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Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167810/the-pre-parasubiculum-a-hippocampal-hub-for-scene-based-cognition
#1
REVIEW
Marshall A Dalton, Eleanor A Maguire
Internal representations of the world in the form of spatially coherent scenes have been linked with cognitive functions including episodic memory, navigation and imagining the future. In human neuroimaging studies, a specific hippocampal subregion, the pre/parasubiculum, is consistently engaged during scene-based cognition. Here we review recent evidence to consider why this might be the case. We note that the pre/parasubiculum is a primary target of the parieto-medial temporal processing pathway, it receives integrated information from foveal and peripheral visual inputs and it is contiguous with the retrosplenial cortex...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167809/short-term-memory-for-spatial-sequential-and-duration-information
#2
REVIEW
Sanjay G Manohar, Yoni Pertzov, Masud Husain
Space and time appear to play key roles in the way that information is organized in short-term memory (STM). Some argue that they are crucial contexts within which other stored features are embedded, allowing binding of information that belongs together within STM. Here we review recent behavioral, neurophysiological and imaging studies that have sought to investigate the nature of spatial, sequential and duration representations in STM, and how these might break down in disease. Findings from these studies point to an important role of the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures in aspects of STM, challenging conventional accounts of involvement of these regions in only long-term memory...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130062/human-spatial-navigation-representations-across-dimensions-and-scales
#3
Arne D Ekstrom, Eve A Isham
Humans, like many other species, employ three fundamental forms of strategies to navigate: allocentric, egocentric, and beacon. Here, we review each of these different forms of navigation with a particular focus on how our high-resolution visual system contributes to their unique properties. We also consider how we might employ allocentric and egocentric representations, in particular, across different spatial dimensions, such as 1-D vs. 2-D. Our high acuity visual system also leads to important considerations regarding the scale of space we are navigating (e...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130061/episodic-future-thinking-mechanisms-and-functions
#4
Daniel L Schacter, Roland G Benoit, Karl K Szpunar
Episodic future thinking refers to the capacity to imagine or simulate experiences that might occur in one's personal future. Cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging research concerning episodic future thinking has accelerated during recent years. This article discusses research that has delineated cognitive and neural mechanisms that support episodic future thinking as well as the functions that episodic future thinking serves. Studies focused on mechanisms have identified a core brain network that underlies episodic future thinking and have begun to tease apart the relative contributions of particular regions in this network, and the specific cognitive processes that they support...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130060/models-of-spatial-and-temporal-dimensions-of-memory
#5
Michael E Hasselmo, James R Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Chantal E Stern
Episodic memory involves coding of the spatial location and time of individual events. Coding of space and time is also relevant to working memory, spatial navigation, and the disambiguation of overlapping memory representations. Neurophysiological data demonstrate that neuronal activity codes the current, past and future location of an animal as well as temporal intervals within a task. Models have addressed how neural coding of space and time for memory function could arise, with both dimensions coded by the same neurons...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924579/memory-integration-constructs-maps-of-space-time-and-concepts
#6
Neal W Morton, Katherine R Sherrill, Alison R Preston
Recent evidence demonstrates that new events are learned in the context of their relationships to existing memories. Within the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, related memories are represented by integrated codes that connect events experienced at different times and places. Integrated codes form the basis of spatial, temporal, and conceptual maps of experience. These maps represent information that goes beyond direct experience and support generalization behaviors that require knowledge be used in new ways...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920071/predicting-the-past-remembering-the-future
#7
Samuel J Gershman
Rational analyses of memory suggest that retrievability of past experience depends on its usefulness for predicting the future: memory is adapted to the temporal structure of the environment. Recent research has enriched this view by applying it to semantic memory and reinforcement learning. This paper describes how multiple forms of memory can be linked via common predictive principles, possibly subserved by a shared neural substrate in the hippocampus. Predictive principles offer an explanation for a wide range of behavioral and neural phenomena, including semantic fluency, temporal contiguity effects in episodic memory, and the topological properties of hippocampal place cells...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845441/temporal-and-spatial-context-in-the-mind-and-brain
#8
Marc W Howard
Theories of episodic memory have long hypothesized that recollection of a specific instance from one's life is mediated by recovery of a neural state of spatiotemporal context. This paper reviews recent theoretical advances in formal models of spatiotemporal context and a growing body of neurophysiological evidence from human imaging studies and animal work that neural populations in the hippocampus and other brain regions support a representation of spatiotemporal context.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840180/time-and-space-in-the-hippocampus
#9
Howard Eichenbaum
There is considerable recent evidence that, in addition to its representation of space, the hippocampus also represents the temporal organization of memories. Time plays a central role in episodic memory, and studies have identified the hippocampus as playing an essential role in the temporal organization of memories in humans and animals. Temporal organization is supported by a gradually changing temporal context signal in the hippocampus, and this changing context signal involves "time cells" in the hippocampus that code sequential moments in temporally organized experiences...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983500/human-brain-evolution
#10
Andrey Verendeev, Chet C Sherwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523287/modeling-risky-decision-making-in-nonhuman-animals-shared-core-features
#11
Sarah R Heilbronner
