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Alexandra V Ulyanova, Paul F Koch, Carlo Cottone, Michael R Grovola, Christopher D Adam, Kevin D Browne, Maura T Weber, Robin J Russo, Kimberly G Gagnon, Douglas H Smith, H Isaac Chen, Victoria E Johnson, D Kacy Cullen, John A Wolf
The hippocampus is integral to working and episodic memory and is a central region of interest in diseases affecting these processes. Pig models are widely used in translational research and may provide an excellent bridge between rodents and nonhuman primates for CNS disease models because of their gyrencephalic neuroanatomy and significant white matter composition. However, the laminar structure of the pig hippocampus has not been well characterized. Therefore, we histologically characterized the dorsal hippocampus of Yucatan miniature pigs and quantified the cytoarchitecture of the hippocampal layers...
September 2018: ENeuro
Diana V Hunter, Brittney D Smaila, Douglas M Lopes, Jun Takatoh, Franziska Denk, Matt S Ramer
Promoter-based genetic recombination (via, e.g., Cre-lox) is most useful when all cells of interest express a particular gene. The discovery that the actin-binding protein advillin is expressed in all somatic sensory neurons has been exploited repeatedly to drive DNA recombination therein, yet specificity of expression has not been well demonstrated. Here, we characterize advillin expression amongst sensory neurons and in several other neural and non-neural tissues. We first validate an advillin antibody against advillin knock-out tissue, advillin promoter-driven EGFP, and advillin mRNA expression...
September 2018: ENeuro
Simon P Shen, Hua-An Tseng, Kyle R Hansen, Ruofan Wu, Howard J Gritton, Jennie Si, Xue Han
Advances in calcium imaging have made it possible to record from an increasingly larger number of neurons simultaneously. Neuroscientists can now routinely image hundreds to thousands of individual neurons. An emerging technical challenge that parallels the advancement in imaging a large number of individual neurons is the processing of correspondingly large datasets. One important step is the identification of individual neurons. Traditional methods rely mainly on manual or semimanual inspection, which cannot be scaled for processing large datasets...
September 2018: ENeuro
Christophe Bernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: ENeuro
Rosalind S E Carney
Highlighted Research Paper: Wakefulness Is Promoted during Day Time by PDFR Signalling to Dopaminergic Neurons in  Drosophila melanogaster , by, Sheetal Potdar and Vasu Sheeba.
September 2018: ENeuro
Ray Dingledine
"Good science" means answering important questions convincingly, a challenging endeavor under the best of circumstances. Our inability to replicate many biomedical studies has been the subject of numerous commentaries both in the scientific and lay press. In response, statistics has re-emerged as a necessary tool to improve the objectivity of study conclusions. However, psychological aspects of decision making introduce preconceived preferences into scientific judgment that cannot be eliminated by any statistical method...
September 2018: ENeuro
Inês Bramão, Mikael Johansson
The transfer-appropriate processing (TAP) account holds that episodic memory depends on the overlap between encoding and retrieval processing. In the current study, we employed multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of electroencephalography to examine the relevance of spontaneously engaged visual processing during encoding for later retrieval. Human participants encoded word-picture associations, where the picture could be a famous face, a landmark, or an object. At test, we manipulated the retrieval demands by asking participants to retrieve either visual or verbal information about the pictures...
July 2018: ENeuro
Christopher R Nolan, Joyce M G Vromen, Allen Cheung, Oliver Baumann
Individual hippocampal neurons selectively increase their firing rates in specific spatial locations. As a population, these neurons provide a decodable representation of space that is robust against changes to sensory- and path-related cues. This neural code is sparse and distributed, theoretically rendering it undetectable with population recording methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Existing studies nonetheless report decoding spatial codes in the human hippocampus using such techniques...
