variants...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734016/pneumonia-and-pleural-empyema-due-to-a-mixed-lactobacillus-spp-infection-as-a-possible-early-esophageal-carcinoma-signature
#12
Eleftheria Chaini, Nikolaos D Chainis, Anastasios Ioannidis, Maria Magana, Chryssoula Nikolaou, Joseph Papaparaskevas, Melina-Vassiliki Liakata, Panagiotis Katopodis, Leonidas Papastavrou, George P Tegos, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou
Lactobacilli are human commensals found in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. Although generally conceived as non-pathogenic microorganisms, the existence of several reports implicating them in certain severe pathological entities renders this species as opportunistic pathogens. The case of a 58-year-old woman with mixed Lactobacillus infection is described. The patient was admitted in an outpatient clinic with community acquired pneumonia, and on the third day of hospitalization she presented rapid pneumonia deterioration...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725930/combination-of-antiretroviral-drugs-and-radioimmunotherapy-specifically-kills-infected-cells-from-hiv-infected-individuals
#13
Dina Tsukrov, Alicia McFarren, Alfred Morgenstern, Frank Bruchertseifer, Eugene Dolce, Miroslaw K Gorny, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Joan W Berman, Ellie Schoenbaum, Barry S Zingman, Arturo Casadevall, Ekaterina Dadachova
Eliminating virally infected cells is an essential component of any HIV eradication strategy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT), a clinically established method for killing cells using radiolabeled antibodies, was recently applied to target HIV-1 gp41 antigen expressed on the surface of infected cells. Since gp41 expression by infected cells is likely downregulated in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), we evaluated the ability of RIT to kill ART-treated infected cells using both in vitro models and lymphocytes isolated from HIV-infected subjects...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679799/prognostic-value-of-initial-assessment-of-residual-hypoventilation-using-nocturnal-capnography-in-mechanically-ventilated-neuromuscular-patients-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#14
Adam Ogna, Julie Nardi, Helene Prigent, Maria-Antonia Quera Salva, Cendrine Chaffaut, Laure Lamothe, Sylvie Chevret, Djillali Annane, David Orlikowski, Frederic Lofaso
BACKGROUND: Restrictive respiratory failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neuromuscular diseases (NMD). Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is used to treat hypoventilation, and its efficiency is mostly assessed by daytime blood gases or nocturnal oxygen saturation monitoring (SpO2). Non-invasive transcutaneous measure of CO2 (TcCO2) allows to directly assess nocturnal hypercapnia and to detect residual hypoventilation with a higher sensitivity than SpO2. We aimed to compare the prognostic value of nocturnal SpO2 and TcCO2 in ventilated adult NMD patients...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630988/influenza-sirs-with-minimal-pneumonitis
#15
Shruti Erramilli, Praveen Mannam, Constantine A Manthous
Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a known complication of severe influenza pneumonia, it has been reported very rarely in patients with minimal parenchymal lung disease. We here report a case of severe SIRS, anasarca, and marked vascular phenomena with minimal or no pneumonitis. This case highlights that viruses, including influenza, may cause vascular dysregulation causing SIRS, even without substantial visceral organ involvement.
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602354/oral-vitamin-b12-replacement-for-the-treatment-of-pernicious-anemia
#16
REVIEW
Catherine Qiu Hua Chan, Lian Leng Low, Kheng Hock Lee
Many patients with pernicious anemia are treated with lifelong intramuscular (IM) vitamin B12 replacement. As early as the 1950s, there were studies suggesting that oral vitamin B12 replacement may provide adequate absorption. Nevertheless, oral vitamin B12 replacement in patients with pernicious anemia remains uncommon in clinical practice. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 for the treatment of pernicious anemia, the recommended dosage, and the required frequency of laboratory test and clinical monitoring...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597945/helicobacter-pylori-and-gastric-cancer
#17
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597944/hla-dq-b1-0201-and-a1-0102-alleles-are-not-responsible-for-antituberculosis-drug-induced-hepatotoxicity-risk-in-spanish-population
#18
Virginia Leiro-Fernández, Diana Valverde, Rafael Vázquez-Gallardo, Lucía Constenla-Caramés, Víctor Del Campo-Pérez, Alberto Fernández-Villar
AIMS: To evaluate the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQB1*0201 and DQA1*0102 in the risk of antituberculosis drug (ATD)-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) in a cohort of tuberculosis patients of Caucasian origin from Spain. METHODS: Matched case-control study including active tuberculosis (TB) patients from Spain (Caucasian) treated with first-line ATD (Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Pyrazinamide). Presence or absence of HLA class II DQB1*0201 and DQA1*0102 alleles were compared between cases and controls...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583249/the-impact-of-physical-activity-on-non-motor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Melanie E Cusso, Kenneth J Donald, Tien K Khoo
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of June 2016 from PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Ovid, SportsDiscuss, and Scopus using the MeSH search terms "Parkinson's," "Parkinson," and "Parkinsonism" in conjunction with "exercise," "physical activity," "physiotherapy," "occupational therapy," "physical therapy," "rehabilitation," "dance," and "martial arts...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556025/the-future-liver-remnant-in-patients-undergoing-the-associating-liver-partition-with-portal-vein-ligation-for-staged-hepatectomy-alpps-maintains-the-immunological-components-of-a-healthy-organ
#20
Ram Venkatesh Anantha, Christopher Ryan Shaler, Courtney Erin Meilleur, Jeremy Parfitt, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A short-interval, two-stage approach termed associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) increases the number of patients with extensive malignant disease of the liver and a small future liver remnant (FLR) that can undergo liver resection. While this approach results in accelerated liver hypertrophy of the FLR, it remains unknown whether this phenomenon is restricted to liver parenchymal cells. In the current study, we evaluated whether ALPPS alters the immunological composition of the deportalized lobe (DL) and the FLR...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
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