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Frontiers in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124055/regulatory-and-scientific-advancements-in-gene-therapy-state-of-the-art-of-clinical-applications-and-of-the-supporting-european-regulatory-framework
#1
REVIEW
Marta Carvalho, Bruno Sepodes, Ana Paula Martins
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) have a massive potential to address existing unmet medical needs. Specifically, gene therapy medicinal products (GTMPs) may potentially provide cure for several genetic diseases. In Europe, the ATMP regulation was fully implemented in 2009 and, at this point, the Committee for Advanced Therapies was created as a dedicated group of specialists to evaluate medicinal products requiring specific expertise in this area. To date, there are three authorized GTMPs, and the first one was approved in 2012...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119100/motoric-cognitive-risk-syndrome-predictor-of-dementia-and-age-related-negative-outcomes
#2
REVIEW
Jagadish K Chhetri, Piu Chan, Bruno Vellas, Matteo Cesari
Cognitive disorders represent a leading cause of disability in the aging population, of which dementia has the highest global burden. Early signs of dementia such as slow gait and memory complaints are known to present well before the overt manifestation of the disease. Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome characterized by the simultaneous presence of gait disturbances and memory complaints in older subjects has been proposed to study the close interactions between the physical and cognitive domains as well as a possible approach to identify individuals at increased risk of dementia...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109949/the-impact-of-frailty-on-the-risk-of-conversion-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-evidences-from-a-5-year-observational-study
#3
Alessandro Trebbastoni, Marco Canevelli, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Letizia Imbriano, Livia Podda, Lidia Rendace, Alessandra Campanelli, Valentina Celano, Giuseppe Bruno, Carlo de Lena
The frailty construct has increasingly been adopted in the field of cognitive disorders. The aim of the present study was to measure frailty in a cohort of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and to explore whether frailty measures may consent to predict the risk of conversion to dementia. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of outpatients with amnesic MCI (aMCI) consecutively recruited at our Department, and followed-up for 5 years. Individual frailty status was measured by means of a frailty index (FI) consisting of 39 deficits (including signs, symptoms, diagnoses, and disabilities)...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109948/hemodynamic-and-pathologic-characterization-of-the-task-1-mouse-does-not-demonstrate-pulmonary-hypertension
#4
Melanie G Kitagawa, Julia O Reynolds, Xander H T Wehrens, Robert M Bryan, Lavannya M Pandit
Introduction: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) carries significant associated morbidity and mortality and the underlying molecular mechanisms of PH are not well understood. Loss-of-function mutations in TASK-1 potassium channels are associated with PH in humans. Although TASK-1 has been considered in the development of PH for over a decade, characterization of TASK-1 knockout mice has been limited to in vitro studies or in vivo studies in room air at isolated time points. The purpose of this study was twofold...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109947/acute-exacerbation-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#5
REVIEW
Gabriela Leuschner, Jürgen Behr
Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) has been defined as an acute, clinically significant deterioration that develops within less than 1 month without obvious clinical cause like fluid overload, left heart failure, or pulmonary embolism. Pathophysiologically, damage of the alveoli is the predominant feature of AE-IPF which manifests histopathologically as diffuse alveolar damage and radiologically as diffuse, bilateral ground-glass opacification on high-resolution computed tomography...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104866/cognitive-frailty-in-china-results-from-china-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-study
#6
Lina Ma, Li Zhang, Yaxin Zhang, Yun Li, Zhe Tang, Piu Chan
Objective: Cognitive frailty (CF) refers to the co-occurrence of physical frailty (PF) and cognitive impairment in persons without dementia. We aimed to explore the prevalence and associated factors of CF in China. Method: Data were obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study. A total of 5,708 community-dwelling older adults without dementia were included. CF was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination for the evaluation of cognitive status and the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment-Frailty Index for the evaluation of PF...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094039/host-directed-therapeutic-strategies-for-tuberculosis
