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Preventive Medicine Reports

Birgit Vahlberg, Ulf Holmbäck, Staffan Eriksson, Tommy Cederholm
Physical activity in community-living individuals after a stroke is usually scarce. This protocol describes a study that will evaluate a method to increase physical activity by performing a 3-month outdoor walking and muscle strengthening program and will examine the 3-month and 1-year effects of this program on individuals with acute stroke (AS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA). In a prospective randomized controlled trial in Uppsala, Sweden, 80 individuals with AS or TIA who maintained cognitive and motor function will be randomized into groups for continuous training for three months or for regular standard care...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Andrew E Springer, Cassie Davis, Duncan Van Dusen, Megan Grayless, Kathleen R Case, Meredith Craft, Steven H Kelder
Social-ecological theory posits that health-related behavior is shaped by the environments and settings that surround us. We examined e-cigarette susceptibility and ever use prevalence among central Texas middle school students by the level of economic disadvantage (ED) of their school. As a secondary aim, we explored gender and ethnic differences (Hispanic vs. White) in e-cigarette susceptibility across school ED levels. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of baseline data collected in 2017 as part of the CATCH My Breath study...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Lauri Andress, Danny Scalise, Jessica G Wright, Stephanie E Moore
This study used a focus group in August 2017 (n = 9) to explore the perceptions of rural physicians to a state request to incorporate diabetes prevention screening into their West Virginia medical practice. Analysis of the data revealed that the participants did not think private physicians were equipped to incorporate diabetes prevention programming into their practice. Three categories emerged from the data analysis to explain the reasoning of the health practitioners on the incorporation of pre-diabetes screening and management into their practice...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Heidi Klakk, Peter Lund Kristensen, Lars Bo Andersen, Karsten Froberg, Niels Christian Møller, Anders Grøntved
Depression in young adults is a growing concern to public health. This study aims to investigate if depression status in young adults is related to clinical and behavioral cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Cross-sectional data from a population-based sample of young Danish adults participating in the European Youth Heart Study 2009-2010 were used to examine this (n = 644, mean age 24.3 years 47% male). Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body composition, blood pressure, fasting levels of high and low density lipids (HDL, LDL), insulin, and glucose were obtained...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Stacy Sterling, Felicia Chi, Constance Weisner, Richard Grant, Alix Pruzansky, Sandy Bui, Philip Madvig, Robert Pearl
A high proportion of U.S. health care costs are attributable to a relatively small proportion of patients. Understanding behavioral and social factors that predict initial and persistent high costs for these "high utilizers" is critical for health policy-makers. This prospective observational study was conducted at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), an integrated healthcare delivery system with 4.1 million members. A stratified random sample of high-cost vs. non-high-cost adult KPNC members matched by age, gender, race/ethnicity, type of health insurance, and medical severity ( N  = 378) was interviewed between 3/14/2013 and 3/20/2014...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Valarie Blue Bird Jernigan, Mary Williams, Marianna Wetherill, Tori Taniguchi, Tvli Jacob, Tamela Cannady, Mandy Grammar, Joy Standridge, Jill Fox, AnDina Wiley, JoAnna Tingle, Mary Riley, Jennifer Spiegel, Charlotte Love, Carolyn Noonan, Ashley Weedn, Alicia L Salvatore
In rural Native American communities, access to healthy foods is limited and diet-related disparities are significant. Tribally owned and operated convenience stores, small food stores that sell ready-to-eat foods and snacks primarily high in fat and sugar, serve as the primary and, in some areas, the only food stores. The Tribal Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments or "THRIVE" study, implemented between 2013 and 2018, is the first healthy retail intervention study implemented in tribally owned and operated convenience stores...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Brian G Southwell, Sarah A Parvanta, Mihaela M Johnson, Amie C O'Donoghue, Helen W Sullivan, Sarah E Ray, Cynthia S Soloe, Christine N Davis, Nancy McKenna
