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Frontiers in Medicine

Ronald K Lattanze, Medhat M Osman, Kelley A Ryan, Sarah Frye, David W Townsend
Background: Infiltrations of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) injections affect positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) image quality and quantification. A device using scintillation sensors (Lucerno Dynamics, Cary, NC) provides dynamic measurements acquired during FDG uptake to identify and characterize radioactivity near the injection site prior to patient imaging. Our aim was to compare sensor measurements against dynamic PET image acquisition, our proposed reference in assessing injection quality during the uptake period...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Joy V Nolte Fong, Linda W Moore
Many physiological properties of the renal system influence nutrient metabolism, elimination, and homeostasis. Kidney failure poses significant challenges to maintaining adequate nutrition, most of which transplantation ameliorates. Comprehensive recommendations for managing nutritional derangements for patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease exist; however, there are only sparse guidelines for post-transplant malnutrition and adverse outcomes. Not only are guidelines limited, but little is known about dietary trends of post-kidney transplant recipients...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Nadine Artelt, Florian Siegerist, Alina M Ritter, Olaf Grisk, Rabea Schlüter, Karlhans Endlich, Nicole Endlich
Since the size selectivity of the filtration barrier and kidney function are highly dependent on podocyte foot process morphology, visualization of foot processes is important. However, the size of foot processes is below the optical resolution of light microscopy. Therefore, electron microcopy has been indispensable to detect changes in foot process morphology so far, but it is a sophisticated and time-consuming technique. Recently, our group has shown that 3D structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM), a super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique, can visualize individual foot processes in human biopsies...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Tingting He, Yuan Liu, Yueyue Jia, Haiyan Wang, Xiao Yang, Gang Lu, Hongbin Liu, Yuhua Shi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in reproductive-aged women, affecting 6-8% of women and characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that different microRNAs (miRNAs) expressions may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Therefore, the goal of this study is to compare the expression levels of miR-141 and miR-200c in granulosa cells isolated from PCOS patients and also evaluate their predictive values for pregnancy complications...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Meta Roestenberg, Ingrid M C Kamerling, Saco J de Visser
Vaccines can be extremely cost-effective public health measures. Unfortunately the research and development (R&D) of novel vaccines is suffering from rising costs and declining success rates. Because many vaccines target low- and middle income markets (LMIC), output needs to be maintained at a constrained budget. In addition, scientific neglect and political uncertainty around reimbursement decisions make it an unattractive arena for private investors. The vaccine development pipeline for LMIC thus is in need for a different, sustainable, and cost-effective development model...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Cornelia Heleen Van Ommen, Cindy E Neunert, Meera B Chitlur
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is becoming increasingly utilized to manage neonates with cardiac and respiratory failure. The procedure involves extensive anticoagulation in a sick neonate with underlying disease pathology. In addition, the immature hemostatic system in the neonate adds to the complexity of titrating the necessary anticoagulation. This places the infant at greater risk for life threatening hemorrhage and thrombosis. Managing anticoagulation in these infants is extremely challenging and needs the expertise of a physician with a thorough knowledge of the intricacies of developmental hemostasis and limitations of the current laboratory techniques available to manage anticoagulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Koralia E Paschalaki, Anna M Randi
The term "Endothelial progenitor cell" (EPC) has been used to describe multiple cell populations that express endothelial surface makers and promote vascularisation. However, the only population that has all the characteristics of a real "EPC" is the Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC). ECFC possess clonal proliferative potential, display endothelial and not myeloid cell surface markers, and exhibit pronounced postnatal vascularisation ability in vivo . ECFC have been used to investigate endothelial molecular dysfunction in several diseases, as they give access to endothelial cells from patients in a non-invasive way...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Alessia Alunno, Francesco Carubbi, Simon Stones, Roberto Gerli, Roberto Giacomelli, Xenofon Baraliakos
The term spondyloarthritis (SpA) encompasses a broad clinical spectrum characterized by chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the sacroiliac joints, the spine but also peripheral joints and tendons and being additionally associated with the involvement of organs, such as bowel, eye and skin (1). Musculoskeletal pain is a key symptom in SpA. However, although low back pain and/or joint pain are characteristic for SpA, undifferentiated pain at different enthesial sites may also be a concomitant or even the first clinical presentation in some patients (2)...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Faekah Gohar, Aisha Gohar, Georg Hülskamp, Otfried Debus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Khalaf Kridin, Reuven Bergman
The specificity and the predictive values of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in real-life settings is yet to be firmly established. The natural history of patients with false-positive results has not been sufficiently elucidated. The primary aim of the current study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of IIF analysis on monkey esophagus in pemphigus, utilizing a large cohort arising from the real-life experience of a tertiary referral center. The secondary endpoint was to determine the clinical outcomes of patients with false-positive results...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Ana Carolina de Bragança, Daniele Canale, Janaína Garcia Gonçalves, Maria Heloisa Massola Shimizu, Antonio Carlos Seguro, Rildo Aparecido Volpini
The pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) involves a very complex interaction between hemodynamic and inflammatory processes, leading to glomerular/vascular sclerosis, and fibrosis formation with subsequent evolution to end-stage of renal disease. Despite efforts to minimize the progression of CKD, its incidence and prevalence continue to increase. Besides cardiovascular diseases and infections, several studies demonstrate that vitamin D status could be considered as a non-traditional risk factor for the progression of CKD...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Rosanne Janssens, Eline van Overbeeke, Lotte Verswijvel, Lissa Meeusen, Carolien Coenegrachts, Kim Pauwels, Marc Dooms, Hilde Stevens, Steven Simoens, Isabelle Huys
Background: Patient involvement is often acknowledged as an important aspect of the lifecycle of medicines. Although different typologies exist, patient involvement has been described as the involvement of patients in decision-making regarding medicines. In view of the diversity of stakeholders and types of decisions in which patients might be involved, an in-depth understanding of these stakeholders' views toward involving patients in the lifecycle of medicines is essential. Methods: Interviews and surveys were used to gain insights into the perspectives and experiences of Belgian healthcare stakeholders...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Elisa Gomez Torrijos, Rosario Gonzalez-Mendiola, Manuela Alvarado, Robledo Avila, Alicia Prieto-Garcia, Teresa Valbuena, Jesus Borja, Sonsoles Infante, M Pilar Lopez, Eva Marchan, Patricia Prieto, Mar Moro, Ana Rosado, Vanessa Saiz, M Luisa Somoza, Olga Uriel, Angelina Vazquez, Pilar Mur, Paloma Poza-Guedes, Joan Bartra
Background: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was first described in the 1990s, showing an increasing incidence and prevalence since then, being the leading cause of food impaction and the major cause of dysphagia. Probably, in a few years, EoE may no longer be considered a rare disease. Methods: This article discusses new aspects of the pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of EoE according to the last published guidelines. Results: The epidemiological studies indicate a multifactorial origin for EoE, where environmental and genetic factors take part...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Hannes Wurzer, Christian Hauptmann
Chronic tonal tinnitus is often accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss which is associated with altered tuning curves and bandwidth of alternating masking. In this feasibility study the so-called hearing threshold adapted coordinated reset (HTA-CR) neuromodulation was investigated. This method is based on CR neuromodulation, which has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for chronic tonal tinnitus. It applies four stimulation tones that are determined by the patient's individual tinnitus frequency and hearing impairment...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Kendra D Ray, Eva Götell
Background: Studies have shown music therapy can improve depression symptoms in dementia and the use of music activities show promise to have positive impacts on wellbeing. However, few studies show the influence of a music intervention led by certified nursing assistants (CNAs) trained by music therapists to address depression symptoms and wellbeing in individuals with dementia. Methods: Credentialed music therapists (1) administered 2-weeks of music therapy, (2) a 3-days training to CNAs, (3) followed by 2-weeks of music activities, singing and music-with-movement, led by CNAs for 62 nursing home residents with moderate dementia, (4) then measured depression symptoms using the Cornell Scale for Depression...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Kay Warner, Wolf See, David Haerry, Ingrid Klingmann, Amy Hunter, Matthew May
The importance and merits of greater patient involvement in medicines research and development (R&D) are commonly acknowledged and are thought to offer benefits for all involved parties. It helps to improve discovery, development, and evaluation of new effective medicines, based on the collaborative identification and understanding of unmet needs, research priorities, optimization of clinical study design, outcome measures, and endpoint development. It can result in increased transparency, trust and mutual respect between patients and other stakeholders...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Ken Coppieters, Matthias von Herrath
Optimized insulin therapies, increased use of continuous glucose monitoring/insulin pumps and most importantly the arrival of reliable closed loop systems will undeniably lead to a reduction in the burden of complications that arise from type 1 diabetes. However, insulin therapy will only ever treat the symptoms of the disease and will not alter the underlying pathology. The aim of immunotherapy treatment is to modulate the immune system, a strategy that has been successful in autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Tina M Morrison, Pras Pathmanathan, Mariam Adwan, Edward Margerrison
Protecting and promoting public health is the mission of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), which regulates medical devices marketed in the U.S., envisions itself as the world's leader in medical device innovation and regulatory science-the development of new methods, standards, and approaches to assess the safety, efficacy, quality, and performance of medical devices. Traditionally, bench testing, animal studies, and clinical trials have been the main sources of evidence for getting medical devices on the market in the U...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
David López-Sanz, Isabel Suárez-Méndez, Raquel Bernabé, Natalia Pasquín, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Fernando Maestú, Stefan Walter
Background: Neuroimaging techniques are a cornerstone for diagnosing and investigating cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly. In frailty research, the physical as opposed to the cognitive domain of the aging process, neuroimaging studies are less common. Here we systematically review the use of neuroimaging techniques in frailty research. Methods: We searched PUBMED for any publication reporting the association between neuroimaging markers and frailty, following Fried's original definition, as well as its determining phenotypes: gait speed, grip strength, fatigue and recent weight loss in the non-diseased population older than 65 years...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Paul Boré, Renaud Descourt, Luc Ollivier, Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Ronan Abgral
Schwannoma is a rare source of false-positive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in Positron-emission tomography (PET/CT), inducing potential errors in staging of several solid cancer, with implications for patient management. This clinical case reports the situation of a patient undergoing an 18F-FDG-PET/CT for initial staging of an ovarian adenocarcinoma. We found a high paramediastinal hypermetabolic mass suspicious of remote extension or secondary synchronous primitive tumor. The biopsy finally reveals a histopathology of Schwannoma, allowing the patient to be eligible for a surgical procedure of her ovarian adenocarcinoma by rejecting the hypothesis of malignancy...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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