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Frontiers in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780807/a-critical-review-of-the-bacterial-baptism-hypothesis-and-the-impact-of-cesarean-delivery-on-the-infant-microbiome
#1
REVIEW
Lisa F Stinson, Matthew S Payne, Jeffrey A Keelan
Numerous studies suggest that infants delivered by cesarean section are at a greater risk of non-communicable diseases than their vaginal counterparts. In particular, epidemiological studies have linked Cesarean delivery with increased rates of asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders, and obesity. Mode of delivery has also been associated with differences in the infant microbiome. It has been suggested that these differences are attributable to the "bacterial baptism" of vaginal birth, which is bypassed in cesarean deliveries, and that the abnormal establishment of the early-life microbiome is the mediator of later-life adverse outcomes observed in cesarean delivered infants...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780806/myeloperoxidase-negatively-regulates-neutrophil-endothelial-cell-interactions-by-impairing-%C3%AE-m%C3%AE-2-integrin-function-in-sterile-inflammation
#2
Alan Tseng, Kyungho Kim, Jing Li, Jaehyung Cho
Interactions of neutrophils with endothelial cells (ECs) and platelets contribute to tissue damage and vascular occlusion under sterile inflammatory conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the cell-cell interactions remain poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), produced from NADPH oxidase 2 play a critical role in platelet-neutrophil interactions by regulating the function of neutrophil αMβ2 integrin during sterile inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780805/stabilization-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha-augments-the-therapeutic-capacity-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-experimental-pneumonia
#3
Naveen Gupta, Victor Nizet
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic effects in experimental models of lung injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a transcriptional regulator that influences cellular metabolism, energetics, and survival under hypoxic conditions. The current study investigated the effects of stabilizing HIF-1α on the therapeutic capacity of MSCs in an experimental mouse model of bacterial pneumonia. HIF-1α stabilization was achieved by the small molecule prolyl-hydroxlase inhibitor, AKB-4924 (Aerpio Therapeutics, Inc...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780804/active-ageing-in-europe-adding-healthy-life-to-years
#4
Giuseppe Liotta, Helena Canhao, Fabian Cenko, Rita Cutini, Ercole Vellone, Maddalena Illario, Przemyslaw Kardas, Andrea Poscia, Rute Dinis Sousa, Leonardo Palombi, Maria Cristina Marazzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780803/role-of-subclinical-gut-inflammation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-spondyloarthritis
#5
REVIEW
Aroldo Rizzo, Giuliana Guggino, Angelo Ferrante, Francesco Ciccia
Subclinical gut inflammation occurring in patients affected by spondyloarthritis (SpA) is correlated with the severity of spine inflammation. Several evidences indicate that dysbiosis occurs in SpA, and that may modulate intestinal permeability and intestinal immune responses. The presence of intestinal dysbiosis is accompanied in SpA patients with the presence of zonulin-dependent alterations of gut-epithelial and gut-vascular barriers. The leakage of epithelial and endothelial surface layers is followed by the translocation of bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, in the systemic circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774213/a-rapid-growth-independent-antibiotic-resistance-detection-test-by-sybr-green-propidium-iodide-viability-assay
#6
Jie Feng, Rebecca Yee, Shuo Zhang, Lili Tian, Wanliang Shi, Wen-Hong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have caused huge concerns and demand innovative approaches for their prompt detection. Current antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST) rely on the growth of the organisms which takes 1-2 days for fast-growing organisms and several weeks for slow growing organisms. Here, we show for the first time the utility of the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI) viability assay for rapidly identifying antibiotic resistance in less than 30 min for major, antibiotic-resistant, fast-growing bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Acinetobacter baumannii for bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents and in 16 h for extremely rapid detection of drug resistance for isoniazid and pyrazinamide in slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774212/alkaline-peptone-water-based-enrichment-method-for-mcr-3-from-acute-diarrheic-outpatient-gut-samples
#7
Qiaoling Sun, Yanyan Hu, Hongwei Zhou, Lingbin Shu, Hanyu Wang, Zixian Huang, Rong Zhang
A third plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-3 , is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. from animals and humans. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of mcr in the gut flora of Chinese outpatients, 152 stool specimens were randomly collected from outpatients in our hospital from May to June, 2017. Stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water or Luria-Bertani (LB) broth were screened for mcr-1, mcr-2 , and mcr-3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765959/outcome-of-5-year-treatment-of-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-with-intravitreal-anti-vegf-using-treat-and-extend-regimen
