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Preventive Medicine Reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316912/intensity-of-commonly-reported-classroom-based-physical-activity-opportunities-in-public-schools
#1
Timothy K Behrens, Whitney M Holeva, Dick Carpenter, Elizabeth Tucker, Carmen Luna, John Donovan, Julaine Field, Cheryl Kelly
The purpose of this study was to examine the intensity levels of PA opportunities offered in public school classrooms. Schools (N = 101) in school districts (N = 25) reported PA opportunities offered in classrooms using an online data collection tool over a two-year period (2014-2016). Using a randomized sampling technique, 20-30% of teachers in each school were selected each week to report PA in their classroom. These responses resulted in N = 18,210 usable responses. A researcher determined the intensity of PA opportunities using the 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities as a guideline; two additional researchers confirmed the coded categories...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316911/electronic-media-time-and-sedentary-behaviors-in-children-findings-from-the-built-environment-and-active-play-study-in-the-washington-dc-area
#2
Jennifer D Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray, Brandon Knight, Brian E Saelens
An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play (BEAP) Study was to examine whether home built environment, bedroom electronic presence, parental rules and demographics predicted children's sedentary behavior (SB). In 2014, BEAP Study questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children (7-12 years) within the Washington DC area. SB-Duration (hours/day) and SB-Frequency (days/week) were assessed by two questions with multiple subparts relating to SB activity type (e.g. car riding) and SB companionship (e...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316910/are-single-entry-communities-and-cul-de-sacs-a-barrier-to-active-transport-to-school-in-11-elementary-schools-in-las-vegas-nv-metropolitan-area
#3
Courtney Coughenour, Sheila Clark, Ashok Singh, Joshua Huebner
Single entry communities (SECs) and cul-de-sacs minimize route choices and increase trip distance. Las Vegas' built environment facilitates the examination of these variables and active transport to school (ATS) rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of SECs and cul-de-sacs on ATS rates in Las Vegas, NV elementary children. Parental-reported data was collected from 11 elementary schools on ATS rates (n = 1217). SECs and cul-de-sacs were quantified for each school zone. Logistic regression models were used to predict ATS...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316909/utilization-of-social-media-and-web-forums-by-hiv-patients-a-cross-sectional-study-on-adherence-and-reported-anxiety-level
#4
Elisa Longinetti, Vinoth Manoharan, Hala Ayoub, Pamela J Surkan, Ziad El-Khatib
Due to the high stigma surrounding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), people living with HIV (PLWH) often reach out peers over the Internet for emotional and social support. The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics of PLWH who use HIV internet forums. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey investigating demographic characteristics of PLWH, level of satisfaction of the HIV Internet forums, time living with HIV, forum users' anxiety levels, self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), and reasons for missing pills (n = 222)...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316908/exploring-childhood-obesity-prevention-among-diverse-ethnic-groups-in-schools-and-places-of-worship-recruitment-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-data-collection-and-intervention-components
#5
Maria Maynard, Graham Baker, Seeromanie Harding
Small-scale, detailed exploration of the recruitment, assessment, and evaluation processes of obesity intervention among minority ethnic children. The study took place in schools and places of worship during 2008-2010 in London, UK. Measures included 3-day food diaries, 24 h dietary recalls, the Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire, accelerometry, and diet and physical activity self-efficacy questionnaires. Potential intervention components were evaluated via observation, questionnaires, and focus group discussions...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316907/sleep-apps-and-behavioral-constructs-a-content-analysis
#6
Diana S Grigsby-Toussaint, Jong Cheol Shin, Dayanna M Reeves, Ariana Beattie, Evan Auguste, Girardin Jean-Louis
Although sleep apps are among the most popular commercially available health apps, little is known about how well these apps are grounded in behavioral theory. Three-hundred and sixty-nine apps were initially identified using the term "sleep" from the Google play store and Apple iTunes in September 2015. The final sample consisted of 35 apps that met the following inclusion criteria: 1) Stand-alone functionality; 2) Sleep tracker or monitor apps ranked by 100 + users; 3) Sleep Alarm apps ranked by 1000 + users; and 4) English language...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316906/bidet-toilet-use-and-incidence-of-hemorrhoids-or-urogenital-infections-a-one-year-follow-up-web-survey
#7
Teppei Kiuchi, Keiko Asakura, Makiko Nakano, Kazuyuki Omae
