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Naoyuki Sato, Hiroaki Mizuhara
Reading literature (e.g., an entire book) is an enriching experience that qualitatively differs from reading a single sentence; however, the brain dynamics of such context-dependent memory remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate mnemonic neural dynamics during natural reading of literature by performing electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Brain activities of human participants recruited on campus were correlated with their subsequent memory, which was quantified by semantic correlation between the read text and reports subsequently written by them based on state of the art natural language processing procedures...
September 2018: ENeuro
Kazuhiko Ishii, Akira Nagaoka, Yutaro Kishida, Hitoshi Okazaki, Sho Yagishita, Hasan Ucar, Noriko Takahashi, Nobuhito Saito, Haruo Kasai
Excitatory synapses are often formed at small protrusions of dendrite, called dendritic spines, in most projection neurons, and the spine-head volumes show strong correlations with synaptic connectivity. We examined the dynamics of spine volume in the adult mouse visual cortex using time-lapse in vivo two-photon imaging with a resonant Galvano scanner. Contrary to expectations, we found that the spines in the adult neocortex showed fluctuations to a similar degree as that observed in young hippocampal preparations, but there were systematic differences in how the dynamics were dependent on spine volumes, thus allowing for fewer fluctuations in small spines, which could account for the relatively low turnover rates of neocortical spines in vivo ...
September 2018: ENeuro
Amanda G Chung, Jennifer B Frye, Jacob C Zbesko, Eleni Constantopoulos, Megan Hayes, Anna G Figueroa, Danielle A Becktel, W Antony Day, John P Konhilas, Brian S McKay, Thuy-Vi V Nguyen, Kristian P Doyle
Here we used mouse models of heart and brain ischemia to compare the inflammatory response to ischemia in the heart, a protein rich organ, to the inflammatory response to ischemia in the brain, a lipid rich organ. We report that ischemia-induced inflammation resolves between one and four weeks in the heart compared to between eight and 24 weeks in the brain. Importantly, we discovered that a second burst of inflammation occurs in the brain between four and eight weeks following ischemia, which coincided with the appearance of cholesterol crystals within the infarct...
September 2018: ENeuro
Sukanya Biswabharati, CĂ©line Jean-Xavier, Shane E A Eaton, Adam P Lognon, Rhiannon Brett, Louisa Hardjasa, Patrick J Whelan
The role of orexin during development, and especially in terms of spinal cord function, is not well understood. It is for this reason that we focused on the network actions of orexin during the first week of development. We found that orexinergic fibers were present in the lumbar spinal cord of postnatal day 0 (P0) to P3 mice. The fibers were expressed mainly in the dorsal horn, but occasional fibers were observed in the ventral horn. Both orexin (OX) A and OXB increased the motoneurons (MNs) tonic neurogram discharge...
September 2018: ENeuro
Y Hanada, Y Kawahara, Y N Ohnishi, T Shuto, M Kuroiwa, N Sotogaku, P Greengard, Y Sagi, A Nishi
A recent study showed that p11 expressed in cholinergic interneurons (CINs) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key regulator of depression-like behaviors. Dopaminergic neurons projecting to the NAc are responsible for reward-related behaviors, and their function is impaired in depression. The present study investigated the role of p11 in NAc CINs in dopamine responses to rewarding stimuli. The extracellular dopamine and acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the NAc were determined in freely moving male mice using in vivo microdialysis...
September 2018: ENeuro
Klotilda Narkaj, Gilda Stefanelli, Malak Wahdan, Amber B Azam, Firyal Ramzan, Carl Frank David Steininger, Brandon J Walters, Iva B Zovkic
Memory formation is a protracted process that initially involves the hippocampus and becomes increasingly dependent on the cortex over time, but the mechanisms of this transfer are unclear. We recently showed that hippocampal depletion of the histone variant H2A.Z enhances both recent and remote memories, but the use of virally mediated depletion reduced H2A.Z levels throughout testing, making its temporally specific function unclear. Given the lack of drugs that target histone variants, we tested existing drugs for efficacy against H2A...
