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Frontiers in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326939/the-amide-local-anesthetic-lidocaine-in-cancer-surgery-potential-antimetastatic-effects-and-preservation-of-immune-cell-function-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Thiên-Nga Chamaraux-Tran, Tobias Piegeler
Surgical removal of the primary tumor in solid cancer is an essential component of the treatment. However, the perioperative period can paradoxically lead to an increased risk of cancer recurrence. A bimodal dynamics for early-stage breast cancer recurrence suggests a tumor dormancy-based model with a mastectomy-driven acceleration of the metastatic process and a crucial role of the immunosuppressive state during the perioperative period. Recent evidence suggests that anesthesia could also influence the progress of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326938/key-triggers-of-osteoclast-related-diseases-and-available-strategies-for-targeted-therapies-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Haidi Bi, Xing Chen, Song Gao, Xiaolong Yu, Jun Xiao, Bin Zhang, Xuqiang Liu, Min Dai
Osteoclasts, the only cells with bone resorption functions in vivo, maintain the balance of bone metabolism by cooperating with osteoblasts, which are responsible for bone formation. Excessive activity of osteoclasts causes many diseases such as osteoporosis, periprosthetic osteolysis, bone tumors, and Paget's disease. In contrast, osteopetrosis results from osteoclast deficiency. Available strategies for combating over-activated osteoclasts and the subsequently induced diseases can be categorized into three approaches: facilitating osteoclast apoptosis, inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, and impairing bone resorption...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326937/removal-of-the-c-terminal-domains-of-adamts13-by-activated-coagulation-factor-xi-induces-platelet-adhesion-on-endothelial-cells-under-flow-conditions
#3
Kathleen S Garland, Stéphanie E Reitsma, Toshiaki Shirai, Jevgenia Zilberman-Rudenko, Erik I Tucker, David Gailani, András Gruber, Owen J T McCarty, Cristina Puy
Platelet recruitment to sites of vascular injury is mediated by von Willebrand factor (VWF). The shear-induced unraveling of ultra-large VWF multimers causes the formation of a "stringlike" conformation, which rapidly recruits platelets from the bloodstream. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) regulates this process by cleaving VWF to prevent aberrant platelet adhesion; it is unclear whether the activity of ADAMTS13 itself is regulated. The serine proteases α-thrombin and plasmin have been shown to cleave ADAMTS13...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326936/characterisation-of-physical-frailty-and-associated-physical-and-functional-impairments-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Chang Yuan Soh, Qi Gao, Xinyi Gwee, Audrey S L Ling, Wee Shiong Lim, Tih Shih Lee, Philip L K Yap, Keng Bee Yap, Tze Pin Ng
Objective: To characterize the physical frailty phenotype and its associated physical and functional impairments in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Method: Participants with MCI (N = 119), normal low cognition (NLC, N = 138), and normal high cognition (NHC, N = 1,681) in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Studies (SLAS-2) were compared on the prevalence of physical frailty, low lean body mass, weakness, slow gait, exhaustion and low physical activity, and POMA balance and gait impairment and fall risk...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326935/integrating-patient-perspectives-into-personalized-medicine-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Catharina C Moor, Peter Heukels, Mirjam Kool, Marlies S Wijsenbeek
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and ultimately fatal disease which has a major impact on patients' quality of life (QOL). Except for lung transplantation, there is no curative treatment option. Fortunately, two disease-modifying drugs that slow down disease decline were recently approved. Though this is a major step forward, these drugs do not halt or reverse the disease, nor convincingly improve health-related QOL. In daily practice, disease behavior and response to therapy greatly vary among patients...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326934/exploring-the-link-between-uric-acid-and-osteoarthritis
#6
REVIEW
Cheryl Ann Ma, Ying Ying Leung
Both gout and osteoarthritis (OA) are common forms of arthritis that inflict a huge burden to an aging population with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Clinicians have long observed the link between these two conditions. In this review, we summarize the evidence from epidemiologic and immunological studies that described the possible relationship between the two conditions. The recent new understanding on monosodium uric acid crystal-induced inflammation has given insight into probable shared pathogenesis pathways for both conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326933/perioperative-management-of-a-patient-with-cold-urticaria
#7
Priscilla Agbenyefia, Lance A Shilliam, Nicoleta Stoicea, Andrew Roth, Kenneth R Moran
