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Preventive Medicine Reports

Erin Hoare, Bill Stavreski, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Garry L Jennings
This research aimed to determine Australian adults' perceptions of risk factors for heart disease, self-reported behaviours relating to modifiable risk factors, and knowledge of leading causes of death. This study reports on HeartWatch survey data collected between January 2015 and December 2015 in a sample of Australian adults. The setting of the research was Australian communities, with all states and territories represented in the final sample. Participants were Australian adults aged 30-59 years (n = 8425), and were representative of the wider Australian population based on key demographic and health characteristics...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
MinKyoung Song, Nathan F Dieckmann, Sydnee Stoyles, Youngwon Kim, Julie C Lumeng
The manner in which mothers' and children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) are associated across different settings (i.e., at home versus outside of the home, on weekdays versus weekends) is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to: (Strong et al., 2005) describe associations between mothers' and children's levels of MVPA and ST, and (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) determine how setting and mothers' and children's characteristics moderate the associations...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Ahmed Elhakeem, Kimberly Hannam, Kevin C Deere, April Hartley, Emma M Clark, Charlotte Moss, Mark H Edwards, Elaine Dennison, Tim Gaysin, Diana Kuh, Andrew Wong, Kenneth R Fox, Cyrus Cooper, Rachel Cooper, Jon H Tobias
High impact physical activity (PA) is thought to benefit bone. We examined associations of lifetime walking and weight bearing exercise with accelerometer-measured high impact and overall PA in later life. Data were from 848 participants (66.2% female, mean age = 72.4 years) from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon, Hertfordshire Cohort Study and MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Acceleration peaks from seven-day hip-worn accelerometer recordings were used to derive counts of high impact and overall PA...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Emmanuella Magriplis, Paul Farajian, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Grigoris Risvas, Antonis Zampelas
Based on the Early Life Theory, maternal smoking may be a factor affecting child weight status, adiposity level and blood pressure later in life. The purpose of this study was primarily to examine the risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy with overweight and obesity, central and total adiposity in school children. Secondarily, to assess the effect of maternal smoking, with children's blood pressure (BP). Data from the Greek Childhood Obesity cross sectional study (GRECO), conducted from October 2008 to May 2009, were used...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Brooke Nickel, Rachael H Dodd, Robin M Turner, Jo Waller, Laura Marlow, Gregory Zimet, Remo Ostini, Kirsten McCaffery
Direct international comparisons which aim to understand how factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation and attitudes towards the HPV vaccination in parents differ are scarce. Parents (n = 179) of daughters aged 9-17 years in the US, UK and Australia completed an online survey in 2011 with questions measuring daughters' HPV vaccination status, HPV knowledge, HPV vaccination knowledge, and statements assessing attitude towards the HPV vaccine. The strongest factor associated with vaccination status across all countries was parental HPV knowledge (p < 0...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Joyan L Urda, Beth Larouere, Steven D Verba, Jeffrey S Lynn
Sedentary behavior is an independent and prominent risk factor for chronic disease. Occupational sitting is likely to be the largest determinant of overall daily sitting time. Gathering accurate data on sedentary behaviors is essential to determine prevalence and effectiveness of interventions to reduce sedentary time. The purpose of this research was to determine whether self-reported sedentary time assessed by the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) and the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) was related to objectively assessed sedentary time by the activPAL3 activity monitor...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Anelise Reis Gaya, Caroline Brand, Arieli Fernandes Dias, Adroaldo Cezar Araujo Gaya, Vanilson Batista Lemes, Jorge Mota
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between cardiometabolic risk with body mass index and skinfold independently or in combination in youth. This cross-sectional study comprised a convenience sample of 450 children and adolescents (255 girls), aged 10 to 18 years old. Indicators of body composition were measured, and hemodynamic assessment completed. The association between body mass index and/or sum of skinfolds and cardiometabolic risk (z score of the sum of triglycerides/high density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, and mean blood pressure), was calculated using Generalized Linear Models Regression...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Joseph G L Lee, Shelley D Golden, Kurt M Ribisl
Increasing the per-unit cost of tobacco products is one of the strongest interventions for tobacco control. In jurisdictions with higher taxes in the U.S., however, cigarette pack litter studies show a substantial proportion of littered packs lack the appropriate tax stamp. More limited but still present counterfeiting also exists. We sought to examine the role of tobacco retailers as a source for untaxed and counterfeit products. Data collectors purchased Newport Green (menthol) or Marlboro Red cigarette packs in a national probability-based sample of tobacco retailers (in 97 counties) from June-October 2012...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Maya K Vadiveloo, Vasanti S Malik, Donna Spiegelman, Walter C Willett, Josiemer Mattei
Worksite cafeterias are compelling venues to improve diet quality through environmental changes. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate how a cafeteria-initiated grill menu redesign influenced sales, revenue, and nutrient content of foods purchased. Secondly, we evaluated consumer opinions about menu changes to inform practices for worksite environment interventions. Monthly sales data (2012-2015) were used to compute gross sales and revenue of entrées and side dishes pre-post menu changes. Alternative protein sources replaced red meat; nutrient composition and nutrients purchased were compared using Food Pro software...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Mandy Kirkham-King, Timothy A Brusseau, James C Hannon, Darla M Castelli, Kristy Hilton, Ryan D Burns
Optimizing physical activity during physical education is necessary for children to achieve daily physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among various contextual factors with accelerometer measured physical activity during elementary physical education. Data were collected during 2015-2016 from 281 students (1st-5th grade, 137 males, 144 females) from a private school located in a metropolitan area of Utah in the U.S. Students wore accelerometers for 12 consecutive weeks at an accelerometer wear frequency of 3 days per week during physical education...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jonathan R Olsen, Richard Mitchell, Nanette Mutrie, Louise Foley, David Ogilvie
