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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321440/neuronify-an-educational-simulator-for-neural-circuits
#1
Svenn-Arne Dragly, Milad Hobbi Mobarhan, Andreas Våvang Solbrå, Simen Tennøe, Anders Hafreager, Anders Malthe-Sørenssen, Marianne Fyhn, Torkel Hafting, Gaute T Einevoll
Educational software (apps) can improve science education by providing an interactive way of learning about complicated topics that are hard to explain with text and static illustrations. However, few educational apps are available for simulation of neural networks. Here, we describe an educational app, Neuronify, allowing the user to easily create and explore neural networks in a plug-and-play simulation environment. The user can pick network elements with adjustable parameters from a menu, i.e., synaptically connected neurons modelled as integrate-and-fire neurons and various stimulators (current sources, spike generators, visual, and touch) and recording devices (voltmeter, spike detector, and loudspeaker)...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321439/overexpression-of-parkinson-s-disease-associated-mutation-lrrk2-g2019s-in-mouse-forebrain-induces-behavioral-deficits-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology
#2
Yulan Xiong, Stewart Neifert, Senthilkumar S Karuppagounder, Jeannette N Stankowski, Byoung Dae Lee, Jonathan C Grima, Guanxing Chen, Han Seok Ko, Yunjong Lee, Debbie Swing, Lino Tessarollo, Ted M Dawson, Valina L Dawson
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene have been identified as an unambiguous cause of late-onset, autosomal-dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD) and LRRK2 mutations are the strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic PD known to date. A number of transgenic mice expressing wild-type or mutant LRRK2 have been described with varying degrees of LRRK2-related abnormalities and modest pathologies. None of these studies directly addressed the role of the kinase domain in the changes observed and none of the mice present with robust features of the human disease...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303263/astrocyte-ca-2-influx-negatively-regulates-neuronal-activity
#3
Yao V Zhang, Kiel G Ormerod, J Troy Littleton
Maintenance of neural circuit activity requires appropriate regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Recently, glia have emerged as key partners in the modulation of neuronal excitability; however, the mechanisms by which glia regulate neuronal signaling are still being elucidated. Here, we describe an analysis of how Ca(2+) signals within Drosophila astrocyte-like glia regulate excitability in the nervous system. We find that Drosophila astrocytes exhibit robust Ca(2+) oscillatory activity manifested by fast, recurrent microdomain Ca(2+) fluctuations within processes that infiltrate the synaptic neuropil...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303262/parallel-specification-of-visuomotor-feedback-gains-during-bimanual-reaching-to-independent-goals
#4
Anouk J de Brouwer, Tayler Jarvis, Jason P Gallivan, J Randall Flanagan
During goal-directed reaching, rapid visuomotor feedback processes enable the human motor system to quickly correct for errors in the trajectory of the hand that arise from motor noise and, in some cases, external perturbations. To date, these visuomotor responses, the gain of which is sensitive to features of the task and environment, have primarily been examined in the context of unimanual reaching movements toward a single target. However, many natural tasks involve moving both hands together, often to separate targets, such that errors can occur in parallel and at different spatial locations...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317021/the-bloc-1-subunit-pallidin-facilitates-activity-dependent-synaptic-vesicle-recycling
#5
Xun Chen, Wenpei Ma, Shixing Zhang, Jeremy Paluch, Wanlin Guo, Dion K Dickman
Membrane trafficking pathways must be exquisitely coordinated at synaptic terminals to maintain functionality, particularly during conditions of high activity. We have generated null mutations in the Drosophila homolog of pallidin, a central subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), to determine its role in synaptic development and physiology. We find that Pallidin localizes to presynaptic microtubules and cytoskeletal structures, and that the stability of Pallidin protein is highly dependent on the BLOC-1 components Dysbindin and Blos1...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317020/single-cell-reconstruction-of-oxytocinergic-neurons-reveals-separate-hypophysiotropic-and-encephalotropic-subtypes-in-larval-zebrafish
#6
Ulrich Herget, Jose Arturo Gutierrez-Triana, Oriana Salazar Thula, Boris Knerr, Soojin Ryu
Oxytocin regulates a diverse set of processes including stress, analgesia, metabolism, and social behavior. How such diverse functions are mediated by a single hormonal system is not well understood. Different functions of oxytocin could be mediated by distinct cell groups, yet it is currently unknown whether different oxytocinergic cell types exist that specifically mediate peripheral neuroendocrine or various central neuromodulatory processes via dedicated pathways. Using the Brainbow technique to map the morphology and projections of individual oxytocinergic cells in the larval zebrafish brain, we report here the existence of two main types of oxytocinergic cells: those that innervate the pituitary and those that innervate diverse brain regions...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303261/long-lasting-visuo-vestibular-mismatch-in-freely-behaving-mice-reduces-the-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-and-leads-to-neural-changes-in-the-direct-vestibular-pathway
#7
Julie Carcaud, Filipa França de Barros, Erwin Idoux, Daniel Eugène, Lionel Reveret, Lee E Moore, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Mathieu Beraneck
