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Frontiers in Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936432/severity-of-premenstrual-symptoms-predicted-by-second-to-fourth-digit-ratio
#1
Yoshiki Kaneoke, Tomohiro Donishi, Akihiko Iwahara, Toshio Shimokawa
Women of reproductive age often experience a variety of unpleasant symptoms prior to the onset of menstruation. While genetics may influence the variability of these symptoms and their severity among women, the exact causes remain unknown. We hypothesized that symptom variability originates from differences in the embryonic environment and thus development caused by variation in exposure to sex hormones. We measured the second to fourth digit ratios (2D:4D) in 402 young women and investigated the potential relationships of this ratio premenstrual symptoms using a generalized linear model...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932736/mean-platelet-volume-and-immature-platelet-fraction-in-autoimmune-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Deonilson Schmoeller, Maria Mercedes Picarelli, Terezinha Paz Munhoz, Carlos Eduardo Poli de Figueiredo, Henrique Luiz Staub
Mean platelet volume (MPV), measured using automated blood analysers, has been appraised as a potential biomarker in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. The test, a useful tool in differentiation of thrombocytopenic states, has now been carried out for autoimmune disorders, but data are yet scarce. Controversial results have been obtained in systemic and organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Another test, the immature platelet fraction (IPF) reflects the amount of young, reticulated platelets...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913339/ulcerative-gastritis-and-esophagitis-in-two-children-with-sarcina-ventriculi-infection
#3
Tim G J de Meij, Michiel P van Wijk, Aart Mookhoek, Andries E Budding
Sarcina ventriculi is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic coccus, with a characteristic morphology. Only 22 cases of human infections by this microorganism, including 7 in children, have been reported in literature so far. Affected subjects usually present with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and delayed gastric emptying. However, life-threatening complications, like emphysematous gastritis and gastric perforation have also been described. Gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction have been considered as a potential etiologic factor...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913338/clinical-validation-of-a-pixon-based-reconstruction-method-allowing-a-twofold-reduction-in-planar-images-time-of-111in-pentetreotide-somatostatin-receptor-scintigraphy
#4
Philippe Thuillier, David Bourhis, Philippe Robin, Nathalie Keromnes, Ulrike Schick, Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Véronique Kerlan, Philippe Chaumet-Riffaud, Pierre-Yves Salaün, Ronan Abgral
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of Pixon-based reconstruction method on planar somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). METHODS: All patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) disease who were referred for SRS to our department during 1-year period from January to December 2015 were consecutively included. Three nuclear physicians independently reviewed all the data sets of images which included conventional images (CI; 15 min/view) and processed images (PI) obtained by reconstructing the first 450 s extracted data using Oncoflash(®) software package...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913337/new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-celiac-disease
#5
REVIEW
Valli De Re, Raffaella Magris, Renato Cannizzaro
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune and multisystem gluten-related disorder that causes symptoms involving the gastrointestinal tract and other organs. Pathogenesis of CD is only partially known. It had been established that ingestion of gluten proteins present in wheat and other cereals are necessary for the disease and develops in individuals genetically predisposed carrying the DQ2 or DQ8 human leukocyte antigen haplotypes. In this review, we had pay specific attention on the last discoveries regarding the three cellular components mainly involved in the development and maintenance of CD: T-cells, B-cells, and microbioma...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913336/anti-interleukin-5-il-5-and-il-5ra-biological-drugs-efficacy-safety-and-future-perspectives-in-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#6
REVIEW
Diego Bagnasco, Matteo Ferrando, Gilda Varricchi, Francesca Puggioni, Giovanni Passalacqua, Giorgio Walter Canonica
The definition of asthma has changed considerably in recent years, to the extent that asthma is no longer considered a single disease but a heterogeneous disorder that includes several phenotypes and, possibly, endotypes. A more detailed analysis of the immunological mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of asthma shows interleukin 5 (IL-5) to be a crucial cytokine in several asthma phenotypes. In fact, IL-5 exerts selective action on eosinophils, which, in turn, sustain airway inflammation and worsen asthma symptoms and control...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894738/cancer-associated-venous-thromboembolism-a-practical-review-beyond-low-molecular-weight-heparins
#7
REVIEW
Alannah Smrke, Peter L Gross
Patients with cancer are at significantly higher risk of developing, and dying from, venous thromboembolism (VTE). The CLOT trial demonstrated superiority of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) over warfarin for recurrent VTE and established LMWH as the standard of care for cancer-associated VTE. However, with patients living longer with metastatic cancer, long-term injections are associated with significant cost and injection fatigue. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are an attractive alternative for treatment of cancer-associated VTE...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894737/fmeca-application-to-intraoperative-electron-beam-radiotherapy-procedure-as-a-quality-method-to-prevent-and-reduce-patient-s-risk-in-conservative-surgery-for-breast-cancer