September 2018: ENeuro
Alexa A Wakley, Reno Leeming, Jenn Malon, Taxiarhia J Arabatzis, Woon Yuen Koh, Ling Cao
CD137L (4-1BBL) is a costimulatory molecule whose signaling can promote monocyte/macrophage functions; however, CD137L-mediated microglial response and its role in neuropathic pain remain unknown. We investigated CD137L following peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain using a spinal nerve L5 transection (L5Tx) murine model in both sexes. First, C57BL/6_CD137L knock-out (KO) mice displayed decreased mechanical and diminished heat hypersensitivity compared to wild-type (WT) controls, beginning on day 3 to up to day 35 post-L5Tx...
September 2018: ENeuro
Caroline Adams, Xi Chen, Suzanne M Moenter
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons form the final common central output pathway controlling fertility and are regulated by steroid feedback. In females, estradiol feedback action varies between negative and positive; negative feedback typically regulates episodic GnRH release whereas positive feedback initiates a surge of GnRH, and subsequently luteinizing hormone (LH) release ultimately triggering ovulation. During the estrous cycle, changes between estradiol negative and positive feedback occur with cycle stage and time of day, with positive feedback in the late afternoon of proestrus in nocturnal species...
September 2018: ENeuro
Hang-Jing Wu, Ralph J Hazlewood, John Kuchtey, Rachel W Kuchtey
Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration that develops slowly with age. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a significant risk factor, although many patients develop glaucoma with IOP in the normal range. Mutations in microfibril-associated genes cause glaucoma in animal models, suggesting the hypothesis that microfibril defects contribute to glaucoma. To test this hypothesis, we investigated IOP and functional/structural correlates of RGC degeneration in mice of either sex with abnormal microfibrils due to heterozygous Tsk mutation of the fibrilin-1 gene ( Fbn1Tsk /+ )...
September 2018: ENeuro
Jackson J Cone, Amy M Ni, Kaushik Ghose, John H R Maunsell
Sensory prostheses can restore aspects of natural sensation by delivering electrical current directly into sensory circuits. An effective sensory prosthetic should be capable of generating reliable real-time perceptual signals for hours each day over many years. However, we still know little regarding the stability of percepts produced by electrical microstimulation of cerebral sensory cortex when stimulation is delivered repeatedly over long periods. Developing methods that yield highly sensitive and reliable assessments of a subject's sensitivity to stimulation is important for developing prosthetic devices that can mimic the constant stream of information inherent in daily experience...
September 2018: ENeuro
Ryohei Akiyoshi, Hiroaki Wake, Daisuke Kato, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Riho Ono, Ako Ikegami, Koichiro Haruwaka, Toshiaki Omori, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Andrew J Moorhouse, Junichi Nabekura
Microglia are highly motile immunoreactive cells that play integral roles in the response to brain infection and damage, and in the progression of various neurological diseases. During development, microglia also help sculpt neural circuits, via both promoting synapse formation and by targeting specific synapses for elimination and phagocytosis. Microglia are also active surveyors of neural circuits in the mature, healthy brain, although the functional consequences of such microglia-neuron contacts under these conditions is unclear...
September 2018: ENeuro
Megan Tipps, Ezequiel Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Allee Schaeffer, Kevin Wickman
The basolateral amygdala complex, which contains the lateral (LA) and basal (BA) subnuclei, is a critical substrate of associative learning related to reward and aversive stimuli. Auditory fear conditioning studies in rodents have shown that the excitation of LA pyramidal neurons, driven by the inhibition of local GABAergic interneurons, is critical to fear memory formation. Studies examining the role of the BA in auditory fear conditioning, however, have yielded divergent outcomes. Here, we used a neuron-specific chemogenetic approach to manipulate the excitability of mouse BA neurons during auditory fear conditioning...
September 2018: ENeuro
Ken-Ichi Shibata, Takuma Tanaka, Hiroyuki Hioki, Takahiro Furuta
Rodents actively whisk their vibrissae, which, when they come in contact with surrounding objects, enables rodents to gather spatial information about the environment. Cortical motor command of whisking is crucial for the control of vibrissa movement. Using awake and head-fixed rats, we investigated the correlations between axonal projection patterns and firing properties in identified layer 5 neurons in the motor cortex, which are associated with vibrissa movement. We found that cortical neurons that sent axons to the brainstem fired preferentially during large-amplitude vibrissa movements and that corticocallosal neurons exhibited a high firing rate during small vibrissa movements or during a quiet state...
