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Stephanie Wegener, Arne Buschler, A Vanessa Stempel, Sukjae J Kang, Chae-Seok Lim, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Sarah A Shoichet, Denise Manahan-Vaughan, Dietmar Schmitz
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic etiology. Since mutations in human SHANK genes have been found in patients with autism, genetic mouse models are used for a mechanistic understanding of ASDs and the development of therapeutic strategies. SHANKs are scaffold proteins in the postsynaptic density of mammalian excitatory synapses with proposed functions in synaptogenesis, regulation of dendritic spine morphology, and instruction of structural synaptic plasticity...
May 2018: ENeuro
Igor Ilinsky, Andreas Horn, Perrine Paul-Gilloteaux, Pierre Gressens, Catherine Verney, Kristy Kultas-Ilinsky
Classification and delineation of the motor-related nuclei in the human thalamus have been the focus of numerous discussions for a long time. Difficulties in finding consensus have for the most part been caused by paucity of direct experimental data on connections of individual nuclear entities. Kultas-Ilinsky et al. (2011) showed that distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 (GAD65), the enzyme that synthesizes inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, is a reliable marker that allows to delineate connectionally distinct nuclei in the human motor thalamus, namely the territories innervated by nigral, pallidal, and cerebellar afferents...
May 2018: ENeuro
Arpan Banerjee, Yukiko Kikuchi, Mortimer Mishkin, Josef P Rauschecker, Barry Horwitz
Animals and humans rapidly detect specific features of sounds, but the time courses of the underlying neural response for different stimulus categories is largely unknown. Furthermore, the intricate functional organization of auditory information processing pathways is poorly understood. Here, we computed neuronal response latencies from simultaneously recorded spike trains and local field potentials (LFPs) along the first two stages of cortical sound processing, primary auditory cortex (A1) and lateral belt (LB), of awake, behaving macaques...
May 2018: ENeuro
Jenni Kononoff, Marsida Kallupi, Adam Kimbrough, Dana Conlisk, Giordano de Guglielmo, Olivier George
GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is expressed mainly in the brain, with the highest expression in the medial habenula. The modulation of GPR139 receptor function has been hypothesized to be beneficial in the treatment of some mental disorders, but behavioral studies have not yet provided causal evidence of the role of GPR139 in brain dysfunction. Because of the high expression of GPR139 in the habenula, a critical brain region in addiction, we hypothesized that GPR139 may play role in alcohol dependence...
May 2018: ENeuro
Christophe Bernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: ENeuro
Tahnée Engelen, Minye Zhan, Alexander T Sack, Beatrice de Gelder
Expressions of emotion are powerful triggers for situation-appropriate responses by the observer. Of particular interest regarding the preparation of such adaptive actions are parietal and premotor cortices, given their potential for interaction with the amygdala (AMG), which is known to play a crucial role in the processing of affective information and in motor response. We set out to disentangle the respective roles of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) in humans in the processing of emotional body expressions by assessing remote effects of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) in the action network and in AMG...
May 2018: ENeuro
Ryo Yamamoto, Nowrin Ahmed, Tetsufumi Ito, Nur Zeynep Gungor, Denis Pare
The basomedial amygdala (BM) influences the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) through direct glutamatergic projections as well as indirectly, through the anterior part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTa). However, BM and BNSTa axons end in a segregated fashion in VMH. BM projects to the core of VMH, where VMH's projection cells are located, whereas BNSTa projects to the shell of VMH, where GABAergic cells that inhibit core neurons are concentrated. However, the consequences of this dual regulation of VMH by BM and BNSTa are unknown...
May 2018: ENeuro
Hye Young Shin, Kathleen L Pfaff, Lance S Davidow, Chicheng Sun, Takayuki Uozumi, Fumiki Yanagawa, Yoichi Yamazaki, Yasujiro Kiyota, Lee L Rubin
Human neurons expressing mutations associated with neurodegenerative disease are becoming more widely available. Hence, developing assays capable of accurately detecting changes that occur early in the disease process and identifying therapeutics able to slow these changes should become ever more important. Using automated live-cell imaging, we studied human motor neurons in the process of dying following neurotrophic factor withdrawal. We tracked different neuronal features, including cell body size, neurite length, and number of nodes...
