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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083561/medial-preoptic-regulation-of-the-ventral-tegmental-area-related-to-the-control-of-sociosexual-behaviors
#1
Onur Iyilikci, Jacques Balthazart, Gregory F Ball
During sociosexual encounters, different brain mechanisms interact to orchestrate information about the salience of external stimuli along with the current physiological and environmental conditions in order to process these in an optimal manner. One candidate neural system involves the potential interplay between the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and mesolimbic reward circuitry. We present here evidence indicating that projections originating from the POM play a modulatory role on the mesolimbic reward circuitry related to male sexual behavior in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083560/altered-sensory-code-drives-juvenile-to-adult-behavioral-maturation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Laura A Hale, Eudoria S Lee, Alexandros K Pantazis, Nikos Chronis, Sreekanth H Chalasani
Adults perform better than juveniles in food-seeking tasks. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to probe the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral maturation, we found that adults and juveniles require different combinations of sensory neurons to generate age-specific food-seeking behavior. We first show that adults and juveniles differ in their response to and preference for food-associated odors, and we analyze genetic mutants to map the neuronal circuits required for those behavioral responses. We developed a novel device to trap juveniles and record their neuronal activity...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058272/language-in-context-meg-evidence-for-modality-general-and-specific-responses-to-reference-resolution
#3
Christian Brodbeck, Laura Gwilliams, Liina Pylkkänen
Successful language comprehension critically depends on our ability to link linguistic expressions to the entities they refer to. Without reference resolution, newly encountered language cannot be related to previously acquired knowledge. The human experience includes many different types of referents, some visual, some auditory, some very abstract. Does the neural basis of reference resolution depend on the nature of the referents, or do our brains use a modality-general mechanism for linking meanings to referents? Here we report evidence for both...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058271/remodeling-of-the-inner-hair-cell-microtubule-meshwork-in-a-mouse-model-of-auditory-neuropathy-auna1
#4
Clément Surel, Marie Guillet, Marc Lenoir, Jérôme Bourien, Gaston Sendin, Willy Joly, Benjamin Delprat, Marci M Lesperance, Jean-Luc Puel, Régis Nouvian
Auditory neuropathy 1 (AUNA1) is a form of human deafness resulting from a point mutation in the 5' untranslated region of the Diaphanous homolog 3 (DIAPH3) gene. Notably, the DIAPH3 mutation leads to the overexpression of the DIAPH3 protein, a formin family member involved in cytoskeleton dynamics. Through study of diap3-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice, we examine in further detail the anatomical, functional, and molecular mechanisms underlying AUNA1. We identify diap3 as a component of the hair cells apical pole in wild-type mice...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058270/validity-assessment-of-5-day-repeated-forced-swim-stress-to-model-human-depression-in-young-adult-c57bl-6j-and-balb-cj-mice
#5
Joram D Mul, Jia Zheng, Laurie J Goodyear
The development of animal models with construct, face, and predictive validity to accurately model human depression has been a major challenge. One proposed rodent model is the 5 d repeated forced swim stress (5d-RFSS) paradigm, which progressively increases floating during individual swim sessions. The onset and persistence of this floating behavior has been anthropomorphically characterized as a measure of depression. This interpretation has been under debate because a progressive increase in floating over time may reflect an adaptive learned behavioral response promoting survival, and not depression (Molendijk and de Kloet, 2015)...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058269/figure-ground-organization-in-visual-cortex-for-natural-scenes
#6
Jonathan R Williford, Rüdiger von der Heydt
Figure-ground organization and border-ownership assignment are essential for understanding natural scenes. It has been shown that many neurons in the macaque visual cortex signal border-ownership in displays of simple geometric shapes such as squares, but how well these neurons resolve border-ownership in natural scenes is not known. We studied area V2 neurons in behaving macaques with static images of complex natural scenes. We found that about half of the neurons were border-ownership selective for contours in natural scenes, and this selectivity originated from the image context...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032120/inhibition-of-poly-adp-ribosylation-fails-to-increase-axonal-regeneration-or-improve-functional-recovery-after-adult-mammalian-cns-injury
#7
Xingxing Wang, Yuichi Sekine, Alexandra B Byrne, William B J Cafferty, Marc Hammarlund, Stephen M Strittmatter