Cold urticaria consists of an allergic immune response to cold temperatures with symptoms ranging from pruritic wheals to life-threatening angioedema, bronchospasm, or anaphylactic shock. Adequate planning to maintain normothermia perioperatively is vital due to impaired hypothalamic thermoregulation and overall depression of sympathetic outflow during deep sedation and general anesthesia. This case report describes the successful perioperative management of a 45-year-old female with a history of cold urticaria undergoing a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease and discusses how to appropriately optimize the care of these patients...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312946/clinical-and-biological-markers-in-hypereosinophilic-syndromes
#8
Paneez Khoury, Michelle Makiya, Amy D Klion
Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) are rare, heterogeneous syndromes characterized by markedly elevated eosinophil counts in the blood and/or tissue and evidence of eosinophil-associated pathology. Although parasitic infections, drug hypersensitivity, and other disorders of defined etiology can present as HES (associated HES), treatment is directed at the underlying cause rather than the eosinophilia itself. A number of additional subtypes of HES have been described, based on clinical and laboratory features...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312945/karate-and-dance-training-to-improve-balance-and-stabilize-mood-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-feasibility-study
#9
Katharina Dahmen-Zimmer, Petra Jansen
The present pilot study investigated the effect of karate (according to the rules of the German Karate Federation) and dance training compared to an inactive control group in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). 65 patients were recruited. At the end, 37 patients completed the post-test. From those 37 patients, 16 had chosen the karate training, 9 the dance training and 12 the waiting control group. Before and after the whole training phase cognitive performance, emotional well-being and balance were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312944/selfie-aging-index-an-index-for-the-self-assessment-of-healthy-and-active-aging
#10
Judite Gonçalves, Maria Isabel Gomes, Miguel Fonseca, Tomás Teodoro, Pedro Pita Barros, Maria-Amália Botelho
Introduction: Governments across Europe want to promote healthy and active aging, as a matter of both public health and economic sustainability. Designing policies focused on the most vulnerable groups requires information at the individual level. However, a measure of healthy and active aging at the individual level does not yet exist. Objectives: This paper develops the Selfie Aging Index (SAI), an individual-level index of healthy and active aging. The SAI is developed thinking about a tool that would allow each person to take a selfie of her aging status...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312943/therapeutic-application-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-challenges-and-risks
#11
REVIEW
Ulrich Martin
Stem-cell-based therapies are considered to be promising and innovative but complex approaches. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) combine the advantages of adult stem cells with the hitherto unique characteristics of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Major progress has already been achieved with regard to reprogramming technology, but also regarding targeted genome editing and scalable expansion and differentiation of iPSCs and ESCs, in some cases yielding highly enriched preparations of well-defined cell lineages at clinically required dimensions...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312942/the-clinical-symptom-and-quality-of-life-characterization-of-a-well-defined-group-of-patients-with-posttreatment-lyme-disease-syndrome
#12
Alison W Rebman, Kathleen T Bechtold, Ting Yang, Erica A Mihm, Mark J Soloski, Cheryl B Novak, John N Aucott
Background: The increased incidence and geographic expansion of Lyme disease has made it the most common vector-borne infection in North America. Posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) represents a subset of patients who remain ill following standard antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease. The spectrum of symptoms and their impact on quality of life remain largely unexplored among patients with well-documented PTLDS. Objective: To characterize a case series of patients with well-documented PTLDS compared to a sample of healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312941/pathological-impact-of-the-interaction-of-no-and-co-with-mitochondria-in-critical-care-diseases
#13
REVIEW
J Catharina Duvigneau, Andrey V Kozlov
The outcome of patients with critical care diseases (CCD) such as sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, or trauma is often associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In turn, mitochondrial dysfunction is frequently induced upon interaction with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), two gaseous messengers formed in the body by NO synthase (NOS) and heme oxygenase (HO), respectively. Both, NOS and HO are upregulated in the majority of CCD. A multitude of factors that are associated with the pathology of CCD exert a potential to interfere with mitochondrial function or the effects of the gaseous messengers...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312940/prevention-of-transfusion-transmitted-infections-dilemmas
#14
Hans L Zaaijer
To make blood components and blood products safe, many safety measures are applied to avoid transfusion-transmitted infections. Defining a balanced safety policy is not easy, we face several dilemmas: How safe should blood be? Should we opt for maximal or optimal safety? Are perceived threats real and relevant? Should blood be clean while food, air, or mosquitoes are not? Is vCJD still a threat? It seems wise to discuss these issues more in the open.
