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Preventive Medicine Reports

Thiago Hérick Sá, Ana Clara Duran, Marko Tainio, Carlos Augusto Monteiro, James Woodcock
The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS). At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people). Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Candace I J Nykiforuk, Jennifer Ann McGetrick, Katelynn Crick, Jeffrey A Johnson
Walk Score® is a proprietary walkability metric that ranks locations by proximity to destinations, with emerging health promotion applications for increasing walking as physical activity. Currently, field validations of Walk Score® have only occurred in metropolitan regions of the United States; moreover, many studies employ an earlier Walk Score® version utilizing straight line distance. To address this gap, we conducted a field validation of the newest, network-based metric for three municipal types along a rural-urban continuum in Alberta, Canada...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Hyun Kim, Flavia C D Andrade
The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a widely recommended diet for individuals with hypertension. Adherence to the DASH diet has been shown to be effective for controlling hypertension, but it is unclear whether a hypertension diagnosis has an impact on adherence to the diet and nutrient intake. This study examined the association between hypertension diagnosis and the DASH nutrient intake using the multivariate linear regression method. The sample was composed of individuals with hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2007 to 2012...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Rosemary Thackeray, Brianna M Magnusson
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Victoria Garfield, Clare H Llewellyn, Meena Kumari
Research to date suggests that physical activity (PA) is associated with distinct aspects of sleep, but studies have predominantly focused on sleep quality, been carried out in younger adults, and have not accounted for many covariates. Of particular interest is also the reported relationship between physical activity and depression in older adults and as such, their associations with sleep duration. Here we examine the cross-sectional relation between physical activity and sleep duration in a community-dwelling sample of 5265 older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Allison Martin, Elizabeth P Neale, Marjka Batterham, Linda C Tapsell
In the clinical setting, calculating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is commonplace but the utility of the harmonised equation for metabolic syndrome (MetS) (Alberti et al., 2009) is less well established. The aims of this study were to apply this equation to an overweight clinical cohort to identify risk factors for being metabolically unhealthy and explore associations with chronic disease. Baseline data were analysed from a lifestyle intervention trial of Illawarra residents recruited in 2014/2015. Participants were aged 25-54 years with a BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Abigail Arons, Corneliu Bolbocean, Nicole R Bush, Frances A Tylavsky, Kaja Z LeWinn
Socioemotional development in early childhood has long-term impacts on health status and social outcomes, and racial and socioeconomic disparities in socioemotional skills emerge early in life. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is an early childhood nutrition intervention with the potential to ameliorate these disparities. Our objective was to assess the impact of WIC on early socioemotional development in a longitudinal study. We examined the association between WIC participation and scores on the Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) in 327 predominantly African American mother-child dyads who were participants in the longitudinal Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development in Early Life (CANDLE) Study (Memphis, TN)...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Sean J Johnson, Chris Alford, Karina Stewart, Joris C Verster
Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Terhi Urhonen, Arve Lie, Geir Aamodt
Commuting is an important aspect of daily life for many employees, but there is little knowledge of how this affects individual commuters' health and well-being. The authors investigated the relationship between commuting and subjective health complaints, using data from a web-based questionnaire. In a sample of 2126 railway employees, 644 (30.3%) had long commute times. A 29-item inventory was used to measure the number and degree of the subjective health complaints. Those who commuted 60 min or more each way were characterized by significantly higher numbers and degrees of subjective health complaints compared with their peers with short commutes...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Emily Gliklich, Rong Guo, Regan W Bergmark
Texting and other cell-phone related distracted driving is estimated to account for thousands of motor vehicle collisions each year but studies examining the specific cell phone reading and writing activities of drivers are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of cell-phone related distracted driving behaviors. A national, representative, anonymous panel of 1211 United States drivers was recruited in 2015 to complete the Distracted Driving Survey (DDS), an 11-item validated questionnaire examining cell phone reading and writing activities and at what speeds they occur...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Lucinda J England, Van T Tong, Amber Koblitz, Julia Kish-Doto, Molly M Lynch, Brian G Southwell
The increasing availability of emerging non-combusted tobacco products (snus, dissolvables, and electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) may have implications for pregnant women and women of reproductive age. We conducted 15 focus groups to explore how women perceive emerging non-combusted tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in general, and during pregnancy. Sessions were held in 2013 in four U.S. cities. Participants were 18-40 years old and were pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters, or smokers planning a pregnancy...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Christine M White, Heather G Lillico, Lana Vanderlee, David Hammond