After traumatic damage of the brain or spinal cord, many surviving neurons are disconnected, and recovery of function is limited by poor axon regeneration. Recent data have suggested that poly ADP-ribosylation plays a role in limiting axonal regrowth such that inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) may have therapeutic efficacy for neurological recovery after trauma. Here, we tested systemic administration of the PARP inhibitor, veliparib, and showed effective suppression of PARylation in the mouse CNS...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032119/increased-synaptic-excitation-and-abnormal-dendritic-structure-of-prefrontal-cortex-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons-following-prolonged-binge-like-consumption-of-ethanol
#8
Paul M Klenowski, Matthew J Fogarty, Masroor Shariff, Arnauld Belmer, Mark C Bellingham, Selena E Bartlett
Long-term alcohol use causes a multitude of neurochemical changes in cortical regions that facilitate the transition to dependence. Therefore, we used a model of long-term, binge-like ethanol consumption in rats to determine the effects on morphology and synaptic physiology of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) layer V pyramidal neurons. Following 10 weeks of ethanol consumption, we recorded synaptic currents from mPFC neurons and used neurobiotin filling to analyze their morphology. We then compared these data to measurements obtained from age-matched, water-drinking control rats...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032118/biomarkers-of-traumatic-brain-injury-temporal-changes-in-body-fluids
#9
REVIEW
Harel Adrian, Kvist Mårten, Nuutinen Salla, Välimaa Lasse
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are caused by a hit to the head or a sudden acceleration/deceleration movement of the head. Mild TBIs (mTBIs) and concussions are difficult to diagnose. Imaging techniques often fail to find alterations in the brain, and computed tomography exposes the patient to radiation. Brain-specific biomolecules that are released upon cellular damage serve as another means of diagnosing TBI and assessing the severity of injury. These biomarkers can be detected from samples of body fluids using laboratory tests...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032117/circulating-estradiol-regulates-brain-derived-estradiol-via-actions-at-gnrh-receptors-to-impact-memory-in-ovariectomized-rats
#10
Britta S Nelson, Katelyn L Black, Jill M Daniel
Systemic estradiol treatment enhances hippocampus-dependent memory in ovariectomized rats. Although these enhancements are traditionally thought to be due to circulating estradiol, recent data suggest these changes are brought on by hippocampus-derived estradiol, the synthesis of which depends on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) activity. The goal of the current work is to test the hypothesis that peripheral estradiol affects hippocampus-dependent memory through brain-derived estradiol regulated via hippocampal GnRH receptor activity...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032116/synaptic-inhibition-in-avian-interaural-level-difference-sound-localizing-neurons
#11
Rebecca J Curry, Yong Lu
Synaptic inhibition plays a fundamental role in the neural computation of the interaural level difference (ILD), an important cue for the localization of high-frequency sound. Here, we studied the inhibitory synaptic currents in the chicken posterior portion of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLDp), the first binaural level difference encoder of the avian auditory pathway. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices, we provide the first evidence confirming a monosynaptic inhibition driven by direct electrical and chemical stimulation of the contralateral LLDp, establishing the reciprocal inhibitory connection between the two LLDps, a long-standing assumption in the field...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990478/editorial-letter-of-recommendation
#12
EDITORIAL
Christophe Bernard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957533/characterizing-population-eeg-dynamics-throughout-adulthood
#13
Ali Hashemi, Lou J Pino, Graeme Moffat, Karen J Mathewson, Chris Aimone, Patrick J Bennett, Louis A Schmidt, Allison B Sekuler
For decades, electroencephalography (EEG) has been a useful tool for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying human psychological processes. However, the amount of time needed to gather EEG data means that most laboratory studies use relatively small sample sizes. Using the Muse, a portable and wireless four-channel EEG headband, we obtained EEG recordings from 6029 subjects 18-88 years in age while they completed a category exemplar task followed by a meditation exercise. Here, we report age-related changes in EEG power at a fine chronological scale for δ, θ, α, and β bands, as well as peak α frequency and α asymmetry measures for both frontal and temporoparietal sites...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957532/temporary-depletion-of-microglia-during-the-early-postnatal-period-induces-lasting-sex-dependent-and-sex-independent-effects-on-behavior-in-rats
#14
Jonathan W VanRyzin, Stacey J Yu, Miguel Perez-Pouchoulen, Margaret M McCarthy
Microglia are the primary immune cells of the brain and function in multiple ways to facilitate proper brain development. However, our current understanding of how these cells influence the later expression of normal behaviors is lacking. Using the laboratory rat, we administered liposomal clodronate centrally to selectively deplete microglia in the developing postnatal brain. We then assessed a range of developmental, juvenile, and adult behaviors. Liposomal clodronate treatment on postnatal days 0, 2, and 4 depleted microglia with recovery by about 10 days of age and induced a hyperlocomotive phenotype, observable in the second postnatal week...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957531/noradrenaline-from-locus-coeruleus-neurons-acts-on-pedunculo-pontine-neurons-to-prevent-rem-sleep-and-induces-its-loss-associated-effects-in-rats