Public health researchers face important challenges if they wish to include measures of hearing or cognitive ability in risk communication studies. We sought validity evidence for self-report measures of hearing and cognitive ability by comparing those measures to performance-based measures and risk information recall. We measured hearing ability (with audiologist-assisted assessment and self report), cognitive ability (with an established performance task and self report), and reactions to direct-to-consumer prescription drug promotion with adults 18 and older ( n  = 1064) in North Carolina, USA, in 2017...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Nicholas P DeGroote, Christine L Mattson, Yunfeng Tie, John T Brooks, Shikha Garg, John Weiser
United States guidelines recommend hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination for persons living with HIV (PLWH) who are at increased risk for HAV infection, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons who inject drugs (PWID). However, nationally representative estimates of vaccine coverage and immunity for this population are lacking. We used medical record and interview data from the 2009-2012 cycles of the Medical Monitoring Project, a nationally representative surveillance system of PLWH receiving HIV medical care in the United States, to estimate the prevalence of HAV immunity, defined as receipt of at least one dose of vaccine or laboratory documentation of anti-HAV antibodies, among 8695 MSM and PWID...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Robert A Bednarczyk, Allison Chamberlain, Kara Mathewson, Daniel A Salmon, Saad B Omer
For adequate provision of preventive services, there is an interplay between activities at the healthcare practice, healthcare provider, and patient levels of the clinical encounter. Commonly used health promotion and behavior theoretical models address some of these three levels, but none fully account for all three. Building off of key components of many existing theoretical models, including the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior/Theory of Reasoned Action, Social Cognitive Theory, Social Ecological Model, and the Systems Model of Clinical Preventive Care, we describe the development of the P3 (Practice-, Provider-, and Patient-level) Model for preventive care interventions...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Yan Kwan Lau, Jamie Tam, Nancy L Fleischer, Rafael Meza
Research on the role of neighbourhood-level deprivation in low- and middle-income countries with respect to tobacco use is relatively nascent. In South Africa, where race and deprivation are closely linked due to the history of apartheid, smoking disparities exist by individual risk factors such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status. However, less is known about how community-level factors affect smoking disparities in the country, or how the relationship between deprivation and smoking differs by race...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Hwalbin Kim, Sei-Hill Kim
Marijuana legalization has been one of the most controversial issues in the public health field. Since news frames can influence the public's perceptions about public health policy including marijuana legalization, it is important to understand how the media report this issue. Thus, we explore how U.S. newspapers present marijuana legalization stories, examining two key dimensions of framing: an organizing theme and a story tone. We analyzed news articles of national and regional newspapers between 1995 and 2014 ( N  = 640)...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Narelle Eather, Adrienne Bull, Myles D Young, Alyce T Barnes, Emma R Pollock, Philip J Morgan
Fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency is positively associated with a range of health outcomes, and is a predictor of lifelong participation in physical activities and sport. Yet low FMS proficiency levels in children prevail, particularly among girls performing object-control skills (e.g., kicking, catching). To identify where girls require the most support and inform future teaching resources and interventions, this cross-sectional study investigated proficiency levels of object-control skills and their specific performance components (subskills) in girls; and aimed to determine whether patterns in subskill mastery were evident in girls from two different developmental stages...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Zhaomeng Niu, Veenat Parmar, Baichen Xu, Elliot J Coups, Jerod L Stapleton
A body of research has focused on adolescents' indoor tanning behaviors but relatively little is known about the prevalence of adolescents' intentional outdoor tanning (time spent outdoors to get a tan). The present study used data from the National Cancer Institute's 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health and Eating (FLASHE) cross-sectional survey to examine the prevalence and correlates of intentional outdoor and indoor tanning among adolescents in the United States. Both unadjusted (bivariate) and adjusted (multi-variate) logistic regressions were performed to test the associations between demographic variables, time spent on media (e...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Yukitoshi Aoyagi, Sungjin Park, Sunyoung Cho, Roy J Shephard
