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Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy

Kiran Gupta, Jeffrey Trocio, Allison Keshishian, Qisu Zhang, Oluwaseyi Dina, Jack Mardekian, Lisa Rosenblatt, Xianchen Liu, Shalini Hede, Anagha Nadkarni, Tom Shank
BACKGROUND: The ARISTOTLE trial demonstrated that apixaban had significantly lower rates of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding than warfarin; however, no direct clinical trials between apixaban and other direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are available. Few real-world studies comparing the effectiveness and safety between DOACs have been conducted. OBJECTIVE: To compare effectiveness, safety, and health care costs among oral anticoagulants (OACs) for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients in the U...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Holly Trautman, Erika Szabo, Elizabeth James, Boxiong Tang
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) are often administered to reduce the incidence, severity, and duration of febrile neutropenia (FN) in chemotherapy patients. Tbo-filgrastim and filgrastim-sndz represent a follow-on biologic and a biosimilar version, respectively, of the short-acting G-CSF filgrastim with comparable efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the budget impact of increasing use of patient-(home-) administered tbo-filgrastim and filgrastim-sndz from a U...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Deborah S Ling Grant, Ronald D Scott, Teresa N Harrison, T Craig Cheetham, Shen-Chih Chang, Jin-Wen Y Hsu, Rong Wei, Susan H Boklage, Victoria Romo-LeTourneau, Kristi Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Lipid screening determines eligibility for statins and other cardiovascular risk reduction interventions. OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in lipid screening among adults aged ≥20 years in a large, multiethnic, integrated health care delivery system in southern California. METHODS: Temporal trends in lipid screening were examined from 2009 to 2015 with an index date of September 30 of each year. Lipid screening was defined as the proportion of eligible members each year who (a) had ever been screened among those aged 20-39 years and (b) had been screened in the previous 6 years for those aged ≥ 40 years...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Janet H Ford, Krista Schroeder, Allen W Nyhuis, Shonda A Foster, Sheena K Aurora
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common and disabling neurological disease associated with substantial economic burden. Among patients with migraine, it is unknown if cost differences exist when preventive migraine medication (PMM) switches occur. OBJECTIVE: To understand the cost burden and health care resource utilization of patients who discontinue or cycle through 1 (PMM1), 2 (PMM2), or ≥ 3 (PMM3) unique PMM drug classes over a 12-month period versus patients who adhere persistently to their initial PMM class...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Theodore K Marras, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Engels Chou, Gina Eagle, Raymond Zhang, Mary Leuchars, Quanwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD) is an important public health concern that has been increasing in prevalence. OBJECTIVES: To (a) describe hospitalizations and health care expenditures among patients with newly diagnosed NTMLD and (b) estimate attributable hospitalizations and expenditures to NTMLD in the United States. METHODS: In this matched cohort study, patients and controls were identified from a large U...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Ann M Taylor, David Rhys Axon, Patrick Campbell, Miranda K Fair, Melissa Nelson, Kevin Boesen, Rose Martin, Terri L Warholak
BACKGROUND: Managing and treating patients with multiple chronic conditions presents challenges on many levels. Pharmacist-delivered medication therapy management (MTM) services, mandated as part of the Medicare Part D drug benefit, are designed to help patients manage their chronic conditions and medications. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that influence patient understanding and use of MTM services and potential strategies to educate individuals about MTM. METHODS: Participants who had at least 2 chronic conditions, were taking 2 or more prescription medications, and were aged 18 years or older were recruited from community-based settings to participate in focus groups...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Jayani Jayawardhana, Amanda J Abraham, Matthew Perri
BACKGROUND: There has been a dramatic rise in the number of opioid prescriptions and opioid overdose deaths in the United States over the past 15 years. Misuse and abuse of opioids is also a growing public health concern in the United States. Medicaid enrollees are more likely to be prescribed opioids and are at higher risk of prescription drug overdose compared with non-Medicaid populations. Despite rising opioid drug overdose deaths in Georgia, prevalence of indicators for potential inappropriate prescribing practices has not been examined to date...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Gerald Cochran, Wei-Hsuan Lo-Ciganic, Walid F Gellad, Adam J Gordon, Evan Cole, Carroline Lobo, Winfred Frazier, Ping Zheng, Chung-Chou H Chang, David Kelley, Julie M Donohue
BACKGROUND: The Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) recently developed 3 quality measures for prescribing opioids: high dosages, multiple providers and pharmacies, and concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of the PQA measures and identify the patient demographic and health characteristics associated with the measures. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using Pennsylvania Medicaid data (2013-2015)...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Margie E Snyder, Heather A Jaynes, Stephanie A Gernant, Wendy M Lantaff, Karen Suchanek Hudmon, William R Doucette
BACKGROUND: Medication therapy management (MTM) program evaluations have revealed mixed outcomes, with some studies finding favorable outcomes and others finding no differences between patients who received MTM versus those who did not. One possible reason for outcomes variability is differences in delivery of MTM programs. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) provides a framework for how health care organizations can improve care for the chronically ill through 6 elements: organization of health care, delivery system design, clinical information systems, decision support, self-management, and linkages to community resources...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Jonathan R Linder, Nancee V Waterbury, Bruce Alexander, Brian C Lund
