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Frontiers in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804709/exploring-animal-models-that-resemble-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Jun Tashiro, Gustavo A Rubio, Andrew H Limper, Kurt Williams, Sharon J Elliot, Ioanna Ninou, Vassilis Aidinis, Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Marilyn K Glassberg
Large multicenter clinical trials have led to two recently approved drugs for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); yet, both of these therapies only slow disease progression and do not provide a definitive cure. Traditionally, preclinical trials have utilized mouse models of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis-though several limitations prevent direct translation to human IPF. Spontaneous pulmonary fibrosis occurs in other animal species, including dogs, horses, donkeys, and cats. While the fibrotic lungs of these animals share many characteristics with lungs of patients with IPF, current veterinary classifications of fibrotic lung disease are not entirely equivalent...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798915/migration-and-workforce-planning-in-medicine-with-special-focus-on-anesthesiology
#2
Jannicke Mellin-Olsen
Counting health personnel and defining migration is more complicated than one should think at first glance. Migrating health workers are not a homogenous group, and many factors cause people to migrate-not only low wages but also lack of professional development possibilities, poor job satisfaction, outdated equipment, unsafe environment, and more. The opposite factors encourage people to stay. Many countries, including high-income countries benefit from remittances from migrating individuals. The World Health Organization has installed a code of Practice on the international recruitment of health workers...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791291/atopic-dermatitis-studies-through-in-vitro-models
#3
REVIEW
Evelyne De Vuyst, Michel Salmon, Céline Evrard, Catherine Lambert de Rouvroit, Yves Poumay
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex inflammatory skin condition that is not fully understood. Epidermal barrier defects and Th2 immune response dysregulations are thought to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. A vicious circle takes place between these alterations, and it can further be complicated by additional genetic and environmental factors. Studies investigating in more depth the etiology of the disease are thus needed in order to develop functional treatments. In recent years, there have been significant advances regarding in vitro models reproducing important features of AD...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791290/placental-malaria-a-new-insight-into-the-pathophysiology
#4
REVIEW
Lalita Sharma, Geeta Shukla
Malaria in pregnancy poses a great health risk to mother and her fetus and results into complications, such as abortion, still birth, intra uterine growth retardation, and low birth weight. The heavy infiltration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs in the intervillous spaces of placenta seems to be responsible for all the complications observed. Infected RBCs in the placenta cause an inflammatory environment with increase in inflammatory cells and cytokines which is deleterious to the placenta. Increased inflammatory responses in the infected placenta result into oxidative stress that in turn causes oxidative stress-induced placental cell death...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791289/transcription-factors-in-eosinophil-development-and-as-therapeutic-targets
#5
REVIEW
Patricia C Fulkerson
Dynamic gene expression is a major regulatory mechanism that directs hematopoietic cell fate and differentiation, including eosinophil lineage commitment and eosinophil differentiation. Though GATA-1 is well established as a critical transcription factor (TF) for eosinophil development, delineating the transcriptional networks that regulate eosinophil development at homeostasis and in inflammatory states is not complete. Yet, recent advances in molecular experimental tools using purified eosinophil developmental stages have led to identifying new regulators of gene expression during eosinophil development...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791288/a-practical-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-hair-loss-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
REVIEW
Liwen Xu, Kevin X Liu, Maryanne M Senna
Hair loss or alopecia is a common and distressing clinical complaint in the primary care setting and can arise from heterogeneous etiologies. In the pediatric population, hair loss often presents with patterns that are different from that of their adult counterparts. Given the psychosocial complications that may arise from pediatric alopecia, prompt diagnosis and management is particularly important. Common causes of alopecia in children and adolescents include alopecia areata, tinea capitis, androgenetic alopecia, traction alopecia, trichotillomania, hair cycle disturbances, and congenital alopecia conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791287/bidirectional-mast-cell-eosinophil-interactions-in-inflammatory-disorders-and-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Mansour Seaf, Giancarlo Marone, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Gianni Marone