July 2018: ENeuro
Jaime E Heiss, Akihiro Yamanaka, Thomas S Kilduff
Until recently, hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons were the only known wake-promoting neuronal population in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), but subpopulations of inhibitory neurons in this area and glutamatergic neurons in the nearby supramammillary nucleus (SuM) have recently been found that also promote wakefulness. We performed chemogenetic excitation of LH neurons in mice and observed increased wakefulness that lasted more than 4 h without unusual behavior or EEG anomalies. The increased wakefulness was similar in the presence or absence of the dual orexin receptor blocker almorexant (ALM)...
July 2018: ENeuro
Juan de la Parra, María I Cuartero, Alberto Pérez-Ruiz, Alicia García-Culebras, Ricardo Martín, José Sánchez-Prieto, Juan M García-Segura, Ignacio Lizasoain, María A Moro
Newborn granule cells are continuously produced in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus throughout life. Once these cells mature, they integrate into pre-existing circuits modulating hippocampus-dependent memory. Subsequently, mechanisms controlling generation and maturation of newborn cells are essential for proper hippocampal function. Therefore, we have studied the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated bHLH-PAS transcription factor, in hippocampus-dependent memory and granule neuronal morphology and function using genetic loss-of-function approaches based on constitutive and inducible-nestin AhR-/- mice...
July 2018: ENeuro
Sean McDougall, Wanette Vargas Riad, Andrea Silva-Gotay, Elizabeth R Tavares, Divya Harpalani, Geng-Lin Li, Heather N Richardson
Myelination of prefrontal circuits during adolescence is thought to lead to enhanced cognitive processing and improved behavioral control. However, while standard neuroimaging techniques commonly used in human and animal studies can measure large white matter bundles and residual conduction speed, they cannot directly measure myelination of individual axons or how fast electrical signals travel along these axons. Here we focused on a specific population of prefrontal axons to directly measure conduction velocity and myelin microstructure in developing male rats...
July 2018: ENeuro
Benjamin Baird, Anna Castelnovo, Brady A Riedner, Antoine Lutz, Fabio Ferrarelli, Melanie Boly, Richard J Davidson, Giulio Tononi
It is often assumed that during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep the cerebral cortex homogenously shows electroencephalogram (EEG) activity highly similar to wakefulness. However, to date no studies have compared neural oscillatory activity in human REM sleep to resting wakefulness with high spatial sampling. In the current study, we evaluated high-resolution topographical changes in neural oscillatory power between both early and late naturalistic REM sleep and resting wakefulness in adult humans. All-night recordings with 256-channel high-density EEG (hd-EEG) were collected in healthy volunteers ( N = 12)...
July 2018: ENeuro
J Miguel Cisneros-Franco, Lydia Ouellet, Brishna Kamal, Etienne de Villers-Sidani
During early developmental windows known as critical periods (CPs) of plasticity, passive alterations in the quality and quantity of sensory inputs are sufficient to induce profound and long-lasting distortions in cortical sensory representations. With CP closure, those representations are stabilized, a process requiring the maturation of inhibitory networks and the maintenance of sufficient GABAergic tone in the cortex. In humans and rodents, however, cortical inhibition progressively decreases with advancing age, raising the possibility that the regulation of plasticity could be altered in older individuals...
July 2018: ENeuro
D A McCreedy, S Lee, C J Sontag, P Weinstein, A D Olivas, A F Martinez, T M Fandel, A Trivedi, C A Lowell, S D Rosen, L J Noble-Haeusslein
L-selectin, a lectin-like receptor on all leukocyte classes, functions in adhesive and signaling roles in the recruitment of myeloid cells from the blood to sites of inflammation. Here, we consider L-selectin as a determinant of neurological recovery in a murine model of spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal cord-injured, L-selectin knock-out (KO) mice (male) showed improved long-term recovery with greater white matter sparing relative to wild-type (WT) mice and reduced oxidative stress in the injured cord at 72 h post-SCI...
