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Frontiers in Surgery

Therese Featherston, Helen H Yu, Jonathan C Dunne, Alice M Chibnall, Helen D Brasch, Paul F Davis, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
AIM: We have recently identified and characterized cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations within moderately differentiated buccal mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (MDBMSCC). We hypothesized that these CSCs express components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). METHODS: 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded MDBMSCC samples to investigate the expression of the components of the RAS: (pro)renin receptor (PRR), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II receptor 1 (ATIIR1), and angiotensin II receptor 2 (ATIIR2)...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Amy Ruth Bradshaw, Agadha Crisantha Wickremesekera, Helen D Brasch, Alice M Chibnall, Paul F Davis, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
AIM: To investigate the expression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in cancer stem cells (CSCs), we have previously characterized in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). METHODS: 3,3-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the stem cell marker, SOX2, and components of the RAS: angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), (pro)renin receptor (PRR), angiotensin II receptor 1 (ATIIR1), and angiotensin II receptor 2 (ATIIR2) on 4 μm-thick formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of previously characterized GBM samples in six patients was undertaken...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Filip E Muysoms, An Jairam, Manuel López-Cano, Maciej Śmietański, Guido Woeste, Iris Kyle-Leinhase, Stavros A Antoniou, Ferdinand Köckerling
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic mesh-augmented reinforcement during closure of abdominal wall incisions has been proposed in patients with increased risk for development of incisional hernias (IHs). As part of the BioMesh consensus project, a systematic literature review has been performed to detect those studies where MAR was performed with a non-permanent absorbable mesh (biological or biosynthetic). METHODS: A computerized search was performed within 12 databases (Embase, Medline, Web-of-Science, Scopus, Cochrane, CINAHL, Pubmed publisher, Lilacs, Scielo, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, Google Scholar) with appropriate search terms...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Riaz Agha, Alexander J Fowler, Christopher Limb, Yasser Al Omran, Harkiran Sagoo, Kiron Koshy, Daniyal J Jafree, Mohammed Omer Anwar, Peter McCullogh, Dennis Paul Orgill
INTRODUCTION: The Declaration of Helsinki 2013 encourages the registration of all research studies involving human participants. However, emphasis has been placed on prospective clinical trials, and it is estimated that only 10% of observational studies are registered. In response, Research Registry(®) was launched in February 2015; a retrospectively curated registry that is free and easy to use. Research Registry(®) enables prospective or retrospective registration of studies, including those study types that cannot be registered on existing registries...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Sunil K Narang, Nasra N Alam, Ferdinand Köckerling, Ian R Daniels, Neil J Smart
INTRODUCTION: Perineal hernia (PerH) following abdominoperineal excision (APE) procedure is a recognized complication. PerH was considered an infrequent complication of APE procedure; however, PerH rates of up to 45% have been reported in recent publications following a laparoscopic APE procedure. Various methods of repair of PerH with the use of synthetic meshes or myocutaneous flap have been described, although there is no general agreement on an optimal strategy. The use of biological meshes for different operations is growing in popularity, and these have been promoted as being superior and safer when compared to synthetic meshes...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Amy Bradshaw, Agadha Wickremesekera, Helen D Brasch, Alice M Chibnall, Paul F Davis, Swee T Tan, Tinte Itinteang
AIM: To identify and characterize cancer stem cells (CSC) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). METHODS: Four-micrometer thick formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded GBM samples from six patients underwent 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and immunofluorescent (IF) immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers NANOG, OCT4, SALL4, SOX2, and pSTAT3. IF IHC staining was performed to demonstrate co-expression of these markers with GFAP. The protein expression and the transcriptional activities of the genes encoding NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, SALL4, and STAT3 were investigated using Western blotting (WB) and NanoString gene expression analysis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Ferdinand Köckerling, Michael Pass, Petra Brunner, Matthias Hafermalz, Stefan Grund, Joerg Sauer, Volker Lange, Wolfgang Schröder
INTRODUCTION: The learning curve in minimally invasive surgery is much longer than in open surgery. This is thought to be due to the higher demands made on the surgeon's skills. Therefore, the question raised at the outset of training in laparoscopic surgery is how such skills can be acquired by undergoing training outside the bounds of clinical activities to try to shorten the learning curve. Simulation-based training courses are one such model. METHODS: In 2011, the surgery societies of Germany adopted the "laparoscopic surgery curriculum" as a recommendation for the learning content of systematic training courses for laparoscopic surgery...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Helen H Yu, Therese Featherston, Swee T Tan, Alice M Chibnall, Helen D Brasch, Paul F Davis, Tinte Itinteang
AIM: To identify and characterize cancer stem cells (CSC) in moderately differentiated buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (MDBMSCC). METHODS: Four micrometer-thick, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded MDBMSCC samples from six patients underwent 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers, NANOG, OCT4, SALL4, SOX2, and pSTAT3; cancer stem cell marker, CD44; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) marker, EMA; and endothelial marker, CD34...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Ramsey A Falconer, Sean L Rogers, Cristie M Brewer, Franco Piscitani, Mahesh B Shenai