September 2018: ENeuro
Kaleb A Lowe, Jeffrey D Schall
Frontal eye field (FEF) in macaque monkeys contributes to visual attention, visual-motor transformations and production of eye movements. Traditionally, neurons in FEF have been classified by the magnitude of increased discharge rates following visual stimulus presentation, during a waiting period, and associated with eye movement production. However, considerable heterogeneity remains within the traditional visual, visuomovement, and movement categories. Cluster analysis is a data-driven method of identifying self-segregating groups within a dataset...
September 2018: ENeuro
A M McCane, S Ahn, L L Rubchinsky, S S Janetsian-Fritz, D N Linsenbardt, C L Czachowski, C C Lapish
Alterations in the corticostriatal system have been implicated in numerous substance use disorders, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Adaptations in this neural system are associated with enhanced drug-seeking behaviors following exposure to cues predicting drug availability. Therefore, understanding how potential treatments alter neural activity in this system could lead to more refined and effective approaches for AUD. Local field potentials (LFPs) were acquired simultaneously in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NA) of both alcohol preferring (P) and Wistar rats engaged in a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm wherein a light cue signaled the availability of ethanol (EtOH)...
September 2018: ENeuro
Mark Laubach, Linda M Amarante, Kyra Swanson, Samantha R White
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) means different things to different people. In recent years, there has been a major increase in publications on the PFC, especially using mice. However, inconsistencies in the nomenclature and anatomical boundaries of PFC areas has made it difficult for researchers to compare data and interpret findings across species. We conducted a meta-analysis of publications on the PFC of humans and rodents and found dramatic differences in the focus of research on these species. In addition, we compared anatomical terms and criteria across several common rodent brain atlases and found inconsistencies among, and even within, leading atlases...
September 2018: ENeuro
Christophe J Dubois, Laura Cardoit, Veronika Schwarz, Marika Markkanen, Matti S Airaksinen, Pavel Uvarov, John Simmers, Muriel Thoby-Brisson
In central respiratory circuitry, synaptic excitation is responsible for synchronizing neuronal activity in the different respiratory rhythm phases, whereas chloride-mediated inhibition is important for shaping the respiratory pattern itself. The potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2, which serves to maintain low intraneuronal Cl- concentration and thus render chloride-mediated synaptic signaling inhibitory, exists in two isoforms, KCC2a and KCC2b. KCC2 is essential for functional breathing motor control at birth, but the specific contribution of the KCC2a isoform remains unknown...
September 2018: ENeuro
Ziwen Li, Thomas Pratt, David J Price
Our aim was to study the mechanisms that contribute to the development of discrete thalamic nuclei during mouse embryogenesis (both sexes included). We characterized the expression of the transcription factor coding gene Zic4 and the distribution of cells that expressed Zic4 in their lineage. We used genetic fate mapping to show that Zic4 -lineage cells mainly contribute to a subset of thalamic nuclei, in particular the lateral geniculate nuclei (LGNs), which are crucial components of the visual pathway. We observed that almost all Zic4 -lineage diencephalic progenitors express the transcription factor Pax6 at variable location-dependent levels...
September 2018: ENeuro
Aaron J Levi, Jacob L Yates, Alexander C Huk, Leor N Katz
Perceptual decision-making is often modeled as the accumulation of sensory evidence over time. Recent studies using psychophysical reverse correlation have shown that even though the sensory evidence is stationary over time, subjects may exhibit a time-varying weighting strategy, weighting some stimulus epochs more heavily than others. While previous work has explained time-varying weighting as a consequence of static decision mechanisms (e.g., decision bound or leak), here we show that time-varying weighting can reflect strategic adaptation to stimulus statistics, and thus can readily take a number of forms...
September 2018: ENeuro
Katherine R Brimblecombe, Sarah Threlfell, Daniel Dautan, Polina Kosillo, Juan Mena-Segovia, Stephanie J Cragg
Striatal dopamine (DA) is a major player in action selection and reinforcement. DA release is under strong local control by striatal ACh acting at axonal nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) on DA axons. Striatal nAChRs have been shown to control how DA is released in response to ascending activity from DA neurons, and they also directly drive DA release following synchronized activity in a small local cholinergic network. The source of striatal ACh has been thought to arise solely from intrinsic cholinergic interneurons (ChIs), but recent findings have identified a source of cholinergic inputs to striatum from brainstem nuclei, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT)...
September 2018: ENeuro
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