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Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239630/from-attachment-to-independence-stress-hormone-control-of-ecologically-relevant-emergence-of-infants-responses-to-threat
#1
Adrienne Santiago, Chiye Aoki, Regina M Sullivan
Young infant rat pups learn to approach cues associated with pain rather than learning amygdala-dependent fear. This approach response is considered caregiver-seeking and ecologically relevant within the context of attachment. With maturation, increases in the stress hormone corticosterone permit amygdala-dependent fear, which is crucial for survival during independent living. During the developmental transition from attachment to fear learning, maternal presence suppresses corticosterone elevation to block amygdala-dependent fear learning and re-engage the attachment circuitry...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044144/stress-and-decision-making-effects-on-valuation-learning-and-risk-taking
#2
Anthony J Porcelli, Mauricio R Delgado
A wide range of stressful experiences can influence human decision making in complex ways beyond the simple predictions of a fight-or-flight model. Recent advances may provide insight into this complicated interaction, potentially in directions that could result in translational applications. Early research suggests that stress exposure influences basic neural circuits involved in reward processing and learning, while also biasing decisions towards habit and modulating our propensity to engage in risk-taking...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812532/prefrontal-cortex-gabaergic-deficits-and-circuit-dysfunction-in-the-pathophysiology-and-treatment-of-chronic-stress-and-depression
#3
Sriparna Ghosal, Brendan Hare, Ronald S Duman
Psychiatric diseases, notably major depression, are associated with imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and related limbic brain circuitry. In many cases these illnesses are precipitated or exacerbated by chronic stress, which also alters excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems. Notably, exposure to repeated uncontrollable stress causes persistent changes in the synaptic integrity and function of the principal glutamatergic excitatory neurons in the PFC, characterized by neuronal atrophy and loss of synaptic connections...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111629/adolescence-and-drug-use-vulnerability-findings-from-neuroimaging
#4
Lindsay M Squeglia, Anita Cservenka
Adolescence is a period of vulnerability for developing substance use disorder. Recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have elucidated underlying neural vulnerabilities that contribute to initiation of substance use during adolescence. Findings suggest poorer performance on tasks of inhibition and working memory, smaller brain volumes in reward and cognitive control regions, less brain activation during executive functioning tasks, and heightened reward responsivity are predictive of youth initiating substance use during adolescence...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111628/the-prefrontal-cortex-as-a-critical-gate-of-negative-affect-and-motivation-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#5
Amanda R Pahng, M Adrienne McGinn, Rod I Paulsen, Scott Edwards
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) represents and executes the highest forms of goal-directed behavior, and has thereby attained a central neuroanatomical position in most pathophysiological conceptualizations of motivational disorders, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Excessive, intermittent exposure to alcohol produces an allostatic dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis along with heightened forebrain glucocorticoid signaling that can damage PFC architecture and function. Negative affective states intimately associated with the transition to alcohol dependence result not only from a dysregulated HPA axis, but also from the inability of a damaged PFC to regulate subcortical stress and reinforcement centers, including the ventral striatum and amygdala...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111627/beyond-sensation-seeking-a-conceptual-framework-for-individual-differences-in-psychostimulant-drug-effects-in-healthy-humans
#6
Tara L White
Psychostimulant addiction is an important, relapsing condition for which there is no effective pharmacological treatment. Countering this problem requires an understanding of the specific risk factors that predispose individuals to initial misuse of these drugs. Healthy individuals display marked individual differences in emotional, behavioral and brain responses to low and moderate doses of stimulant drugs. These between-person differences have been most often studied using personality measures of sensation seeking...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094824/structural-neuroimaging-in-polysubstance-users
#7
COMMENT
Dieter J Meyerhoff
The simultaneous and/or concurrent use of licit and illicit substances (polysubstance use, PSU) is most common today. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied extensively to study individuals ostensibly using a single substance. These studies have produced a picture of regional gray matter and white matter alterations with each substance or class of substances. Very few studies measured regional brain morphometry in today's polysubstance users. This limited data suggest morphometric alterations with PSU that are not simply additive but often different from those of monosubstance users...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774503/is-biological-aging-accelerated-in-drug-addiction
#8
