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Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450220/recent-insights-into-corticostriatal-circuit-mechanisms-underlying-habits-invited-review-for-current-opinions-in-behavioral-sciences
#1
Justin O'Hare, Nicole Calakos, Henry H Yin
Habits have been studied for decades, but it was not until recent years that experiments began to elucidate the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms. The latest experiments have been enabled by advances in cell-type specific monitoring and manipulation of activity in large neuronal populations. Here we will review recent efforts to understand the neural substrates underlying habit formation, focusing on rodent studies on corticostriatal circuits.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399606/a-brief-introduction-to-the-neurogenetics-of-cognition-emotion-interactions
#2
Matthew A Scult, Ahmad R Hariri
Neuroscience research has demonstrated that cognition, emotion, and their dynamic interactions emerge from complex and flexible patterns of activity across distributed neural circuits. A parallel branch of research in genetics has begun to identify common variation in the human DNA sequence (i.e., genome) that may shape individual differences in cognition-emotion interactions by altering molecular and cellular pathways that modulate the activity of these neural circuits. Here we provide a brief introduction to such neurogenetics research and how it may usefully inform our understanding of the biological mechanisms through which dynamic cognition-emotion interactions emerge and, subsequently, help shape normal and abnormal behavior...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333483/how-heart-rate-variability-affects-emotion-regulation-brain-networks
#3
Mara Mather, Julian Thayer
Individuals with high heart rate variability tend to have better emotional well-being than those with low heart rate variability, but the mechanisms of this association are not yet clear. In this paper, we propose the novel hypothesis that by inducing oscillatory activity in the brain, high amplitude oscillations in heart rate enhance functional connectivity in brain networks associated with emotion regulation. Recent studies using daily biofeedback sessions to increase the amplitude of heart rate oscillations suggest that high amplitude physiological oscillations have a causal impact on emotional well-being...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333482/flexibility-in-the-face-of-fear-hippocampal-prefrontal-regulation-of-fear-and-avoidance
#4
Justin M Moscarello, Stephen Maren
Generating appropriate defensive behaviors in the face of threat is essential to survival. Although many of these behaviors are 'hard-wired', they are also flexible. For example, Pavlovian fear conditioning generates learned defensive responses, such as conditioned freezing, that can be suppressed through extinction. The expression of extinguished responses is highly context-dependent, allowing animals to engage behavioral responses appropriate to the contexts in which threats are encountered. Likewise, animals and humans will avoid noxious outcomes if given the opportunity...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335678/does-mental-context-drift-or-shift
#5
Sarah DuBrow, Nina Rouhani, Yael Niv, Kenneth A Norman
Theories of episodic memory have generally proposed that individual memory traces are linked together by a representation of context that drifts slowly over time. Recent data challenge the notion that contextual drift is always slow and passive. In particular, changes in one's external environment or internal model induce discontinuities in memory that are reflected in sudden changes in neural activity, suggesting that context can shift abruptly. Furthermore, context change effects are sensitive to top-down goals, suggesting that contextual drift may be an active process...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333481/theta-sequences-of-grid-cell-populations-can-provide-a-movement-direction-signal
#6
Ipshita Zutshi, Jill K Leutgeb, Stefan Leutgeb
It has been proposed that path integration in mammals is performed by the convergence of internally generated speed and directional inputs onto grid cells. Although this hypothesis has been supported by the discovery that head direction, speed, and grid cells are intermixed within entorhinal cortex and by the recent finding that head-direction inputs are necessary for grid firing, many details on how grid cells are generated have remained elusive. For example, analysis of recording data suggests that substituting head direction for movement direction accrues errors that preclude the formation of grid patterns...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276730/the-ebb-and-flow-of-experience-determines-the-temporal-structure-of-memory
#7
David Clewett, Lila Davachi
Everyday life consists of a continuous stream of information, yet somehow we remember the past as distinct episodic events. Prominent models posit that event segmentation is driven by erroneous predictions about how current experiences are unfolding. Yet this perspective fails to explain how memories become integrated or separated in the absence of prior knowledge. Here, we propose that contextual stability dictates the temporal organization of events in episodic memory. To support this view, we summarize new findings showing that neural measures of event organization index how ongoing changes in external contextual cues and internal representations of time influence different forms of episodic memory...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270446/event-boundaries-in-memory-and-cognition
#8
Gabriel A Radvansky, Jeffrey M Zacks
Research on event cognition is rapidly developing and is revealing fundamental aspects of human cognition. In this paper, we review recent and current work that is driving this field forward. We first outline the Event Horizon Model, which broadly describes the impact of event boundaries on cognition and memory. Then, we address recent work on event segmentation, the role of event cognition in working memory and long-term memory, including event model updating, and long term retention. Throughout we also consider how event cognition varies across individuals and groups of people and consider the neural mechanisms involved...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255777/spatial-responses-immediate-experience-and-memory-in-the-monkey-hippocampus
#9
Jon W Rueckemann, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Debate about the function of the hippocampus often pits theories advocating for spatial mapping against those that argue for a central role in memory. This review addresses whether research in the monkey supports the view that processing spatial information is fundamental to the function of the hippocampus. In support of spatial processing theories, neurons in the monkey hippocampal formation have striking spatial tuning, and an intact hippocampus is necessary to effectively utilize allocentric spatial relationships...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238740/differential-effects-of-negative-emotion-on-memory-for-items-and-associations-and-their-relationship-to-intrusive-imagery
#10
REVIEW
J A Bisby, N Burgess
