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Preventive Medicine Reports

E Kipling Webster, Samuel W Logan, Wendy N Gray, Leah E Robinson
This study investigated early indications of hypertension risk and the association of overweight and obesity in young girls from a low socioeconomic region of the rural South. 139 females ( M age = 8.85 ± 1.67 years) from a rural school in the Southeastern region of the United States served as participants. Body mass index was calculated based on the child's height and weight measurements (kg/m2 ) and resting blood pressure measurements were taken with calibrated, automatic oscillations devices. Girls who were overweight or obese were 2...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Yung Liao, Hsiu-Hua Hsu, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Koichiro Oka
Although greater sedentary time has been found to be associated with negative health impacts, little is known whether the specific pattern of sedentary behavior (i.e. sedentary bouts, breaks and durations) are associated with physical function among older adults. The present study examined the associations between objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical function among older Japanese adults. A total of 174 male and 107 female community-dwelling older Japanese adults aged 65-84 years (mean age: 74...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Joanne DiFrancisco-Donoghue, Min-Kyung Jung, Alexander Stangle, William G Werner, Hallie Zwibel, Patricia Happel, Jerry Balentine
This study examined the use of activity trackers alone or combined with weekly communication through email to improve activity and body composition over one academic year in medical students. This randomized clinical trial conducted at the New York Institute of Technology from July 7, 2016 through June 4, 2017 enrolled 120 medical students. The first group (Fitbit-Plus) wore activity trackers and received weekly emails offering fitness challenges and lifestyle modification challenges. The second group (Fitbit-Only) received only activity trackers and did not receive weekly emails...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Justin T McDaniel, Kate H Thomas, Caroline M Angel, Michael S Erwin, Louis P Nemec, Brandon B Young, Nicholas J Armstrong, Blayne P Smith, John M Pinter
The purpose of the present study was to examine regional differences in average self-reported BMI, obesity prevalence, and frequent exercise (FE) among members of Team Red, White, and Blue (Team RWB) - a military veteran service organization founded to increase physical activity in veterans. A total of 10,015 military veterans participated in a needs assessment conducted by Team RWB between December 2014 and August 2016. Multivariate regression analysis with bootstrapped coefficients revealed that: BMI was highest in the Midwest region ( M  = 28...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Kristina Curtis, Emmie Fulton, Katherine Brown
The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK recommends behavioural science evidence underpins public health improvement services. In practice, level of implementation varies. This study is the first to explore factors affecting use of behaviour -specific evidence by public health decision-makers and practitioners for design and delivery of health improvement services. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted, along with a review of the commissioning cycle with public health decision-makers and practitioners across a range of health improvement fields (e...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Yuxia Huang, Pamela Meyer, Lei Jin
The objective of this study is to explore relationships among neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics (for example, income and ethnicity), spatial access to health care, and emergency department (ED) visits for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) for adults aged 65 years and over. ED visit data were from 15 counties in the Texas Coastal Bend from September 1, 2009 and August 1, 2012. ED visits for ACSC that were common for elderly were estimated based on Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ's) ACSC and Prevention Quality Indicators...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Aye C Paing, Kathryn A McMillan, Alison F Kirk, Andrew Collier, Allan Hewitt, Sebastien F M Chastin
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of accelerometer-assessed sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time with 24-h events and duration of hypoglycaemia (<3.9 mmol/l), euglycaemia (3.9-7.8 mmol/l), hyperglycaemia (>7.8 mmol/l) and above target glucose (>9 mmol/l). Thirty-seven participants with type 2 diabetes (age, 62.8 ± 10.5 years; body mass index, 29.6 ± 6.8 kg/m2 ) in Glasgow, United Kingdom were enrolled between February 2016 and February 2017. Participants wore an activity monitor (activPAL3) recording the time and pattern of sedentary behaviour and a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, Abbott FreeStyle Libre) for up to 14 days...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Louise C Mâsse, Nicole S Carbert, Jennifer Scarr, Maureen O'Donnell
The "Pathway for the Identification, Assessment and Management of Overweight and Obese Children & Youth" was developed to support healthcare providers in identifying and treating childhood obesity in British Columbia (Canada). Purpose: The study aimed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of using the Pathway in clinical settings. Methods: 13 healthcare providers (7 family physicians, 2 pediatricians, 2 registered dietitians, and 2 nurse practitioners) assessed the Pathway and participated in semi-structured interviews in 2015...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Karianne Svendsen, Vibeke H Telle-Hansen, Lisa T Mørch-Reiersen, Kjersti W Garstad, Kari Thyholt, Linda Granlund, Hege Berg Henriksen, Jon Michael Gran, David R Jacobs, Kjetil Retterstøl
We investigated if alerting subjects to elevated total cholesterol (TC), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood pressure (BP) (cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors that are usually asymptomatic), and if providing advice would result in reduced risk. We conducted a multicenter (50 community pharmacies) parallel three-arm 8-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 52-week follow-up visit. During six days of screening, TC, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA1c, BP and body mass index (BMI) were assessed in 1318 individuals...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Kenneth E Warner
American students' 30-day smoking prevalence has decreased dramatically over the past two decades. The frequency of smoking within the 30-day measure has shifted from heavy smoking (>1/2 pack/day) toward light smoking (<1 to 5 cigarettes/day). 30-day prevalence thus understates the extent of the decline in youth smoking. To capture this shift toward less frequent smoking among the decreasing proportion of students who smoke, I develop a new index: the average number of cigarettes smoked per student per day (ACSD), using data from Monitoring the Future...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Ryan D Burns, You Fu, Timothy A Brusseau, Kristen Clements-Nolle, Wei Yang