Human mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils were first described and named by Paul Ehrlich. These cells have distinct myeloid progenitors and differ morphologically, ultrastructurally, immunologically, biochemically, and pharmacologically. However, MCs and eosinophils play a pivotal role in several allergic disorders. In addition, these cells are involved in autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. MCs are distributed throughout all normal human tissues, whereas eosinophils are present only in gastrointestinal tract, secondary lymphoid tissues, and adipose tissue, thymus, mammary gland, and uterus...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791286/autoimmune-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-two-rare-cases-associated-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-and-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Despoina Dimopoulou, Athina Dimosiari, Eudokia Mandala, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Alaxandros Garyfallos
Secondary thrombotic microangiopathies are associated with several underlying conditions, with most of them being resolved after the treatment of background disease. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare microangiopathy presenting with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neurological deficits, occurring most often in various autoimmune diseases due to inhibition of ADAMTS13 by autoantibodies, as well as in pregnant women with or without an autoimmune substrate. In this article, we report two newly diagnosed TTP cases, who have not been published so far...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28785556/data-management-in-a-regulatory-context
#9
Niels Grønning
With the implementation of Article 57(2) in 2012 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) embarked on a digitalization journey that foreseeably would ensure greater product oversight and interoperability across the community. This initiative has subsequently led to additional focus from the agency with respect to the utilization and harmonization of data as part of the regulatory process. Driven by both internal and external factors, the EMA have through the European Union telematics strategy laid the foundation for the regulatory-driven services that may be expected from the community the coming years...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770205/fatal-mycotic-aneurysm-of-the-basilar-artery-caused-by-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-a-patient-with-pituitary-adenoma-and-meningitis
#10
Martin Winterholler, Roland Coras, Walter Geißdörfer, Rudolf Rammensee, Philipp Gölitz, Christian Bogdan, Roland Lang
Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) frequently occur in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we describe the case of an immunocompetent 64-year-old man who presented with diplopia, right-sided hemiparesis, and a mild headache after cleaning and replacing nesting boxes of wild birds during the preceding months. Lumbar puncture revealed pleocytosis, elevated protein, and lactate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Initial imaging showed ischemia in the left thalamus and an enlargement of the sellar region...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770204/development-of-a-multivariate-prediction-model-for-early-onset-bronchiolitis-obliterans-syndrome-and-restrictive-allograft-syndrome-in-lung-transplantation
#11
Angela Koutsokera, Pierre J Royer, Jean P Antonietti, Andreas Fritz, Christian Benden, John D Aubert, Adrien Tissot, Karine Botturi, Antoine Roux, Martine L Reynaud-Gaubert, Romain Kessler, Claire Dromer, Sacha Mussot, Hervé Mal, Jean-François Mornex, Romain Guillemain, Christiane Knoop, Marcel Dahan, Paola M Soccal, Johanna Claustre, Edouard Sage, Carine Gomez, Antoine Magnan, Christophe Pison, Laurent P Nicod
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction and its main phenotypes, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS), are major causes of mortality after lung transplantation (LT). RAS and early-onset BOS, developing within 3 years after LT, are associated with particularly inferior clinical outcomes. Prediction models for early-onset BOS and RAS have not been previously described. METHODS: LT recipients of the French and Swiss transplant cohorts were eligible for inclusion in the SysCLAD cohort if they were alive with at least 2 years of follow-up but less than 3 years, or if they died or were retransplanted at any time less than 3 years...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770203/clinical-applications-of-the-eosinophilic-esophagitis-diagnostic-panel
#12
REVIEW
Ting Wen, Marc E Rothenberg
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized upper gastrointestinal allergic disorder characterized by esophageal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia) and esophageal eosinophilia of ≥15 eosinophils/high-power field in patients who have persistent esophagitis even on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The histologic method is the gold standard of EoE diagnosis. However, EoE clinical symptoms do not always correlate with histology, and the histologic method has sensitivity and specificity issues due to the patchiness of EoE and the subjective nature of the method...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770202/cysteinyl-leukotrienes-in-eosinophil-biology-functional-roles-and-therapeutic-perspectives-in-eosinophilic-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Glaucia A Thompson-Souza, Isabella Gropillo, Josiane S Neves
Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), LTC4, and its extracellular metabolites, LTD4 and LTE4, have varied and multiple roles in mediating eosinophilic disorders including host defense against parasitic helminthes and allergic inflammation, especially in the lung and in asthma. CysLTs are known to act through at least 2 receptors termed cysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R) and cysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R). Eosinophils contain a dominant population of cytoplasmic crystalloid granules that store various preformed proteins. Human eosinophils are sources of cysLTs and are known to express the two known cysLTs receptors (CysLTRs)...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770201/follicular-conjunctivitis-due-to-chlamydia-felis-case-report-review-of-the-literature-and-improved-molecular-diagnostics