Simulated surgical environments are rapidly gaining adoption in training students, residents, and members of specialized surgical teams. However, minimal attention has been given to the use of simulated surgical environments to educate patients on surgical processes, particularly procedures that require the active participation of the patient. "Awake" neurosurgery provides a unique situation in which patients openly participate in their operation. We describe a case report, in which a 62-year-old male was referred for "awake" deep brain stimulation implantation, in relation to medically refractory Parkinson's disease...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Michael A Mooney, Elias D Simon, Andrew S Little
The current treatment of pituitary adenomas requires a balance of conservative management, surgical resection, and in select tumor types, molecular therapy. Acromegaly treatment is an evolving field where our understanding of molecular targets and drug therapies has improved treatment options for patients with excess growth hormone levels. We highlight the use of molecular therapies in this disease process and advances in this field, which may represent a paradigm shift for the future of pituitary adenoma treatment...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
James Amis
We are currently in the process of discovering that many, if not the majority, of the non-traumatic acquired adult foot and ankle problems are caused by a singular etiology: non-neuromuscular equinus or the isolated gastrocnemius contracture. There is no question that this biomechanical association exists and in time much more will be uncovered. There are three basic questions that must be answered: why would our calves tighten as we normally age, how does a tight calf, or equinus, actually cause problems remotely in the foot and ankle, and how do the forces produced by equinus cause so many seemingly unrelated pathologies in the foot and ankle? The purpose of this paper is to address the second question: how does a tight calf mechanically cause problems remotely in the foot and ankle? There has been little evidence in the literature addressing the biomechanical mechanisms by which equinus creates damaging forces upon the foot and ankle, and as a result, a precise, convincing mechanism is still lacking...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Vernard S Fennell, M Yashar S Kalani, Gursant Atwal, Nikolay L Martirosyan, Robert F Spetzler
Understanding the biology of intracranial aneurysms is a clinical quandary. How these aneurysms form, progress, and rupture is poorly understood. Evidence indicates that well-established risk factors play a critical role, along with immunologic factors, in their development and clinical outcomes. Much of the expanding knowledge of the inception, progression, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms implicates inflammation as a critical mediator of aneurysm pathogenesis. Thus, therapeutic targets exploiting this arm of aneurysm pathogenesis have been implemented, often with promising outcomes...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Kristien Corvers, Greet Hens, Jeroen Meulemans, Pierre Delaere, Robert Hermans, Vincent Vander Poorten
Dermoid cysts are epithelial-lined cavities with skin adnexae in the capsule. Only 7% is present in the head and neck. Between 2004 and 2013, four patients with a lingual dermoid cyst underwent a microsurgical carbon dioxide laser resection via a median sagittal glossotomy approach. This approach is an elegant technique combining superior visualization, hemostasis, and little postoperative edema with good wound healing, allowing for perfect function preservation of the tongue.
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Jacob Rosenberg, Thomas Fuchs-Buder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Wenya Linda Bi, Michael Zhang, Winona W Wu, Yu Mei, Ian F Dunn
There has been a recent revolution in our understanding of the genetic factors that drive meningioma, punctuating an equilibrium that has existed since Cushing's germinal studies nearly a century ago. A growing appreciation that meningiomas share similar biologic features with other malignancies has allowed extrapolation of management strategies and lessons from intra-axial central nervous system neoplasms and systemic cancers to meningiomas. These features include a natural proclivity for invasion, frequent intratumoral heterogeneity, and correlation between biologic profile and clinical behavior...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Victoria Schunemann, Kristin Huntoon, Russell R Lonser
von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a familial neoplasia syndrome associated with multisystem tumor development. Depending on tumor type and location, current treatments for VHL-associated tumors can include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or surgery. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of VHL include craniospinal hemangioblastomas and endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs). While the first-line treatment for both types of VHL-associated CNS tumors is surgery, the indications for treatment are patient specific and different for each tumor type...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Evandro C Sousa, Manoel J Teixeira, Ronnie L Piske, Lavoisier S Albuquerque, Sebastião Côrrea, Salomão Benabou, Leonardo C Welling, Leonardo Moura de Sousa, Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of preradiosurgical embolization on obliteration rate, reduction of size, irradiation dose, and neurological outcome, in 90 patients presenting large arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). METHODS: Between October 1993 and October 2006, 90 radiosurgical procedures were performed to treat brain AVMs Spetzler-Martin (SM) grades III, IV, and V at the Department of Radiosurgery and Radiology of the Real e Benemérita Associação Portuguesa de Beneficência de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Achal Singh Achrol, Gary K Steinberg
Cerebral aneurysms are common vascular lesions. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these lesions and the process by which they destabilize and progress to rupture. Treatment decisions are motivated by a desire to prevent rupture and the devastating morbidity and mortality associated with resulting subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For patients presenting with SAH, urgent intervention is required to stabilize the lesion and prevent re-rupture. Those patients fortunate enough to survive a presenting SAH and subsequent securing of their aneurysm must still face a spectrum of secondary sequelae, which can include cerebral vasospasm, delayed ischemia, seizures, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and endocrinologic and catecholamine-induced systemic dysfunction in cardiac, pulmonary, and renal systems...
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
Eric S Wise, Joyce Cheung-Flynn, Colleen Marie Brophy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Surgery
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