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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630892/disruption-of-the-axonal-trafficking-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-mrna-impairs-catecholamine-biosynthesis-in-the-axons-of-sympathetic-neurons
#1
Armaz Aschrafi, Anthony E Gioio, Lijin Dong, Barry B Kaplan
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. In a previous communication, evidence was provided that TH mRNA is trafficked to the axon, where it is locally translated. In addition, a 50-bp sequence element in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of TH mRNA was identified that directs TH mRNA to distal axons (i.e., zip-code). In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that local translation of TH plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the axon and/or presynaptic nerve terminal...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612049/episodic-tags-enhance-striatal-valuation-signals-during-temporal-discounting-in-pathological-gamblers
#2
Antonius Wiehler, Frederike Hermi Petzschner, Klaas Enno Stephan, Jan Peters
Similar to many addiction disorders, pathological gambling is associated with an increased preference for immediate rewards (steep temporal discounting). In healthy participants, episodic future thinking has been shown to reduce impulsivity during intertemporal choice. Here, we examine for the first time a modulation of temporal discounting via episodic future thinking in a group of pathological gamblers. We investigated a sample of 24 pathological gamblers and 24 matched healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612048/obesity-accelerates-alzheimer-related-pathology-in-apoe4-but-not-apoe3-mice
#3
V Alexandra Moser, Christian J Pike
Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk is modified by both genetic and environmental risk factors, which are believed to interact to cooperatively modify pathogenesis. Although numerous genetic and environmental risk factors for AD have been identified, relatively little is known about potential gene-environment interactions in regulating disease risk. The strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD is the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE4). An important modifiable risk factor for AD is obesity, which has been shown to increase AD risk in humans and accelerate development of AD-related pathology in rodent models...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612047/wortmannin-attenuates-seizure-induced-hyperactive-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-impaired-memory-and-spine-dysmorphology-in-rats
#4
Angela N Carter, Heather A Born, Amber T Levine, An T Dao, Amanda J Zhao, Wai L Lee, Anne E Anderson
Numerous studies have shown epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits, but less is known about the effects of one single generalized seizure. Recent studies demonstrate that a single, self-limited seizure can result in memory deficits and induces hyperactive phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (protein kinase B)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling. However, the effect of a single seizure on subcellular structures such as dendritic spines and the role of aberrant PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in these seizure-induced changes are unclear...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612046/shaping-of-signal-transmission-at-the-photoreceptor-synapse-by-eaat2-glutamate-transporters
#5
Stephanie Niklaus, Lucia Cadetti, Colette M Vom Berg-Maurer, André Lehnherr, Adriana L Hotz, Ian C Forster, Matthias Gesemann, Stephan C F Neuhauss
Photoreceptor ribbon synapses tonically release glutamate. To ensure efficient signal transmission and prevent glutamate toxicity, a highly efficient glutamate removal system provided by members of the SLC1 gene family is required. By using a combination of biophysical and in vivo studies, we elucidate the role of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) proteins in synaptic glutamate homeostasis at the zebrafish photoreceptor synapse. The main glutamate sink is provided by the glial EAAT2a, reflected by reduced electroretinographic responses in EAAT2a-depleted larvae...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612045/lack-of-trpm5-expressing-microvillous-cells-in-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-leads-to-impaired-odor-evoked-responses-and-olfactory-guided-behavior-in-a-challenging-chemical-environment
#6
Kayla Lemons, Ziying Fu, Imad Aoudé, Tatsuya Ogura, Julianna Sun, Justin Chang, Kenechukwu Mbonu, Ichiro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Weihong Lin
The mammalian main olfactory epithelium (MOE) modifies its activities in response to changes in the chemical environment. This process is essential for maintaining the functions of the olfactory system and the upper airway. However, mechanisms involved in this functional maintenance, especially those occurring via paracrine regulatory pathways within the multicellular MOE, are poorly understood. Previously, a population of non-neuronal, transient receptor potential M5-expressing microvillous cells (TRPM5-MCs) was identified in the MOE, and the initial characterization of these cells showed that they are cholinergic and responsive to various xenobiotics including odorants at high concentrations...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593193/differential-expression-and-cell-type-specificity-of-perineuronal-nets-in-hippocampus-medial-entorhinal-cortex-and-visual-cortex-examined-in-the-rat-and-mouse