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276709/tumor-heterogeneity-in-breast-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Gulisa Turashvili, Edi Brogi
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and differs greatly among different patients (intertumor heterogeneity) and even within each individual tumor (intratumor heterogeneity). Clinical and morphologic intertumor heterogeneity is reflected by staging systems and histopathologic classification of breast cancer. Heterogeneity in the expression of established prognostic and predictive biomarkers, hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncoprotein is the basis for targeted treatment. Molecular classifications are indicators of genetic tumor heterogeneity, which is probed with multigene assays and can lead to improved stratification into low- and high-risk groups for personalized therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276708/association-between-sleep-patterns-and-health-in-families-with-exceptional-longevity
#16
Lavy Klein, Tina Gao, Nir Barzilai, Sofiya Milman
Background: Sleep patterns such as longer sleep duration or napping are associated with poor health outcomes. Although centenarians and their offspring demonstrate a delayed onset of age-related diseases, it is not known whether they have healthier sleep patterns or are protected against the negative effects of sleep disturbances. Methods: Data on sleep patterns and health history were collected from Ashkenazi Jewish subjects of the Longevity Genes Project using standardized questionnaires...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270407/innovative-approaches-to-increase-access-to-medicines-in-developing-countries
#17
REVIEW
Hilde Stevens, Isabelle Huys
Access to essential medicines is problematic for one third of all persons worldwide. The price of many medicines (i.e., drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics) is unaffordable to the majority of the population in need, especially in least-developed countries, but also increasingly in middle-income countries. Several innovative approaches, based on partnerships, intellectual property, and pricing, are used to stimulate innovation, promote healthcare delivery, and reduce global health disparities. No single approach suffices, and therefore stakeholders need to further engage in partnerships promoting knowledge and technology transfer in assuring essential medicines to be manufactured, authorized, and distributed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in an effort of making them available at affordable and acceptable conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259972/-a-critical-appraisal-of-classification-of-hypereosinophilic-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Jean Emmanuel Kahn, Matthieu Groh, Guillaume Lefèvre
Hypereosinophilia (HE) is a heterogeneous condition that can be reported in various (namely inflammatory, allergic, infectious, or neoplastic) diseases with distinct pathophysiological pathways. In 1975, Chusid et al. published the first diagnostic criteria of hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES). Over the years, as both basic and clinical knowledge improved, several updates have been suggested, with a focus on better distinguishing isolated or asymptomatic eosinophilia from diseases with specific eosinophil-related organ damage...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255710/pathogen-inactivation-of-cellular-blood-products-an-additional-safety-layer-in-transfusion-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Axel Seltsam
In line with current microbial risk reduction efforts, pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies for blood components promise to reduce the residual risk of known and emerging infectious agents. The implementation of PI of labile blood components is slowly but steadily increasing. This review discusses the relevance of PI for the field of transfusion medicine and describes the available and emerging PI technologies that can be used to treat cellular blood products such as platelet and red blood cell units. In collaboration with the French medical device manufacturer Macopharma, the German Red Cross Blood Services developed a new UVC light-based PI method for platelet units, which is currently being investigated in clinical trials...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255709/disease-severity-activity-impact-and-control-and-how-to-assess-them-in-patients-with-hereditary-angioedema
#20
REVIEW
Anette Bygum, Paula Busse, Teresa Caballero, Marcus Maurer
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a group of rare, potentially life-threatening, and frequently debilitating diseases characterized by recurrent, and often with an unpredictable onset, of swelling attacks. HAE is heterogeneous, with considerable differences between its subtypes, patients, and even within the same patient over time. During the past few years, several new on demand and prophylactic therapies have become available for HAE, allowing for individualized treatment. Therefore, to optimize HAE management, it is important to determine in all patients, the severity of their attacks, their disease activity, its therapeutic control, and its impact on their quality of life...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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