May 2018: ENeuro
Caesar M Hernandez, Joseph A McQuail, Miranda R Schwabe, Sara N Burke, Barry Setlow, Jennifer L Bizon
Glutamate signaling is essential for the persistent neural activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) that enables working memory. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a diverse class of proteins that modulate excitatory neurotransmission via both presynaptic regulation of extracellular glutamate levels and postsynaptic modulation of ion channels on dendritic spines. This receptor class is of significant therapeutic interest for treatment of cognitive disorders associated with glutamate dysregulation. Working memory impairment and cortical hypoexcitability are both associated with advanced aging...
May 2018: ENeuro
Anna M Taylor, Qian Shi, Manzoor A Bhat
Nodes of Ranvier are unique regions where voltage-gated sodium channels are highly enriched to drive saltatory conduction. Genetic ablations in adult mice with loss of specific nodal proteins causes slow but progressive nodal deterioration associated with decreased nerve conduction and axonopathy. What has remained unaddressed is whether loss of nodal proteins at different time points in postnatal life follows similar timelines of nodal disorganization. Here we utilized simultaneous ablation of Neurofascin (NF186) and Ankyrin G (AnkG) in mice of both sexes at three specific time points...
May 2018: ENeuro
Shanyan Chen, Zhenzhou Chen, Jiankun Cui, Myah L McCrary, Hailong Song, Shahriar Mobashery, Mayland Chang, Zezong Gu
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is caused by clotting in the cerebral arteries, leading to brain oxygen deprivation and cerebral infarction. Recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is currently the only Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for ischemic stroke. However, tPA has to be administered within 4.5 h from the disease onset and delayed treatment of tPA can increase the risk of neurovascular impairment, including neuronal cell death, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and hemorrhagic transformation...
May 2018: ENeuro
Paolo Papale, Andrea Leo, Luca Cecchetti, Giacomo Handjaras, Kendrick N Kay, Pietro Pietrini, Emiliano Ricciardi
One of the major challenges in visual neuroscience is represented by foreground-background segmentation. Data from nonhuman primates show that segmentation leads to two distinct, but associated processes: the enhancement of neural activity during figure processing (i.e., foreground enhancement) and the suppression of background-related activity (i.e., background suppression). To study foreground-background segmentation in ecological conditions, we introduce a novel method based on parametric modulation of low-level image properties followed by application of simple computational image-processing models...
May 2018: ENeuro
Laure Spieser, Carmen Kohl, Bettina Forster, Sven Bestmann, Kielan Yarrow
Evolutionary pressures suggest that choices should be optimized to maximize rewards, by appropriately trading speed for accuracy. This speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) is commonly explained by variation in just the baseline-to-boundary distance, i.e., the excursion, of accumulation-to-bound models of perceptual decision-making. However, neural evidence is not consistent with this explanation. A compelling account of speeded choice should explain both overt behavior and the full range of associated brain signatures...
May 2018: ENeuro
Nina Berggaard, Ingvild E Bjerke, Anna E B Paulsen, Linh Hoang, Nan E T Skogaker, Menno P Witter, Johannes J L van der Want
Grid cells in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC LII) generate multiple regular firing fields in response to the position and speed of an individual within the environment. They exhibit a protracted postnatal development and, in the adult, show activity differences along the dorsoventral axis (DVA). Evidence suggests parvalbumin-positive (PV+ ) interneurons, most of which are perisomatic-targeting cells, play a crucial role in generation of the hexagonal grid cell activity pattern. We therefore hypothesized that the development and organization of PV+ perisomatic terminals in MEC LII reflect the postnatal emergence of the hexagonal firing pattern and dorsoventral differences seen in grid cell activity...
