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EBioMedicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342444/scarlet-fever-epidemic-in-china-caused-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m12-epidemiologic-and-molecular-analysis
#1
Yuanhai You, Mark R Davies, Melinda Protani, Liam McIntyre, Mark J Walker, Jianzhong Zhang
From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011-2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003-2010 prior this outbreak...
January 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337134/acetylcholine-receptor-antibody-titers-and-clinical-course-after-influenza-vaccination-in-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-propatient-trial
#2
Björn Tackenberg, Maximilian Schneider, Franz Blaes, Christian Eienbröker, Carmen Schade-Brittinger, Anne Wellek, Marcus Deschauer, Markus Eickmann, Hans-Dieter Klenk, Hans-Helge Müller, Norbert Sommer
BACKGROUND: It is a continuous matter of discussion whether immune activation by vaccination in general and Influenza vaccination in particular increases the risk for clinical deterioration of autoimmune diseases. This prospective study investigated the serological and clinical course of autoimmune Myasthenia gravis (MG) after a seasonal influenza vaccination. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study enrolled MG patients with antibodies against acetylcholine-receptors (AChR-ab)...
January 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339100/genetic-variation-in-the-dopamine-system-influences-intervention-outcome-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#3
Rochellys Diaz Heijtz, Rita Almeida, Ann Christin Eliasson, Hans Forssberg
BACKGROUND: There is large variation in treatment responses in children with cerebral palsy. Experimental and clinical results suggest that dopamine neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling are involved in motor learning and plasticity, which are key factors in modern habilitation success. We examined whether naturally occurring variations in dopamine and BDNF genes influenced the treatment outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-three children (18-60months of age) with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy were enrolled in the study...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339099/intestinal-adenovirus-shedding-before-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-is-a-risk-factor-for-invasive-infection-post-transplant
#4
Karin Kosulin, Bettina Berkowitsch, Susanne Matthes, Herbert Pichler, Anita Lawitschka, Ulrike Pötschger, Gerhard Fritsch, Thomas Lion
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric human stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Our previous studies identified the gastrointestinal tract as a site of HAdV persistence, but the role of intestinal virus shedding pre-transplant for the risk of ensuing invasive infection has not been entirely elucidated. Molecular HAdV monitoring of serial stool samples using RQ-PCR was performed in 304 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Analysis of stool and peripheral blood specimens was performed pre-transplant and at short intervals until day 100 post-HSCT...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339098/vitamin-d-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-bi-directional-mendelian-randomization-analysis
#5
Ningjian Wang, Chi Chen, Li Zhao, Yi Chen, Bing Han, Fangzhen Xia, Jing Cheng, Qin Li, Yingli Lu
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in many cross-sectional studies. However, the causality between them has not been established. We used bi-directional mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to explore the causal relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and NAFLD. METHODS: 9182 participants were included from a survey in East China from 2014 to 2016. We calculated weighted genetic risk scores (GRS) for 25(OH)D concentration and NAFLD based on 25(OH)D-related and NAFLD-related single nucleotide polymorphisms...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337135/defining-bedaquiline-susceptibility-resistance-cross-resistance-and-associated-genetic-determinants-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Nazir A Ismail, Shaheed V Omar, Lavania Joseph, Netricia Govender, Linsay Blows, Farzana Ismail, Hendrik Koornhof, Andries W Dreyer, Koné Kaniga, Norbert Ndjeka
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline (BDQ) is a novel agent approved for use in combination treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). We sought to determine BDQ epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs), define and assess interpretive criteria against putative resistance associated variants (RAVs), microbiological outcomes and cross resistance with clofazimine (CFZ). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to BDQ were determined using 7H9 broth microdilution (BMD) and MGIT960...
January 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321121/seizure-prediction-is-possible-now-let-s-make-it-practical
#7
William C Stacey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331674/hiv-activates-the-tyrosine-kinase-hck-to-secrete-adam-protease-containing-extracellular-vesicles
#8
J-H Lee, C Ostalecki, Z Zhao, T Kesti, H Bruns, B Simon, T Harrer, K Saksela, A S Baur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292031/deep-convolutional-neural-networks-enable-discrimination-of-heterogeneous-digital-pathology-images
#9
Pegah Khosravi, Ehsan Kazemi, Marcin Imielinski, Olivier Elemento, Iman Hajirasouliha
Pathological evaluation of tumor tissue is pivotal for diagnosis in cancer patients and automated image analysis approaches have great potential to increase precision of diagnosis and help reduce human error. In this study, we utilize several computational methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) and build a stand-alone pipeline to effectively classify different histopathology images across different types of cancer. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of our pipeline to discriminate between two subtypes of lung cancer, four biomarkers of bladder cancer, and five biomarkers of breast cancer...