Calibration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) depends on the presence of visual feedback. However, the cellular mechanisms associated with VOR modifications at the level of the brainstem remain largely unknown. A new protocol was designed to expose freely behaving mice to a visuo-vestibular mismatch during a 2-week period. This protocol induced a 50% reduction of the VOR. In vivo pharmacological experiments demonstrated that the VOR reduction depends on changes located outside the flocculus/paraflocculus complex...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303260/evidence-for-an-additive-neurorestorative-effect-of-simultaneously-administered-cdnf-and-gdnf-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats-implications-for-different-mechanism-of-action
#8
Merja H Voutilainen, Francesca De Lorenzo, Polina Stepanova, Susanne Bäck, Li-Ying Yu, Päivi Lindholm, Eeva Pörsti, Mart Saarma, Pekka T Männistö, Raimo K Tuominen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and the accumulation of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein. Current therapies do not stop the progression of the disease, and the efficacy of these treatments wanes over time. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are naturally occurring proteins promoting the survival and differentiation of neurons and the maintenance of neuronal contacts. CDNF (cerebral dopamine NTF) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived NTF) are able to protect DAergic neurons against toxin-induced degeneration in experimental models of PD...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303259/sensory-neuron-specific-deletion-of-trpa1-results-in-mechanical-cutaneous-sensory-deficits
#9
Katherine J Zappia, Crystal L O'Hara, Francie Moehring, Kelvin Y Kwan, Cheryl L Stucky
The nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is known to be a key contributor to both somatosensation and pain. Recent studies have implicated TRPA1 in additional physiologic functions and have also suggested that TRPA1 is expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Thus, it has become necessary to resolve the importance of TRPA1 expressed in primary sensory neurons, particularly since previous research has largely used global knock-out animals and chemical TRPA1 antagonists. We therefore sought to isolate the physiological relevance of TRPA1 specifically within sensory neurons...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303258/alterations-in-cytosolic-and-mitochondrial-u-13-c-glucose-metabolism-in-a-chronic-epilepsy-mouse-model
#10
Tanya S McDonald, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Mark P Hodson, Karin Borges
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-(13)C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303257/neurod2-regulates-stim1-expression-and-store-operated-calcium-entry-in-cortical-neurons
#11
Gokhan Guner, Gizem Guzelsoy, Fatma Sadife Isleyen, Gulcan Semra Sahin, Cansu Akkaya, Efil Bayam, Eser Ilgin Kotan, Alkan Kabakcioglu, Gulayse Ince-Dunn
Calcium signaling controls many key processes in neurons, including gene expression, axon guidance, and synaptic plasticity. In contrast to calcium influx through voltage- or neurotransmitter-gated channels, regulatory pathways that control store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in neurons are poorly understood. Here, we report a transcriptional control of Stim1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) gene, which is a major sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium levels and a regulator of SOCE. By using a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing approach in mice, we find that NEUROD2, a neurogenic transcription factor, binds to an intronic element within the Stim1 gene...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303256/recurring-functional-interactions-predict-network-architecture-of-interictal-and-ictal-states-in-neocortical-epilepsy
#12
Ankit N Khambhati, Danielle S Bassett, Brian S Oommen, Stephanie H Chen, Timothy H Lucas, Kathryn A Davis, Brian Litt
Human epilepsy patients suffer from spontaneous seizures, which originate in brain regions that also subserve normal function. Prior studies demonstrate focal, neocortical epilepsy is associated with dysfunction, several hours before seizures. How does the epileptic network perpetuate dysfunction during baseline periods? To address this question, we developed an unsupervised machine learning technique to disentangle patterns of functional interactions between brain regions, or subgraphs, from dynamic functional networks constructed from approximately 100 h of intracranial recordings in each of 22 neocortical epilepsy patients...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275720/hetereogeneity-in-neuronal-intrinsic-properties-a-possible-mechanism-for-hub-like-properties-of-the-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-during-network-activity
#13
Natalie E Adams, Jason S Sherfey, Nancy J Kopell, Miles A Whittington, Fiona E N LeBeau
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is vital for a range of brain functions requiring cognitive control and has highly divergent inputs and outputs, thus manifesting as a hub in connectomic analyses. Studies show diverse functional interactions within the ACC are associated with network oscillations in the β (20-30 Hz) and γ (30-80 Hz) frequency range. Oscillations permit dynamic routing of information within cortex, a function that depends on bandpass filter-like behavior to selectively respond to specific inputs...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275719/a-negative-allosteric-modulator-for-%C3%AE-5-subunit-containing-gaba-receptors-exerts-a-rapid-and-persistent-antidepressant-like-action-without-the-side-effects-of-the-nmda-receptor-antagonist-ketamine-in-mice
#14
Panos Zanos, Mackenzie E Nelson, Jaclyn N Highland, Samuel R Krimmel, Polymnia Georgiou, Todd D Gould, Scott M Thompson