May 2018: ENeuro
Shlesha Richhariya, Siddharth Jayakumar, Sanjay Kumar Sukumar, Gaiti Hasan
Manifestation of appropriate behavior in adult animals requires developmental mechanisms that help in the formation of correctly wired neural circuits. Flight circuit development in Drosophila requires store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through the STIM/Orai pathway. SOCE-associated flight deficits in adult Drosophila derive extensively from regulation of gene expression in pupal neurons, and one such SOCE-regulated gene encodes the small GTPase Ral . The cellular mechanism by which Ral helps in maturation of the flight circuit was not understood...
May 2018: ENeuro
Annika H Runegaard, Andreas T Sørensen, Ciarán M Fitzpatrick, Søren H Jørgensen, Anders V Petersen, Nikolaj W Hansen, Pia Weikop, Jesper T Andreasen, Jens D Mikkelsen, Jean-Francois Perrier, David Woldbye, Mattias Rickhag, Gitta Wortwein, Ulrik Gether
Dopamine plays a key role in the cellular and behavioral responses to drugs of abuse, but the implication of metabotropic regulatory input to dopaminergic neurons on acute drug effects and subsequent drug-related behavior remains unclear. Here, we used chemogenetics [Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)] to modulate dopamine signaling and activity before cocaine administration in mice. We show that chemogenetic inhibition of dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons differentially affects locomotor and reward-related behavioral responses to cocaine...
May 2018: ENeuro
Joachim Haenicke, Nobuhiro Yamagata, Hanna Zwaka, Martin Nawrot, Randolf Menzel
The mushroom body (MB) in insects is known as a major center for associative learning and memory, although exact locations for the correlating memory traces remain to be elucidated. Here, we asked whether presynaptic boutons of olfactory projection neurons (PNs) in the main input site of the MB undergo neuronal plasticity during classical odor-reward conditioning and correlate with the conditioned behavior. We simultaneously measured Ca2+ responses in the boutons and conditioned behavioral responses to learned odors in honeybees...
May 2018: ENeuro
Nicholas P Boyer, Caroline Monkiewicz, Shalini Menon, Sheryl S Moy, Stephanie L Gupton
Class I members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases evolutionarily appeared just prior to the advent of neuronal like cells and have been implicated in neuronal development from invertebrates to mammals. The single Class I TRIM in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans and the mammalian Class I TRIM9 regulate axon branching and guidance in response to the guidance cue netrin, whereas mammalian TRIM46 establishes the axon initial segment. In humans, mutations in TRIM1 and TRIM18 are implicated in Opitz Syndrome, characterized by midline defects and often intellectual disability...
May 2018: ENeuro
Luca Iemi, Niko A Busch
Perceiving an external stimulus depends not only on the physical features of the stimulus, but also fundamentally on the current state of neuronal excitability, indexed by the power of ongoing alpha-band and beta-band oscillations (8-30 Hz). Recent studies suggest that heightened excitability does not improve perceptual precision, but biases observers to report the presence of a stimulus regardless of its physical presence. It is unknown whether this bias is due to changes in observers' subjective perceptual experience (perceptual bias) or their perception-independent decision-making strategy (decision bias)...
May 2018: ENeuro
Paul R Evans, Paula Parra-Bueno, Michael S Smirnov, Daniel J Lustberg, Serena M Dudek, John R Hepler, Ryohei Yasuda
Pyramidal neurons in hippocampal area CA2 are distinct from neighboring CA1 in that they resist synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3 Schaffer collateral synapses. Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a complex scaffolding protein enriched in CA2 dendritic spines that naturally blocks CA2 synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning, but the cellular mechanisms by which RGS14 gates LTP are largely unexplored. A previous study has attributed the lack of plasticity to higher rates of calcium (Ca2+ ) buffering and extrusion in CA2 spines...
May 2018: ENeuro
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