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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413827/a-balanced-comparison-of-object-invariances-in-monkey-it-neurons
#1
N Apurva Ratan Murty, Sripati P Arun
Our ability to recognize objects across variations in size, position, or rotation is based on invariant object representations in higher visual cortex. However, we know little about how these invariances are related. Are some invariances harder than others? Do some invariances arise faster than others? These comparisons can be made only upon equating image changes across transformations. Here, we targeted invariant neural representations in the monkey inferotemporal (IT) cortex using object images with balanced changes in size, position, and rotation...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413826/medial-ganglionic-eminence-progenitors-transplanted-into-hippocampus-integrate-in-a-functional-and-subtype-appropriate-manner
#2
Jui-Yi Hsieh, Scott C Baraban
Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) transplantation rescues disease phenotypes in various preclinical models with interneuron deficiency or dysfunction, including epilepsy. While underlying mechanism(s) remains unclear to date, a simple explanation is that appropriate synaptic integration of MGE-derived interneurons elevates GABA-mediated inhibition and modifies the firing activity of excitatory neurons in the host brain. However, given the complexity of interneurons and potential for transplant-derived interneurons to integrate or alter the host network in unexpected ways, it remains unexplored whether synaptic connections formed by transplant-derived interneurons safely mirror those associated with endogenous interneurons...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413825/color-change-detection-activity-in-the-primate-superior-colliculus
#3
James P Herman, Richard J Krauzlis
The primate superior colliculus (SC) is a midbrain structure that participates in the control of spatial attention. Previous studies examining the role of the SC in attention have mostly used luminance-based visual features (e.g., motion, contrast) as the stimuli and saccadic eye movements as the behavioral response, both of which are known to modulate the activity of SC neurons. To explore the limits of the SC's involvement in the control of spatial attention, we recorded SC neuronal activity during a task using color, a visual feature dimension not traditionally associated with the SC, and required monkeys to detect threshold-level changes in the saturation of a cued stimulus by releasing a joystick during maintained fixation...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413824/perturbation-of-serotonin-homeostasis-during-adulthood-affects-serotonergic-neuronal-circuitry
#4
Marta Pratelli, Sara Migliarini, Barbara Pelosi, Francesco Napolitano, Alessandro Usiello, Massimo Pasqualetti
Growing evidence shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) modulates the fine-tuning of neuron development and the establishment of wiring patterns in the brain. However, whether serotonin is involved in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry in the adult brain remains elusive. Here, we use a Tph2(fl)°(x) conditional knockout (cKO) mouse line to assess the impact of serotonin depletion during adulthood on serotonergic system organization. Data show that the density of serotonergic fibers is increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) as a consequence of brain serotonin depletion...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413823/long-term-predictive-and-feedback-encoding-of-motor-signals-in-the-simple-spike-discharge-of-purkinje-cells
#5
Laurentiu S Popa, Martha L Streng, Timothy J Ebner
Most hypotheses of cerebellar function emphasize a role in real-time control of movements. However, the cerebellum's use of current information to adjust future movements and its involvement in sequencing, working memory, and attention argues for predicting and maintaining information over extended time windows. The present study examines the time course of Purkinje cell discharge modulation in the monkey (Macaca mulatta) during manual, pseudo-random tracking. Analysis of the simple spike firing from 183 Purkinje cells during tracking reveals modulation up to 2 s before and after kinematics and position error...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413822/distinct-neural-properties-in-the-low-frequency-region-of-the-chicken-cochlear-nucleus-magnocellularis
#6
Xiaoyu Wang, Hui Hong, David H Brown, Jason Tait Sanchez, Yuan Wang
Topography in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM) is represented as gradually increasing characteristic frequency (CF) along the caudolateral-to-rostromedial axis. In this study, we characterized the organization and cell biophysics of the caudolateral NM (NMc) in chickens (Gallus gallus). Examination of cellular and dendritic architecture first revealed that NMc contains small neurons and extensive dendritic processes, in contrast to adendritic, large neurons located more rostromedially. Individual dye-filling study further demonstrated that NMc is divided into two subregions, with NMc2 neurons having larger and more complex dendritic fields than NMc1...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396883/intracortical-circuits-in-thalamorecipient-layers-of-auditory-cortex-refine-after-visual-deprivation
#7
Xiangying Meng, Joseph P Y Kao, Hey-Kyoung Lee, Patrick O Kanold