#7
REVIEW
Afsal Kolloli, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Currently, the standard treatment for TB involves multiple antibiotics administered for at least 6 months. Although multiple antibiotics therapy is necessary to prevent the development of drug resistance, the prolonged duration of treatment, combined with toxicity of drugs, contributes to patient non-compliance that can leads to the development of drug-resistant Mtb (MDR and XDR) strains...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090212/metabolism-of-citrate-and-other-carboxylic-acids-in-erythrocytes-as-a-function-of-oxygen-saturation-and-refrigerated-storage
#8
Travis Nemkov, Kaiqi Sun, Julie A Reisz, Tatsuro Yoshida, Andrew Dunham, Edward Y Wen, Alexander Q Wen, Rob C Roach, Kirk C Hansen, Yang Xia, Angelo D'Alessandro
State-of-the-art proteomics technologies have recently helped to elucidate the unanticipated complexity of red blood cell metabolism. One recent example is citrate metabolism, which is catalyzed by cytosolic isoforms of Krebs cycle enzymes that are present and active in mature erythrocytes and was determined using quantitative metabolic flux analysis. In previous studies, we reported significant increases in glycolytic fluxes in red blood cells exposed to hypoxia in vitro or in vivo, an observation relevant to transfusion medicine owing to the potential benefits associated with hypoxic storage of packed red blood cells...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085824/autoimmune-hypothyroidism-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-chronic-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis
#9
Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Justin M Oldham, Aliya N Husain, Lena Chen, Scully Hsu, Steven Montner, Jonathan H Chung, Rekha Vij, Imre Noth, Mary E Strek
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is a fibrotic parenchymal lung disease that occurs when inhalation of environmental antigens leads to immune dysregulation. Autoimmune features have recently been identified as potentially important among patients with CHP. However, the relationship between hypothyroidism (HT) and CHP is unknown. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and impact of HT among patients with CHP. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, case-control analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085823/editorial-biomarkers-in-ckd
#10
EDITORIAL
Magali Araujo, Sonia Q Doi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082228/a-pregnant-woman-with-spina-bifida-need-for-a-multidisciplinary-labor-plan
#11
Mary Angela O'Neal
Women with spina bifida present both obstetrical and anesthesia challenges. They are more likely to require a caesarian delivery and traditionally neuraxial anesthesia has been avoided due to concerns of worsening neurologic disability. The case of a pregnant woman with a history of a surgically corrected lipomeningocele and tethered cord is presented to illustrate the need for a comprehensive labor plan.
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075628/selective-essential-oils-from-spice-or-culinary-herbs-have-high-activity-against-stationary-phase-and-biofilm-borrelia-burgdorferi
#12
Jie Feng, Shuo Zhang, Wanliang Shi, Nevena Zubcevik, Judith Miklossy, Ying Zhang
Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075627/characteristics-of-donor-specific-antibodies-associated-with-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-lung-transplantation
#13
Antoine Roux, Ines Bendib Le Lan, Sonia Holifanjaniaina, Kimberly A Thomas, Clément Picard, Dominique Grenet, Sandra De Miranda, Benoit Douvry, Laurence Beaumont-Azuar, Edouard Sage, Jérôme Devaquet, Elise Cuquemelle, Morgan Le Guen, Caroline Suberbielle, Chantal Gautreau, Marc Stern, Maura Rossetti, Abdul Monem Hamid, Francois Parquin
Although donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSAs) are frequently found in recipients after lung transplantation (LT), the characteristics of DSA which influence antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in LT are not fully defined. We retrospectively analyzed 206 consecutive LT patients of our center (2010-2013). DSAs were detected by using luminex single antigen beads assay and mean fluorescence intensity was assessed. Within the study population, 105 patients had positive DSA. Patients with and without AMR (AMR(Pos), n = 22, and AMR(Neg), n = 83, respectively) were compared...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057225/pathogenic-effector-th2-cells-in-allergic-eosinophilic-inflammatory-disease
#14
REVIEW
Alyssa Mitson-Salazar, Calman Prussin