Relationships between habitual physical activity and sleep-related phenomena were examined in 623 male and 1022 female Japanese participating in the Nakanojo Community Study, using data collected in 2012-2013. Ages ranged from infancy to very old. Daily step count and daily duration of exercise at an intensity >3 metabolic equivalents (METs) were determined by pedometer/accelerometer, 24 h/day for 1 week. Duplicate axillary temperatures were also taken on rising and when retiring. Total bed time was noted, and the efficiency of sleep determined as hours of actual sleep (from a validated pedometer/accelerometer algorithm) divided by bed time...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Joanna M Streck, Taylor A Ochalek, Mollie E Miller, Andrew C Meyer, Gary Badger, Charlotte Teneback, Anne Dixon, Stephen T Higgins, Stacey C Sigmon
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the U.S., with the majority of COPD deaths attributable to cigarette smoking. Despite this, individuals with COPD have a higher prevalence of smoking, poorer quit rates, and higher relapse rates compared to smokers without a COPD diagnosis. We examined the feasibility of an incentives-based intervention for producing an initial period of biochemically-verified smoking abstinence among daily smokers with COPD. Participants were randomly assigned to a Contingent (n = 13) or Noncontingent (n = 16) incentives condition and visited the clinic for 14 consecutive days...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Desiree J Hooi, Wim G V Quint, Birgit I Lissenberg-Witte, Gemma Kenter, Herbert M Pinedo, Maurits N C de Koning, Chris J L M Meijer
Sex-workers have an increased risk for high-risk HPV(hrHPV) cervical cancer. On Curaçao, legal and illegal prostitution practice is high and the promiscuous lifestyle is common. We aimed to gain insight in HPV-genotype prevalence in cervical scrapes of female sex workers (FSW) and related risk factors in comparison with women not working in the sex industry. Cervical samples were taken from 76 FSW and 228 non-FSW (NFSW) age matched controls in the period between 2013 and 2015. HPV was detected by GP5+/6+ PCR-EIA followed by genotyping via reverse line-blot...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Megan E Holmes, Mallory A Kvasnicka, D Kay Brocato, Heather E Webb
Disparities in health and academic achievement affect large cross-sections of the same population subgroups. This study examined the relationship metabolic health and academic achievement in youth "at risk" for school dropout in rural Mississippi. Fifteen adolescents participated in a studio based learning educational summer camp and subsequent follow-up sessions during the regular school year that were aimed at developing knowledge of core curriculum subjects by developing design projects based on the camp STEM-related theme...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Kristina H Lewis, Joseph A Skelton, Fang-Chi Hsu, Pascaline Ezouah, Elsie M Taveras, Jason P Block
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Including this measure in electronic health records (EHR) could enhance clinical care and facilitate research on this topic. We implemented a single-item, EHR screening question for SSB and 100% fruit juice at 8 pediatric practices affiliated with a North Carolina academic medical center. From March-December 2017, we evaluated SSB screening of children 6 months-17 years of age. In a sub-sample of screened patients, we also conducted a telephone-based validation survey, comparing EHR-based responses to a lengthier beverage questionnaire, using Spearman rank coefficients and Kappa statistic...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Ingirid Geirsdatter Heald Kjær, Sigmund Alfred Anderssen, Monica Klungland Torstveit
Obesity prevalence has increased the past decades and has become a serious public health problem. The aim of this six-month assessor-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial was to assess the effect of a tailored telephone and email-based exercise intervention on various measures of body composition in a sample of apparently healthy and physically inactive adults. A total of 111 volunteering adults (40-55 yr) in Southern Norway were randomly assigned to an intervention group (IG; n = 39) or a no-information control group (CG; n = 50), by random allocation numbering...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jan M Eberth, Karen Kane McDonnell, Erica Sercy, Samira Khan, Scott M Strayer, Amy C Dievendorf, Reginald F Munden, Sally W Vernon
Soon after the National Lung Screening Trial, organizations began to endorse low-dose computed tomography (LCDT) screening for lung cancer in high-risk patients. Concerns about the risks versus benefits of screening, as well as the logistics of identifying and referring eligible patients, remained among physicians. This study aimed to examine primary care physicians' knowledge, attitudes, referral practices, and associated barriers regarding LDCT screening. We administered a national survey of primary care physicians in the United States between September 2016 and April 2017...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
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