Sensory cortices do not work in isolation. The functional responses of neurons in primary sensory cortices can be affected by activity from other modalities. For example, short-term visual deprivations, or dark exposure (DE), leads to enhanced neuronal responses and frequency selectivity to sounds in layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1). Circuit changes within A1 likely underlie these changes. Prior studies revealed that DE enhanced thalamocortical transmission to L4 in A1. Because the frequency selectivity of L4 neurons is determined by both thalamocortical and intracortical inputs, changes in intralaminar circuits to L4 neurons might also contribute to improved sound responses...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396882/afferent-fiber-remodeling-in-the-somatosensory-thalamus-of-mice-as-a-neural-basis-of-somatotopic-reorganization-in-the-brain-and-ectopic-mechanical-hypersensitivity-after-peripheral-sensory-nerve-injury
#8
Yuichi Takeuchi, Hironobu Osaki, Yuki Yagasaki, Yoko Katayama, Mariko Miyata
Plastic changes in the CNS in response to peripheral sensory nerve injury are a series of complex processes, ranging from local circuit remodeling to somatotopic reorganization. However, the link between circuit remodeling and somatotopic reorganization remains unclear. We have previously reported that transection of the primary whisker sensory nerve causes the abnormal rewiring of lemniscal fibers (sensory afferents) on a neuron in the mouse whisker sensory thalamus (V2 VPM). In the present study, using transgenic mice whose lemniscal fibers originate from the whisker sensory principle trigeminal nucleus (PrV2) are specifically labeled, we identified that the transection induced retraction of PrV2-originating lemniscal fibers and invasion of those not originating from PrV2 in the V2 VPM...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374017/nonstationary-stochastic-dynamics-underlie-spontaneous-transitions-between-active-and-inactive-behavioral-states
#9
Alexandre Melanson, Jorge F Mejias, James J Jun, Leonard Maler, André Longtin
The neural basis of spontaneous movement generation is a fascinating open question. Long-term monitoring of fish, swimming freely in a constant sensory environment, has revealed a sequence of behavioral states that alternate randomly and spontaneously between periods of activity and inactivity. We show that key dynamical features of this sequence are captured by a 1-D diffusion process evolving in a nonlinear double well energy landscape, in which a slow variable modulates the relative depth of the wells. This combination of stochasticity, nonlinearity, and nonstationary forcing correctly captures the vastly different timescales of fluctuations observed in the data (∼1 to ∼1000 s), and yields long-tailed residence time distributions (RTDs) also consistent with the data...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374016/divergent-modulation-of-nociception-by-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neuronal-subpopulations-in-the-periaqueductal-gray
#10
Vijay K Samineni, Jose G Grajales-Reyes, Bryan A Copits, Daniel E O'Brien, Sarah L Trigg, Adrian M Gomez, Michael R Bruchas, Robert W Gereau
The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) constitutes a major descending pain modulatory system and is a crucial site for opioid-induced analgesia. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that glutamate and GABA play critical opposing roles in nociceptive processing in the vlPAG. It has been suggested that glutamatergic neurotransmission exerts antinociceptive effects, whereas GABAergic neurotransmission exert pronociceptive effects on pain transmission, through descending pathways. The inability to exclusively manipulate subpopulations of neurons in the PAG has prevented direct testing of this hypothesis...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374015/editorial-extended-data-at-eneuro
#11
EDITORIAL
Christophe Bernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374014/transgenic-monkey-model-of-the-polyglutamine-diseases-recapitulating-progressive-neurological-symptoms
#12
Ikuo Tomioka, Hidetoshi Ishibashi, Eiko N Minakawa, Hideyuki H Motohashi, Osamu Takayama, Yuko Saito, H Akiko Popiel, Sandra Puentes, Kensuke Owari, Terumi Nakatani, Naotake Nogami, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Satoru Noguchi, Takahiro Yonekawa, Yoko Tanaka, Naoko Fujita, Hikaru Suzuki, Hisae Kikuchi, Shu Aizawa, Seiichi Nagano, Daisuke Yamada, Ichizo Nishino, Noritaka Ichinohe, Keiji Wada, Shinichi Kohsaka, Yoshitaka Nagai, Kazuhiko Seki
Age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and the polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, are becoming prevalent as a consequence of elongation of the human lifespan. Although various rodent models have been developed to study and overcome these diseases, they have limitations in their translational research utility owing to differences from humans in brain structure and function and in drug metabolism. Here, we generated a transgenic marmoset model of the polyQ diseases, showing progressive neurological symptoms including motor impairment...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374013/communication-between-brain-areas-based-on-nested-oscillations
#13
Mathilde Bonnefond, Sabine Kastner, Ole Jensen
Unraveling how brain regions communicate is crucial for understanding how the brain processes external and internal information. Neuronal oscillations within and across brain regions have been proposed to play a crucial role in this process. Two main hypotheses have been suggested for routing of information based on oscillations, namely communication through coherence and gating by inhibition. Here, we propose a framework unifying these two hypotheses that is based on recent empirical findings. We discuss a theory in which communication between two regions is established by phase synchronization of oscillations at lower frequencies (<25 Hz), which serve as temporal reference frame for information carried by high-frequency activity (>40 Hz)...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374012/activation-of-ras-erk-signaling-and-gsk-3-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-and-amyloid-beta-facilitates-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Lisa Kirouac, Alexander J Rajic, David H Cribbs, Jaya Padmanabhan