#8
Polona Jaki Mekjavic, Polona Zaletel Benda
Objective: The aim of this study is twofold. First , to evaluate the long-term outcome of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment in a clinical setting using the "treat-and-extend regimen" (TER) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Second , to determine the proportion of patients treated with anti-VEGF with good visual acuity (VA), i.e., vision sufficient to maintain a high level of independence. Design: We conducted a single center retrospective review of patients with treatment-naive nAMD who were treated with anti-VEGF...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765958/current-perspectives-on-opisthorchiasis-control-and-cholangiocarcinoma-detection-in-southeast-asia
#9
REVIEW
Narong Khuntikeo, Attapol Titapun, Watcharin Loilome, Puangrat Yongvanit, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Nittaya Chamadol, Thidarat Boonmars, Teerachai Nethanomsak, Ross H Andrews, Trevor N Petney, Paiboon Sithithaworn
Similar to bile duct cancer or cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in the western world, opisthorchiasis-associated CCA in Southeast Asia is an aggressive cancer with high mortality rates. It is known to cause a significant health burden in the opisthorchiasis region in Thailand and possibly throughout mainland Southeast. To reduce this health burden, a comprehensive prevention and control program for opisthorchiasis, as well as CCA, is required. In this review, our aim is to provide a brief update of the current situation regarding the natural history of opisthorchiasis and health burden of CCA in Southeast Asia...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765957/genetic-insights-into-frailty-association-of-9p21-23-locus-with-frailty
#10
Sanish Sathyan, Nir Barzilai, Gil Atzmon, Sofiya Milman, Emmeline Ayers, Joe Verghese
Frailty is a complex aging phenotype associated with increased vulnerability to disability and death. Understanding the biological antecedents of frailty may provide clues to healthy aging. The genome-wide association study hotspot, 9p21-23 region, is a risk locus for a number of age-related complex disorders associated with frailty. Hence, we conducted an association study to examine whether variations in 9p21-23 locus plays a role in the pathogenesis of frailty in 637 community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the LonGenity study...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761105/prevalence-of-proteinuria-and-albuminuria-in-an-obese-population-and-associated-risk-factors
#11
Jordan L Rosenstock, Max Pommier, Guillaume Stoffels, Satyam Patel, Michael F Michelis
Obesity has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for kidney disease and both proteinuria and microalbuminuria have been associated with obesity. The actual prevalence of microalbuminuria and proteinuria in obese patients in the United States (US) has not been clearly described in the literature. Furthermore, obesity is associated with risk factors of kidney disease, such as diabetes and hypertension (HTN), and the prevalence of proteinuria and albuminuria excluding these risk factors is uncertain. In this study, we collected urine albumin/creatinine and urine protein/creatinine ratios on obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and proteinuria in obese patients with and without associated diabetes and HTN...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761104/platelets-in-immune-response-to-virus-and-immunopathology-of-viral-infections
#12
REVIEW
Eugenio D Hottz, Fernando A Bozza, Patrícia T Bozza
Platelets are essential effector cells in hemostasis. Aside from their role in coagulation, platelets are now recognized as major inflammatory cells with key roles in the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Activated platelets have key thromboinflammatory functions linking coagulation to immune responses in various infections, including in response to virus. Recent studies have revealed that platelets exhibit several pattern recognition receptors (PRR) including those from the toll-like receptor, NOD-like receptor, and C-type lectin receptor family and are first-line sentinels in detecting and responding to pathogens in the vasculature...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761103/considering-cell-therapy-product-good-manufacturing-practice-status
#13
Patrick Bedford, Juliana Jy, Lucas Collins, Steven Keizer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761102/reactivation-of-a-vaccine-escape-hepatitis-b-virus-mutant-in-a-cambodian-patient-during-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-therapy
#14
Dahlene N Fusco, Lilia Ganova-Raeva, Yury Khudyakov, Lili Punkova, Aisha Mohamed, Scarlett Se Yun Cheon, Prapti Koirala, Karin L Andersson, Gonzague Jourdain, Camille Sureau, Raymond T Chung, Georg Lauer
A 76-year-old Cambodian man co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) 6c-1 presented for care. HBV DNA was intermittently detectable despite anti-HBs levels being above the protective threshold. During treatment for HCV, HBV DNA levels increased. Sequencing revealed multiple mutations including vaccine escape mutation and mutations predicted to enhance fitness. This case represents exacerbation of an HBV vaccine escape mutant during a direct-acting antiviral therapy.
