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Frontiers in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642864/the-effects-of-fasting-and-massive-diarrhea-on-absorption-of-enteral-vancomycin-in-critically-ill-patients-a-retrospective-observational-study
#1
Takehiko Oami, Noriyuki Hattori, Yosuke Matsumura, Eizo Watanabe, Ryuzo Abe, Taku Oshima, Waka Takahashi, Shingo Yamazaki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Shigeto Oda
PURPOSE: Although vancomycin (VCM) is not absorbed from healthy intestinal mucosa, elevations in the serum VCM concentrations have been reported in some cases. The aims of this study are to evaluate the necessity of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) during enteral VCM administration in critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 19 patients admitted to our intensive care unit who were treated with enteral VCM from December 2006 to January 2014...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620605/regulation-of-eosinophil-recruitment-and-activation-by-galectins-in-allergic-asthma
#2
REVIEW
Savita P Rao, Xiao Na Ge, P Sriramarao
Eosinophils are differentiated granulocytes that are recruited from the bone marrow to sites of inflammation via the vascular system. Allergic asthma is characterized by the presence of large numbers of eosinophils in the lungs and airways. Due to their capacity to rapidly release inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and cytotoxic granule proteins upon stimulation, eosinophils play a critical role in pro-inflammatory processes in allergen-exposed lungs. Identifying key players and understanding the molecular mechanisms directing eosinophil trafficking and recruitment to inflamed airways is a key to developing therapeutic strategies to limit their influx...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620604/medical-students-knowledge-of-fertility-awareness-based-methods-of-family-planning
#3
Peter G Danis, Sally A Kurz, Laura M Covert
OBJECTIVE: Traditional medical school curricula have not addressed fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs) of family planning. The objective of this study was to assess (1) 3-year medical students' knowledge of FABMs of family planning, (2) their confidence in utilizing that knowledge in patient care, and (3) to implement focused education on FABMs to improve knowledge and confidence. METHODS: Third-year medical students at one institution in the United States were given a 10-question assessment at the beginning of their OB-GYN rotation...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611987/complement-in-kidney-transplantation
#4
REVIEW
Marek Cernoch, Ondrej Viklicky
The complement system is considered to be an important part of innate immune system with a significant role in inflammation processes. The activation can occur through classical, alternative, or lectin pathway, resulting in the creation of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, possessing a vast spectrum of immune functions, and the assembly of terminal complement cascade, capable of direct cell lysis. The activation processes are tightly regulated; inappropriate activation of the complement cascade plays a significant role in many renal diseases including organ transplantation...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611986/scipad-effective-implementation-of-telemedicine-using-ipads-with-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injuries-a-case-series
#5
Kazuko Shem, Samantha J Sechrist, Eleanor Loomis, Linda Isaac
BACKGROUND: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) must often travel long distances to see a rehabilitation specialist. While telemedicine (TM) for pressure ulcer management has been used in this population, real-time video telecommunication using iPad has never been described. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to provide specialized care for persons with SCI through TM consultation expediently in order to address medical needs, manage secondary complications, and to improve quality of life (QoL) of individuals with SCI...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611985/adaptation-through-collaboration-developing-novel-platforms-to-advance-the-delivery-of-advanced-therapies-to-patients
#6
REVIEW
Magdalini Papadaki
For the nascent field of advanced therapies, collaboration will be a game-changer, turning scientific progress that was once unimaginable into transformative medical practice. Despite promise for lifelong management and even cure of disease, skepticism remains about the feasibility of their delivery to patients, fueling investment risks. With the potential for long-term effectiveness in need of frequent reassessment, current approaches to predict real-life drug performance bear little relevance, necessitating novel and iterative schemes to monitoring the benefit-risk profiles throughout the life span of advanced therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603715/contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-experience
#7
Bassam G Abu Jawdeh, Anthony C Leonard, Yuvraj Sharma, Swapna Katipally, Adele R Shields, Rita R Alloway, E Steve Woodle, Charuhas V Thakar