#7
Kristian Kinden Lensjø, Ane Charlotte Christensen, Simen Tennøe, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that condense around the soma and proximal dendrites of subpopulations of neurons. Emerging evidence suggests that they are involved in regulating brain plasticity. However, the expression of PNNs varies between and within brain areas. A lack of quantitative studies describing the distribution and cell-specificity of PNNs makes it difficult to reveal the functional roles of PNNs. In the current study, we examine the distribution of PNNs and the identity of PNN-enwrapped neurons in three brain areas with different cognitive functions: the dorsal hippocampus, medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) and primary visual cortex (V1)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593192/intravenous-heroin-induces-rapid-brain-hypoxia-and-hyperglycemia-that-precede-brain-metabolic-response
#8
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Yavin Shaham, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Heroin use and overdose have increased in recent years as people transition from abusing prescription opiates to using the cheaper street drug. Despite a long history of research, many physiological effects of heroin and their underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we used high-speed amperometry to examine the effects of intravenous heroin on oxygen and glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in freely-moving rats. Heroin within the dose range of human drug use and rat self-administration (100-200 μg/kg) induced a rapid, strong, but transient drop in NAc oxygen that was followed by a slower and more prolonged rise in glucose...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593191/at-what-latency-does-the-phase-of-brain-oscillations-influence-perception
#9
Sasskia Brüers, Rufin VanRullen
Recent evidence has shown a rhythmic modulation of perception: prestimulus ongoing electroencephalography (EEG) phase in the θ (4-8 Hz) and α (8-13 Hz) bands has been directly linked with fluctuations in target detection. In fact, the ongoing EEG phase directly reflects cortical excitability: it acts as a gating mechanism for information flow at the neuronal level. Consequently, the key phase modulating perception should be the one present in the brain when the stimulus is actually being processed. Most previous studies, however, reported phase modulation peaking 100 ms or more before target onset...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593190/nucleus-accumbens-shell-dopamine-preferentially-tracks-information-related-to-outcome-value-of-reward
#10
Deirdre A Sackett, Michael P Saddoris, Regina M Carelli
Effective decision-making requires organisms to predict reward values and bias behavior toward the best available option. The mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, is involved in this process. Although studies support a role of the shell and core in specific aspects of decision-making (e.g., risk, effort, delay), no studies have directly compared dopamine release dynamics in these subregions to cues exclusively signaling the availability of different reward magnitudes...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584877/neocortical-chandelier-cells-developmentally-shape-axonal-arbors-through-reorganization-but-establish-subcellular-synapse-specificity-without-refinement
#11
André Steinecke, Ellie Hozhabri, Stephen Tapanes, Yugo Ishino, Hongkui Zeng, Naomi Kamasawa, Hiroki Taniguchi
Diverse types of cortical interneurons (INs) mediate various kinds of inhibitory control mechanisms to balance and shape network activity. Distinct IN subtypes develop uniquely organized axonal arbors that innervate different subcellular compartments of excitatory principal neurons (PNs), which critically contribute to determining their output properties. However, it remains poorly understood how they establish this peculiar axonal organization and synaptic connectivity during development. Here, taking advantage of genetic labeling of IN progenitors, we examined developmental processes of axonal arbors and synaptic connections formed by murine chandelier cells (ChCs), which innervate axon initial segments (AISs) of PNs and thus powerfully regulate their spike generation...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580417/impact-of-early-consumption-of-high-fat-diet-on-the-mesolimbic-dopaminergic-system
#12
F Naneix, F Tantot, C Glangetas, J Kaufling, Y Janthakhin, C Boitard, V De Smedt-Peyrusse, J R Pape, S Vancassel, P Trifilieff, F Georges, E Coutureau, G Ferreira
Increasing evidence suggest that consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) can impact the maturation of brain circuits, such as during adolescence, which could account for behavioral alterations associated with obesity. In the present study, we used behavioral sensitization to amphetamine to investigate the effect of periadolescent HFD exposure (pHFD) in rats on the functionality of the dopamine (DA) system, a central actor in food reward processing. pHFD does not affect responding to an acute injection, however, a single exposure to amphetamine is sufficient to induce locomotor sensitization in pHFD rats...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580416/glua2-lacking-ampa-receptors-and-nitric-oxide-signaling-gate-spike-timing-dependent-potentiation-of-glutamate-synapses-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#13
Samir Haj-Dahmane, Jean Claude Béïque, Roh-Yu Shen
