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Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
Lorcan Browne, Katie E Smith, Daniel J Jagger
In spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the afferent single units of the auditory nerve, high spontaneous and evoked firing rates ensure preservation of the temporal code describing the key features of incoming sound. During postnatal development, the spatiotemporal distribution of ion channel subtypes contributes to the maturation of action potential generation in SGNs, and to their ability to generate spike patterns that follow rapidly changing inputs. Here we describe tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na(+) currents in SGNs cultured from mice, whose properties may support this fast spiking behavior...
November 2017: ENeuro
Tyler R Will, Stephanie B Proaño, Anly M Thomas, Lindsey M Kunz, Kelly C Thompson, Laura A Ginnari, Clay H Jones, Sarah-Catherine Lucas, Elizabeth M Reavis, David M Dorris, John Meitzen
Neuroscience research has historically ignored female animals. This neglect comes in two general forms. The first is sex bias, defined as favoring one sex over another; in this case, male over female. The second is sex omission, which is the lack of reporting sex. The recognition of this phenomenon has generated fierce debate across the sciences. Here we test whether sex bias and omission are still present in the neuroscience literature, whether studies employing both males and females neglect sex as an experimental variable, and whether sex bias and omission differs between animal models and journals...
November 2017: ENeuro
Christophe Bernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: ENeuro
Lauren A Lau, Farzad Noubary, Dongqing Wang, Chris G Dulla
Developmental cortical malformations (DCMs) result from pre- and perinatal insults, as well as genetic mutations. Hypoxia, viral infection, and traumatic injury are the most common environmental causes of DCMs, and are associated with the subsyndromes focal polymicrogyria and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type IIId, both of which have a high incidence of epilepsy. Understanding the molecular signals that lead to the formation of a hyperexcitable network in DCMs is critical to devising novel treatment strategies...
September 2017: ENeuro
Xinhuai Liu, Robert Porteous, Allan E Herbison
Inputs from GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are suspected to play an important role in regulating the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. The GnRH neurons exhibit marked plasticity to control the ovarian cycle with circulating estradiol concentrations having profound "feedback" effects on their activity. This includes "negative feedback" responsible for suppressing GnRH neuron activity and "positive feedback" that occurs at mid-cycle to activate the GnRH neurons to generate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge...
September 2017: ENeuro
John Del Gaizo, Julius Fridriksson, Grigori Yourganov, Argye E Hillis, Gregory Hickok, Bratislav Misic, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Lesion-symptom mapping is often employed to define brain structures that are crucial for human behavior. Even though poststroke deficits result from gray matter damage as well as secondary white matter loss, the impact of structural disconnection is overlooked by conventional lesion-symptom mapping because it does not measure loss of connectivity beyond the stroke lesion. This study describes how traditional lesion mapping can be combined with structural connectome lesion symptom mapping (CLSM) and connectome dynamics lesion symptom mapping (CDLSM) to relate residual white matter networks to behavior...
September 2017: ENeuro
Manila Loi, Ratna Angela Sarabdjitsingh, Andromachi Tsouli, Stephanie Trinh, Marit Arp, Harmen J Krugers, Henk Karst, Ruud van den Bos, Marian Joëls
Early life adversity is a well-known risk factor for behavioral dysfunction later in life, including the formation of contextual memory; it is also (transiently) accompanied by hyperactivity of the stress system. We tested whether mifepristone (MIF) treatment, which among other things blocks glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), during the prepubertal period [postnatal days (PND)26-PND28] normalizes memory deficits in adult male rats exposed to 24-h maternal deprivation (MD) at PND3. MD reduced body weight gain and increased basal corticosterone (CORT) levels during the PND26, but not in adulthood...
September 2017: ENeuro
Margaret A Mohr, Lydia L DonCarlos, Cheryl L Sisk
New cells are added during both puberty and adulthood to hypothalamic regions that govern reproduction, homeostasis, and social behaviors, yet the functions of these late-born cells remain elusive. Here, we pharmacologically inhibited cell proliferation in ventricular zones during puberty or in adulthood and determined subsequent effects on the hormone-induced surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in female rats. Initial neuroanatomical analyses focused on verifying incorporation, activation, and pharmacological inhibition of pubertally or adult born cells in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus because of the essential role of the AVPV in triggering the preovulatory LH surge in females...
September 2017: ENeuro
Klio Maniati, Katherine-Joanne Haralambous, Luca Turin, Efthimios M C Skoulakis
A remarkable feature of olfaction, and perhaps the hardest one to explain by shape-based molecular recognition, is the ability to detect the presence of functional groups in odorants, irrespective of molecular context. We previously showed that Drosophila trained to avoid deuterated odorants could respond to a molecule bearing a nitrile group, which shares the vibrational stretch frequency with the CD bond. Here, we reproduce and extend this finding by showing analogous olfactory responses of Drosophila to the chemically vastly different functional groups, thiols and boranes, that nevertheless possess a common vibration at 2600 cm(-1)...
September 2017: ENeuro
Ernesto Solis, Keaton T Cameron-Burr, Eugene A Kiyatkin
While opioid abuse is an established medical and public health issue, the increased availability of highly potent synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl, has given rise to acute health complications, including a comatose state and death during drug overdose. Since respiratory depression that leads to acute hypoxia is the most dangerous complication of opioid drug use, we examined the effects of intravenous heroin and heroin contaminated with 10% fentanyl on oxygen levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) monitored using high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats...
