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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721361/role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-learning-and-memory-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-like-neuropathology-in-the-ps19-and-app-swe-mouse-models-of-tauopathy-and-amyloidosis
#1
Denise Isabelle Briggs, Erwin Defensor, Pooneh Memar Ardestani, Bitna Yi, Michelle Halpain, Guy Seabrook, Mehrdad Shamloo
Emerging evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, pharmacological modulation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2 (eIF2α) pathway was achieved using an integrated stress response inhibitor (ISRIB). While members of this signaling cascade have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets for neurodegeneration, the biological significance of this pathway has not been comprehensively assessed in animal models of AD...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698888/modulation-of-complex-spike-duration-and-probability-during-cerebellar-motor-learning-in-visually-guided-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements-of-monkeys
#2
Yan Yang, Stephen G Lisberger
Activation of an inferior olivary neuron powerfully excites Purkinje cells via its climbing fiber input and triggers a characteristic high-frequency burst, known as the complex spike (CS). The theory of cerebellar learning postulates that the CS induces long-lasting depression of the strength of synapses from active parallel fibers onto Purkinje cells, and that synaptic depression leads to changes in behavior. Prior reports showed that a CS on one learning trial is linked to a properly timed depression of simple spikes on the subsequent trial, as well as a learned change in pursuit eye movement...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680965/a-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-based-p75-ntr-peptide-mimetic-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-induced-axonal-pathology-and-demyelination
#3
David G Gonsalvez, Giang Tran, Jessica L Fletcher, Richard A Hughes, Suzanne Hodgkinson, Rhiannon J Wood, Sang Won Yoo, Mithraka De Silva, Wong W Agnes, Catriona McLean, Paul Kennedy, Trevor J Kilpatrick, Simon S Murray, Junhua Xiao
Axonal damage and demyelination are major determinants of disability in patients with peripheral demyelinating neuropathies. The neurotrophin family of growth factors are essential for the normal development and myelination of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and as such are potential therapeutic candidates for ameliorating axonal and myelin damage. In particular, BDNF promotes peripheral nerve myelination via p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) receptors. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a small structural mimetic of the region of BDNF that binds to p75(NTR) (cyclo-dPAKKR) in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), an established animal model of peripheral demyelinating neuropathy...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680964/eye-tracking-of-occluded-self-moved-targets-role-of-haptic-feedback-and-hand-target-dynamics
#4
Frederic Danion, James Mathew, J Randall Flanagan
Previous studies on smooth pursuit eye movements have shown that humans can continue to track the position of their hand, or a target controlled by the hand, after it is occluded, thereby demonstrating that arm motor commands contribute to the prediction of target motion driving pursuit eye movements. Here, we investigated this predictive mechanism by manipulating both the complexity of the hand-target mapping and the provision of haptic feedback. Two hand-target mappings were used, either a rigid (simple) one in which hand and target motion matched perfectly or a nonrigid (complex) one in which the target behaved as a mass attached to the hand by means of a spring...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680963/neto1-guides-development-of-glutamatergic-connectivity-in-the-hippocampus-by-regulating-axonal-kainate-receptors
#5
Ester Orav, Tsvetomira Atanasova, Alexandra Shintyapina, Sebnem Kesaf, Michela Kokko, Juha Partanen, Tomi Taira, Sari E Lauri
Kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) are highly expressed in the developing brain, where they are tonically activated to modulate synaptic transmission, network excitability and synaptogenesis. NETO proteins are auxiliary subunits that regulate biophysical properties of KARs; however, their functions in the immature brain are not known. Here, we show that NETO1 guides the development of the rodent hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuitry via regulating axonal KARs. NETO deficiency reduced axonal targeting of most KAR subunits in hippocampal neurons in a subtype independent manner...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674699/long-term-deficits-in-cortical-circuit-function-after-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest-and-resuscitation-in-developing-rats
#6
Jason W Middleton, Daniel J Simons, Jennifer W Simmons, Robert S B Clark, Patrick M Kochanek, Michael Shoykhet
Cardiac arrest is a common cause of global hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Poor neurologic outcome among cardiac arrest survivors results not only from direct cellular injury but also from subsequent long-term dysfunction of neuronal circuits. Here, we investigated the long-term impact of cardiac arrest during development on the function of cortical layer IV (L4) barrel circuits in the rat primary somatosensory cortex. We used multielectrode single-neuron recordings to examine responses of presumed excitatory L4 barrel neurons to controlled whisker stimuli in adult (8 ± 2-mo-old) rats that had undergone 9 min of asphyxial cardiac arrest and resuscitation during the third postnatal week...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674698/distinct-correlation-structure-supporting-a-rate-code-for-sound-localization-in-the-owl-s-auditory-forebrain