Understanding the neural mechanisms of risky decision-making is critical to developing appropriate treatments for psychiatric disorders, problem gambling, and addiction to drugs of abuse. Probing neurobiological mechanisms requires the use of nonhuman animal models (particularly rhesus macaques, rats, and mice). However, there is considerable variation across species in risk preferences. Nevertheless, there are shared core features of risky decision-making present across species. As demonstrated with a wide variety of behavioral paradigms, modulators of risk preference observed in humans are readily replicated in model species...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201977/mixed-emotions-within-the-context-of-goal-pursuit
#12
Shannon T Mejía, Karen Hooker
Development in adulthood occurs through the process of setting and working toward goals. Emotions link experiences to goals and action, and as such are integral to goal setting, evaluation of goal progress, and goal pursuit. When viewed in the context of goals, the simultaneous experience of positive and negative or "mixed" emotions coheres with the complexity of goal pursuit within the context of competing demands in daily life. Mixed emotions may be experienced as uncertainty in which goal to prioritize, ambiguity in whether an event served or impeded goal progress, or poignancy in a bittersweet moment of recognizing the losses that accompany gains...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130059/inter-and-intra-individual-variation-in-emotional-complexity-methodological-considerations-and-theoretical-implications
#13
Anthony D Ong, Alex J Zautra, Patrick H Finan
The degree of relationship between positive and negative emotional states or emotional complexity is a topic of ongoing methodological and theoretical debate. At issue is whether positive and negative emotions are opposite ends of a bipolar continuum or independent dimensions in a bivariate distribution with little degree of overlap. In this review, we summarize a body of work suggesting that the distinction between positive and negative emotions varies both between and within individuals over time as a function of cognition and changes in informational demands, a perspective called the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA)...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109966/mixed-emotions-in-the-predictive-brain
#14
Katie Hoemann, Maria Gendron, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Understanding complex or mixed emotions first requires an exploration of the human nervous system underlying emotions, and indeed all experience. We review current research in neuroscience, which describes the brain as a predictive, internal model of the world that flexibly combines features from past experience to construct emotions. We argue that "mixed emotions" result when these features of past experience correspond to multiple emotion categories. Integrating event perception and cognitive linguistic theories, we propose that "mixed emotions" are perceived as an episode of distinct, linked emotional events due to attentional shifts which update the predicted model of experience...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085868/mixed-emotions-across-adulthood-when-where-and-why
#15
Susan T Charles, Jennifer R Piazza, Emily J Urban
Psychologists often interpret mixed emotional experiences, defined as experiencing more than one emotion over a given period of time, as indicative of greater emotional complexity and more adaptive functioning. In the present paper, we briefly review studies that have examined these experiences across adulthood. We describe how mixed emotions have been defined in the lifespan literature, and how the various studies examining age differences in this phenomenon have yielded discrepant results. We then discuss future research directions that could clarify the nature of mixed emotions and their utility in adulthood, including the assessment of situational context, understanding when mixed emotions are adaptive in daily life, and determining how cognitive functioning is involved in these experiences...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082304/aging-attention-and-situation-selection-older-adults-create-mixed-emotional-environments
#16
Derek M Isaacowitz, Kathryn L Ossenfort
Studies of age differences in affective experience tend to report positive age trends. Studies of attentional deployment also tend to find older individuals attending more to positive and less to negative stimuli. However, everyday entertainment choices seem to vary by age more in terms of meaningfulness and value than by valence. Relatively few age differences emerge in the valence of choices made in situation selection tasks, though older adults avoid arousal. Thus, both younger and older adults actively construct mixed emotional environments...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804752/understanding-mixed-emotions-paradigms-and-measures
#17
Sylvia D Kreibig, James J Gross
In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966969/utilizing-a-unique-animal-model-to-better-understand-human-temperament
#18
Cortney A Turner, Shelly B Flagel, Peter Blandino, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil
Individual differences in temperament are associated with psychopathology in humans. Moreover, the relationship between temperament and anxiety-, depression-, PTSD- and addiction-related behaviors can be modeled in animals. This review will highlight these relationships with a focus on individual differences in the response to stressors, fear conditioning and drugs of abuse using animals that differ in their response to a novel environment. We will discuss behavioral and neurobiological commonalities amongst these behaviors with a focus on the hippocampus and, in particular, growth factors as promising novel targets for therapeutic intervention...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758144/immune-signaling-mechanisms-of-ptsd-risk-and-symptom-development-insights-from-animal-models
#19
Jessica Deslauriers, Susan Powell, Victoria B Risbrough
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by persistent re-experiencing of a traumatic event, avoidance, and increased arousal. The approved pharmacological treatments for PTSD have limited efficacy (~60% treatment response), supporting the need for identification of biomarkers and novel pharmacological therapies. Mounting evidence suggests increased inflammatory markers and altered immune gene expression correlate with the severity of symptoms in PTSD patients. However a causal role of immune signaling in development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms is not clear, as inflammation may also be an epiphenomenon related to metabolic and behavioral effects of stress...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584860/integrative-analysis-of-sex-differences-in-the-rapid-antidepressant-effects-of-ketamine-in-preclinical-models-for-individualized-clinical-outcomes
#20
Samantha K Saland, Florian Duclot, Mohamed Kabbaj
In major depressive disorder, women exhibit higher lifetime prevalence and different antidepressant response rates than men, which illustrates the importance of examining individual differences in the pathophysiology of depression and therapeutic response. In recent years, the consideration of sex in related preclinical research has thus gained interest-particularly in light of novel evidence for rapid-acting antidepressants. Notably, the literature recently revealed a higher sensitivity of females to the antidepressant effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine, in both baseline and preclinical conditions...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
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