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Preventive Medicine Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920973/consumption-of-caffeinated-energy-drinks-among-youth-and-young-adults-in-canada
#1
Jessica L Reid, Cassondra McCrory, Christine M White, Chantal Martineau, Pat Vanderkooy, Nancy Fenton, David Hammond
The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12-24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons)...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896045/barriers-to-physical-activity-as-moderators-of-intervention-effects
#2
Michael E Schoeny, Louis Fogg, Susan W Buchholz, Arlene Miller, JoEllen Wilbur
The impact of interventions to increase physical activity (PA) may vary as a function of participants' barriers to PA. The aim of this paper is to determine whether individual barriers (demographic, physical health, psychological health, neighborhood factors, perceived barriers to PA, social support for PA) moderate treatment effects on increases in PA. Three treatment conditions tested the relative efficacy of a group-based PA intervention alone or supplemented by either personal or automated phone calls made between group meetings...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896044/curricular-activities-and-change-in-determinants-of-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-among-adolescents-results-from-the-boost-intervention
#3
Thea Suldrup Jørgensen, Mette Rasmussen, Sanne Ellegaard Jørgensen, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Trine Pagh Pedersen, Anne Kristine Aarestrup, Pernille Due, Rikke Krølner
Knowledge of the association between implementation of different intervention components and the determinants they are tailored to change may contribute to evaluating the effects and working mechanisms of multi-component interventions. This study examined 1) the effect of a Danish multi-component school-based intervention (2010 - 2011) on key determinants of adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake and 2) if dose of curricular activities was positively associated with change in these determinants. Using multi-level linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by gender and socioeconomic position, we analyzed survey data from the cluster-randomized Boost study targeting Danish 13-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896043/health-and-societal-effects-from-exposure-to-fragranced-consumer-products
#4
Anne Steinemann
Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products- pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098). Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896042/an-opportunity-to-address-modifiable-breast-cancer-risks-mammography-screening-and-physical-activity-readiness-to-change
#5
Maria D Thomson, Megan E Peter
Breast cancer risk is significantly reduced by improvements in lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Previous work suggests personal experiences such as false positive mammography or family history of breast cancer may influence these health behaviors. Surveys were distributed to women aged 40-75 who had received a negative mammogram from an academic hospital in Virginia in 2015. Measures assessed breast cancer worry and perceived risk, awareness of cancer risk factors, family history of breast cancer, false positive mammography experience, and readiness to change physical activity...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896041/flavored-e-cigarette-use-characterizing-youth-young-adult-and-adult-users
#6
M B Harrell, S R Weaver, A Loukas, M Creamer, C N Marti, C D Jackson, J W Heath, P Nayak, C L Perry, T F Pechacek, M P Eriksen
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907) and young adult college students (n = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882293/using-mammograms-to-predict-preventive-health-services-behavior-and-mortality-in-women
#7
Bilikisu Elewonibi, Patricia Y Miranda
This study examined whether mammography receipt was associated with mortality due to causes other than breast cancer, hypothesizing that mammography screening was a proxy for the predisposition to seek preventive health behaviors. Using data on 89,574 women from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey and National Death Index, a discrete-time hazard model estimated the mortality from any cause except breast cancer as a function of screening status. Receiving a mammogram was associated with a 24% reduction in the likelihood of death all causes except breast cancer...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882292/muscular-strength-and-endurance-and-cardio-metabolic-health-in-disadvantaged-hispanic-children-from-the-u-s
#8
Ryan D Burns, Timothy A Brusseau
The predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and cardio-metabolic health, independent from aerobic fitness, is not clear in disadvantaged Hispanic children. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between muscular strength and endurance and clustered cardio-metabolic risk, controlling for aerobic fitness, in Hispanic children from low-income schools. Participants were 320 Hispanic children (Mean age = 10.1 ± 1.1 years; 164 girls, 156 boys) recruited during the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 academic years from five low-income schools from the state of Utah in the U...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872803/local-food-environment-and-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-an-ecological-study