December 28, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329932/development-of-the-human-fetal-kidney-from-mid-to-late-gestation-in-male-and-female-infants
#10
Danica Ryan, Megan R Sutherland, Tracey J Flores, Alison L Kent, Jane E Dahlstrom, Victor G Puelles, John F Bertram, Andrew P McMahon, Melissa H Little, Lynette Moore, Mary Jane Black
BACKGROUND: During normal human kidney development, nephrogenesis (the formation of nephrons) is complete by term birth, with the majority of nephrons formed late in gestation. The aim of this study was to morphologically examine nephrogenesis in fetal human kidneys from 20 to 41weeks of gestation. METHODS: Kidney samples were obtained at autopsy from 71 infants that died acutely in utero or within 24h after birth. Using image analysis, nephrogenic zone width, the number of glomerular generations, renal corpuscle cross-sectional area and the cellular composition of glomeruli were examined...
December 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307572/langerhans-cells-prevent-autoimmunity-via-expansion-of-keratinocyte-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#11
Daniela Y Kitashima, Tetsuro Kobayashi, Therese Woodring, Kacey Idouchi, Thomas Doebel, Benjamin Voisin, Takeya Adachi, Takeshi Ouchi, Hayato Takahashi, Koji Nishifuji, Daniel H Kaplan, Björn E Clausen, Masayuki Amagai, Keisuke Nagao
Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells in the epidermis whose roles in antigen-specific immune regulation remain incompletely understood. Desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) is a keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion molecule critical for epidermal integrity and an autoantigen in the autoimmune blistering disease pemphigus. Although antibody-mediated disease mechanisms in pemphigus are extensively characterized, the T cell aspect of this autoimmune disease still remains poorly understood. Herein, we utilized a mouse model of CD4+ T cell-mediated autoimmunity against Dsg3 to show that acquisition of Dsg3 and subsequent presentation to T cells by LCs depended on the C-type lectin langerin...
December 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289532/zinc-deficiency-via-a-splice-switch-in-zinc-importer-zip2-slc39a2-causes-cystic-fibrosis-associated-muc5ac-hypersecretion-in-airway-epithelial-cells
#12
Shunsuke Kamei, Haruka Fujikawa, Hirofumi Nohara, Keiko Ueno-Shuto, Kasumi Maruta, Ryunosuke Nakashima, Taisei Kawakami, Chizuru Matsumoto, Yuki Sakaguchi, Tomomi Ono, Mary Ann Suico, Richard C Boucher, Dieter C Gruenert, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata, Jian-Dong Li, Hirofumi Kai, Tsuyoshi Shuto
Airway mucus hyperproduction and fluid imbalance are important hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-shortening genetic disorder in Caucasians. Dysregulated expression and/or function of airway ion transporters, including cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), have been implicated as causes of CF-associated mucus hypersecretory phenotype. However, the contributory roles of other substances and transporters in the regulation of CF airway pathogenesis remain unelucidated...
December 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289530/a-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-dependent-sprouting-angiogenesis-assay-based-on-an-in-vitro-human-blood-vessel-model-for-the-study-of-anti-angiogenic-drugs
#13
Joris Pauty, Ryo Usuba, Irene Gayi Cheng, Louise Hespel, Haruko Takahashi, Keisuke Kato, Masayoshi Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Nakajima, Eujin Lee, Florian Yger, Fabrice Soncin, Yukiko T Matsunaga
Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels and participates in proper vasculature development. In pathological conditions such as cancer, abnormal angiogenesis takes place. Angiogenesis is primarily carried out by endothelial cells, the innermost layer of blood vessels. The vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and its receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) trigger most of the mechanisms activating and regulating angiogenesis, and have been the targets for the development of drugs...
December 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276149/real-time-and-non-invasive-monitoring-of-the-activation-of-the-ire1%C3%AE-xbp1-pathway-in-individuals-with-hemodynamic-impairment
#14
Baptiste Fohlen, Quentin Tavernier, Thi-Mum Huynh, Cédric Caradeuc, Delphine Le Corre, Gildas Bertho, Bernard Cholley, Nicolas Pallet
Many stressors that are encountered upon kidney injury are likely to trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, subsequently activating transcriptional, translational and metabolic reprogramming. Monitoring early cellular adaptive responses engaged after hemodynamic impairment yields may represent a clinically relevant approach. However, a non-invasive method for detecting the ER stress response has not been developed. We combined a metabolomic approach with genetic marker analyses using urine from individuals undergoing scheduled cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass to investigate the feasibility and significance of monitoring the ER stress response in the kidney...
