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Frontiers in Medicine

Patricio H Contreras, Felipe G Serrano, Ana M Salgado, Pilar Vigil
A cohort of 141 males (18-80 yo, 42.9 ± 12.9) strongly suspected of being Insulin Resistant (IR) was prospectively studied by determining their insulin sensitivity (Pancreatic Suppression Test, PST) and testicular function (total testosterone and SHBG). The subjects were labeled as IR when the Steady State Plasma Glucose (SSPG) was ≥150 mg/dL and Non-Insulin Resistant (NIR) when SSPG was <150 mg/dl; similarly, the subjects were labeled as Hypogonadal (HYPOG) when total testosterone was ≤3.0 ng/mL and Eugonadal (EUG) when total testosterone was >3...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Lia Araújo, Laetitia Teixeira, Oscar Ribeiro, Constança Paúl
Background: Living beyond 100 years of age is associated with several functional and health constraints but their impact depends on one's perception of the situation. Associations between self-rated health (SRH) with sociodemographic and psychosocial variables have been explored in several studies, revealing that one's health appraisal depends of factors beyond the objective health condition. There is a large body of literature concerning SRH in later life but lack of evidence about centenarians' perception of health and its associated factors, which could increase the available knowledge on the strengths and resources individuals in very advanced ages have for facing daily life limitations...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Concepción Parrado, Neena Philips, Yolanda Gilaberte, Angeles Juarranz, Salvador González
Electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared ranges produces biologic effects in humans. Where some of these effects are beneficial, others are harmful to the skin, particularly those stemming from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Pharmacological photoprotection can be topical or systemic. Systemic photoprotection is often administered orally, complementing topical protection. New and classic oral agents (e.g., essential micronutrients as vitamins, minerals, polyphenols, carotenoids) are endowed with photoprotective and anti-photocarcinogenic properties...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Antonio Di Sabatino, Marco V Lenti, Gino R Corazza, Carmen Gianfrani
Autoimmune and allergic disorders are highly prevalent conditions in which an altered or abnormal immune response is mounted against self- or environmental antigens, respectively. Antigen-based immunotherapy is a therapeutic option aimed at restoring the specific immune tolerance toward pathogenic antigens while leaving the rest of the immune system unaffected. This strategy proved efficacy especially in allergic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and food allergies, but still has shortcomings for the treatment of autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Timothy R Olsen, Kelvin S Ng, Lye T Lock, Tabassum Ahsan, Jon A Rowley
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a critical raw material for many regenerative medicine products, including cell-based therapies, engineered tissues, or combination products, and are on the brink of radically changing how the world of medicine operates. Their unique characteristics, potential to treat many indications, and established safety profile in more than 800 clinical trials have contributed to their current consumption and will only fuel future demand. Given the large target patient populations with typical dose sizes of 10's to 100's of millions of cells per patient, and engineered tissues being constructed with 100's of millions to billions of cells, an unprecedented demand has been created for hMSCs...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Catherine G Billings, Robert Lewis, Iain J Armstrong, Judith A Hurdman, Ian A Smith, Matthew Austin, Charlie A Elliot, Athanasios Charalampopoulos, Ian Sabroe, Allan Lawrie, A A Roger Thompson, Robin Condliffe, David G Kiely
Background: There is increasing interest in screening for and diagnosing pulmonary hypertension earlier in the course of disease. However, there is limited data on cardiopulmonary abnormalities in patients with pulmonary hypertension newly diagnosed in World Health Organization Function Class (WHO FC) I. Methods: Data were retrieved from the ASPIRE registry (Assessing the Spectrum of Pulmonary hypertension Identified at a REferral center) for consecutive treatment naïve patients diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension by cardiac catheterization between 2001 and 2010 who underwent incremental shuttle walk exercise testing...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Guanglin Cui, Aping Yuan
