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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349291/spontaneous-infraslow-fluctuations-modulate-hippocampal-epsp-ps-coupling
#1
Michael B Dash, Stephen Ajayi, Lynde Folsom, Paul E Gold, Donna L Korol
Extensive trial-to-trial variability is a hallmark of most behavioral, cognitive, and physiological processes. Spontaneous brain activity (SBA), a ubiquitous phenomenon that coordinates levels and patterns of neuronal activity throughout the brain, may contribute to this variability by dynamically altering neuronal excitability. In freely-behaving male rats, we observed extensive variability of the hippocampal evoked response across 28-min recording periods despite maintaining constant stimulation parameters of the medial perforant path...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349290/a-novel-neuroprotective-mechanism-for-lithium-that-prevents-association-of-the-p75ntr-sortilin-receptor-complex-and-attenuates-prongf-induced-neuronal-death-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Shayri G Greenwood, Laura Montroull, Marta Volosin, Helen E Scharfman, Kenneth K Teng, Matthew Light, Risa Torkin, Fredrick Maxfield, Barbara L Hempstead, Wilma J Friedman
Neurotrophins play critical roles in the survival, maintenance and death of neurons. In particular, proneurotrophins have been shown to mediate cell death following brain injury induced by status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Previous studies have shown that pilocarpine-induced seizures lead to increased levels of proNGF, which binds to the p75NTR-sortilin receptor complex to elicit apoptosis. A screen to identify compounds that block proNGF binding and uptake into cells expressing p75 and sortilin identified lithium citrate as a potential inhibitor of proNGF and p75NTR-mediated cell death...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333488/dopamine-development-in-the-mouse-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-is-protracted-and-sensitive-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence
#3
Daniel Hoops, Lauren M Reynolds, Jose-Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Cecilia Flores
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is divided into subregions, including the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices. Dopamine connectivity in the medial PFC (mPFC) continues to be established throughout adolescence as the result of the continuous growth of axons that innervated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) prior to adolescence. During this period, dopamine axons remain vulnerable to environmental influences, such as drugs used recreationally by humans. The developmental trajectory of the orbital prefrontal dopamine innervation remains almost completely unstudied...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302618/time-restricted-feeding-improves-circadian-dysfunction-as-well-as-motor-symptoms-in-the-q175-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#4
Huei-Bin Wang, Dawn H Loh, Daniel S Whittaker, Tamara Cutler, David Howland, Christopher S Colwell
Huntington's disease (HD) patients suffer from a progressive neurodegeneration that results in cognitive, psychiatric, cardiovascular, and motor dysfunction. Disturbances in sleep/wake cycles are common among HD patients with reports of delayed sleep onset, frequent bedtime awakenings, and fatigue during the day. The heterozygous Q175 mouse model of HD has been shown to phenocopy many HD core symptoms including circadian dysfunctions. Because circadian dysfunction manifests early in the disease in both patients and mouse models, we sought to determine if early intervention that improve circadian rhythmicity can benefit HD and delay disease progression...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302617/genetic-pathways-of-neuroregeneration-in-a-novel-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-model-in-adult-zebrafish
#5
Amanda L Maheras, Brian Dix, Olivia M S Carmo, Aleena E Young, Vanessa N Gill, Julia L Sun, Aleah R Booker, Helen A Thomason, Anastasia E Ibrahim, Lauren Stanislaw, Jennifer C Dallego, Cat N Ngo, Audrey Chen, Barbara K Fortini, Rory D Spence
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are one of the most prevalent neurological disorders, and humans are severely limited in their ability to repair and regenerate central nervous system (CNS) tissue postinjury. However, zebrafish (Danio rerio) maintain the remarkable ability to undergo complete and functional neuroregeneration as an adult. We wish to extend knowledge of the known mechanisms of neuroregeneration by analyzing the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in a novel adult zebrafish model of mTBI...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349289/mixed-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-pathology-in-nhe6-null-mouse-model-of-christianson-syndrome
#6
Meiyu Xu, Qing Ouyang, Jingyi Gong, Matthew F Pescosolido, Brandon S Pruett, Sasmita Mishra, Michael Schmidt, Richard N Jones, Ece D Gamsiz Uzun, Sofia B Lizarraga, Eric M Morrow
Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, which encodes the endosomal Na+/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6). Symptoms include early developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability, nonverbal status, autistic features, postnatal microcephaly, and progressive ataxia. Neuronal development is impaired in CS, involving defects in neuronal arborization and synaptogenesis, likely underlying diminished brain growth postnatally. In addition to neurodevelopmental defects, some reports have supported neurodegenerative pathology in CS with age...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340300/shared-mechanisms-in-the-estimation-of-self-generated-actions-and-the-prediction-of-other-s-actions-by-humans