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among physical activity, sleep duration, diet, and academic achievement in a sample of adolescents from the US state of Nevada. A two-stage cluster random sampling method was used to recruit Nevadan adolescents (N = 4625). The 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to students within public, private, and charter schools. Weighted multilevel generalized linear mixed effects models were employed to examine the relationships among physical activity, sleep duration, diet, and academic achievement...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Stewart A Vella, Lauren A Gardner, Byron Kemp, Christian Swann
The objective of this study was to investigate potential mediating effects of health-related quality of life between children's participation in organised sports and measures of adiposity. The sample consisted of 4116 children derived from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Participants were aged 10.32 ( SD  = 0.47) years at baseline (2010), and followed up 24 and 48 months later. Participation in organised sports was assessed using child-completed time-use diary. Health-related quality of life and demographic data were reported by each child's primary parent...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jason Galo, Michelle Feeney, Kevin Zambrano, Chelsie Galo, Daniel Clinchot
PODEMOS (Partnership for Ongoing Developmental, Educational and Medical Outreach Solutions) has been a long-standing healthcare provider in 4 communities in northern rural Honduras. In this study, we sought to understand and quantify the health challenges faced by men in the rural communities served by PODEMOS in order to improve the way PODEMOS delivers healthcare. Between June and July of 2015, we conducted 104 structured survey interviews with men 18 years and older in rural Honduras. We found that most men face significant economic limitations in their ability to pay for healthcare and health-determining services and due to low formal education levels face health literacy challenges...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Tasa S Seibert, David B Allen, Jens Eickhoff, Aaron L Carrel
An increasing number of children are now obese and fail to meet minimum recommendations for physical activity (PA). Schools play a critical role in impacting children's activity behaviors, including PA. Our objective was to assess whether CDC-based school-centered strategies to promote PA increase long-term cardiovascular fitness (CVF) levels in students in schools. A prospective observational trial was conducted in 26 middle schools to implement CDC school-based strategies to increase PA for 3 years. Students had CVF assessed by Fitnessgram (PACER), a 20-meter shuttle run, at the start and end of each school year...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Allison A Parsons, Nicholas J Ollberding, Laurie Smith, Kristen A Copeland
Sleep is necessary for optimal functioning. Little is known about the extent to which race and opportunities to be active influence sleep in preschool-aged children attending full-day child care. Participants (n = 359) in this cross-sectional study attended 30 randomly selected, childcare centers in Cincinnati, OH. Data collection occurred from November 2009 to January 2011. Hierarchical linear regression and generalized estimating equations tested for associations between nighttime sleep duration and race, outdoor/indoor active time, actual physical activity (PA), screen time, daytime nap, and bedtime after 9 pm...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jennifer E McWhirter, Spencer Byl, Alyssa Green, William Sears, Andrew Papadopoulos
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from indoor tanning equipment is a known cause of skin cancer; however, little is known about how the availability of indoor tanning salons has been impacted by indoor tanning legislation, including Ontario's Skin Cancer Prevention Act: Tanning Beds (SCPA). Tanning salon listings were obtained from the 2001 to 2017 editions of InfoCanada's Ontario Business to Business Sales and Marketing directories. Using descriptive statistics and regression analysis, we assessed the number of tanning salons before and after: 1) the 2006 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) report on indoor tanning and skin cancer; 2) the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) reclassification of artificial UV radiation as carcinogenic; and 3) the passing and enactment of Ontario's SCPA in 2013 and 2014, respectively...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
M Arora, C Mathur, T Rawal, S Bassi, R Lakshmy, G P Nazar, V K Gupta, M H Park, S Kinra
This study examined whether the distribution of biochemical, physiological, and metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among children and youth in urban India vary by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in the 2nd and 11th grades in 19 randomly selected schools in Delhi ( N  = 1329) in 2014-15. Mixed-effect regression models were used to determine the prevalence of risk factors for NCDs among private (higher SES) and government (lower SES) school students...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Augustine W Kang, Akilah Dulin, Sarah Nadimpalli, Patricia M Risica
The prevalence of hypertension is highest among Black women, but treatment adherence is reportedly low. Stress unique to the experiences of Black Americans may be associated with low adherence and poor blood pressure control, but few studies have examined the relationships between stress, adherence, and blood pressure control among hypertensive Black women. This study seeks to fill gaps in research by examining the association between stress, adherence, and blood pressure control. The baseline sample (n = 571) of at-risk or hypertensive Black women from the SisterTalk II RCT (Northeastern USA, 2004-2006) to improve adherence to recommendations for hypertension was analyzed...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Christopher J King, Jonathan Moreno, Susan V Coleman, John F Williams
Background: Compared with other racial and ethnic groups, African Americans are disproportionately burdened by high rates of deaths due to diabetes. Insurance coverage and access to primary care are critical for prevention and chronic disease management. Purpose: To examine the difference in age-adjusted diabetes mortality rates in African Americans before and after Medicaid expansion. Methods: Using ICD-10 Cause List E10-E14, age-adjusted diabetes mortality rates among African Americans were extracted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Compressed Mortality File...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Benoit Pétré, André Scheen, Olivier Ziegler, Anne-Françoise Donneau, Nadia Dardenne, Eddy Husson, Adelin Albert, Michèle Guillaume
While weight-loss expectations have primarily been studied in people enrolled in weight-loss programs, the present study explores patient expectations about weight-loss and identifies related determinants in a large, non-clinical population. 3916 volunteers (age > 18 years) participated in 2012 in a community-based survey in the French-speaking region of Belgium. Participants were asked to define "dream", "goal", "happy", "acceptable", and "disappointed" weights...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
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