#15
Mudasir Ahmad Khanday, Bindu I Somarajan, Rachna Mehta, Birendra Nath Mallick
Normally, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) does not appear during waking or non-REMS. Isolated, independent studies showed that elevated noradrenaline (NA) levels inhibit REMS and induce REMS loss-associated cytomolecular, cytomorphological, psychosomatic changes and associated symptoms. However, the source of NA and its target in the brain for REMS regulation and function in health and diseases remained to be confirmed in vivo. Using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-siRNA and virus-coated TH-shRNA in normal freely moving rats, we downregulated NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) REM-OFF neurons in vivo...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957530/ipsilateral-and-contralateral-retinal-ganglion-cells-express-distinct-genes-during-decussation-at-the-optic-chiasm
#16
Qing Wang, Florencia Marcucci, Isadora Cerullo, Carol Mason
The increasing availability of transcriptomic technologies within the last decade has facilitated high-throughput identification of gene expression differences that define distinct cell types as well as the molecular pathways that drive their specification. The retinal projection neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), can be categorized into distinct morphological and functional subtypes and by the laterality of their projections. Here, we present a method for purifying the sparse population of ipsilaterally projecting RGCs in mouse retina from their contralaterally projecting counterparts during embryonic development through rapid retrograde labeling followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957529/contrast-enhancement-without-transient-map-expansion-for-species-specific-vocalizations-in-core-auditory-cortex-during-learning
#17
Kathryn N Shepard, Kelly K Chong, Robert C Liu
Tonotopic map plasticity in the adult auditory cortex (AC) is a well established and oft-cited measure of auditory associative learning in classical conditioning paradigms. However, its necessity as an enduring memory trace has been debated, especially given a recent finding that the areal expansion of core AC tuned to a newly relevant frequency range may arise only transiently to support auditory learning. This has been reinforced by an ethological paradigm showing that map expansion is not observed for ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) or for ultrasound frequencies in postweaning dams for whom USVs emitted by pups acquire behavioral relevance...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957528/arp2-3-and-vasp-are-essential-for-fear-memory-formation-in-lateral-amygdala
#18
Sreetama Basu, Irina Kustanovich, Raphael Lamprecht
The actin cytoskeleton is involved in key neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission and morphogenesis. However, the roles and regulation of actin cytoskeleton in memory formation remain to be clarified. In this study, we unveil the mechanism whereby actin cytoskeleton is regulated to form memory by exploring the roles of the major actin-regulatory proteins Arp2/3, VASP, and formins in long-term memory formation. Inhibition of Arp2/3, involved in actin filament branching and neuronal morphogenesis, in lateral amygdala (LA) with the specific inhibitor CK-666 during fear conditioning impaired long-term, but not short-term, fear memory...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957527/deletion-of-the-mouse-homolog-of-cacna1c-disrupts-discrete-forms-of-hippocampal-dependent-memory-and-neurogenesis-within-the-dentate-gyrus
#19
Stephanie J Temme, Ryan Z Bell, Grace L Fisher, Geoffrey G Murphy
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in various forms of learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. Within the hippocampus, the LVGCC subtype, CaV1.2 is prominently expressed throughout the dentate gyrus. Despite the apparent high levels of CaV1.2 expression in the dentate gyrus, the role of CaV1.2 in hippocampal- and dentate gyrus-associated forms of learning remain unknown. To address this question, we examined alternate forms of hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial memory in mice lacking the mouse ortholog of CACNA1C (Cacna1c), which encodes CaV1...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957526/mammalian-fmrp-s499-is-phosphorylated-by-ck2-and-promotes-secondary-phosphorylation-of-fmrp
#20
Christopher M Bartley, Rachel A O'Keefe, Anna Blice-Baum, Mihaela-Rita Mihailescu, Xuan Gong, Laura Miyares, Esra Karaca, Angélique Bordey
The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an mRNA-binding regulator of protein translation that associates with 4-6% of brain transcripts and is central to neurodevelopment. Autism risk genes' transcripts are overrepresented among FMRP-binding mRNAs, and FMRP loss-of-function mutations are responsible for fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of monogenetic autism. It is thought that FMRP-dependent translational repression is governed by the phosphorylation of serine residue 499 (S499). However, recent evidence suggests that S499 phosphorylation is not modulated by metabotropic glutamate receptor class I (mGluR-I) or protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), two molecules shown to regulate FMRP translational repression...
November 2016: ENeuro
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