#7
Tsuyoshi Ikegami, Gowrishankar Ganesh
The question of how humans predict outcomes of observed motor actions by others is a fundamental problem in cognitive and social neuroscience. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that the brain uses parts of the forward model (used to estimate sensory outcomes of self-generated actions) to predict outcomes of observed actions. However, this hypothesis has remained controversial due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. To address this issue, we analyzed the behavior of darts experts in an understanding learning paradigm and utilized computational modeling to examine how outcome prediction of observed actions affected the participants' ability to estimate their own actions...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333487/activation-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-reverses-cognitive-and-respiratory-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#8
C James Howell, Michael P Sceniak, Min Lang, Wenceslas Krakowiecki, Fatimah E Abouelsoud, Saloni U Lad, Heping Yu, David M Katz
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2; Amir et al., 1999), a transcriptional regulatory protein (Klose et al., 2005). Mouse models of RTT (Mecp2 mutants) exhibit excitatory hypoconnectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; Sceniak et al., 2015), a region critical for functions that are abnormal in RTT patients, ranging from learning and memory to regulation of visceral homeostasis (Riga et al...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313000/feeder-approach-between-trials-is-increased-by-uncertainty-and-affects-subsequent-choices
#9
Aaron J Gruber, Rajat Thapa, Sienna H Randolph
Animals quickly learn to approach sources of food. Here, we report on a form of approach in which rats made volitional orofacial contact with inactive feeders between trials of a self-paced operant task. This extraneous feeder sampling (EFS) was never reinforced and therefore imposed an opportunity and effort cost. EFS decreased during initial training but persisted thereafter. The relative rate of EFS to operant responding increased with novel changes to the operant chamber, reward devaluation by prefeeding, or lesions to the dorsolateral striatum...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308430/sex-specific-consequences-of-neonatal-stress-on-cardio-respiratory-inhibition-following-laryngeal-stimulation-in-rat-pups
#10
Cécile Baldy, Simon Chamberland, Stéphanie Fournier, Richard Kinkead
The presence of liquid near the larynx of immature mammals triggers prolonged apneas with significant O2 desaturations and bradycardias. When excessive, this reflex (the laryngeal chemoreflex; LCR) can be fatal. Our understanding of the origins of abnormal LCR are limited; however, perinatal stress and male sex are risk factors for cardio-respiratory failure in infants. Because exposure to stress during early life has deleterious and sex-specific consequences on brain development it is plausible that respiratory reflexes are vulnerable to neuroendocrine dysfunction...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302616/habitual-behavior-is-mediated-by-a-shift-in-response-outcome-encoding-by-infralimbic-cortex
#11
Jacqueline M Barker, W Bailey Glen, David N Linsenbardt, Christopher C Lapish, L Judson Chandler
The ability to flexibly switch between goal-directed actions and habits is critical for adaptive behavior. The infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IfL-C) has been consistently identified as a crucial structure for the regulation of response strategies. To investigate the role of the IfL-C, the present study employed two validated reinforcement schedules that either promote habits or goal-directed actions in mice. The results reveal that information about action-outcome relationships is differentially encoded in the IfL-C during actions and habits as evidenced by encoding of behavioral outcomes during goal-directed actions that is lost during habits...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302615/homeostatic-changes-in-gaba-and-acetylcholine-muscarinic-receptors-on-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-mesencephalic-reticular-formation-following-sleep-deprivation
#12
Hanieh Toossi, Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Barbara E Jones
We have examined whether GABAergic neurons in the mesencephalic reticular formation (RFMes), which are believed to inhibit the neurons in the pons that generate paradoxical sleep (PS or REMS), are submitted to homeostatic regulation under conditions of sleep deprivation (SD) by enforced waking during the day in mice. Using immunofluorescence, we investigated first, by staining for c-Fos, whether GABAergic RFMes neurons are active during SD and then, by staining for receptors, whether their activity is associated with homeostatic changes in GABAA or acetylcholine muscarinic type 2 (AChM2) receptors (Rs), which evoke inhibition...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291241/pseudoneglect-in-visual-search-behavioral-evidence-and-connectional-constraints-in-simulated-neural-circuitry
#13
Onofrio Gigliotta, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Orazio Miglino, Paolo Bartolomeo