September 2017: ENeuro
Isabel D Derera, Brian P Delisle, Bret N Smith
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in individuals with refractory acquired epilepsy. Cardiorespiratory failure is the most likely cause in most cases, and central autonomic dysfunction has been implicated as a contributing factor to SUDEP. Neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the brainstem vagal complex receive and integrate vagally mediated information regarding cardiorespiratory and other autonomic functions, and GABAergic inhibitory NTS neurons play an essential role in modulating autonomic output...
September 2017: ENeuro
Honami Sakata, Kosuke Itoh, Yuji Suzuki, Katsuki Nakamura, Masaki Watanabe, Hironaka Igarashi, Tsutomu Nakada
The neural processes underlying self-initiated behavior (behavior that is initiated without an external stimulus trigger) are not well understood. This event-related fMRI study investigated the neural origins of self-initiated behaviors in humans, by identifying brain regions that increased in neural activities several seconds prior to self-initiated movements. Subjects performed a hand grasping task under two conditions: a free-timing and cued timing condition. The supplementary motor area (SMA) began to activate several seconds prior to self-initiated movement (accounting for hemodynamic delay), representing a potential blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal correlate of the readiness potential (RP) on electroencephalogram (EEG), referred to here as "readiness BOLD signals...
September 2017: ENeuro
Stephanie Reynolds, Therese Abrahamsson, Renaud Schuck, P Jesper Sjöström, Simon R Schultz, Pier Luigi Dragotti
We present an algorithm for detecting the location of cells from two-photon calcium imaging data. In our framework, multiple coupled active contours evolve, guided by a model-based cost function, to identify cell boundaries. An active contour seeks to partition a local region into two subregions, a cell interior and exterior, in which all pixels have maximally "similar" time courses. This simple, local model allows contours to be evolved predominantly independently. When contours are sufficiently close, their evolution is coupled, in a manner that permits overlap...
September 2017: ENeuro
Niraj S Desai, Richard Gray, Daniel Johnston
The dynamic clamp should be a standard part of every cellular electrophysiologist's toolbox. That it is not, even 25 years after its introduction, comes down to three issues: money, the disruption that adding dynamic clamp to an existing electrophysiology rig entails, and the technical prowess required of experimenters. These have been valid and limiting issues in the past, but no longer. Technological advances associated with the so-called maker movement render them moot. We demonstrate this by implementing a fast (∼100 kHz) dynamic clamp system using an inexpensive microcontroller (Teensy 3...
September 2017: ENeuro
Takaki Watanabe, Takashi Shimazaki, Yoichi Oda
Expression of different ion channels permits homologously-generated neurons to acquire different types of excitability and thus code various kinds of input information. Mauthner (M) series neurons in the teleost hindbrain consist of M cells and their morphological homologs, which are repeated in adjacent segments and share auditory inputs. When excited, M cells generate a single spike at the onset of abrupt stimuli, while their homologs encode input intensity with firing frequency. Our previous study in zebrafish showed that immature M cells burst phasically at 2 d postfertilization (dpf) and acquire single spiking at 4 dpf by specific expression of auxiliary Kvβ2 subunits in M cells in association with common expression of Kv1...
September 2017: ENeuro
Magdalena Miranda, Brianne A Kent, Juan Facundo Morici, Francisco Gallo, Noelia V Weisstaub, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey, Pedro Bekinschtein
Successful memory involves not only remembering over time but also keeping memories distinct. The ability to separate similar experiences into distinct memories is a main feature of episodic memory. Discrimination of overlapping representations has been investigated in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG), but little is known about this process in other regions such as the perirhinal cortex (Prh). We found in male rats that perirhinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for separable storage of overlapping, but not distinct, object representations, which is identical to its role in the DG for spatial representations...
September 2017: ENeuro
Jonni Hirvonen, Michael Wibral, J Matias Palva, Wolf Singer, Peter Uhlhaas, Satu Palva
Current theories of schizophrenia (ScZ) posit that the symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions arise from a dysconnection syndrome. However, studies that have examined this hypothesis with physiological data at realistic time scales are so far scarce. The current study employed a state-of-the-art approach using Magnetoencephalography (MEG) to test alterations in large-scale phase synchronization in a sample of n = 16 chronic ScZ patients, 10 males and n = 19 healthy participants, 10 males, during a perceptual closure task...
September 2017: ENeuro
Joan José Martínez, Bahar Rahsepar, John A White
Local GABAergic interneurons regulate the activity of spatially-modulated principal cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), mediating stellate-to-stellate connectivity and possibly enabling grid formation via recurrent inhibitory circuitry. Despite the important role interneurons seem to play in the MEC cortical circuit, the combination of low cell counts and functional diversity has made systematic electrophysiological studies of these neurons difficult. For these reasons, there remains a paucity of knowledge on the electrophysiological profiles of superficial MEC interneuron populations...
September 2017: ENeuro
Kate E Merritt, Ken N Seergobin, Daniel A Mendonça, Mary E Jenkins, Melvyn A Goodale, Penny A MacDonald
In the double-step paradigm, healthy human participants automatically correct reaching movements when targets are displaced. Motor deficits are prominent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. In the lone investigation of online motor correction in PD using the double-step task, a recent study found that PD patients performed unconscious adjustments appropriately but seemed impaired for consciously-perceived modifications. Conscious perception of target movement was achieved by linking displacement to movement onset...
September 2017: ENeuro
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