Background: Recent epidemiological data have revealed a dramatically rising prevalence and incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in Mainland China, a rapidly growing industrialized region, over the last two decades. Objectives: We performed a systematic review to investigate the changing trends in the incidence of IBD in Mainland China and summarized the recent findings in risk factors associated with Chinese IBD. Methods: Relevant references were obtained from an electronic database search via MEDLINE and EMBASE (for English literatures), the China Academic Journals Full-text Database (CJFD) and the China Science Periodical Database (CSPD) in Wanfang Data (for Chinese literatures)...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Rachele Ciccocioppo, Simona Panelli, Maria C Conti Bellocchi, Giuseppina C Cangemi, Luca Frulloni, Enrica Capelli, Gino R Corazza
Celiac disease (CD), the most common chronic enteropathy worldwide, is triggered and sustained by a dysregulated immune response to dietary gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Up to date either the role of environmental factors and the pathways leading to mucosal damage have been only partially unraveled. Therefore, we seized the unique opportunity to study a naturally-occurring experimental model of a family composed of both parents suffering from CD (one on a gluten-free diet) and two non-celiac daughters...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Adriana Torres Crigna, Cristina Daniele, Carolina Gamez, Sara Medina Balbuena, Diego O Pastene, Daniela Nardozi, Cinzia Brenna, Benito Yard, Norbert Gretz, Karen Bieback
Within the last years, the use of stem cells (embryonic, induced pluripotent stem cells, or hematopoietic stem cells), Progenitor cells (e.g., endothelial progenitor cells), and most intensely mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has emerged as a promising cell-based therapy for several diseases including nephropathy. For patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), dialysis or finally organ transplantation are the only therapeutic modalities available. Since ESRD is associated with a high healthcare expenditure, MSC therapy represents an innovative approach...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Emmanuel Amabebe, Dilly O C Anumba
In addition to being a passage for sperm, menstruum, and the baby, the human vagina and its microbiota can influence conception, pregnancy, the mode and timing of delivery, and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections. The physiological status of the vaginal milieu is important for the wellbeing of the host as well as for successful reproduction. High estrogen states, as seen during puberty and pregnancy, promote the preservation of a homeostatic (eubiotic) vaginal microenvironment by stimulating the maturation and proliferation of vaginal epithelial cells and the accumulation of glycogen...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Ioanna Ninou, Christiana Magkrioti, Vassilis Aidinis
Lysophospholipid signaling is emerging as a druggable regulator of pathophysiological responses, and especially fibrosis, exemplified by the relative ongoing clinical trials in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. In this review, we focus on ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2), or as more widely known Autotaxin (ATX), a secreted lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) largely responsible for extracellular lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) production. In turn, LPA is a bioactive phospholipid autacoid, forming locally upon increased ATX levels and acting also locally through its receptors, likely guided by ATX's structural conformation and cell surface associations...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Yimin Xu, Dhavalkumar N Patel, Suet-Leng P Ng, Siew-Har Tan, Dorothy Toh, Jalene Poh, Adena Theen Lim, Cheng-Leng Chan, Min-Yong Low, Hwee-Ling Koh
The objective of this study is to collate and analyse adverse event reports associated with the use of complementary health products (CHP) submitted to the Health Sciences Authority (HSA) of Singapore for the period 2010-2016 to identify various trends and signals for pharmacovigilance purposes. A total of 147,215 adverse event reports suspected to be associated with pharmaceutical products and CHP were received by HSA between 2010 and 2016. Of these, 143,191 (97.3%) were associated with chemical drugs, 1,807 (1...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Denitza P Blagev, Dave S Collingridge, Susan Rea, Benjamin D Horne, Valerie G Press, Matthew M Churpek, Kyle A Carey, Richard A Mularski, Siyang Zeng, Mehrdad Arjomandi
Background: Identifying COPD patients at high risk for mortality or healthcare utilization remains a challenge. A robust system for identifying high-risk COPD patients using Electronic Health Record (EHR) data would empower targeting interventions aimed at ensuring guideline compliance and multimorbidity management. The purpose of this study was to empirically derive, validate, and characterize subgroups of COPD patients based on routinely collected clinical data widely available within the EHR. Methods: Cluster analysis was used in 5,006 patients with COPD at Intermountain to identify clusters based on a large collection of clinical variables...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Roberta Bertelli, Alice Bonanni, Gianluca Caridi, Alberto Canepa, G M Ghiggeri