A crucial aspect of episodic memory formation is the way in which our experiences are stored within a coherent spatio-temporal context. We review research that highlights how the experience of a negative event can alter memory encoding in a complex manner, strengthening negative items but weakening associations with other items and the surrounding context. Recent evidence suggests that these opposing effects can occur through amygdala up-modulation to facilitate item encoding, while the hippocampal provision of contextual binding is down-modulated...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167810/the-pre-parasubiculum-a-hippocampal-hub-for-scene-based-cognition
#11
REVIEW
Marshall A Dalton, Eleanor A Maguire
Internal representations of the world in the form of spatially coherent scenes have been linked with cognitive functions including episodic memory, navigation and imagining the future. In human neuroimaging studies, a specific hippocampal subregion, the pre/parasubiculum, is consistently engaged during scene-based cognition. Here we review recent evidence to consider why this might be the case. We note that the pre/parasubiculum is a primary target of the parieto-medial temporal processing pathway, it receives integrated information from foveal and peripheral visual inputs and it is contiguous with the retrosplenial cortex...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167809/short-term-memory-for-spatial-sequential-and-duration-information
#12
REVIEW
Sanjay G Manohar, Yoni Pertzov, Masud Husain
Space and time appear to play key roles in the way that information is organized in short-term memory (STM). Some argue that they are crucial contexts within which other stored features are embedded, allowing binding of information that belongs together within STM. Here we review recent behavioral, neurophysiological and imaging studies that have sought to investigate the nature of spatial, sequential and duration representations in STM, and how these might break down in disease. Findings from these studies point to an important role of the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures in aspects of STM, challenging conventional accounts of involvement of these regions in only long-term memory...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130062/human-spatial-navigation-representations-across-dimensions-and-scales
#13
Arne D Ekstrom, Eve A Isham
Humans, like many other species, employ three fundamental forms of strategies to navigate: allocentric, egocentric, and beacon. Here, we review each of these different forms of navigation with a particular focus on how our high-resolution visual system contributes to their unique properties. We also consider how we might employ allocentric and egocentric representations, in particular, across different spatial dimensions, such as 1-D vs. 2-D. Our high acuity visual system also leads to important considerations regarding the scale of space we are navigating (e...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130061/episodic-future-thinking-mechanisms-and-functions
#14
Daniel L Schacter, Roland G Benoit, Karl K Szpunar
Episodic future thinking refers to the capacity to imagine or simulate experiences that might occur in one's personal future. Cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging research concerning episodic future thinking has accelerated during recent years. This article discusses research that has delineated cognitive and neural mechanisms that support episodic future thinking as well as the functions that episodic future thinking serves. Studies focused on mechanisms have identified a core brain network that underlies episodic future thinking and have begun to tease apart the relative contributions of particular regions in this network, and the specific cognitive processes that they support...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130060/models-of-spatial-and-temporal-dimensions-of-memory
#15
Michael E Hasselmo, James R Hinman, Holger Dannenberg, Chantal E Stern
Episodic memory involves coding of the spatial location and time of individual events. Coding of space and time is also relevant to working memory, spatial navigation, and the disambiguation of overlapping memory representations. Neurophysiological data demonstrate that neuronal activity codes the current, past and future location of an animal as well as temporal intervals within a task. Models have addressed how neural coding of space and time for memory function could arise, with both dimensions coded by the same neurons...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924579/memory-integration-constructs-maps-of-space-time-and-concepts
#16
Neal W Morton, Katherine R Sherrill, Alison R Preston
Recent evidence demonstrates that new events are learned in the context of their relationships to existing memories. Within the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, related memories are represented by integrated codes that connect events experienced at different times and places. Integrated codes form the basis of spatial, temporal, and conceptual maps of experience. These maps represent information that goes beyond direct experience and support generalization behaviors that require knowledge be used in new ways...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920071/predicting-the-past-remembering-the-future
#17
Samuel J Gershman
Rational analyses of memory suggest that retrievability of past experience depends on its usefulness for predicting the future: memory is adapted to the temporal structure of the environment. Recent research has enriched this view by applying it to semantic memory and reinforcement learning. This paper describes how multiple forms of memory can be linked via common predictive principles, possibly subserved by a shared neural substrate in the hippocampus. Predictive principles offer an explanation for a wide range of behavioral and neural phenomena, including semantic fluency, temporal contiguity effects in episodic memory, and the topological properties of hippocampal place cells...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845441/temporal-and-spatial-context-in-the-mind-and-brain
#18
Marc W Howard
Theories of episodic memory have long hypothesized that recollection of a specific instance from one's life is mediated by recovery of a neural state of spatiotemporal context. This paper reviews recent theoretical advances in formal models of spatiotemporal context and a growing body of neurophysiological evidence from human imaging studies and animal work that neural populations in the hippocampus and other brain regions support a representation of spatiotemporal context.
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840180/time-and-space-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Howard Eichenbaum
There is considerable recent evidence that, in addition to its representation of space, the hippocampus also represents the temporal organization of memories. Time plays a central role in episodic memory, and studies have identified the hippocampus as playing an essential role in the temporal organization of memories in humans and animals. Temporal organization is supported by a gradually changing temporal context signal in the hippocampus, and this changing context signal involves "time cells" in the hippocampus that code sequential moments in temporally organized experiences...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983500/human-brain-evolution
#20
Andrey Verendeev, Chet C Sherwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
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