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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920075/of-mice-and-men-empirical-support-for-the-population-based-social-epistasis-amplification-model-a-comment-on
#1
Matthew Alexandar Sarraf, Michael Anthony Woodley Of Menie
This commentary article offers new perspective on recent research investigating the behavioral and social ecological effects of a mutation related to autism spectrum disorders in mice. The authors explain the consistency of this research on mice with predictions advanced by a theory of the role of mutations in altering interorganismal gene-gene interactions (social epistasis) in social species including humans, known as the social epistasis amplification model. The potential significance of the mouse research for understanding contemporary human behavioral trends is explored...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856243/presence-of-androgen-receptor-variant-in-neuronal-lipid-rafts
#2
Jo Garza-Contreras, Phong Duong, Brina D Snyder, Derek A Schreihofer, Rebecca L Cunningham
Fast, nongenomic androgen actions have been described in various cell types, including neurons. However, the receptor mediating this cell membrane-initiated rapid signaling remains unknown. This study found a putative androgen receptor splice variant in a dopaminergic N27 cell line and in several brain regions (substantia nigra pars compacta, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus) from gonadally intact and gonadectomized (young and middle-aged) male rats. This putative splice variant protein has a molecular weight of 45 kDa and lacks an N-terminal domain, indicating it is homologous to the human AR45 splice variant...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856242/3d-visualization-of-individual-regenerating-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-reveals-surprisingly-complex-growth-paths
#3
Eric R Bray, Markus Noga, Kinjal Thakor, Yunfang Wang, Vance P Lemmon, Kevin K Park, Pantelis Tsoulfas
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole output cells of the retina, are a heterogeneous population of neurons that project axons to visual targets in the brain. Like most CNS neurons, RGCs are considered incapable of mounting long distance axon regeneration. Using immunolabeling-enabled 3D imaging of solvent-cleared organs (iDISCO) in transgenic mice, we tracked the entire paths of individual RGC axons and show that adult RGCs are highly capable of spontaneous long-distance regeneration, even without any treatment...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856241/structural-learning-in-a-visuomotor-adaptation-task-is-explicitly-accessible
#4
Krista M Bond, Jordan A Taylor
Structural learning is a phenomenon characterized by faster learning in a new situation that shares features of previously experienced situations. One prominent example within the sensorimotor domain is that human participants are faster to counter a novel rotation following experience with a set of variable visuomotor rotations. This form of learning is thought to occur implicitly through the updating of an internal forward model, which predicts the sensory consequences of motor commands. However, recent work has shown that much of rotation learning occurs through an explicitly accessible process, such as movement re-aiming...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856240/heterogeneity-in-kv2-channel-expression-shapes-action-potential-characteristics-and-firing-patterns-in-ca1-versus-ca2-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#5
Stephanie Palacio, Vivien Chevaleyre, David H Brann, Karl D Murray, Rebecca A Piskorowski, James S Trimmer
The CA1 region of the hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial and contextual memory, and has well-established circuitry, function and plasticity. In contrast, the properties of the flanking CA2 pyramidal neurons (PNs), important for social memory, and lacking CA1-like plasticity, remain relatively understudied. In particular, little is known regarding the expression of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels and the contribution of these channels to the distinct properties of intrinsic excitability, action potential (AP) waveform, firing patterns and neurotransmission between CA1 and CA2 PNs...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856239/histone-hypervariants-h2a-z-1-and-h2a-z-2-play-independent-and-context-specific-roles-in-neuronal-activity-induced-transcription-of-arc-arg3-1-and-other-immediate-early-genes
#6
Carissa J Dunn, Pushpita Sarkar, Emma R Bailey, Shannon Farris, Meilan Zhao, James M Ward, Serena M Dudek, Ramendra N Saha
The histone variant H2A.Z is an essential and conserved regulator of eukaryotic gene transcription. However, the exact role of this histone in the transcriptional process remains perplexing. In vertebrates, H2A.Z has two hypervariants, H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2, that have almost identical sequences except for three amino acid residues. Due to such similarity, functional specificity of these hypervariants in neurobiological processes, if any, remain largely unknown. In this study with dissociated rat cortical neurons, we asked if H2A...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840190/activity-dynamics-and-signal-representation-in-a-striatal-network-model-with-distance-dependent-connectivity
#7
Sebastian Spreizer, Martin Angelhuber, Jyotika Bahuguna, Ad Aertsen, Arvind Kumar