Keren Bachi, Salvador Sierra, Nora D Volkow, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Drug-addiction may trigger early onset of age-related disease, due to drug-induced multi-system toxicity and perilous lifestyle, which remains mostly undetected and untreated. We present the literature on pathophysiological processes that may hasten aging and its relevance to addiction, including: oxidative stress and cellular aging, inflammation in periphery and brain, decline in brain volume and function, and early onset of cardiac, cerebrovascular, kidney, and liver disease. Timely detection of accelerated aging in addiction is crucial for the prevention of premature morbidity and mortality...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482533/cognitive-motor-deficits-in-cannabis-users
#9
Shikha Prashad, Francesca M Filbey
Cannabis use affects cortico-striatal networks that are essential for producing movement. In this review, we summarize the literature on motor system dysfunction in cannabis users and provide a rationale for why motor learning should be considered an important area in cannabis research. A majority of studies have addressed cognitive impairments in cannabis users and some have focused on driving performance, motor impulsivity, and motor inhibition. Our review of the literature has found that cannabis use is associated with motor performance impairments; however, there is a gap in the literature regarding impairments in motor learning...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191489/an-efficiency-framework-for-valence-processing-systems-inspired-by-soft-cross-wiring
#10
P Read Montague, Kenneth T Kishida, Rosalyn J Moran, Terry M Lohrenz
Recent experiments suggest that subsecond dopamine delivery to human striatum encodes a combination of reward prediction errors and counterfactual errors thus composing the actual with the possible into one neurochemical signal. Here, we present a model where the counterfactual part of these striatal dopamine fluctuations originates in another valuation system that shadows the dopamine system by acting as its near-antipode in terms of spike-rate encoding yet co-releases dopamine alongside its own native neurotransmitter...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695704/cognitive-neuroscience-of-honesty-and-deception-a-signaling-framework
#11
Adrianna Jenkins, Lusha Zhu, Ming Hsu
Understanding the neural basis of human honesty and deception has enormous potential scientific and practical value. However, past approaches, largely developed out of studies with forensic applications in mind, are increasingly recognized as having serious methodological and conceptual shortcomings. Here we propose to address these challenges by drawing on so-called signaling games widely used in game theory and ethology to study behavioral and evolutionary consequences of information transmission and distortion...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574699/taming-the-beast-extracting-generalizable-knowledge-from-computational-models-of-cognition
#12
Matthew R Nassar, Michael J Frank
Generalizing knowledge from experimental data requires constructing theories capable of explaining observations and extending beyond them. Computational modeling offers formal quantitative methods for generating and testing theories of cognition and neural processing. These techniques can be used to extract general principles from specific experimental measurements, but introduce dangers inherent to theory: model-based analyses are conditioned on a set of fixed assumptions that impact the interpretations of experimental data...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408906/reinforcement-learning-with-marr
#13
Yael Niv, Angela Langdon
To many, the poster child for David Marr's famous three levels of scientific inquiry is reinforcement learning-a computational theory of reward optimization, which readily prescribes algorithmic solutions that evidence striking resemblance to signals found in the brain, suggesting a straightforward neural implementation. Here we review questions that remain open at each level of analysis, concluding that the path forward to their resolution calls for inspiration across levels, rather than a focus on mutual constraints...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403450/three-challenges-for-connecting-model-to-mechanism-in-decision-making
#14
A K Churchland, R Kiani
Recent years have seen a growing interest in understanding the neural mechanisms that support decision-making. The advent of new tools for measuring and manipulating neurons, alongside the inclusion of multiple new animal models and sensory systems has led to the generation of many novel datasets. The potential for these new approaches to constrain decision-making models is unprecedented. Here, we argue that to fully leverage these new approaches, three challenges must be met. First, experimenters must design well-controlled behavioral experiments that make it possible to distinguish competing behavioral strategies...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27104211/challenges-and-promises-for-translating-computational-tools-into-clinical-practice
#15
Woo-Young Ahn, Jerome R Busemeyer
Computational modeling and associated methods have greatly advanced our understanding of cognition and neurobiology underlying complex behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Yet, no computational methods have been successfully translated into clinical settings. This review discusses three major methodological and practical challenges (A. precise characterization of latent neurocognitive processes, B. developing optimal assays, C. developing large-scale longitudinal studies and generating predictions from multi-modal data) and potential promises and tools that have been developed in various fields including mathematical psychology, computational neuroscience, computer science, and statistics...