Minimal Change Disease (MCD) is a clinical condition characterized by acute nephrotic syndrome, no evident renal lesions at histology and good response to steroids. However, frequent recurrence of the disease requires additional therapies associated with steroids. Such multi-drug dependence and frequent relapses may cause disease evolution to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) over time. The differences between the two conditions are not well defined, since molecular mechanisms may be shared by the two diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit
Background: Little is known about sexual behavior such as first sexual intercourse and number of sexual partnerships among women in Nigeria. Early sexual debut is a widely recognized public health issue due to its influence on higher lifetime sexual partners which in turn is associated with increased vulnerability to pregnancy complications, HIV/AIDS and other and sexually-transmitted diseases. In the present study, we attempted to explore the patterns of age of sexual debut and multiple sexual partnerships among women of reproductive age in Nigeria...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Samuel J Rednor, Michael J Ross
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an important cause of secondary focal glomerulosclerosis that occurs primarily in persons of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease. Although HIVAN is characterized by severe proteinuria and rapid progression to end stage renal disease without treatment, the phenotype is markedly attenuated by treatment with antiretroviral medications. HIV infection of glomerular and tubular epithelial cells and subsequent viral gene expression is a key contributor to HIVAN pathogenesis and the kidney can serve as reservoir for HIV strains that differ those in blood...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Peter M Hickey, Allan Lawrie, Robin Condliffe
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) develops in 7-12% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is associated with a 3 year survival of 52%. Early detection by screening is therefore recommended for all patients with SSc. Historically, screening has been performed using echocardiography and measurement of gas transfer. More recently the DETECT protocol, using a combination of biomarkers (including N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide) and clinical parameters, has been developed. The optimal method of screening for PAH with high sensitivity and specificity is, however, not clear...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Athanasios Charalampopoulos, Robert Lewis, Peter Hickey, Charlotte Durrington, Charlie Elliot, Robin Condliffe, Ian Sabroe, David G Kiely
Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD) is the most common type of pulmonary hypertension, although an accurate prevalence is challenging. PH-LHD includes PH due to systolic or diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, mitral or aortic valve disease and congenital left heart disease. In recent years a new and distinct phenotype of "combined post-capillary and pre-capillary PH," based on diastolic pulmonary gradient and pulmonary vascular resistance, has been recognized. The roles of right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary vascular compliance in PH-LHD have also been elucidated recently and they appear to have significant clinical implications...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Sheliza Halani, F Stuart Foster, Maksym Breslavets, Neil H Shear
Non-invasive bedside imaging tools are becoming more prevalent for assessing cutaneous lesions. Ultrasound used at specific frequencies allows us to assess margins of lesions to minimize the extent of the biopsy that is performed and improve cosmetic outcomes. Vascularity, seen on Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and stiffness, assessed on tissue elastography, can help differentiate between benign and malignant lesions for clinicians to be more judicious in deciding whether to biopsy. Moreover, research has shown the efficacy in using ultrasound in monitoring flares of hidradenitis suppurativa, a disease affecting apocrine gland-rich areas of the body, for which the current gold standard involves examining and scoring inflammatory lesions with the naked eye...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Evelyne Ajdler-Schaeffler, Alexandra U Scherrer, Peter M Keller, Alexia Anagnostopoulos, Michael Hofmann, Zoran Rancic, Annelies S Zinkernagel, Guido V Bloemberg, Barbara K Hasse
Background: Vascular graft infections (VGI) are difficult to diagnose and treat, and despite redo surgery combined with antimicrobial treatment, outcomes are often poor. VGI diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical, radiological, laboratory and microbiological criteria. However, as many of the VGI patients are already under antimicrobial treatment at the time of redo surgery, microbiological identification is often difficult and bacterial cultures often remain negative rendering targeted treatment impossible...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
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