BACKGROUND: HealthImpact is a novel algorithm using administrative health care data to stratify patients according to risk for incident diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To (a) independently assess the predictive validity of HealthImpact and (b) explore its utility in diabetes screening within a nationally integrated health care system. METHODS: National Veterans Health Administration data were used to create 2 cohorts. The replication cohort included patients without diagnosed diabetes as of October 1, 2012, to determine if HealthImpact scores were significantly associated with diabetes (type 1 or 2) incidence within the subsequent 3 years...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Henry J Henk, Janice M S Lopez, Brahim K Bookhart
BACKGROUND: Although drug formulary restrictions may reduce use of prescription medication and pharmacy costs, the effect of patient cost sharing on medication adherence and health care utilization and cost is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between patient cost sharing for novel type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medications and medication adherence, persistence, and health care utilization and cost. METHODS: This retrospective study used medical and pharmacy claims linked to pharmacy benefit plan design data...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Alpesh Amin, Allison Keshishian, Jeffrey Trocio, Oluwaseyi Dina, Hannah Le, Lisa Rosenblatt, Xianchen Liu, Jack Mardekian, Qisu Zhang, Onur Baser, Anagha Nadkarni, Lien Vo
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown that direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs)-including dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban-are at least as effective and safe as warfarin for the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding (MB) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, few studies have compared oral anticoagulants (OACs) among elderly patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare hospitalization risks (all-cause, stroke/SE-related, and MB-related) and associated health care costs among elderly nonvalvular AF (NVAF) patients in the Medicare population who initiated warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Gregory A Nichols, Marsha A Raebel, Wendy Dyer, Julie A Schmittdiel
BACKGROUND: The Medicare STAR program for Medicare Advantage Plans that include drug benefits provides monetary incentives for health plans to achieve good adherence to oral antihyperglycemic (OAH) agents but does not account for differential case mix that could affect the ability of health plans to achieve the required quality metrics. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether OAH adherence varies by age and comorbidities among patients aged 65 years or older and the extent to which adherence affects glycemic control across age and comorbidity strata...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Casey K Choong, Janet H Ford, Allen W Nyhuis, Rebecca L Robinson, Sheena K Aurora
BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is a rare trigeminal cephalalgia that is associated with extremely painful unilateral headache attacks and autonomic symptoms. Attacks may be episodic or chronic and associated with substantial suffering due to excruciating pain and limited treatment options. Frequent cluster headaches cause substantial burden for patients, resulting in reduced productivity caused by disability, as well as direct costs in some European countries. Less is known, however, about direct costs of recurring health care resource utilization (HCRU) in the United States...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Liana K Billings, Yehuda Handelsman, Michael Heile, Doron Schneider, Kathleen Wyne
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A patient-centered collaborative approach is recommended to optimize clinical outcomes, including HRQoL, in this patient population. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) provide effective glycemic control and have demonstrated beneficial effects on HRQoL and treatment satisfaction. Available once-weekly GLP-1 RAs may offer enhanced convenience compared with daily GLP-1 RAs and include exenatide extended-release (ER), dulaglutide, and semaglutide...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Michael Heile, Kathleen Wyne, Liana K Billings, Anthony Cannon, Yehuda Handelsman, Michael Shannon
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (ASCVD) disease, which is the largest contributor to the economic burden of diabetes. Minimization of disease morbidity through comprehensive management of ASCVD risk factors, including but not limited to hyperglycemia, is a key goal of T2DM therapy. Emerging evidence with some glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) points to beneficial effects across a range of atherosclerotic risk factors and possible improvement of some cardiovascular outcomes independent of these effects...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Yehuda Handelsman, Kathleen Wyne, Anthony Cannon, Michael Shannon, Doron Schneider
This article provides an overview of the efficacy and safety of once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GLP-1 RAs stimulate pancreatic GLP-1 receptors, which increases insulin secretion, delays gastric emptying, and increases satiety. As a class, GLP-1 RAs lower A1c levels and have been associated with reductions in weight and blood pressure and reduced fluctuations in glucose levels, and they have a low risk of hypoglycemia. Exenatide extended release (ER) and dulaglutide monotherapy have shown similar or superior reductions in A1c and weight compared with various oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs)...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Janet McGill
This supplement was funded by Novo Nordisk. McGill has received grants and personal fees from Novo Nordisk; grants from AstraZeneca, Novartis, Lexicon, and Pfizer; and personal fees from Intarcia, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Janssen, Mannkind, Bayer, and Merck.
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Anthony Cannon, Yehuda Handelsman, Michael Heile, Michael Shannon
An estimated 30.2 million Americans have diabetes, and this number is expected to increase based on trends over recent decades and compounded by an aging U.S. POPULATION: As reviewed in this article, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and with a substantial socioeconomic burden. Compared with individuals without T2DM, those with T2DM have worse HRQoL, greater decrements in HRQoL over time, and possibly greater depressive symptomology...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Jesse Fishman, Linda Kalilani, Yan Song, Elyse Swallow, Imane Wild
BACKGROUND: Unexpected breakthrough seizures resulting from suboptimal antiepileptic drug (AED) dosing during the titration period, as well as adverse events resulting from rapid AED titration, may influence the titration schedule and significantly increase health care resource use (HRU) and health care costs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between AEDs, HRU, and costs during AED titration and maintenance. METHODS: Practicing neurologists were recruited from a nationwide panel to provide up to 3 patient records each for this retrospective medical chart review...
September 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
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