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Preventive Medicine Reports

Natalie Reid, Wendy Bennett, Janelle Coughlin, Jennifer Thrift, Sarah Kachur, Kimberly A Gudzune
Insurers and employers are increasingly offering lifestyle and weight-loss coaching programs; however, few evaluations have examined their effectiveness. Our objectives were to determine whether level of program engagement was associated with differences in healthcare utilization and weight pre/post coaching. We conducted a retrospective evaluation of enrollees in an insurer-based telephonic health coaching program in Maryland (2013-2014). Our independent variables were program engagement benchmarks (≥3 and ≥6 sessions)...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Oghenekaro Omodior, Maya C Luetke, Erik J Nelson
Vector-borne diseases account for a significant amount of the global infectious disease burden, including morbidity and mortality. In particular, mosquito-borne infectious diseases (MBIDs) have the greatest burden in number of cases, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years and their prevention and control is critical. However, prevention efforts are hindered by the absence of vaccines and failure of long-term mosquito vector control for these MBIDs. Thus, personal protective behaviors (PPBs) may offer the most promising and effective mode of prevention...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
B Ruth Clark, Mary L Uhrich, Tiffany C Dill, M Leanne White, Laurel Milam, Nicole Ackermann, Cassandra Arroyo, Susan B Racette
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of aerobic fitness with the elementary school environment and student characteristics among 4th and 5th grade children attending urban public schools in St. Louis, MO, USA. This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012-2015 and included 2381 children (mean age 10.5 y) who completed the FITNESSGRAM® 20-m Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run. Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) was defined according to FITNESSGRAM® aerobic capacity criteria. Other student-level variables included age, race, National School Lunch Program eligibility, BMI z-score, weight status, and daily pedometer steps...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Joanna M Streck, Cecilia L Bergeria, Maria A Parker, Danielle R Davis, Michael DeSarno, Stacey C Sigmon, John R Hughes, Diann E Gaalema, Sarah H Heil, Jennifer W Tidey, Maxine L Stitzer, Matthew Rothman, Stephen T Higgins
Individuals with chronic health conditions persist in smoking despite the presence of smoking-related illness. The aim of this study was to examine whether chronic health conditions moderate response to reduced nicotine content cigarettes (0.4, 2.4, 5.2, 15.8 mg/g of tobacco). This is a secondary analysis of a controlled clinical laboratory study that examined the acute effects of cigarettes varying in nicotine content among individuals especially vulnerable to smoking and tobacco dependence. Participants in the present study were categorized as having 0, 1-2, or ≥3 smoking-related chronic health conditions (i...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Elizabeth K Do, Tiffany L Green, Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Bernard F Fuemmeler
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are associated with a myriad of negative health effects for both mother and child. However, less is known regarding social determinants for SHS exposure, which may differ from those of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP). To identify social determinants for SHS exposure only, MSDP only, and MSDP and SHS exposure, data were obtained from all pregnant women (18-54 years; N = 726) in waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2014-2015)...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Lotte Vallentin-Holbech, Birthe Marie Rasmussen, Christiane Stock
The study aimed to investigate if the school-based social norms intervention The GOOD Life was effective in reducing misperceptions, heavy alcohol use and alcohol-related harms among Danish pupils aged 13-17 years. In total 38 schools were included in a cluster-randomised controlled trial and allocated to either intervention ( n  = 641) or control group ( n  = 714) during 2015/2016. Both groups completed an online survey before the intervention and 3 months after baseline. The GOOD Life intervention provided normative feedback tailored for each school-grade using three communication channels: classroom sessions, posters and web application...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Fabian Vasquez, Camila Corvalan, Ricardo Uauy, Juliana Kain
Childhood obesity in Chile is one of the highest in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of excessive weight gained or maintained over a 3-year period, on markers of metabolic homeostasis in young children. This is a longitudinal study which includes 243 children followed from 4 to 7 years. We assessed BMI, body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height (WH) and trunk fat as well as the following metabolic parameters: glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and metabolic risk score...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Kara Shifler Bowers, Erica Francis, Jennifer L Kraschnewski
The dual burden of malnutrition (obesity or a non-communicable disease coupled with malnutrition) is prevalent in more than half of all malnourished households that reside in the US. Non-profit organizations should make a conscientious effort to not serve products high in sugar and saturated fat, and low in fiber. Instead, they should diligently serve nutrient-dense foods rich in produce, whole grains and omega 3 fatty acids to minimize health disparities prevalent in LSES households. Nonprofit organizations have the potential to decrease health disparities nationally by feeding health sustaining products such as whole grains, fresh produce and lean proteins...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Cother Hajat, Emma Stein
Globally, approximately one in three of all adults suffer from multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). This review provides a comprehensive overview of the resulting epidemiological, economic and patient burden. There is no agreed taxonomy for MCCs, with several terms used interchangeably and no agreed definition, resulting in up to three-fold variation in prevalence rates: from 16% to 58% in UK studies, 26% in US studies and 9.4% in Urban South Asians. Certain conditions cluster together more frequently than expected, with associations of up to three-fold, e...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jean M Twenge, W Keith Campbell
Previous research on associations between screen time and psychological well-being among children and adolescents has been conflicting, leading some researchers to question the limits on screen time suggested by physician organizations. We examined a large ( n  = 40,337) national random sample of 2- to 17-year-old children and adolescents in the U.S. in 2016 that included comprehensive measures of screen time (including cell phones, computers, electronic devices, electronic games, and TV) and an array of psychological well-being measures...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jaclynn Hawkins, Daphne Watkins, Julie Ober Allen, Jamie Mitchell