#8
Cristiana Vidali, Mara Severgnini, Monica Urbani, Licia Toscano, Alfredo Perulli, Marina Bortul
INTRODUCTION: Failure Mode Effects and Criticalities Analysis (FMECA) represents a prospective method for risk assessment in complex medical practices. Our objective was to describe the application of FMECA approach to intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT), delivered using a mobile linear accelerator, for the treatment of early breast cancer as an anticipated boost. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary Working Group, including several different professional profiles, was created before the beginning of clinical practice in 2012, with the purpose of writing the Flow Chart and applying the FMECA methodology to IOERT procedure...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890891/collaborative-approaches-and-policy-opportunities-for-accelerated-progress-toward-effective-disease-prevention-care-and-control-using-the-case-of-poverty-diseases-to-explore-universal-access-to-affordable-health-care
#9
Samia Laokri
BACKGROUND: There is a massive global momentum to progress toward the sustainable development and universal health coverage goals. However, effective policies to health-care coverage can only emerge through high-quality services delivered to empowered care users by means of strong local health systems and a translational standpoint. Health policies aimed at removing user fees for a defined health-care package may fail at reaching desired results if not applied with system thinking. METHOD: Secondary data analysis of two country-based cost-of-illness studies was performed to gain knowledge in informed decision-making toward enhanced access to care in the context of resource-constraint settings...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879182/vasopressin-receptor-antagonists-in-hyponatremia-uses-and-misuses
#10
REVIEW
Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Tomas Berl
Decreases in the concentration of sodium in plasma constitute hyponatremia, the commonest electrolyte disorder in clinical medicine. It is now well established that its presence conveys an increased mortality risk even when the decrement is mild. In addition, recent evidence suggests that chronic and apparently asymptomatic hyponatremia is associated with increased morbidity including neurocognitive deficits and bone fractures. Furthermore, hyponatremia is associated with higher health care-related expenses...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868289/pathophysiological-mechanisms-in-sclerosing-skin-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Beate Eckes, Fang Wang, Pia Moinzadeh, Nicolas Hunzelmann, Thomas Krieg
Sclerosing skin diseases represent a large number of distinct disease entities, which include systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, and scleredema adultorum. These pathologies have a common clinical appearance and share histological features. However, the specific interplay between cytokines and growth factors, which activate different mesenchymal cell populations and production of different extracellular matrix components, determines the biomechanical properties of the skin and the clinical features of each disease...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861415/more-haste-less-speed-could-public-private-partnerships-advance-cellular-immunotherapies
#12
REVIEW
Tania Bubela, Katherine Bonter, Silvy Lachance, Jean-Sébastien Delisle, E Richard Gold
Cellular immunotherapies promise to transform cancer care. However, they must overcome serious challenges, including: (1) the need to identify and characterize novel cancer antigens to expand the range of therapeutic targets; (2) the need to develop strategies to minimize serious adverse events, such as cytokine release syndrome and treatment-related toxicities; and (3) the need to develop efficient production/manufacturing processes to reduce costs. Here, we discuss whether these challenges might better be addressed through forms of public-private research collaborations, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), or whether these challenges are best addressed by way of standard market transactions...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861414/continuous-spinal-anesthesia-for-obstetric-anesthesia-and-analgesia
#13
REVIEW
Ivan Veličković, Borislava Pujic, Charles W Baysinger, Curtis L Baysinger
The widespread use of continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA) in obstetrics has been slow because of the high risk for post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) associated with epidural needles and catheters. New advances in equipment and technique have not significantly overcome this disadvantage. However, CSA offers an alternative to epidural anesthesia in morbidly obese women, women with severe cardiac disease, and patients with prior spinal surgery. It should be strongly considered in parturients who receive an accidental dural puncture with a large bore needle, on the basis of recent work suggesting significant reduction in PDPH when intrathecal catheters are used...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848734/regulation-of-eosinophil-and-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cell-trafficking-in-asthma
#14
Marie-Chantal Larose, Anne-Sophie Archambault, Véronique Provost, Michel Laviolette, Nicolas Flamand