New antidepressant pharmacotherapies that provide rapid relief of depressive symptoms are needed. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant actions in depressed patients but also side effects that complicate its clinical utility. Ketamine promotes excitatory synaptic strength, likely by producing high-frequency correlated activity in mood-relevant regions of the forebrain. Negative allosteric modulators of GABA-A receptors containing α5 subunits (α5 GABA-NAMs) should also promote high-frequency correlated electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and should therefore exert rapid antidepressant responses...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275718/context-dependent-modulation-of-excitatory-synaptic-strength-by-synaptically-released-zinc
#15
Bopanna I Kalappa, Thanos Tzounopoulos
Synaptically released zinc inhibits baseline excitatory neurotransmission; however, the role of this neuromodulator on short-term plasticity during different levels of synaptic activity remains largely unknown. This lack of knowledge prevents our understanding of information transfer across zinc-releasing synapses, including 50% of excitatory synapses in cortical areas. We used in vitro electrophysiology in mouse brain slices and discovered that the effects of zinc on excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitudes are context-dependent...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275717/the-arcuate-nucleus-a-site-of-fast-negative-feedback-for-corticosterone-secretion-in-male-rats
#16
Luis Leon-Mercado, Daniela Herrera Moro Chao, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Mitsuhiro Kawata, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs
Variations in circulating corticosterone (Cort) are driven by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), mainly via the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) directly stimulating Cort release from the adrenal gland and via corticotropin-releasing hormone targeting the adenohypophysis to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cort feeds back through glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Here we show in male Wistar rats that PVN neurons projecting to the adrenal gland do not express GRs, leaving the question of how the ANS in the PVN gets information about circulating Cort levels to control the adrenal...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275716/genetic-analysis-of-histamine-signaling-in-larval-zebrafish-sleep
#17
Audrey Chen, Chanpreet Singh, Grigorios Oikonomou, David A Prober
Pharmacological studies in mammals and zebrafish suggest that histamine plays an important role in promoting arousal. However, genetic studies using rodents with disrupted histamine synthesis or signaling have revealed only subtle or no sleep/wake phenotypes. Studies of histamine function in mammalian arousal are complicated by its production in cells of the immune system and its roles in humoral and cellular immunity, which can have profound effects on sleep/wake states. To avoid this potential confound, we used genetics to explore the role of histamine in regulating sleep in zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate in which histamine production is restricted to neurons in the brain...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275715/matched-behavioral-and-neural-adaptations-for-low-sound-level-echolocation-in-a-gleaning-bat-antrozous-pallidus
#18
Kevin R Measor, Brian C Leavell, Dustin H Brewton, Jeffrey Rumschlag, Jesse R Barber, Khaleel A Razak
In active sensing, animals make motor adjustments to match sensory inputs to specialized neural circuitry. Here, we describe an active sensing system for sound level processing. The pallid bat uses downward frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps as echolocation calls for general orientation and obstacle avoidance. The bat's auditory cortex contains a region selective for these FM sweeps (FM sweep-selective region, FMSR). We show that the vast majority of FMSR neurons are sensitive and strongly selective for relatively low levels (30-60 dB SPL)...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275714/computational-architecture-of-the-parieto-frontal-network-underlying-cognitive-motor-control-in-monkeys
#19
Roberto Caminiti, Elena Borra, Federica Visco-Comandini, Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer, Bruno B Averbeck, Giuseppe Luppino
The statistical structure of intrinsic parietal and parieto-frontal connectivity in monkeys was studied through hierarchical cluster analysis. Based on their inputs, parietal and frontal areas were grouped into different clusters, including a variable number of areas that in most instances occupied contiguous architectonic fields. Connectivity tended to be stronger locally: that is, within areas of the same cluster. Distant frontal and parietal areas were targeted through connections that in most instances were reciprocal and often of different strength...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275713/axonal-type-iii-nrg1-controls-glutamate-synapse-formation-and-glua2-trafficking-in-hippocampal-accumbens-connections
#20
Chongbo Zhong, Wendy Akmentin, Chuang Du, Lorna W Role, David A Talmage
Altered neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)/ErbB signaling and glutamatergic hypofunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Here, we employed gene chimeric ventral hippocampus (vHipp)-nucleus accumbens (nAcc) coculture from mouse, electrophysiology, immunocytochemistry, FM1-43 vesicle fusion, and electron microscopy techniques to examine the pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms of genetic deficits in Nrg1/ErbB signaling-induced glutamatergic dysfunctions. Reduced presynaptic type III Nrg1 expression along vHipp axons decreases the number of glutamate synapses and impairs GluA2 trafficking in the postsynaptic nAcc neurons, resulting in decreased frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs)...
January 2017: ENeuro
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