Comorbid depression and overweight or obesity increase risk for developing many chronic diseases. Investigating men of color without using a non-Hispanic White male reference group will capture a more nuanced picture of how socio-demographic factors contribute to increased risk for comorbid depression and overweight or obesity among and between men of color. This study used the U.S.-based 2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 1363) in May 2018 to examine associations between race/ethnicity and comorbid overweight or obesity and depression in men...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Eleni Mantzari, Milica Vasiljevic, Isabelle Turney, Mark Pilling, Theresa Marteau
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are one of the largest added sugar sources to diets in the UK and USA, particularly among young people. Warning labels, including calorie information labels, could reduce SSB consumption but uncertainty surrounds the labels that are most effective. This study assessed the impact of labels containing (a) each of two image-based warnings and (b) calorie information, singly and together, on SSB selection by parents of 11-16-year-olds living in the UK. Using a 3 (disease image, sugar content image, no image) × 2 (calorie information, no calorie information) between-subjects experimental design, 2002 participants were randomised to see beverages with one of six labels and selected one for their child to consume...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Harrison Ndetan, Marion W Evans, Ashwani K Singal, Lane J Brunner, Kirk Calhoun, Karan P Singh
This study investigated the potential effect of therapeutic doses of acetaminophen (APAP) in combination with light-moderate amounts of alcohol on kidney functions controlling for factors such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity that may predispose the kidney to APAP and/or alcohol toxicity. Secondary analysis of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was performed using SAS 9.4. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing the likelihood that individuals who ingested therapeutic doses of APAP and light-moderate amount of alcohol, compared to those who did not, would have kidney dysfunction were generated from multiple logistics regression models by further controlling for potential predisposing factors namely hypertension, diabetes and obesity...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Akiko Urakubo, Masayo Hayakawa, Chikako Yamaki, Tomoko Takayama, Takahiro Kiuchi
The provision of information about cancer is an important aspect of cancer care. Cancer information provided online is expected to meet the needs of information seekers. Whether information needs vary according to tumor site is largely unknown. We aimed to examine similarities and differences in informational needs by cancer type. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered on Japan's largest cancer information website, "Ganjoho service". A total of 2782 free descriptive responses in the period from April 2012 to December 2017 were analyzed using text-mining software...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Alice Hinton, Haikady N Nagaraja, Sarah Cooper, Mary Ellen Wewers
Introduction: Understanding diverse tobacco product consumption represents a crucial area for tobacco regulatory science. With the increase in dual/poly use of tobacco products, transition patterns among exclusive and dual users are of considerable interest. We describe transition patterns of dual users over 18 months. Methods: A cohort of 145 adults in urban and rural Ohio who reported dual tobacco product use at least some days/week was enrolled during 2014-17...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Diane M Gibson
This paper examines adaptive device use among two samples of U.S. adults aged 40 years and older with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma or cataracts from the 2008 and 2016 waves of the nationally-representative cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey (n = 2875 and n = 6233 respectively). Individuals who replied affirmatively to the question, "do you use any adaptive devices such as telescopic or other prescriptive lenses, magnifiers, large print or talking materials, CCTV, white cane or guide dogs?" were defined as adaptive device users...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Lillian C Man, Melissa DiCarlo, Emily Lambert, Randa Sifri, Martha Romney, Linda Fleisher, Ronald Myers
Although colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the United States has been increasing, screening rates are not optimal, and there are persistent disparities in CRC screening and mortality, particularly among minority patients. As most CRC screening takes place in primary care, health systems are well-positioned to address this important population health problem. However, most health systems have not actively engaged in identifying and implementing effective evidence-based intervention strategies that can raise CRC screening rates and reduce disparities...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Sharon Manne, Ashley Day, Elliot J Coups, Deborah Kashy
This single arm pilot intervention study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary impact of a Sun Safe Partners, which is a couple-focused intervention targeting improved sun protection behavior. Data were collected from New Jersey between August 2015 and March 2016. Participants were 61 couples reporting low levels of sun protection recruited from an online panel. After providing online consent, couples received mailed pamphlets and participated in a call where they discussed current levels of sun protection, made an Action Plan to improve sun protection, and discussed ways of assisting one another in improving sun protection...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Benjamin H Han, Domenic J Termine, Alison A Moore, Scott E Sherman, Joseph J Palamar
Adults with medical multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) present challenges for health care systems to provide coordinated care. Substance use can complicate the management of chronic medical conditions, but little research has focused on the intersection of medical multimorbidity and substance use. This study uses cross-sectional analysis of 115,335 adult respondents of the 2012-2014 administrations of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health to estimate the prevalence and correlates of past-year drug use among adults with multimorbidity...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Natasha Buchanan Lunsford, Jennifer Berktold, Dawn M Holman, Karen Stein, Adwoa Prempeh, Adeline Yerkes
Black and Hispanic populations perceive their skin cancer risk to be low and are less likely to use sun protection strategies. We conducted formative research to understand knowledge, awareness, beliefs, and behaviors among these groups. In 2017, eighteen focus groups were conducted with black and Hispanic respondents(18-44 years) in four US cities. Groups were segmented by participant characteristics associated with elevated or lower risk for skin cancer, by race/ethnicity, gender, and age. A professional moderator followed a semi-structured discussion guide, and focus group transcripts were analyzed using conventional content analysis and NVIVO 11 Software...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
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