The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRn) receives glutamatergic inputs from numerous brain areas that control the function of DRn serotonin (5-HT) neurons. By integrating these synaptic inputs, 5-HT neurons modulate a plethora of behaviors and physiological functions. However, it remains unknown whether the excitatory inputs onto DRn 5-HT neurons can undergo activity-dependent change of strength, as well as the mechanisms that control their plasticity. Here, we describe a novel form of spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (tLTP) of glutamate synapses onto rat DRn 5-HT neurons...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560318/differential-effects-of-retinoic-acid-concentrations-in-regulating-blood-brain-barrier-properties
#14
Stephanie Bonney, Julie A Siegenthaler
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a multifaceted property of the brain vasculature that protects the brain and maintains homeostasis by tightly regulating the flux of ions, molecules, and cells across the vasculature. Blood vessels in the brain are formed by endothelial cells that acquire barrier properties, such as tight and adherens junctions, soon after the brain vasculature is formed. Endothelial WNT signaling is crucial to induce these BBB properties by regulating their expression and stabilization. Recent studies have implicated retinoic acid (RA) signaling in BBB development and shown that pharmacological concentrations of RA (≥5 µm) can induce BBB properties in cultured brain endothelial cells...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560317/gain-control-in-predictive-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-evidence-for-an-acceleration-based-predictive-mechanism
#15
Lukas Brostek, Thomas Eggert, Stefan Glasauer
The smooth pursuit eye movement system incorporates various control features enabling adaptation to specific tracking situations. In this work, we analyzed the interplay between two of these mechanisms: gain control and predictive pursuit. We tested human responses to high-frequency perturbations during step-ramp pursuit, as well as the pursuit of a periodically moving target. For the latter task, we found a nonlinear interaction between perturbation response and carrier acceleration. Responses to perturbations where the initial perturbation acceleration was contradirectional to carrier acceleration increased with carrier velocity, in a manner similar to that observed during step-ramp pursuit...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560316/vmat2-mediated-neurotransmission-from-midbrain-leptin-receptor-neurons-in-feeding-regulation
#16
Yuanzhong Xu, Yungang Lu, Pingwen Xu, Leandra R Mangieri, Elsa Isingrini, Yong Xu, Bruno Giros, Qingchun Tong
Leptin receptors (LepRs) expressed in the midbrain contribute to the action of leptin on feeding regulation. The midbrain neurons release a variety of neurotransmitters including dopamine (DA), glutamate and GABA. However, which neurotransmitter mediates midbrain leptin action on feeding remains unclear. Here, we showed that midbrain LepR neurons overlap with a subset of dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Specific removal of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in midbrain LepR neurons (KO mice) disrupted DA accumulation in vesicles, but failed to cause a significant change in the evoked release of either glutamate or GABA to downstream neurons...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560315/proactive-control-neural-oscillatory-correlates-of-conflict-anticipation-and-response-slowing
#17
Andrew Chang, Jaime S Ide, Hsin-Hung Li, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiang-Shan R Li
Proactive control allows us to anticipate environmental changes and adjust behavioral strategy. In the laboratory, investigators have used a number of different behavioral paradigms, including the stop-signal task (SST), to examine the neural processes of proactive control. Previous functional MRI studies of the SST have demonstrated regional responses to conflict anticipation-the likelihood of a stop signal or P(stop) as estimated by a Bayesian model-and reaction time (RT) slowing and how these responses are interrelated...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560314/correction-horikawa-and-ojima-cortical-activation-patterns-evoked-by-temporally-asymmetric-sounds-and-their-modulation-by-learning-eneuro-march-april-2017-4-2-e0241-16-2017-1-19-https-doi-org-10-1523-eneuro-0241-16-2017
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560313/urothelial-tight-junction-barrier-dysfunction-sensitizes-bladder-afferents
#19
Nicolas Montalbetti, Anna C Rued, Stefanie N Taiclet, Lori A Birder, F Aura Kullmann, Marcelo D Carattino
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic voiding disorder that presents with pain in the urinary bladder and surrounding pelvic region. A growing body of evidence suggests that an increase in the permeability of the urothelium, the epithelial barrier that lines the interior of the bladder, contributes to the symptoms of IC/BPS. To examine the consequence of increased urothelial permeability on pelvic pain and afferent excitability, we overexpressed in the urothelium claudin 2 (Cldn2), a tight junction (TJ)-associated protein whose message is significantly upregulated in biopsies of IC/BPS patients...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560312/editorial-eneuro-offers-a-unique-interactive-experience-to-reviewer-training
#20
EDITORIAL
Christophe Bernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: ENeuro
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