This study aimed to describe active travel (walking or cycling) in Scotland and explore potential demographic, geographic, and socio-economic inequalities in active travel. We extracted data for the period 2012-13 (39,585 journey stages) from the Scottish Household Survey. Survey travel diaries recorded all journeys made on the previous day by sampled individuals aged 16 + living within Scotland, and the stages within each journey. Descriptive statistics were calculated for journey stages, mode, purpose and distance...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Shariful Hakim, Muhammad Abdul Baker Chowdhury, Md Jamal Uddin
Having 21.9 million adult smokers, Bangladesh ranks among the top ten heaviest smoking countries in the world. Correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation remain unknown. We aimed to identify the correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation among adults in Bangladesh. We used data from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) for Bangladesh. We compared socio-demographic, belief about health effect of smoking, and environmental characteristics of current smokers who had a recent failed quit attempt during the past 12 months of the survey (unsuccessful quitters) with those former smokers who had quit ≥ 12 months earlier of the survey and had not relapsed (successful quitters)...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
K K Lim, Y H Kwan, C S Tan, L L Low, A P Chua, W Y Lee, L Pang, H Y Tay, S Y Chan, T Ostbye
Existing evidence on the association between built environment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors focused on the general population, which may not generalize to higher risk subgroups such as those with lower socio-economic status (SES). We examined the associations between distance to 5 public amenities from residential housing (public polyclinic, subsidized private clinic, healthier eatery, public park and train station) and 12 CVD risk factors (physical inactivity, medical histories and unhealthy dietary habits) among a study sample of low income Singaporeans aged ≥ 40 years (N = 1972)...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Beth Weinberger, Lydia H Greiner, Leslie Walleigh, David Brown
Increasing evidence demonstrates an association between health symptoms and exposure to unconventional natural gas development (UNGD). The purpose of this study is to describe the health of adults in communities with intense UNGD who presented for evaluation of symptoms. Records of 135 structured health assessments conducted between February 2012 and October 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Publicly available data were used to determine proximity to gas wells. Analysis was restricted to records of adults who lived within 1 km of a well in Pennsylvania and denied employment in the gas industry (n = 51)...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Dannielle E Kelley, Megan A Lewis, Brian G Southwell
Most social support research has examined support from an individual patient perspective and does not model the broader social context of support felt by caregivers. Understanding how social support networks may complement healthcare services is critical, considering the aging population, as social support networks may be a valuable resource to offset some of the demands placed on the healthcare system. We sought to identify how caregivers' perceived organizational and interpersonal support from their social support network influences care-recipient health...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Annette E Maxwell, Catherine M Crespi, Anthony A Arce, Roshan Bastani
While sustained academic and community partnerships can improve relationships between research partners, they could also influence study outcomes. Research on this issue is limited. We conducted a trial (2010-15) to test two implementation strategies for an evidence-based intervention to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening at community organizations in Los Angeles (N = 17). For both strategies, trained community health advisors (CHAs) recruited Filipino Americans (N = 673) who were non-adherent to CRC screening guidelines...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Emily J Tomayko, Ronald J Prince, Jill Hoiting, Abbe Braun, Tara L LaRowe, Alexandra K Adams
Physical activity is a critical component of obesity prevention, but few interventions targeting early childhood have been described. The Active Early guide was designed to increase physical activity in early care and education (ECE) settings. The purpose of Active Early 2.0 was to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Early along with provider training, microgrant support, and technical assistance over 2 years (2012-2014) to increase physical activity and related behaviors (e.g., nutrition) in settings serving a high proportion of children from underserved groups in recognition of significant disparities in obesity and challenges meeting physical activity recommendations in low-resource settings...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Mariana C Arcaya, Ruth L Coleman, Fahad Razak, Maria L Alva, Rury R Holman
Health selection into neighborhoods may contribute to geographic health disparities. We demonstrate the potential for clinical trial data to help clarify the causal role of health on locational attainment. We used data from the 20-year United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) to explore whether random assignment to intensive blood-glucose control therapy, which improved long-term health outcomes after median 10 years follow-up, subsequently affected what neighborhoods patients lived in. We extracted postcode-level deprivation indices for the 2710 surviving participants of UKPDS living in England at study end in 1996/1997...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Sarah Burkart, Christine W St Laurent, Sofiya Alhassan
The purpose of this study was to describe process evaluation data including intervention fidelity, dosage, quality, participant responsiveness, and program reach for the Mothers And dauGhters daNcing togEther Trial (MAGNET) in Springfield, MA, in Spring 2013 and 2014. Seventy-six mother-daughter dyads were randomized to the mother-daughter group (CH-M, n = 28), the child-only group (CH, n = 25), or the health education group (CON, n = 23). CH-M consisted of 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous culturally-tailored dance classes for dyads...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
K C Madhav, Shardulendra Prasad Sherchand, Samendra Sherchan
Epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the prevalence of depression is about 9% in the United States. World Health Organization has projected that depression will be leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. Growing evidence suggests that sedentary lifestyle is an important risk factor of depression among adults. The relationship between television watching/computer use and depression in US adults is still unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between television watching/computer use and depression...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
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