October 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822488/the-neuroscience-of-emotion-regulation-development-implications-for-education
#16
Rebecca E Martin, Kevin N Ochsner
Emotion regulation is a critical life skill that can facilitate learning and improve educational outcomes. Developmental studies find that the ability to regulate emotion improves with age. In neuroimaging studies, emotion regulation abilities are associated with recruitment of a set of prefrontal brain regions involved in cognitive control and executive functioning that mature late in development. In this review we discuss the regulation of both negative and positive emotions, the role of other people in guiding our emotional responses, and the potential applications of this work to education...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766284/lessons-to-be-learned-how-a-comprehensive-neurobiological-framework-of-atypical-reading-development-can-inform-educational-practice
#17
Ola Ozernov-Palchik, Xi Yu, Yingying Wang, Nadine Gaab
Dyslexia is a heritable reading disorder with an estimated prevalence of 5-17%. A multiple deficit model has been proposed that illustrates dyslexia as an outcome of multiple risks and protective factors interacting at the genetic, neural, cognitive, and environmental levels. Here we review the evidence on each of these levels and discuss possible underlying mechanisms and their reciprocal interactions along a developmental timeline. Current and potential implications of neuroscientific findings for contemporary challenges in the field of dyslexia, as well as for reading development and education in general, are then discussed...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747263/socio-emotional-and-cognitive-resilience-in-children-with-reading-disabilities
#18
Stephanie L Haft, Chelsea A Myers, Fumiko Hoeft
In recent times, research on resilience in children facing adversities has proliferated. In this review, the authors characterize resilience in children with reading disorders (RD). To organize our discussion and categorize the specific outcomes such children demonstrate, we adopt the terms cognitive resilience and socio-emotional resilience. By paralleling other resilience research, we seek to uncover protective factors in the hopes that they can be targeted in education and interventions to improve cognitive functioning, socio-emotional wellbeing, and academic success of children with RD...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458603/integrating-mri-brain-imaging-studies-of-pre-reading-children-with-current-theories-of-developmental-dyslexia-a-review-and-quantitative-meta-analysis
#19
Maaike Vandermosten, Fumiko Hoeft, Elizabeth S Norton
The neurobiological substrates that cause people with dyslexia to experience difficulty in acquiring accurate and fluent reading skills are still largely unknown. Although structural and functional brain anomalies associated with dyslexia have been reported in adults and school-age children, these anomalies may represent differences in reading experience rather than the etiology of dyslexia. Conducting MRI studies of pre-readers at risk for dyslexia is one approach that enables us to identify brain alterations that exist before differences in reading experience emerge...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27231716/sensory-and-cognitive-plasticity-implications-for-academic-interventions
#20
Emily A Cooper, Allyson P Mackey
Research in neuroscience has great potential for transforming education. However, the brain systems that support academic and cognitive skills are poorly understood in comparison to the systems that support sensory processing. Decades of basic research have examined the role that brain plasticity plays in the genesis and treatment of developmental visual disorders, which may help to inform how cognitive training approaches can be tailored for students who experience environmental disadvantage. In this review, we draw parallels between visual and cognitive intervention approaches, and suggest research avenues that could inform educational practice in the future...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
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