Asthma is an inflammatory disease usually characterized by increased Type 2 cytokines and by an infiltration of eosinophils to the airways. While the production of Type 2 cytokines has been associated with TH2 lymphocytes, increasing evidence indicates that group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) play an important role in the production of the Type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13, which likely amplifies the recruitment of eosinophils from the blood to the airways. In that regard, recent asthma treatments have been focusing on blocking Type 2 cytokines, notably IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848733/the-predictive-value-of-integrated-pulmonary-index-after-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
Evgenia V Fot, Natalia N Izotova, Anjelika S Yudina, Aleksei A Smetkin, Vsevolod V Kuzkov, Mikhail Y Kirov
BACKGROUND: The early warning scores may increase the safety of perioperative period. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic and predictive role of Integrated Pulmonary Index (IPI) after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty adult patients undergoing elective OPCAB were enrolled into a single-center prospective observational study. We assessed respiratory function using IPI that includes oxygen saturation, end-tidal CO2, respiratory rate, and pulse rate...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848732/platelet-eosinophil-interactions-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-allergic-inflammation-and-asthma
#16
REVIEW
Sajeel A Shah, Clive P Page, Simon C Pitchford
The importance of platelet activation during hemostasis is well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms has led to the use of several classes of anti-platelet drugs to inhibit aggregation for the prevention of thrombi during cardiovascular disease. It is now also recognized that platelets can function very differently during inflammation, as part of their role in the innate immune response against pathogens. This dichotomy in platelet function occurs through distinct physiological processes and alternative signaling pathways compared to that of hemostasis (leading to platelet aggregation) and is manifested as increased rheological interactions with leukocytes, the ability to undergo chemotaxis, communication with antigen-presenting cells, and direct anti-pathogen responses...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831387/tissue-remodeling-in-chronic-eosinophilic-esophageal-inflammation-parallels-in-asthma-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Quan M Nhu, Seema S Aceves
Chronic eosinophilic inflammation is associated with tissue remodeling and fibrosis in a number of chronic T-helper 2 (Th2)-mediated diseases including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and asthma. Chronic inflammation results in dysregulated tissue healing, leading to fibrosis and end organ dysfunction, manifesting clinically as irreversible airway obstruction in asthma and as esophageal rigidity, strictures, narrowing, dysmotility, dysphagia, and food impactions in EoE. Current therapies for EoE and asthma center on reducing inflammation-driven tissue remodeling and fibrosis with corticosteroids, coupled with symptomatic control and allergen avoidance...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824915/the-role-of-cytokines-in-the-fibrotic-responses-in-crohn-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Renata Curciarello, Guillermo H Docena, Thomas T MacDonald
Crohn's disease is an idiopathic disorder of the gut thought to be caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors in susceptible individuals. It is characterized by chronic transmural inflammation of the terminal ileum and colon, with typical transmural lesions. Complications, including fibrosis, mean that between 40 and 70% of patients require surgery in the first 10 years after diagnosis. Presently, there is no evidence that the current therapies which dampen inflammation modulate or reverse intestinal fibrosis...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824914/chronic-hepatitis-c-related-cirrhosis-hospitalization-cost-analysis-in-bulgaria
#19
Maria Dimitrova, Kaloyan Pavlov, Konstantin Mitov, Jordan Genov, Guenka Ivanova Petrova
OBJECTIVE: HCV infection is a leading cause of chronic liver disease with long-term complications-extensive fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study is to perform cost analysis of therapy of patients with chronic HCV-related cirrhosis hospitalized in the University Hospital "Queen Joanna-ISUL" for 3-year period (2012-2014). METHODS: It is a prospective, real life observational study of 297 patients with chronic HCV infection and cirrhosis monitored in the University Hospital "Queen Joanna-ISUL" for 3-year period...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824913/non-invasive-vagal-nerve-stimulation-effects-on-hyperarousal-and-autonomic-state-in-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-preliminary-evidence
#20
Damon G Lamb, Eric C Porges, Greg F Lewis, John B Williamson
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a reaction to trauma that results in a chronic perception of threat, precipitating mobilization of the autonomic nervous system, and may be reflected by chronic disinhibition of limbic structures. A common injury preceding PTSD in veterans is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This may be due to the vulnerability of white matter in these networks and such damage may affect treatment response. We evaluated transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (tVNS), a non-invasive, low-risk approach that may alter the functions of the limbo-cortical and peripheral networks underlying the hyperarousal component of PTSD and thus improve patient health and well-being...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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