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Bone Reports

Joseph D Gardinier, Niloufar Rostami, Lauren Juliano, Chunbin Zhang
Exercise is a key determinate of fracture risk and provides a clinical means to promote bone formation. However, the efficacy of exercise to increase bone mass declines with age. The purpose of this study was to identify age-related differences in the anabolic response to exercise at the cellular and tissue level. To this end, young (8-weeks of age) and adult (36-weeks of age) male mice were subjected to a moderate exercise regimen of running on a treadmill. As a result, exercise had a significant effect on PTHrP and SOST gene expression during the first week that was dependent upon age...
June 2018: Bone Reports
Ylva Pernow, Rami Shahror, Shikha Acharya, Lena Jahnson, Ravi Vumma, Nikolaos Venizelos
It has been demonstrated, that long-term chronic tryptophan deficiency, results in decreased serotonin synthesis, which may lead to low bone mass and low bone formation. Findings from studies in male patients with idiopathic osteoporosis suggested a decreased transport of tryptophan in erythrocytes of osteoporotic patients, indicating that serotonin system defects may be involved in the etiology of low bone mass. Tryptophan is the precursor of serotonin, and a disturbed transport of tryptophan is implicated in altered serotonin synthesis...
June 2018: Bone Reports
Akira Minematsu, Yasue Nishii, Susumu Sakata
Intake of high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) diet or high fat diet influences bone metabolism in young rodents, but its effects on bone properties of aged rodents still remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of HFS diet intake on trabecular bone architecture (TBA) and cortical bone geometry (CBG) in aged rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats over 1 year were randomly divided into two groups. One group was fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) and the other group was fed a HFS diet for six months. The femur/tibia, obtained from both groups at the end of experimental period, were scanned by micro-computed tomography for TBA/CBG analyses...
June 2018: Bone Reports
Satoshi Inoue, Hirotada Otsuka, Jiro Takito, Masanori Nakamura
Fractures are common traumatic injuries that mainly occur in the metaphyses of long bones such as the proximal humerus, distal radius, and proximal femur. However, most studies of fracture repair processes have focused on the diaphyseal region. In this study, we compared the bone repair processes of the metaphysis and the diaphysis of the mouse tibia. Bone apertures were formed in the tibial metaphysis and diaphysis. At indicated times after surgery, samples were collected, and the healing process was investigated using micro-computed tomography, as well as histological, immunohistochemical, and mRNA expression analyses...
June 2018: Bone Reports
Joseph R Tucci
The existence of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NPHP) was acknowledged at the Third and Fourth International Proceedings on primary hyperparathyroidism PHPT but data relating to its clinical presentation, natural history, and skeletal status were limited and there was no information nor guidelines as to definitive therapy. Herein are reported biochemical, hormonal, and densitometry data in a postmenopausal woman seen initially for osteoporosis who was found to have increased serum PTH levels and normal serum total and ionized calcium levels without evidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism...
December 2017: Bone Reports
T M Kvist, S Syberg, S Petersen, M Ding, N R Jørgensen, P Schwarz
In inflammatory autoimmune diseases, bone loss is frequent. In most cases, secondary osteoporosis is caused by treatment with systemic glucocorticoid. However, the pathogenesis behind the bone loss is presumed multifactorial. We aimed to elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor on bone mineral density (BMD), microarchitecture, and bone strength in a standardized mouse model of inflammation-mediated osteoporosis (IMO). In total 146 mice completed our protocol, 70 wild type (WT) mice and 76 P2X7 -/- (knockout, KO)...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Teruki Sone, Naohiro Kon, Kenneth W Gaither, Naoki Okubo, Taisuke Osakabe, Yutaka Nakayama, Masao Fukunaga, Masako Ito, Toshitaka Nakamura
Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against RANK ligand, is shown to have strong anti-fracture effects in Japanese osteoporosis patients. However, there have been no data showing actions on Japanese bone architecture. Here we show that denosumab continuously improves several geometrical parameters calculated by hip structural analysis for 3 years. Compared to placebo, denosumab significantly increased bone mineral density, cortical thickness and cross sectional area in all of the three analyzed areas: the narrow neck, intertrochanter and femoral shaft...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Tara S Rogers, Stephanie Harrison, Christine Swanson, Jane A Cauley, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Eric Orwoll, Katie L Stone, Nancy E Lane
Background: Disrupted rest-activity circadian rhythm (RAR) patterns have been associated with poor health outcomes (i.e. diminished cognitive function, increased risk of dementia and falls). Circadian time cues in bone influence the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and bone turnover markers exhibit circadian variation; relationships between bone outcomes and RAR are emerging areas of research. We evaluated associations between RAR and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the total hip and femoral neck in older men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort...