Although bidet toilets are widely used in Japan, the relationship between habitual bidet toilet use and the incidence of hemorrhoids or urogenital infections has not been prospectively studied. We performed a web survey and followed bidet toilets users and non-users to assess the incidence of hemorrhoids or urogenital infections from 2013 to 2014. Study subjects were randomly selected from a research company's (Macromill, Inc.) web panel. The baseline survey inquired about toilet use and confounding parameters, and the follow-up survey examined outcome parameters...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316905/the-global-burden-of-child-burn-injuries-in-light-of-country-level-economic-development-and-income-inequality
#8
Mathilde Sengoelge, Ziad El-Khatib, Lucie Laflamme
Child burn mortality differs widely between regions and is closely related to material deprivation, but reports on their global distribution are few. Investigating their country level distribution in light of economic level and income inequality will help assess the potential for macro-level improvements. We extracted data for child burn mortality from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013 and combined data into 1-14 years to calculate rates at country, region and income levels. We also compiled potential lives saved...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289597/daily-users-compared-to-less-frequent-users-find-vape-as-or-more-satisfying-and-less-dangerous-than-cigarettes-and-are-likelier-to-use-non-cig-alike-vaping-products
#9
Lynn T Kozlowski, D Lynn Homish, Gregory G Homish
We assessed the roles of perceived satisfaction and perceived danger and vaping-product-type as correlates of more frequent use of vaping products. In a baseline assessment of a longitudinal study of US Army Reserve/National Guard Soldiers and their partners (New York State, USA, 2014-2016), participants were asked about current use of vaping products (e-cigarettes) and perceived satisfaction and danger in comparison to cigarettes as well as type of product used. Fisher-exact tests and multiple ordinal logistic regressions were used...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280684/personal-characteristics-cooking-at-home-and-shopping-frequency-influence-consumption
#10
Jeanette Gustat, Yu-Sheng Lee, Keelia O'Malley, Brian Luckett, Leann Myers, Leonetta Terrell, Lisa Amoss, Erin Fitzgerald, Peter T Stevenson, Carolyn C Johnson
This study examines how the consumption of fruits and vegetables is affected by home cooking habits and shopping patterns, including distance to patronized stores and frequency of shopping, in two low-income predominantly African American urban neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. In-person interviews were conducted in 2013 with 901 adult residents who identified themselves as the primary household shopper. Respondents were asked where and how often they shopped and answered a food frequency questionnaire...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271028/sedentary-behavior-patterns-in-non-pregnant-and-pregnant-women
#11
Marquis Hawkins, Youngdeok Kim, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Bonny Jane Rockette-Wagner, Lisa Chasan-Taber
Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of < 100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271027/predictors-of-parental-knowledge-of-adolescent-sexual-experience-united-states-2012
#12
Julia Potter, Karen Soren, John Santelli
Parent-child sexual health communication has been shown to protect against adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior. Parent knowledge of adolescent sexual experience can inform timing and content of conversations; however, little is known about factors associated with such knowledge. To investigate this question, parent-child dyads (N = 942) from a U.S. nationally-representative internet panel were surveyed in June 2012. Agreement between adolescent report of vaginal sex and parent's knowledge of such behavior was assessed...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271026/impact-of-cognitive-fatigue-on-gait-and-sway-among-older-adults-a-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie Grobe, Rumit Singh Kakar, Matthew Lee Smith, Ranjana Mehta, Timothy Baghurst, Ali Boolani
Cognitive fatigue is an alteration in central nervous system (CNS) processing due to prolonged performance of mentally demanding tasks. Decreased gait speed and increased stride length variability have been noted in cognitively fatigued older adults (≥ 65 years). Further, cognitive fatigue may weaken the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems of the CNS, contributing to increased postural sway. Detriments in gait and sway caused by cognitive fatigue could increase fall risk. The objective of this literature review was to evaluate the impact of cognitive fatigue on changes in gait and postural sway and its role in fall risk...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271025/disparities-in-receipt-of-5as-for-smoking-cessation-in-diverse-primary-care-and-hiv-clinics
#14
Maya Vijayaraghavan, Patrick Yuan, Steven Gregorich, Paula Lum, Nicole Appelle, Anna Maria Napoles, Sara Kalkhoran, Jason Satterfield
Clinical practice guidelines recommend that clinicians implement the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) for smoking cessation at every clinical encounter. We sought to examine the prevalence of patient- and clinician-reported 5As in two primary care and one HIV care clinics in San Francisco, California between August 2013 and March 2014 (n = 462 patients and n = 61 clinicians). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with receipt of the 5As, adjusting for patient demographics, patient insurance, clinic site, patient tobacco use, and patient comorbidities...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271024/development-and-implementation-of-a-local-government-survey-to-measure-community-supports-for-healthy-eating-and-active-living