#9
Mariana Carvalho Menezes, Bruna Vieirade Lima Costa, Cláudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Aline Cristine Souza Lopes
Ecological studies are essential for understanding the environment-diet relationship. The purpose of this study was to describe environmental conditions and their relationship with fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among Brazilian public health service users in the city of Belo Horizonte. We evaluated food stores contained within 1600 m buffer zones at 18 Health Academy Programme sites, from 2013 to 2014. Variables at the community (density, proximity and type) and the consumer (sectional location of FV; availability, quality, variety, price and advertising of FV and ultra-processed foods) nutrition environment were measured by direct observation, while aggregate data from users (income and FV consumption) were obtained by interview...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872802/park-use-is-associated-with-less-sedentary-time-among-low-income-parents-and-their-preschool-child-the-net-works-study
#10
Simone A French, Nancy E Sherwood, Nathan R Mitchell, Yingling Fan
INTRODUCTION: Parks are an important component of the neighborhood environment, and their presence is believed to support higher levels of physical activity among residents. The present study examined park use frequency among a sample of 534 low-income parents of preschool aged children. Associations with child and parent physical activity, neighborhood characteristics and physical characteristics of the block immediately surrounding the home were examined. METHODS: Data are from baseline measurements completed in 2012-2014 as part of larger study (NET-Works: Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthy Kids) targeting low-income preschool children and their parents (N = 534 parent-child dyads)...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872801/-beauty-contest-indicator-of-cognitive-ability-and-free-riding-strategies-results-from-a-scenario-experiment-about-pandemic-flu-immunization
#11
Björn Rönnerstrand
High immunization coverage rates are desirable in order to reduce total morbidity and mortality rates, but it may also provide an incentive for herd immunity free riding strategies. The aim of this paper was to investigate the link between cognitive ability and vaccination intention in a hypothetical scenario experiment about Avian Flu immunization. A between-subject scenario experiment was utilized to examine the willingness to undergo vaccination when the vaccination coverage was proclaimed to be 36, 62 and 88%...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872800/invisible-seams-preventing-childhood-obesity-through-an-improved-obstetrics-pediatrics-care-continuum
#12
EDITORIAL
Craig W Moscetti, Nicolaas P Pronk
Progress in altering the current obesity epidemic among children and adolescents remains elusive. Evidence continues to underscore the challenges of altering weight status as children age. Further, weight loss interventions among children and adults alike tend to demonstrate efficacy in the short-term, however individuals tend to slowly revert back to their original weight status over time. New understanding of obesity's early origins suggests the need to rethink current approaches, particularly within healthcare...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920972/potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-for-acute-and-chronic-conditions-in-alaska-2010-2012
#13
Prabhu P Gounder, Sara M Seeman, Robert C Holman, Alice Rarig, Mary K McEwen, Claudia A Steiner, Michael L Bartholomew, Thomas W Hennessy
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Prevention Quality Indicators comprise acute and chronic conditions for which hospitalization can be potentially prevented by high-quality ambulatory care. The Healthy Alaska 2020 initiative (HA2020) targeted reducing potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPH) for acute and chronic conditions among its health indicators. We estimated the PPH rate for adults aged ≥ 18 years in Alaska during 2010-2012. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of state-wide hospital discharge data obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and the Indian Health Service...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882291/comparison-of-body-mass-index-waist-circumference-and-waist-to-height-ratio-in-the-prediction-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-mellitus-filipino-american-women-cardiovascular-study
#14
Cynthia A Battie, Nancy Borja-Hart, Irma B Ancheta, Rene Flores, Goutham Rao, Latha Palaniappan
The relative ability of three obesity indices to predict hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM) and the validity of using Asian-specific thresholds of these indices were examined in Filipino-American women (FAW). Filipino-American women (n = 382), 40-65 years of age were screened for hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM) in four major US cities. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist circumference to height ratio (WHtR) were measured. ROC analyses determined that the three obesity measurements were similar in predicting HTN and DM (AUC: 0...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843761/common-methods-of-measuring-informed-choice-in-screening-participation-challenges-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Alex Ghanouni, Cristina Renzi, Susanne F Meisel, Jo Waller