July 2018: ENeuro
Hesham A ElShafei, Romain Bouet, Olivier Bertrand, Aurélie Bidet-Caulet
Anticipatory attention results in enhanced response to task-relevant stimulus, and reduced processing of unattended input, suggesting the deployment of distinct facilitatory and suppressive mechanisms. α Oscillations are a suitable candidate for supporting these mechanisms. We aimed to examine the role of α oscillations, with a special focus on peak frequencies, in facilitatory and suppressive mechanisms during auditory anticipation, within the auditory and visual regions. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data were collected from fourteen healthy young human adults (eight female) performing an auditory task in which spatial attention to sounds was manipulated by visual cues, either informative or not of the target side...
July 2018: ENeuro
Kyota Fujita, Hidenori Homma, Kanoh Kondo, Masashi Ikuno, Hodaka Yamakado, Kazuhiko Tagawa, Shigeo Murayama, Ryosuke Takahashi, Hitoshi Okazawa
Phosphorylation of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) reflects neurite degeneration at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), before extracellular Aβ aggregates are histologically detectable. Here, we demonstrate that similar changes in MARCKS occur in Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) pathologies in both mouse models and human patients. The increase in the level of pSer46-MARCKS began before α-synuclein aggregate formation, at a time when human α-Syn-BAC-Tg/GBA-hetero-KO mice exhibited no symptoms, and was sustained during aging, consistent with the pattern in human postmortem brains...
July 2018: ENeuro
Rhalena A Thomas, Julien Gibon, Carol X Q Chen, Sabrina Chierzi, Vincent G Soubannier, Stephanie Baulac, Philippe Séguéla, Keith Murai, Philip A Barker
Leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) is a secreted neuronal protein and a Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) ligand. Mutations in LGI1 in humans causes autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy and homozygous deletion of LGI1 in mice results in severe epileptic seizures that cause early postnatal death. NgR1 plays an important role in the development of CNS synapses and circuitry by limiting plasticity in the adult cortex via the activation of RhoA. These relationships and functions prompted us to examine the effect of LGI1 on synapse formation in vitro and in vivo ...
July 2018: ENeuro
Youssouf Cissé, Hanieh Toossi, Masaru Ishibashi, Lynda Mainville, Christopher S Leonard, Antoine Adamantidis, Barbara E Jones
Acetylcholine (ACh) neurons in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum (PMT) are thought to play an important role in promoting cortical activation with waking (W) and paradoxical sleep [PS; or rapid eye movement (REM)], but have yet to be proven to do so by selective stimulation and simultaneous recording of identified ACh neurons. Here, we employed optogenetics combined with juxtacellular recording and labeling of neurons in transgenic (TG) mice expressing ChR2 in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-synthesizing neurons...
July 2018: ENeuro
Alexandra P Chatzikalymniou, Frances K Skinner
Oscillations in local field potentials (LFPs) are prevalent and contribute to brain function. An understanding of the cellular correlates and pathways affecting LFPs is needed, but many overlapping pathways in vivo make this difficult to achieve. A prevalent LFP rhythm in the hippocampus associated with memory processing and spatial navigation is the θ (3-12 Hz) oscillation. θ rhythms emerge intrinsically in an in vitro whole hippocampus preparation and this reduced preparation makes it possible to assess the contribution of different cell types to LFP generation...
July 2018: ENeuro
Brittney R Lins, Jessica L Hurtubise, Andrew J Roebuck, Wendie N Marks, Nadine K Zabder, Gavin A Scott, Quentin Greba, Wojciech Dawicki, Xiaobei Zhang, Christopher D Rudulier, John R Gordon, John G Howland
Influenza during pregnancy is associated with the development of psychopathology in the offspring. We sought to determine whether maternal cytokines produced following administration of viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) to pregnant rats were predictive of behavioral abnormalities in the adult offspring. Timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received a single intravenous injection of 4-mg/kg polyI:C or saline on gestational day (GD)15. Blood was collected 3 h later for serum analysis of cytokine levels with ELISA...
July 2018: ENeuro
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