Most people tend to bisect horizontal lines slightly to the left of their true center (pseudoneglect) and start visual search from left-sided items. This physiological leftward spatial bias may depend on hemispheric asymmetries in the organization of attentional networks, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Here, we modeled relevant aspects of the ventral and dorsal attentional networks (VAN and DAN) of the human brain. First, we demonstrated pseudoneglect in visual search in 101 right-handed psychology students...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291240/meta-analysis-of-micrornas-dysregulated-in-the-hippocampal-dentate-gyrus-of-animal-models-of-epilepsy
#14
Prashant K Srivastava, Paolo Roncon, Katarzyna Lukasiuk, Jan A Gorter, Eleonora Aronica, Asla Pitkänen, Enrico Petretto, Michael R Johnson, Michele Simonato
The identification of mechanisms transforming normal to seizure-generating tissue after brain injury is key to developing new antiepileptogenic treatments. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may act as regulators and potential treatment targets for epileptogenesis. Here, we undertook a meta-analysis of changes in miRNA expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) following an epileptogenic insult in three epilepsy models. We identified 26 miRNAs significantly differentially expressed during epileptogenesis, and five differentially expressed in chronic epilepsy...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291239/seizure-forecasting-from-idea-to-reality-outcomes-of-the-my-seizure-gauge-epilepsy-innovation-institute-workshop
#15
Sonya B Dumanis, Jaqueline A French, Christophe Bernard, Gregory A Worrell, Brandy E Fureman
The Epilepsy Innovation Institute (Ei2) is a new research program of the Epilepsy Foundation designed to be an innovation incubator for epilepsy. Ei2 research areas are selected based on community surveys that ask people impacted by epilepsy what they would like researchers to focus on. In their 2016 survey, unpredictability was selected as a top issue regardless of seizure frequency or severity. In response to this need, Ei2 launched the My Seizure Gauge challenge, with the end goal of creating a personalized seizure advisory system device...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291238/developmental-emergence-of-phenotypes-in-the-auditory-brainstem-nuclei-of-fmr1-knockout-mice
#16
Sarah E Rotschafer, Karina S Cramer
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common monogenic cause of autism, is often associated with hypersensitivity to sound. Several studies have shown abnormalities in the auditory brainstem in FXS; however, the emergence of these auditory phenotypes during development has not been described. Here, we investigated the development of phenotypes in FXS model [Fmr1 knockout (KO)] mice in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), and lateral superior olive (LSO). We studied features of the brainstem known to be altered in FXS or Fmr1 KO mice, including cell size and expression of markers for excitatory (VGLUT) and inhibitory (VGAT) synapses...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279863/combinatorial-inputs-to-the-ventral-striatum-from-the-temporal-cortex-frontal-cortex-and-amygdala-implications-for-segmenting-the-striatum
#17
Eun Young Choi, Song-Lin Ding, Suzanne N Haber
The canonical striatal map, based predominantly on frontal corticostriatal projections, divides the striatum into ventromedial-limbic, central-association, and dorsolateral-motor territories. While this has been a useful heuristic, recent studies indicate that the striatum has a more complex topography when considering converging frontal and nonfrontal inputs from distributed cortical networks. The ventral striatum (VS) in particular is often ascribed a "limbic" role, but it receives diverse information, including motivation and emotion from deep brain structures, cognition from frontal cortex, and polysensory and mnemonic signals from temporal cortex...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279862/editorial-experimental-bias-in-electrophysiological-studies
#18
EDITORIAL
Christophe Bernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279861/the-magnitude-of-trial-by-trial-neural-variability-is-reproducible-over-time-and-across-tasks-in-humans
#19
Ayelet Arazi, Gil Gonen-Yaacovi, Ilan Dinstein
Numerous studies have shown that neural activity in sensory cortices is remarkably variable over time and across trials even when subjects are presented with an identical repeating stimulus or task. This trial-by-trial neural variability is relatively large in the prestimulus period and considerably smaller (quenched) following stimulus presentation. Previous studies have suggested that the magnitude of neural variability affects behavior such that perceptual performance is better on trials and in individuals where variability quenching is larger...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279860/cortical-neuroprosthesis-merges-visible-and-invisible-light-without-impairing-native-sensory-function
#20
Eric E Thomson, Ivan Zea, William Windham, Yohann Thenaisie, Cameron Walker, Jason Pedowitz, Wendy França, Ana L Graneiro, Miguel A L Nicolelis
Adult rats equipped with a sensory prosthesis, which transduced infrared (IR) signals into electrical signals delivered to somatosensory cortex (S1), took approximately 4 d to learn a four-choice IR discrimination task. Here, we show that when such IR signals are projected to the primary visual cortex (V1), rats that are pretrained in a visual-discrimination task typically learn the same IR discrimination task on their first day of training. However, without prior training on a visual discrimination task, the learning rates for S1- and V1-implanted animals converged, suggesting there is no intrinsic difference in learning rate between the two areas...
November 2017: ENeuro
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