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in native kidneys is associated with a significant increase in mortality and morbidity. Data regarding CIN in renal allografts are limited, however. We retrospectively studied CIN in renal allografts at our institution: its incidence, risk factors, and effect on long-term outcomes including allograft loss and death. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five renal transplant recipients undergoing 161 contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans or coronary angiograms (Cath) between years 2000 and 2014 were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603714/defining-disease-diagnosis-and-translational-medicine-within-a-homeostatic-perturbation-paradigm-the-national-institutes-of-health-undiagnosed-diseases-program-experience
#8
Timothy Gall, Elise Valkanas, Christofer Bello, Thomas Markello, Christopher Adams, William P Bone, Alexander J Brandt, Jennifer M Brazill, Lynn Carmichael, Mariska Davids, Joie Davis, Zoraida Diaz-Perez, David Draper, Jeremy Elson, Elise D Flynn, Rena Godfrey, Catherine Groden, Cheng-Kang Hsieh, Roxanne Fischer, Gretchen A Golas, Jessica Guzman, Yan Huang, Megan S Kane, Elizabeth Lee, Chong Li, Amanda E Links, Valerie Maduro, May Christine V Malicdan, Fayeza S Malik, Michele Nehrebecky, Joun Park, Paul Pemberton, Katherine Schaffer, Dimitre Simeonov, Murat Sincan, Damian Smedley, Zaheer Valivullah, Colleen Wahl, Nicole Washington, Lynne A Wolfe, Karen Xu, Yi Zhu, William A Gahl, Cynthia J Tifft, Camillo Toro, David R Adams, Miao He, Peter N Robinson, Melissa A Haendel, R Grace Zhai, Cornelius F Boerkoel
Traditionally, the use of genomic information for personalized medical decisions relies on prior discovery and validation of genotype-phenotype associations. This approach constrains care for patients presenting with undescribed problems. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Undiagnosed Diseases Program (UDP) hypothesized that defining disease as maladaptation to an ecological niche allows delineation of a logical framework to diagnose and evaluate such patients. Herein, we present the philosophical bases, methodologies, and processes implemented by the NIH UDP...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596956/commentary-pet-mr-versus-pet-ct-imaging-impact-on-the-clinical-management-of-small-bowel-crohn-s-disease
#9
COMMENT
Sophie James, Jonathan Tyrrell-Price
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589123/editorial-second-line-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-clinical-pathological-and-molecular-aspects-of-novel-promising-drugs
#10
EDITORIAL
Umberto Malapelle, Pierlorenzo Pallante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589122/the-future-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-emerging-pathophysiological-concepts-and-potential-new-avenues-of-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer J P Collins, Dick Tibboel, Ismé M de Kleer, Irwin K M Reiss, Robbert J Rottier
Yearly more than 15 million babies are born premature (<37 weeks gestational age), accounting for more than 1 in 10 births worldwide. Lung injury caused by maternal chorioamnionitis or preeclampsia, postnatal ventilation, hyperoxia, or inflammation can lead to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), one of the most common adverse outcomes in these preterm neonates. BPD patients have an arrest in alveolar and microvascular development and more frequently develop asthma and early-onset emphysema as they age...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580358/belatacept-as-an-alternative-to-calcineurin-inhibitors-in-patients-with-solid-organ-transplants
#12
REVIEW
Dhiren Kumar, Spencer LeCorchick, Gaurav Gupta
The goal of immunosuppression in transplantation has shifted to improving long-term outcomes, reducing drug-induced toxicities while preserving the already excellent short-term outcomes. Long-term gains in solid organ transplantation have been limited at least partly due to the nephrotoxicity and metabolic side effects of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). The alloimmune response requires activation of the costimulatory pathway for T cell proliferation and amplification. Belatacept is a molecule that selectively blocks T cell costimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580357/impact-of-compression-stockings-vs-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-on-overnight-fluid-shift-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-among-patients-on-hemodialysis
#13
Bruno C Silva, Roberto S S Santos, Luciano F Drager, Fernando M Coelho, Rosilene M Elias
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in edematous states, notably in hemodialysis patients. In this population, overnight fluid shift can play an important role on the pathogenesis of OSA. The effect of compression stockings (CS) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on fluid shift is barely known. We compared the effects of CS and CPAP on fluid dynamics in a sample of patients with OSA in hemodialysis, through a randomized crossover study. METHODS: Each participant performed polysomnography (PSG) at baseline, during CPAP titration, and after 1 week of wearing CS...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560211/advanced-therapy-medicinal-products-for-rare-diseases-state-of-play-of-incentives-supporting-development-in-europe
#14
Andreas M Farkas, Segundo Mariz, Violeta Stoyanova-Beninska, Patrick Celis, Spiros Vamvakas, Kristina Larsson, Bruno Sepodes