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761101/fibromyalgia-syndrome-a-case-report-on-controlled-remission-of-symptoms-by-a-dietary-strategy
#15
Silvia Maria Lattanzio, Francesca Imbesi
A 34-year-old woman suffered from significant chronic pain, depression, non-restorative sleep, chronic fatigue, severe morning stiffness, leg cramps, irritable bowel syndrome, hypersensitivity to cold, concentration difficulties, and forgetfulness. Blood tests were negative for rheumatic disorders. The patient was diagnosed with Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Due to the lack of effectiveness of pharmacological therapies in FMS, she approached a novel metabolic proposal for the symptomatic remission. Its core idea is supporting serotonin synthesis by allowing a proper absorption of tryptophan assumed with food, while avoiding, or at least minimizing the presence of interfering non-absorbed molecules, such as fructose and sorbitol...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755983/commentary-theileria-parasites-secrete-a-prolyl-isomerase-to-maintain-host-leukocyte-transformation
#16
COMMENT
Ruben Fernandes, Stephanie Ferreira, Mónica C Botelho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755982/clinical-genetics-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#17
REVIEW
Chad A Newton, Philip L Molyneaux, Justin M Oldham
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a heterogeneous group of diffuse parenchymal lung processes with overlapping clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features. Among the most common and deadly ILDs are idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). As the name implies, the cause of IPF remains elusive, but a variety of genetic and infectious risk factors have been identified. CHP results from chronic inhalation of an organic antigen, usually of avian or mold origin, and may occur in patients with a genetic predisposition...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755981/diagnostic-test-accuracy-of-serum-anti-pla2r-autoantibodies-and-glomerular-pla2r-antigen-for-diagnosing-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-an-updated-meta-analysis
#18
Weiying Li, Yuliang Zhao, Ping Fu
Background: M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is known as a major antigen on podocytes, which is involved with the pathogenesis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). Many studies have shown that serum anti-PLA2R autoantibodies (sPLA2R) are prevalent in patients with iMN but are rarely detected in secondary membranous nephropathy (SMN) or other glomerulonephritis. The anti-PLA2R is considered as a promising serum biomarker in iMN but reports about its diagnostic value are variable and inconsistent...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740582/anti-high-density-lipoprotein-antibodies-and-antioxidant-dysfunction-in-immune-driven-diseases
#19
Javier Rodríguez-Carrio, Lourdes Mozo, Patricia López, Elena Nikiphorou, Ana Suárez
Introduction: Impaired high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and antioxidant functionality of HDL, mainly attributed to a decreased paraoxonase-1 (PON1) functionality, have been described in autoimmune conditions. In this setting, a role for humoral response in cardiovascular disease is emerging. This study evaluates the role of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against HDL and disease-related autoantibodies on HDL dysfunction in immune-driven diseases. Methods: Serum IgG anti-HDL antibodies, PON1 activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were quantified in 381 patients with different immune-driven diseases [18 mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), 35 primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), 38 systemic sclerosis (SSc), 33 ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), 60 diabetes mellitus 1, 29 autoimmune B12 deficiency/pernicious anemia, 29 primary biliary cirrhosis, 46 IBD/Crohn, 54 IBD/UC, and 39 celiac disease (CD)] and 138 healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740581/effects-of-laser-radiation-on-mitochondria-and-mitochondrial-proteins-subjected-to-nitric-oxide
#20
REVIEW
Anatoly N Osipov, Tatiana V Machneva, Evgeny A Buravlev, Yury A Vladimirov
The biological roles of heme and nonheme nitrosyl complexes in physiological and pathophysiological conditions as metabolic key players are considered in this study. Two main physiological functions of protein nitrosyl complexes are discussed-(1) a depot and potential source of free nitric oxide (NO) and (2) a controller of crucial metabolic processes. The first function is realized through the photolysis of nitrosyl complexes (of hemoglobin, cytochrome c , or mitochondrial iron-sulfur proteins). This reaction produces free NO and subsequent events are due to the NO physiological functions...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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