There is general agreement among public health practitioners, academics, and policymakers that people offered health screening tests should be able to make informed choices about whether to accept. Robust measures are necessary in order to gauge the extent to which informed choice is achieved in practice and whether efforts to improve it have succeeded. This review aims to add to the literature on how to improve methods of measuring informed choice. We discuss and critique commonly-used approaches and outline possible alternative methods that might address the issues identified...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843760/choice-of-smoking-cessation-counselling-via-phone-text-or-email-in-emergency-department-patients
#16
Warren Fingrut, Lauren Stewart, Ka Wai Cheung
Globally, tobacco smoke is the leading cause of preventable deaths. Smoking cessation counselling services are widely available in Canada. In British Columbia, our government-funded smoking cessation service offers counselling via phone, text, or email. In this study, we sought to determine whether age, gender, or motivation to quit affect a patient's choice of service modality. We included all adults ≥ 18 years who had used tobacco within 30 days prior to their Emergency Department (ED) visit and who chose to receive phone, text, or email counselling services from November 2011-February 2013 at Vancouver General Hospital as part of a randomized-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843759/exploring-associations-between-perceived-home-and-work-neighborhood-environments-diet-behaviors-and-obesity-results-from-a-survey-of-employed-adults-in-missouri
#17
Rachel Tabak, J Aaron Hipp, Elizabeth A Dodson, Lin Yang, Deepti Adlakha, Ross C Brownson
Dietary behaviors are associated with obesity, and may be influenced by the environment. The objective of the current work was to investigate whether perceptions of built environment factors related to eating in the residential neighborhood will have different, independent associations with BMI and dietary behaviors than perceived built environment factors in the worksite neighborhood. In 2012-2013, a cross-sectional telephone-survey of Missouri adults (n = 2015) assessed perceptions of home and workplace built environment factors related to eating, dietary behaviors, and height and weight...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843758/frequency-and-duration-of-physical-activity-bouts-in-school-aged-children-a-comparison-within-and-between-days
#18
Hannah L Brooke, Andrew J Atkin, Kirsten Corder, Soren Brage, Esther Mf van Sluijs
Understanding how physical activity (PA) patterns vary within and between days may guide PA promotion in young people. We aimed to 1) describe and compare the frequency (bouts/day) and duration (min/bout) of bouts of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) on weekdays vs. weekends and in-school vs. out-of-school, and 2) assess associations of bout frequency and duration in these time-segments with overall PA. We used cross-sectional accelerometer data from 2737 children (aged 6-19 years) in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833844/weight-stigma-and-eating-behaviors-on-a-college-campus-are-students-immune-to-stigma-s-effects
#19
Alexandra Brewis, Stephanie Brennhofer, Irene van Woerden, Meg Bruening
College populations are groups of emerging adults undergoing significant transitions in eating and diet, being exposed to new social influences; many experience weight gain. Theoretically, college campuses should be places where weight stigma is evident and matters for dietary decision-making. We present the findings from two studies conducted within the same college population at a large public university, including anthropometric measures of body mass. Study 1 included two different measures of weight stigma (implicit and explicit) and measures of weight-control eating behaviors and fruit and vegetable consumption in a randomized representative sample of 204 students...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833843/is-frequency-of-fast-food-and-sit-down-restaurant-eating-occasions-differentially-associated-with-less-healthful-eating-habits
#20
Michael A Close, Leslie A Lytle, Anthony J Viera
Studies have shown that frequency of fast food restaurant eating and sit-down restaurant eating is differentially associated with nutrient intakes and biometric outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine whether frequency of fast food and sit-down restaurant eating occasions was differentially associated with less healthful eating habits, independent of demographic characteristics. Data were collected from participants in 2015 enrolled in a worksite nutrition intervention trial (n = 388) in North Carolina who completed self-administered questionnaires at baseline...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
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