Health Check (HC) was a voluntary nutrition labeling program developed by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada as a guide to help consumers choose healthy foods. Items meeting nutrient criteria were identified with a HC symbol. This study examined the impact of the program on differences in consumer awareness and use of nutritional information in restaurants. Exit surveys were conducted with 1126 patrons outside four HC and four comparison restaurants in Ontario, Canada (2013). Surveys assessed participant noticing of nutrition information, influence of nutrition information on menu selection, and nutrient intake...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Samaah M Sullivan, Edward S Peters, Edward J Trapido, Evrim Oral, Richard A Scribner, Ariane L Rung
Although many studies have reported associations between characteristics of the neighborhood environment and obesity, little is understood about the pathways or mechanisms through which these associations operate. The purpose of this study was to examine possible behavioral and stress pathways hypothesized to mediate the association between neighborhood environments and obesity and whether pathways contribute to different obesity outcomes. Cross-sectional data were used from the 2012-2014 Women and Their Children's Health Study (WaTCH) in Louisiana (N = 909)...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Flavia A Díaz-Garcés, Iván Vargas-Matos, Antonio Bernabé-Ortiz, Francisco Diez-Canseco, Antonio J Trujillo, J Jaime Miranda
Community Kitchens (CKs) are one of the main food providers to low-income families in Peru and may encourage healthier diets. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors among CKs customers. A cross-sectional study enrolling customers of 48 CKs in two areas of Lima, Peru, was performed. The self-reported amount of fruits and vegetables consumed (< 5 vs. ≥ 5 servings/day) was the outcome. The exposures were grouped in sociodemographic variables (i...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Arsham Alamian, Liang Wang, Amber M Hall, Melanie Pitts, Joseph Ikekwere
UNLABELLED: Sleep problems have been defined using a variety of definitions. No study has assessed the longitudinal association between infant sleep problems and childhood overweight or obesity using existing definitions of sleep problems. This study used longitudinal data (n = 895) from the multi-site Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) to investigate the effects of infant sleep problems on childhood weight status in Grade 6. Infants with sleep problems in Phase I (1991) and with complete data through Phase III (2004) of SECCYD were included...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Carlee Lehna, Stephanie Twyman, John Myers
In the US there were 400,000 home fires resulting in 2755 deaths, 12,450 injuries, and $6.9B lost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content-validity of photographs taken in the home for use as an educational instrument to teach about "safe" and "unsafe" fire safety practice for adults and older adults. A total of 73 home fire safety experts were provided 27 photographs to evaluate home fire safety practice. Initially, a Krippendorff's alpha was calculated for the first 24 questions to evaluate inter-rater reliability, and differences in demographics were evaluated...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jingwen Zhang, Devon Brackbill, Sijia Yang, Joshua Becker, Natalie Herbert, Damon Centola
To identify what features of online social networks can increase physical activity, we conducted a 4-arm randomized controlled trial in 2014 in Philadelphia, PA. Students (n = 790, mean age = 25.2) at an university were randomly assigned to one of four conditions composed of either supportive or competitive relationships and either with individual or team incentives for attending exercise classes. The social comparison condition placed participants into 6-person competitive networks with individual incentives...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Giselle O'Connor, Maria Piñero Casas, Xavier Basagaña, Mònica López Vicente, Payam Davand, Maties Torrent, David Martínez-Murciano, Raquel García-Esteban, Marcella Marinelli, Jordi Sunyer, Jordi Julvez
This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Y Tony Yang, Mona Sarfaty
In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus to be a "public health emergency of international concern" as the disease linked to thousands of birth defects in Brazil spreads rapidly. The distribution of the Aedes mosquitos has drastically increased over the past few decades, which have been the hottest decades on Earth in more than 1000 years based on climate proxy measures. Although a combination of factors explains the current Zika virus outbreak, it's highly likely that the changes in the climate contribute to the spread of Aedes vector carrying the Zika virus, the pathogen causing serious birth defects...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Luke Wolfenden, Andrew J Milat, Christophe Lecathelinais, Eliza Skelton, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Christopher Williams, John Wiggers, Li Kheng Chai, Sze Lin Yoong
The aim of this study was to describe the research output and citation rates (academic impact) of public health dissemination and implementation research according to research design and study type. A cross sectional bibliographic study was undertaken in 2013. All original data-based studies and review articles focusing on dissemination and implementation research that had been published in 10 randomly selected public health journals in 2008 were audited. The electronic database 'Scopus' was used to calculate 5-year citation rates for all included publications...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
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