There is an absolute requirement for Th2 cells in the pathogenesis of allergen-driven eosinophil-rich type 2 inflammation. Although Th2 cells are generally regarded as a homogeneous population, in the past decade there has been increasing evidence for a minority subpopulation of IL-5+ Th2 cells that have enhanced effector function. This IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation has been termed pathogenic effector Th2 (peTh2), as it exhibits greater effector function and disease association than conventional Th2 cells. peTh2 cells have a different expression profile, differentially express transcription factors, and preferentially use specific signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046874/biochemical-pathways-of-sarcopenia-and-their-modulation-by-physical-exercise-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Mohammad Mosaferi Ziaaldini, Emanuele Marzetti, Anna Picca, Zsolt Murlasits
Aging is a complex process characterized by progressive multisystem derangement predisposing individuals to increased risk of developing negative health outcomes. Sarcopenia is the age-related decline of muscle mass and function/strength and represents a highly prevalent correlate of aging. Several factors have been indicated to play a role in the onset and progression of sarcopenia; however, its pathophysiology is still unclear. Physical exercise is to date one of the few strategies able to improve muscle health in old age through multiple metabolic and transcriptional adaptations...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046873/embryonic-stem-cell-like-subpopulations-in-venous-malformation
#16
Elysia M S Tan, Sam Duro Siljee, Helen D Brasch, Susana Enriquez, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
BACKGROUND: Venous malformation (VM) consists of a network of ectatic anomalous thin-walled venous channels. A role for an activating TIE2 mutation in the development of the dilated luminal vessels in VM, and its proposed involvement of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), led us to investigate the expression of ESC markers in subcutaneous VM (SCVM) and intramuscular VM (IMVM). METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of SCVM from seven patients and IMVM samples from seven patients were analyzed for the expression of Nanog, pSTAT3, OCT4, SOX2, SALL4, and CD44, using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunohistochemical (IHC) staining...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043249/interactions-between-bacteria-and-bile-salts-in-the-gastrointestinal-and-hepatobiliary-tracts
#17
REVIEW
Verónica Urdaneta, Josep Casadesús
Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034239/hepatoid-adenocarcinoma-of-the-stomach-a-challenging-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-disease-through-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Najla Fakhruddin, Hisham F Bahmad, Tarek Aridi, Yara Yammine, Rami Mahfouz, Fouad Boulos, Ahmad Awada, Fadi Farhat
Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) is a rare aggressive tumor with hepatocellular differentiation. HAS often produces alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and metastasizes to the lymph nodes and the liver. Molecular studies revealed Her2 amplification and overexpression, association with p53 mutations, but no association with KRAS mutations. EGFR and BRAF mutations have not yet been evaluated in hepatoid carcinoma of the stomach so far. Hereby, we present a case of a 41-year-old female patient with HAS with high AFP level and liver metastases...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034238/exploring-the-abnormal-modulation-of-the-autonomic-systems-during-nasal-flow-limitation-in-upper-airway-resistance-syndrome-by-hilbert-huang-transform
#19
Chen Lin, Men-Tzung Lo, Christian Guilleminault
Patients with nasal flow limitation and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) during sleep can present with low blood pressure and disturbing symptoms associated with hypervagotony. We hypothesized that the dynamic changes of the autonomic system related to inspiratory flow limitation can be quantified by the developed analytic technique applied on beat-to-beat heart rate (RR intervals) and finger photoplethysmography (PPG). METHOD: A breath-by-breath investigation based on the Hilbert-Huang transform was performed to explore autonomic nervous system changes observed during inspiratory flow limitation...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034237/proteomics-of-eosinophil-activation
#20
REVIEW
Deane F Mosher, Emily M Wilkerson, Keren B Turton, Alexander S Hebert, Joshua J Coon
We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5) (1). These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC-MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet-eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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