It is widely accepted that amyloid β (Aβ) generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) oligomerizes and fibrillizes to form neuritic plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet little is known about the contribution of APP to intracellular signaling events preceding AD pathogenesis. The data presented here demonstrate that APP expression and neuronal exposure to oligomeric Aβ42 enhance Ras/ERK signaling cascade and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) activation. We find that RNA interference (RNAi)-directed knockdown of APP in B103 rat neuroblastoma cells expressing APP inhibits Ras-ERK signaling and GSK-3 activation, indicating that APP acts upstream of these signal transduction events...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374011/suprachiasmatic-nucleus-interaction-with-the-arcuate-nucleus-essential-for-organizing-physiological-rhythms
#15
Frederik N Buijs, Mara Guzmán-Ruiz, Luis León-Mercado, Mari Carmen Basualdo, Carolina Escobar, Andries Kalsbeek, Ruud M Buijs
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively removing SCN-arcuate nucleus (ARC) interconnectivity in Wistar rats result in a loss of rhythmicity in locomotor activity, corticosterone levels, and body temperature in constant dark (DD) conditions. Elimination of these reciprocal connections did not affect SCN clock gene rhythmicity but did cause the ARC to desynchronize...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374010/following-eye-gaze-activates-a-patch-in-the-posterior-temporal-cortex-that-is-not-part-of-the-human-face-patch-system
#16
Kira Marquardt, Hamidreza Ramezanpour, Peter W Dicke, Peter Thier
Humans follow another person's eye gaze to objects of interest to the other, thereby establishing joint attention, a first step toward developing a theory of the other's mind. Previous functional MRI studies agree that a "gaze-following patch" (GFP) of cortex close to the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is specifically implicated in eye gaze-following. The location of the GFP is in the vicinity of the posterior members of the core face-processing system that consists of distinct patches in ventral visual cortex, the STS, and frontal cortex, also involved in processing information on the eyes...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374009/longitudinal-changes-in-component-processes-of-working-memory
#17
Anna Rieckmann, Sara Pudas, Lars Nyberg
Working memory (WM) entails maintenance and manipulation of information in the absence of sensory input. This study investigated the trajectories and neural basis of these component processes of WM functions in aging. Longitudinal human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are presented from 136 older individuals (55-80 years) who were scanned at baseline and again 4 years later. We obtained evidence that age-related changes in parietal and frontal components of the WM core network are dissociable in terms of their role in maintenance of perceptual representations and further manipulation of this information, respectively...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374008/rate-and-temporal-coding-convey-multisensory-information-in-primary-sensory-cortices
#18
Malte Bieler, Kay Sieben, Nicole Cichon, Sandra Schildt, Brigitte Röder, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz
Optimal behavior and survival result from integration of information across sensory systems. Modulation of network activity at the level of primary sensory cortices has been identified as a mechanism of cross-modal integration, yet its cellular substrate is still poorly understood. Here, we uncover the mechanisms by which individual neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and visual (V1) cortices encode visual-tactile stimuli. For this, simultaneous extracellular recordings were performed from all layers of the S1 barrel field and V1 in Brown Norway rats in vivo and units were clustered and assigned to pyramidal neurons (PYRs) and interneurons (INs)...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374007/contribution-of-resting-conductance-gabaa-receptor-mediated-miniature-synaptic-currents-and-neurosteroid-to-chloride-homeostasis-in-central-neurons
#19
Tushar D Yelhekar, Michael Druzin, Staffan Johansson
Maintenance of a low intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration, [Cl(-)]i, is critical for inhibition in the CNS. Here, the contribution of passive, conductive Cl(-) flux to recovery of [Cl(-)]i after a high load was analyzed in mature central neurons from rat. A novel method for quantifying the resting Cl(-) conductance, important for [Cl(-)]i recovery, was developed and the possible contribution of GABAA and glycine receptors and of ClC-2 channels to this conductance was analyzed. The hypothesis that spontaneous, action potential-independent release of GABA is important for [Cl(-)]i recovery was tested...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374006/optogenetic-activation-of-accessory-olfactory-bulb-input-to-the-forebrain-differentially-modulates-investigation-of-opposite-versus-same-sex-urinary-chemosignals-and-stimulates-mating-in-male-mice
#20
Tenzin Kunkhyen, Elizabeth A McCarthy, Wayne J Korzan, Danielle Doctor, Xue Han, Michael J Baum, James A Cherry
Surgical or genetic disruption of vomeronasal organ (VNO)-accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) function previously eliminated the ability of male mice to processes pheromones that elicit territorial behavior and aggression. By contrast, neither disruption significantly affected mating behaviors, although VNO lesions reduced males' investigation of nonvolatile female pheromones. We explored the contribution of VNO-AOB pheromonal processing to male courtship using optogenetic activation of AOB projections to the forebrain...
March 2017: ENeuro
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