#14
Juliana Wons, Ralph Meiller, Antonio Bergua, Christian Bogdan, Walter Geißdörfer
A 29-year-old woman presented with unilateral, chronic follicular conjunctivitis since 6 weeks. While the conjunctival swab taken from the patient's eye was negative in a Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis-specific PCR, C. felis was identified as etiological agent using a pan-Chlamydia TaqMan-PCR followed by sequence analysis. A pet kitten of the patient was found to be the source of infection, as its conjunctival and pharyngeal swabs were also positive for C. felis. The patient was successfully treated with systemic doxycycline...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770200/prostaglandins-and-their-receptors-in-eosinophil-function-and-as-therapeutic-targets
#15
REVIEW
Miriam Peinhaupt, Eva M Sturm, Akos Heinemann
Of the known prostanoid receptors, human eosinophils express the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptors DP1 [also D-type prostanoid (DP)] and DP2 (also chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule, expressed on Th2 cells), the prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4, and the prostacyclin (PGI2) receptor IP. Prostanoids can bind to either one or multiple receptors, characteristically have a short half-life in vivo, and are quickly degraded into metabolites with altered affinity and specificity for a given receptor subtype...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770199/a-classification-model-to-predict-the-rate-of-decline-of-kidney-function
#16
Ersoy Subasi, Munevver Mine Subasi, Peter L Hammer, John Roboz, Victor Anbalagan, Michael S Lipkowitz
The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK), a randomized double-blinded treatment trial, was motivated by the high rate of hypertension-related renal disease in the African-American population and the scarcity of effective therapies. This study describes a pattern-based classification approach to predict the rate of decline of kidney function using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization/time of flight proteomic data from rapid and slow progressors classified by rate of change in glomerular filtration rate...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752089/the-use-of-operational-excellence-principles-in-a-university-hospital
#17
Eric R Edelman, Ankie E W Hamaekers, Wolfgang F Buhre, Godefridus G van Merode
The introduction of Operational Excellence in the Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+) has been the first of its kind and scale for a university hospital. The policy makers of the MUMC+ have combined different elements from various other business, management, and healthcare philosophies and frameworks into a unique mix. This paper summarizes the journey of developing this system and its most important aspects. Special attention is paid to the role of the operating rooms and the improvements that have taken place there, because of their central role in the working of the hospital...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748185/novel-actions-of-growth-hormone-in-podocytes-implications-for-diabetic-nephropathy
#18
REVIEW
Dhanunjay Mukhi, Rajkishor Nishad, Ram K Menon, Anil Kumar Pasupulati
The kidney regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and thus maintains body homeostasis. The kidney's potential to ensure ultrafiltered and almost protein-free urine is compromised in various metabolic and hormonal disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetic nephropathy (DN) accounts for ~20-40% of mortality in DM. Proteinuria, a hallmark of renal glomerular diseases, indicates injury to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The GFB is composed of glomerular endothelium, basement membrane, and podocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748184/complement-in-non-antibody-mediated-kidney-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Andrea Angeletti, Joselyn Reyes-Bahamonde, Paolo Cravedi, Kirk N Campbell
The complement system is part of the innate immune response that plays important roles in protecting the host from foreign pathogens. The complement components and relative fragment deposition have long been recognized to be strongly involved also in the pathogenesis of autoantibody-related kidney glomerulopathies, leading to direct glomerular injury and recruitment of infiltrating inflammation pathways. More recently, unregulated complement activation has been shown to be associated with progression of non-antibody-mediated kidney diseases, including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, C3 glomerular disease, thrombotic microangiopathies, or general fibrosis generation in progressive chronic kidney diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748183/neodymium-140-dota-lm3-evaluation-of-an-in-vivo-generator-for-pet-with-a-non-internalizing-vector
#20
Gregory W Severin, Lotte K Kristensen, Carsten H Nielsen, Jesper Fonslet, Andreas I Jensen, Anders F Frellsen, K M Jensen, Dennis R Elema, Helmut Maecke, Andreas Kjær, Karl Johnston, Ulli Köster
(140)Nd (t1/2 = 3.4 days), owing to its short-lived positron emitting daughter (140)Pr (t1/2 = 3.4 min), has promise as an in vivo generator for positron emission tomography (PET). However, the electron capture decay of (140)Nd is chemically disruptive to macrocycle-based radiolabeling, meaning that an in vivo redistribution of the daughter (140)Pr is expected before positron emission. The purpose of this study was to determine how the delayed positron from the de-labeled (140)Pr affects preclinical imaging with (140)Nd...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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