December 2017: Bone Reports
B Thomas, D McIntosh, T Fildes, L Smith, F Hargrave, M Islam, T Thompson, R Layfield, D Scott, B Shaw, C L Burrell, S Gonzalez, S Taylor
Second-harmonic generation imaging (SHG) captures triple helical collagen molecules near tissue surfaces. Biomedical research routinely utilizes various imaging software packages to quantify SHG signals for collagen content and distribution estimates in modern tissue samples including bone. For the first time using SHG, samples of modern, medieval, and ice age bones were imaged to test the applicability of SHG to ancient bone from a variety of ages, settings, and taxa. Four independent techniques including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, radiocarbon dating protocols, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing, confirm the presence of protein, consistent with the hypothesis that SHG imaging detects ancient bone collagen...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Fariba Vaziri-Sani, Charlotte Brundin, Daniel Agardh
Purpose: Autoantibodies against osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been associated with osteoporosis. The aim was to develop an immunoassay for OPG autoantibodies and test their diagnostic usefulness of identifying women general population with low bone mineral density. Methods: Included were 698 women at mean age 55.1 years (range 50.4-60.6) randomly selected from the general population. Measurement of wrist bone mineral density (g/cm2 ) was performed of the non-dominant wrist by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Rosebella A Iseme, Mark Mcevoy, Brian Kelly, Linda Agnew, Frederick R Walker, John Attia
The last two decades have marked a growing understanding of the interaction occurring between bone and immune cells. The chronic inflammation and immune system dysfunction commonly observed to occur during the ageing process and as part of a range of other pathological conditions, commonly associated with osteoporosis has led to the recognition of these processes as important determinants of bone disease. This is further supported by the recognition that the immune and bone systems in fact share regulatory mechanisms and progenitor molecules...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Cale Dobrosak, Jonathan H Gooi
Over the past few years interest has greatly increased in how the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) influences bone homeostasis. Recent work has postulated multiple effects of S1P on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Based on these findings, S1P has been proposed as a potential osteoporosis treatment. However, to date, there has been only a single study investigating S1P signalling in the cells that co-ordinate bone metabolism: osteocytes. This study aimed to elucidate the role of S1P signalling in osteocyte mechanotransduction...
December 2017: Bone Reports
A Modi, P R Ebeling, M S Lee, Y K Min, A Mithal, X Yang, S Baidya, S Sen, S Sajjan
BACKGROUND: The objectives of the physician survey component of the MUSIC OS-AP study were to describe physicians' approaches to treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and to understand the influence of gastrointestinal (GI) events on treatment in clinical practice. METHODS: Physicians were recruited from 5 Asia-Pacific countries. Questionnaires collected information about physicians' standard practices for treatment of patients with osteoporosis, as well as their perspectives on the influence of GI events on osteoporosis treatment approaches...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Babatunde A Ayodele, Michiko Mirams, Charles N Pagel, Eleanor J Mackie
Chondrocyte hypertrophy makes important contributions to bone development and growth. We have investigated a number of novel cartilage genes identified in a recent transcriptomic study to determine whether they are differentially expressed between different zones of equine foetal growth cartilage. Twelve genes ( ATP6V0D2 , BAK1 , DDX5 , GNB1 , PIP4K2A , RAP1B , RPS7 , SRSF3 , SUB1 , TMSB4 , TPI1 and WSB2 ) were found to be more highly expressed in the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes than in the reserve or proliferative zones, whereas FOXA3 and SERPINA1 were expressed at lower levels in the hypertrophic zone than in the reserve zone...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Pablo Florenzano, Rachel I Gafni, Michael T Collins
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body...
December 2017: Bone Reports
G Nagel, R S Peter, E Klotz, W Brozek, H Concin
We investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and breast cancer risk in a large prospective cohort and quantified the evidence in a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Baseline BMD has been measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, N = 1418). Data on medication and lifestyle has been collected by questionnaire. Cox proportional Hazards models were applied to calculate Hazard Ratios for breast cancer. In addition, a meta-analysis on categorical and dose-response values including the current results has been performed applying random-effects models...
December 2017: Bone Reports
T Shimizu, T Tanaka, T Kobayashi, I Kudo, M Nakatsugawa, A Takakura, R Takao-Kawabata, T Ishizuya
Bisphosphonates (BPs) and teriparatide (TPTD) are both effective treatments for osteoporosis, but BP treatment prior to daily TPTD treatment has been shown to impair the effect of TPTD in some clinical studies. In contrast, the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) that occurs after withdrawal of TPTD can be prevented by BP treatment. Although various studies have investigated the combination and/or sequential use of BP and TPTD, there have been no clinical studies investigating sequential treatment with zoledronic acid (ZOL) and TPTD (or vice versa)...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Darrell Green, Irina Mohorianu, Isabelle Piec, Jeremy Turner, Clare Beadsmoore, Andoni Toms, Richard Ball, John Nolan, Iain McNamara, Tamas Dalmay, William D Fraser
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are a heterogeneous set of bone and soft tissue neoplasms that can cause a number of paraneoplastic syndromes such as tumour induced osteomalacia. The term phosphaturic comes from the common finding that these tumours secrete high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 which causes renal phosphate wasting leading to hypophosphatemia. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumours are rare and diagnosis is difficult. A very active 68 year old male presented with bone pain and muscle weakness...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Timothy R Macaulay, Jamila H Siamwala, Alan R Hargens, Brandon R Macias
Previously our laboratory documented increases in calvaria bone volume and thickness in mice exposed to 15 days of spaceflight aboard the NASA Shuttle mission STS-131. However, the tissues were not processed for gene expression studies to determine what bone formation pathways might contribute to these structural adaptations. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate both the structural and molecular changes in mice calvariae after a longer duration of spaceflight. The primary purpose was to determine the calvaria bone volume and thickness of mice exposed to 30 days of spaceflight using micro-computed tomography for comparison with our previous findings...
December 2017: Bone Reports
Konrad Pätzug, Nele Friedrich, Hanna Kische, Anke Hannemann, Henry Völzke, Matthias Nauck, Brian G Keevil, Robin Haring
PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The present study investigates potential associations between liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measured sex hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bone ultrasound parameters at the heel in men and women from the general population. METHODS: Data from 502 women and 425 men from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were used. Cross-sectional associations of sex hormones including testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), androstenedione (ASD), estrone (E1) and SHBG with quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters at the heel, including broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (SI) were examined by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariable quantile regression models...
December 2017: Bone Reports
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