The striatum is the main input nucleus of the basal ganglia. Characterizing striatal activity dynamics is crucial to understanding mechanisms underlying action selection, initiation, and execution. Here, we studied the effects of spatial network connectivity on the spatiotemporal structure of striatal activity. We show that a striatal network with nonmonotonically changing distance-dependent connectivity (according to a gamma distribution) can exhibit a wide repertoire of spatiotemporal dynamics, ranging from spatially homogeneous, asynchronous-irregular (AI) activity to a state with stable, spatially localized activity bumps, as in "winner-take-all" (WTA) dynamics...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840189/refractoriness-accounts-for-variable-spike-burst-responses-in-somatosensory-cortex
#8
Bartosz TeleŇĄczuk, Richard Kempter, Gabriel Curio, Alain Destexhe
Neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) respond to peripheral stimulation with synchronized bursts of spikes, which lock to the macroscopic 600-Hz EEG waves. The mechanism of burst generation and synchronization in S1 is not yet understood. Using models of single-neuron responses fitted to unit recordings from macaque monkeys, we show that these synchronized bursts are the consequence of correlated synaptic inputs combined with a refractory mechanism. In the presence of noise these models reproduce also the observed trial-to-trial response variability, where individual bursts represent one of many stereotypical temporal spike patterns...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828403/stress-increases-peripheral-axon-growth-and-regeneration-through-glucocorticoid-receptor-dependent-transcriptional-programs
#9
Jessica K Lerch, Jessica K Alexander, Kathryn M Madalena, Dario Motti, Tam Quach, Akhil Dhamija, Alicia Zha, John C Gensel, Jeanette Webster Marketon, Vance P Lemmon, John L Bixby, Phillip G Popovich
Stress and glucocorticoid (GC) release are common behavioral and hormonal responses to injury or disease. In the brain, stress/GCs can alter neuron structure and function leading to cognitive impairment. Stress and GCs also exacerbate pain, but whether a corresponding change occurs in structural plasticity of sensory neurons is unknown. Here, we show that in female mice (Mus musculus) basal GC receptor (Nr3c1, also known as GR) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons is 15-fold higher than in neurons in canonical stress-responsive brain regions (M...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828402/neuregulin-and-dopamine-d4-receptors-contribute-independently-to-depotentiation-of-schaffer-collateral-ltp-by-temperoammonic-path-stimulation
#10
Yukitoshi Izumi, Charles F Zorumski
Prior studies have found that dopamine (DA), acting at D4 receptors, and neuregulin (NRG), likely acting at ErbB4 receptors, are involved in a form of depotentiation of long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral (SC) synapses in the hippocampus. Furthermore, DA and NRG actions are intertwined in that NRG induces DA release. We previously found that low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of temperoammonic (TA) inputs to area CA1 also depotentiates previously established SC LTP through a complex signaling pathway involving endocannabinoids, GABA, adenosine, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), but not glutamate...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828401/abnormalities-in-dynamic-brain-activity-caused-by-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-are-partially-rescued-by-the-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-inverse-agonist-smm-189
#11
Yu Liu, Samuel S McAfee, Natalie M Guley, Nobel Del Mar, Wei Bu, Scott A Heldt, Marcia G Honig, Bob M Moore, Anton Reiner, Detlef H Heck
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause severe long-term cognitive and emotional deficits, including impaired memory, depression, and persevering fear, but the neuropathological basis of these deficits is uncertain. As medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus play important roles in memory and emotion, we used multi-site, multi-electrode recordings of oscillatory neuronal activity in local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice to determine if the functioning of these regions was abnormal after mTBI, using a closed-skull focal cranial blast model...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828400/calcium-circadian-rhythmicity-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-cell-autonomy-and-network-modulation
#12
Takako Noguchi, Tanya L Leise, Nathaniel J Kingsbury, Tanja Diemer, Lexie L Wang, Michael A Henson, David K Welsh
Circadian rhythms of mammalian physiology and behavior are coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus. Within SCN neurons, various aspects of cell physiology exhibit circadian oscillations, including circadian clock gene expression, levels of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i), and neuronal firing rate. [Ca(2+)]i oscillates in SCN neurons even in the absence of neuronal firing. To determine the causal relationship between circadian clock gene expression and [Ca(2+)]i rhythms in the SCN, as well as the SCN neuronal network dependence of [Ca(2+)]i rhythms, we introduced GCaMP3, a genetically encoded fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator, into SCN neurons from PER2::LUC knock-in reporter mice...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828399/intracellular-proteolysis-of-progranulin-generates-stable-lysosomal-granulins-that-are-haploinsufficient-in-patients-with-frontotemporal-dementia-caused-by-grn-mutations
#13
Christopher J Holler, Georgia Taylor, Qiudong Deng, Thomas Kukar