#15
Latetia V Moore, Susan A Carlson, Stephen Onufrak, Dianna D Carroll, Deborah Galuska
The ability to make healthy choices is influenced by where one lives, works, shops, and plays. Locally enacted policies and standards can influence these surroundings but little is known about the prevalence of such policies and standards that support healthier behaviors. In this paper, we describe the development of a survey questionnaire designed to capture local level policy supports for healthy eating and active living and findings and lessons learned from a 2012 pilot in two states, Minnesota and California, including respondent burden, survey sampling and administration methods, and survey item feasibility issues...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271023/determinants-of-preferences-for-lifestyle-changes-versus-medication-and-beliefs-in-ability-to-maintain-lifestyle-changes-a-population-based-survey
#16
Dorte Ejg Jarbøl, Pia Veldt Larsen, Dorte Gyrd-Hansen, Jens Søndergaard, Carl Brandt, Anja Leppin, Benedicte Lind Barfoed, Jesper Bo Nielsen
Preferences for medication treatment versus lifestyle changes are of major importance in the management of chronic diseases. This study aims to investigate determinants of preference for lifestyle changes versus medication for prevention of cardiovascular disease as well as determinants of respondents' beliefs in their ability to maintain lifestyle changes. A representative sample of 40-60-year old Danish inhabitants was in 2012 invited to a survey and were asked to imagine that they had been diagnosed as being at increased risk of heart disease...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271022/-take-in-two-parks-and-call-me-in-the-morning-perception-of-parks-as-an-essential-component-of-our-healthcare-system
#17
A J Mowen, A G Barrett, A R Graefe, J L Kraschnewski, C N Sciamanna
As a feature of the built neighborhood environment, parks have been associated with a range of positive health outcomes. Recognition of these contributions has prompted advocates to suggest parks are a part of our healthcare system. Despite these developments, park investments have declined over the past decade nationally, lagging behind expenditures on other community services such as health. Perhaps the idea of parks as a solution to the nation's health concerns has not diffused across the population. To date, however, public perception of parks' role in healthcare has not been documented...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271021/tobacco-use-cessation-interventions-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-and-queer-youth-and-young-adults-a-scoping-review
#18
REVIEW
N Bruce Baskerville, Darly Dash, Alanna Shuh, Katy Wong, Aneta Abramowicz, Jennifer Yessis, Ryan D Kennedy
Smoking prevalence among LGBTQ + youth and young adults is alarmingly high compared to their non-LGBTQ + peers. The purpose of the scoping review was to assess the current state of smoking prevention and cessation intervention research for LGBTQ + youth and young adults, identify and describe these interventions and their effectiveness, and identify gaps in both practice and research. A search for published literature was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and LGBT Life, as well as an in-depth search of the grey literature...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271020/a-readability-comparison-of-anti-versus-pro-influenza-vaccination-online-messages-in-japan
#19
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masahumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
Historically, anti-vaccination sentiment has existed in many populations. Mass media plays a large role in disseminating and sensationalizing vaccine objections, especially via the medium of the Internet. Based on studies of processing fluency, we assumed that anti-influenza vaccination online messages to be more readable and more fluently processed than pro-influenza vaccination online messages, which may consequently sway the opinions of some audiences. The aim of this study was to compare readability of anti- and pro-influenza vaccination online messages in Japan using a measure of readability...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271019/creating-the-first-indoor-tan-free-skin-smart-college-campus
#20
Jessica S Mounessa, Sherry L Pagoto, Katie Baker, John Antonishak, Robert P Dellavalle
Given the prevalence and risk associated with indoor tanning among college students, university campuses constitute a prime target for skin cancer prevention. This report identifies the successes and challenges faced in promoting a campus-wide tan-free policy through the National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP) Indoor Tan-Free Skin Smart Campus Initiative. Beginning in February 2016, we communicated with university faculty or staff members who have participated in skin cancer prevention via education, clinical care, or research at 20 universities regarding the steps to adopt the tan-free policy...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
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