#7
Michael V Beckert, Rodrigo Pavão, José L Peña
While a topographic map of auditory space exists in the vertebrate midbrain, it is absent in the forebrain. Yet, both brain regions are implicated in sound localization. The heterogeneous spatial tuning of adjacent sites in the forebrain compared to the midbrain reflects different underlying circuitries, which is expected to affect the correlation structure, i.e., signal (similarity of tuning) and noise (trial-by-trial variability) correlations. Recent studies have drawn attention to the impact of response correlations on the information readout from a neural population...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670619/examining-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-by-3d-electron-microscopy-in-wildtype-and-kirrel3-knockout-mice
#8
E Anne Martin, Derek Woodruff, Randi L Rawson, Megan E Williams
Neural circuits balance excitatory and inhibitory activity and disruptions in this balance are commonly found in neurodevelopmental disorders. Mice lacking the intellectual disability and autism-associated gene Kirrel3 have an excitation-inhibition imbalance in the hippocampus but the precise synaptic changes underlying this functional defect are unknown. Kirrel3 is a homophilic adhesion molecule expressed in dentate gyrus (DG) and GABA neurons. It was suggested that the excitation-inhibition imbalance of hippocampal neurons in Kirrel3 knockout mice is due to loss of mossy fiber (MF) filopodia, which are DG axon protrusions thought to excite GABA neurons and thereby provide feed-forward inhibition to CA3 pyramidal neurons...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670618/minute-impurities-contribute-significantly-to-olfactory-receptor-ligand-studies-tales-from-testing-the-vibration-theory
#9
M Paoli, D Münch, A Haase, E Skoulakis, L Turin, C G Galizia
Several studies have attempted to test the vibrational hypothesis of odorant receptor activation in behavioral and physiological studies using deuterated compounds as odorants. The results have been mixed. Here, we attempted to test how deuterated compounds activate odorant receptors using calcium imaging of the fruit fly antennal lobe. We found specific activation of one area of the antennal lobe corresponding to inputs from a specific receptor. However, upon more detailed analysis, we discovered that an impurity of 0...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664183/the-virtual-mouse-brain-a-computational-neuroinformatics-platform-to-study-whole-mouse-brain-dynamics
#10
Francesca Melozzi, Marmaduke M Woodman, Viktor K Jirsa, Christophe Bernard
Connectome-based modeling of large-scale brain network dynamics enables causal in silico interrogation of the brain's structure-function relationship, necessitating the close integration of diverse neuroinformatics fields. Here we extend the open-source simulation software The Virtual Brain (TVB) to whole mouse brain network modeling based on individual diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)-based or tracer-based detailed mouse connectomes. We provide practical examples on how to use The Virtual Mouse Brain (TVMB) to simulate brain activity, such as seizure propagation and the switching behavior of the resting state dynamics in health and disease...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660251/avoidant-responses-to-interpersonal-provocation-are-associated-with-increased-amygdala-and-decreased-mentalizing-network-activity
#11
Macià Buades-Rotger, Frederike Beyer, Ulrike M Krämer
When intentionally pushed or insulted, one can either flee from the provoker or retaliate. The implementation of such fight-or-flight decisions is a central aspect in the genesis and evolution of aggression episodes, yet it is usually investigated only indirectly or in nonsocial situations. In the present fMRI study, we aimed to distinguish brain regions associated with aggressive and avoidant responses to interpersonal provocation in humans. Participants (thirty-six healthy young women) could either avoid or face a highly (HP) and a lowly (LP) provoking opponent in a competitive reaction time task: the fight-or-escape (FOE) paradigm...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660250/shape-selectivity-of-middle-superior-temporal-sulcus-body-patch-neurons
#12
Ioannis Kalfas, Satwant Kumar, Rufin Vogels
Functional MRI studies in primates have demonstrated cortical regions that are strongly activated by visual images of bodies. The presence of such body patches in macaques allows characterization of the stimulus selectivity of their single neurons. Middle superior temporal sulcus body (MSB) patch neurons showed similar stimulus selectivity for natural, shaded, and textured images compared with their silhouettes, suggesting that shape is an important determinant of MSB responses. Here, we examined and modeled the shape selectivity of single MSB neurons...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660249/tracking-down-nonresponsive-cortical-neurons-in-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#13
Charlotte Amalie Navntoft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660248/optogenetic-evidence-for-a-direct-circuit-linking-nociceptive-transmission-through-the-parabrachial-complex-with-pain-modulating-neurons-of-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-rvm