Homozygous or heterozygous mutations in the GRN gene, encoding progranulin (PGRN), cause neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD), respectively. NCL and FTD are characterized by lysosome dysfunction and neurodegeneration, indicating PGRN is important for lysosome homeostasis in the brain. PGRN is trafficked to the lysosome where its functional role is unknown. PGRN can be cleaved into seven 6-kDa proteins called granulins (GRNs); however, little is known about how GRNs are produced or if levels of GRNs are altered in FTD-GRN mutation carriers...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828398/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-parp-1-induction-by-cocaine-is-post-transcriptionally-regulated-by-mir-125b
#14
Sabyasachi Dash, Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Tanu Rana, Arthur Godino, Emily G Peck, Jeffery Shawn Goodwin, Fernando Villalta, Erin S Calipari, Eric J Nestler, Chandravanu Dash, Jui Pandhare
Cocaine exposure alters gene expression in the brain via methylation and acetylation of histones along with methylation of DNA. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) catalyzed PARylation has been reported as an important regulator of cocaine-mediated gene expression. In this study, we report that the cellular microRNA "miR-125b" plays a key role for cocaine-induced PARP-1 expression. Acute and chronic cocaine exposure resulted in the downregulation of miR-125b concurrent with upregulation of PARP-1 in dopaminergic neuronal cells and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice but not in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) or ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824957/correction-danion-et-al-eye-tracking-of-occluded-self-moved-targets-role-of-haptic-feedback-and-hand-target-dynamics-eneuro-may-june-2017-4-3-e0101-17-2017-1-12-https-doi-org-10-1523-eneuro-0101-17-2017
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824956/early-age-running-enhances-activity-of-adult-born-dentate-granule-neurons-following-learning-in-rats
#16
Olga Shevtsova, Yao-Fang Tan, Christina M Merkley, Gordon Winocur, J Martin Wojtowicz
Cognitive reserve, the brain's capacity to draw on enriching experiences during youth, is believed to protect against memory loss associated with a decline in hippocampal function, as seen in normal aging and neurodegenerative disease. Adult neurogenesis has been suggested as a specific mechanism involved in cognitive (or neurogenic) reserve. The first objective of this study was to compare learning-related neuronal activity in adult-born versus developmentally born hippocampal neurons in juvenile male rats that had engaged in extensive running activity during early development or reared in a standard laboratory environment...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28824955/working-memory-replay-prioritizes-weakly-attended-events
#17
Anna Jafarpour, Will Penny, Gareth Barnes, Robert T Knight, Emrah Duzel
One view of working memory posits that maintaining a series of events requires their sequential and equal mnemonic replay. Another view is that the content of working memory maintenance is prioritized by attention. We decoded the dynamics for retaining a sequence of items using magnetoencephalography, wherein participants encoded sequences of three stimuli depicting a face, a manufactured object, or a natural item and maintained them in working memory for 5000 ms. Memory for sequence position and stimulus details were probed at the end of the maintenance period...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819639/antioxidant-treatment-in-male-mice-prevents-mitochondrial-and-synaptic-changes-in-an-nmda-receptor-dysfunction-model-of-schizophrenia
#18
Aarron Phensy, Christopher Driskill, Karen Lindquist, Lan Guo, Vivek Jeevakumar, Bryan Fowler, Heng Du, Sven Kroener
Glutamate theories of schizophrenia suggest that the disease is associated with a loss of NMDA receptors, specifically on GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PVIs), leading to changes in the excitation-inhibition balance in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Oxidative stress contributes to the loss of PVI and the development of schizophrenia. Here, we investigated whether the glutathione precursor N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can prevent changes in synaptic transmission at pyramidal cells and PVIs that result from developmental NMDAR blockade and how these changes are related to mitochondrial dysfunction in the PFCs of mice...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812061/behavioral-comorbidities-and-drug-treatments-in-a-zebrafish-scn1lab-model-of-dravet-syndrome
#19
Brian P Grone, Tiange Qu, Scott C Baraban
Loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A cause Dravet syndrome (DS), a catastrophic childhood epilepsy in which patients experience comorbid behavioral conditions, including movement disorders, sleep abnormalities, anxiety, and intellectual disability. To study the functional consequences of voltage-gated sodium channel mutations, we use zebrafish with a loss-of-function mutation in scn1lab, a zebrafish homolog of human SCN1A. Homozygous scn1lab(s552/s552) mutants exhibit early-life seizures, metabolic deficits, and early death...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808677/correction-mcmurray-et-al-brain-stimulation-reward-supports-more-consistent-and-accurate-rodent-decision-making-than-food-reward-eneuro-march-april-2017-4-2-e0015-17-2017-1-13-http-dx-doi-org-10-1523-eneuro-0015-17-2017
#20
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1523/ENEURO.0015-17.2017.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1523/ENEURO.0015-17.2017.].
July 2017: ENeuro
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