In 2008, the European Union introduced the Advanced Medicines Regulation aiming to improve regulation of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs). We applied the ATMPs classification definitions in this Regulation to understand the link of this emerging group of medicinal products and the use of the Orphan Regulation. A total of 185 products that can be classified as ATMPs based on this Regulation have been submitted for orphan designation. Prior to its introduction in 2008, 4.5% of the products submitted for orphan designation met these criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553635/alcoholic-fractions-f5-and-f6-from-withania-somnifera-leaves-show-a-potent-antileishmanial-and-immunomodulatory-activities-to-control-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis
#15
Sambamurthy Chandrasekaran, Jalaja Veronica, Shyam Sundar, Radheshyam Maurya
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes fatal life-threatening disease, if left untreated. The current drugs have various limitations; hence, natural products from medicinal plants are being focused in search of new drugs to treat leishmaniasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities of F5 and F6 alcoholic fractions from Withania somnifera leaves and purified withaferin-A in Leishmania donovani-infected peritoneal macrophages and BALB/c mice. We observed that F5 (15 µg/mL), F6 (10 µg/mL), and withaferin-A (1...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540290/biomarkers-and-microscopic-colitis-an-unmet-need-in-clinical-practice
#16
REVIEW
Laura Francesca Pisani, Gian Eugenio Tontini, Beatrice Marinoni, Vincenzo Villanacci, Barbara Bruni, Maurizio Vecchi, Luca Pastorelli
One of the most common causes of chronic diarrhea is ascribed to microscopic colitis (MC). MC is classified in subtypes: collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). Patients with MC report watery, non-bloody diarrhea of chronic course, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue that may impair patient's health-related quality of life. A greater awareness, and concomitantly an increasing number of diagnoses over the last years, has demonstrated that the incidence and prevalence of MC are on the rise...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536691/periostin-and-discoidin-domain-receptor-1-new-biomarkers-or-targets-for-therapy-of-renal-disease
#17
REVIEW
Niki Prakoura, Christos Chatziantoniou
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be a life-threatening condition, which eventually requires renal replacement therapy through dialysis or transplantation. A lot of effort and resources have been invested the last years in the identification of novel markers of progression and targets for therapy, in order to achieve a more efficient prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal diseases. Using experimental models of renal disease, we identified and studied two promising candidates: periostin, a matricellular protein with high expression in bone and dental tissues, and discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a transmembrane collagen receptor of the tyrosine kinase family...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523268/the-sedative-effect-of-propranolol-on-critically-ill-patients-a-case-series
#18
Junji Shiotsuka, Andrew Steel, James Downar
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists for controlling delirium and agitation. Propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with good penetration of the blood-brain barrier, has not been investigated for this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who were prescribed propranolol in our Medical Surgical ICU from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516086/can-synovial-pathobiology-integrate-with-current-clinical-and-imaging-prediction-models-to-achieve-personalized-health-care-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#19
REVIEW
Frances Claire Humby, Farida Al Balushi, Gloria Lliso, Alberto Cauli, Costantino Pitzalis
Although great progress has been made in the past decade toward understanding the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), clinicians remain some distance from a goal of personalized health care. The capacity to diagnose RA early, predict prognosis, and moreover predict response to biologic therapies has been a research focus for many years. How currently available clinical prediction models can facilitate such goals is reviewed in this article. In addition, the role of current imaging techniques in this regard is also discussed...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512632/understanding-interleukin-33-and-its-roles-in-eosinophil-development
#20
REVIEW
Laura K Johnston, Paul J Bryce
Over the last decade, significant interest in the contribution of three "epithelial-derived cytokines," such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interleukin 25, and interleukin 33 (IL-33), has developed. These cytokines have been strongly linked to the early events that occur during allergen exposures and how they contribute to the subsequent type 2 immune response. Of these three cytokines, IL-33 has proven particularly interesting because of the strong associations found between both it and its receptor, ST2, in several genome-wide association studies of allergic diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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