December 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276148/testosterone-diminishes-cabazitaxel-efficacy-and-intratumoral-accumulation-in-a-prostate-cancer-xenograft-model
#15
Lisanne Mout, Ronald de Wit, Debra Stuurman, Esther Verhoef, Ron Mathijssen, Corrina de Ridder, Martijn Lolkema, Wytske van Weerden
Inactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) pathway by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay of (metastatic) prostate cancer therapy. Ultimately, the AR pathway will be re-activated despite castrate levels of circulating androgens. Thereby, maintaining its role even in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The recent STAMPEDE and CHAARTED trials showed that docetaxel in combination with ADT increased survival in hormone sensitive prostate cancer patients, suggesting cross-talk between AR signaling and chemotherapy efficacy...
December 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290411/cmpf-a-metabolite-formed-upon-prescription-omega-3-acid-ethyl-ester-supplementation-prevents-and-reverses-steatosis
#16
Kacey J Prentice, Stacy G Wendell, Ying Liu, Judith A Eversley, Sonia R Salvatore, Haneesha Mohan, Sydney L Brandt, Andrew C Adams, X Serena Wang, David Wei, Garret A FitzGerald, Timothy B Durham, Craig D Hammond, Kyle W Sloop, Carsten Skarke, Francisco J Schopfer, Michael B Wheeler
Prescription ω-3 fatty acid ethyl ester supplements are commonly used for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. However, the metabolic profile and effect of the metabolites formed by these treatments remain unknown. Here we utilized unbiased metabolomics to identify 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) as a significant metabolite of the ω-3-acid ethyl ester prescription Lovaza™ in humans. Administration of CMPF to mice before or after high-fat diet feeding at exposures equivalent to those observed in humans increased whole-body lipid metabolism, improved insulin sensitivity, increased beta-oxidation, reduced lipogenic gene expression, and ameliorated steatosis...
December 19, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277322/meningioma-growth-dynamics-assessed-by-radiocarbon-retrospective-birth-dating
#17
Hagen B Huttner, Olaf Bergmann, Mehran Salehpour, Raouf El Cheikh, Makoto Nakamura, Angelo Tortora, Paula Heinke, Roland Coras, Elisabet Englund, Ilker Y Eyüpoglu, Joji B Kuramatsu, Sebastian S Roeder, Stephan P Kloska, Iris Muehlen, Arnd Doerfler, Stefan Schwab, Göran Possnert, Samuel Bernard, Jonas Frisén
It is not known how long it takes from the initial neoplastic transformation of a cell to the detection of a tumor, which would be valuable for understanding tumor growth dynamics. Meningiomas show a broad histological, genetic and clinical spectrum, are usually benign and considered slowly growing. There is an intense debate regarding their age and growth pattern and when meningiomas should be resected. We have assessed the age and growth dynamics of 14 patients with meningiomas (WHO grade I: n=6 with meningothelial and n=6 with fibrous subtype, as well as n=2 atypical WHO grade II meningiomas) by combining retrospective birth-dating of cells by analyzing incorporation of nuclear-bomb-test-derived 14C, analysis of cell proliferation, cell density, MRI imaging and mathematical modeling...
December 19, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277323/epigenetic-changes-in-the-crh-gene-are-related-to-severity-of-suicide-attempt-and-a-general-psychiatric-risk-score-in-adolescents
#18
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Ali Dadfar, Diana M Ciuculete, Andreas Chatzittofis, Marie Åsberg, Helgi B Schiöth
The aim of this study, comprising 88 suicide attempters, was to identify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) -axis coupled CpG-sites showing methylation shifts linked to severity of the suicide attempt. Candidate methylation loci were further investigated as risk loci for a general psychiatric risk score in two cohorts of adolescents (cohort 1 and 2). The genome-wide methylation pattern was measured in whole blood using the Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip. Subjects were stratified into high-risk and low-risk groups based on the severity of the suicidal behavior...
December 18, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273357/regulatory-rna-editing-sites-in-cancer-prediction-and-beyond
#19
Hang Ruan, Leng Han
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289533/ldl-receptor-gene-ablated-hamsters-a-rodent-model-of-familial-hypercholesterolemia-with-dominant-inheritance-and-diet-induced-coronary-atherosclerosis
#20
Xin Guo, Mingming Gao, Yunan Wang, Xiao Lin, Liu Yang, Nathan Cong, Xiangbo An, Feng Wang, Kai Qu, Liqing Yu, Yuhui Wang, Jinjie Wang, Haibo Zhu, Xunde Xian, George Liu
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused mainly by LDL receptor (Ldlr) gene mutations. Unlike FH patients, heterozygous Ldlr knockout (KO) mice do not show a dominant FH trait. Hamsters, like humans, have the cholesteryl ester transfer protein, intestine-only ApoB editing and low hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Here, we generated Ldlr-ablated hamsters using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Homozygous Ldlr KO hamsters on a chow diet developed hypercholesterolemia with LDL as the dominant lipoprotein and spontaneous atherosclerosis...
December 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
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