#14
QiLiang Chen, Zachary Roeder, Ming-Hua Li, YangMiao Zhang, Susan L Ingram, Mary M Heinricher
The parabrachial complex (PB) is a functionally and anatomically complex structure involved in a range of homeostatic and sensory functions, including nociceptive transmission. There is also evidence that PB can engage descending pain-modulating systems, the best characterized of which is the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Two distinct classes of RVM neurons, "ON-cells" and "OFF-cells," exert net pronociceptive and anti-nociceptive effects, respectively. PB was recently shown to be a relay of nociceptive information to RVM ON- and OFF-cells...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660247/phototransduction-in-drosophila-is-compromised-by-gal4-expression-but-not-by-insp3-receptor-knockdown-or-mutation
#15
Murali K Bollepalli, Marije E Kuipers, Che-Hsiung Liu, Sabrina Asteriti, Roger C Hardie
Drosophila phototransduction is mediated by phospholipase C, leading to activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) and TRP-like (TRPL) channels by mechanisms that are unresolved. A role for InsP3 receptors (IP3Rs) had been excluded because IP3R mutants (itpr) appeared to have normal light responses; however, this was recently challenged by Kohn et al. ("Functional cooperation between the IP3 receptor and phospholipase C secures the high sensitivity to light of Drosophila photoreceptors in vivo," Journal of Neuroscience 35:2530), who reported defects in phototransduction after IP3R-RNAi knockdown...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660246/gaba-b-controls-persistent-na-current-and-coupled-na-activated-k-current
#16
Ping Li, Richard Stewart, Alice Butler, Ana Laura Gonzalez-Cota, Steve Harmon, Lawrence Salkoff
The GABA-B receptor is densely expressed throughout the brain and has been implicated in many CNS functions and disorders, including addiction, epilepsy, spasticity, schizophrenia, anxiety, cognitive deficits, and depression, as well as various aspects of nervous system development. How one GABA-B receptor is involved in so many aspects of CNS function remains unanswered. Activation of GABA-B receptors is normally thought to produce inhibitory responses in the nervous system, but puzzling contradictory responses exist...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660245/plasticity-in-the-structure-of-visual-space
#17
Chen Song, Andrew M Haun, Giulio Tononi
Visual space embodies all visual experiences, yet what determines the topographical structure of visual space remains unclear. Here we test a novel theoretical framework that proposes intrinsic lateral connections in the visual cortex as the mechanism underlying the structure of visual space. The framework suggests that the strength of lateral connections between neurons in the visual cortex shapes the experience of spatial relatedness between locations in the visual field. As such, an increase in lateral connection strength shall lead to an increase in perceived relatedness and a contraction in perceived distance...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660244/systemic-nicotine-increases-gain-and-narrows-receptive-fields-in-a1-via-integrated-cortical-and-subcortical-actions
#18
Caitlin Askew, Irakli Intskirveli, Raju Metherate
Nicotine enhances sensory and cognitive processing via actions at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), yet the precise circuit- and systems-level mechanisms remain unclear. In sensory cortex, nicotinic modulation of receptive fields (RFs) provides a model to probe mechanisms by which nAChRs regulate cortical circuits. Here, we examine RF modulation in mouse primary auditory cortex (A1) using a novel electrophysiological approach: current-source density (CSD) analysis of responses to tone-in-notched-noise (TINN) acoustic stimuli...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660243/effects-of-selective-deletion-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-from-kisspeptin-cells-on-puberty-and-reproduction-in-male-and-female-mice
#19
Shannon B Z Stephens, Melvin L Rouse, Kristen P Tolson, Reanna B Liaw, Ruby A Parra, Navi Chahal, Alexander S Kauffman
The neuropeptide kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, regulates reproduction by stimulating GnRH secretion. Kiss1-syntheizing neurons reside primarily in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular (AVPV/PeN) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei. AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic, with females expressing more Kiss1 than males, and participate in estradiol (E2)-induced positive feedback control of GnRH secretion. In mice, most AVPV/PeN Kiss1 cells coexpress tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis (in this case, dopamine)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630892/disruption-of-the-axonal-trafficking-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-mrna-impairs-catecholamine-biosynthesis-in-the-axons-of-sympathetic-neurons
#20
Armaz Aschrafi, Anthony E Gioio, Lijin Dong, Barry B Kaplan
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters. In a previous communication, evidence was provided that TH mRNA is trafficked to the axon, where it is locally translated. In addition, a 50-bp sequence element in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of TH mRNA was identified that directs TH mRNA to distal axons (i.e., zip-code). In the present study, the hypothesis was tested that local translation of TH plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the axon and/or presynaptic nerve terminal...
May 2017: ENeuro
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