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Preventive Medicine Reports

Mariana C Arcaya, Ruth L Coleman, Fahad Razak, Maria L Alva, Rury R Holman
Health selection into neighborhoods may contribute to geographic health disparities. We demonstrate the potential for clinical trial data to help clarify the causal role of health on locational attainment. We used data from the 20-year United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) to explore whether random assignment to intensive blood-glucose control therapy, which improved long-term health outcomes after median 10 years follow-up, subsequently affected what neighborhoods patients lived in. We extracted postcode-level deprivation indices for the 2710 surviving participants of UKPDS living in England at study end in 1996/1997...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Sarah Burkart, Christine W St Laurent, Sofiya Alhassan
The purpose of this study was to describe process evaluation data including intervention fidelity, dosage, quality, participant responsiveness, and program reach for the Mothers And dauGhters daNcing togEther Trial (MAGNET) in Springfield, MA, in Spring 2013 and 2014. Seventy-six mother-daughter dyads were randomized to the mother-daughter group (CH-M, n = 28), the child-only group (CH, n = 25), or the health education group (CON, n = 23). CH-M consisted of 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous culturally-tailored dance classes for dyads...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
K C Madhav, Shardulendra Prasad Sherchand, Samendra Sherchan
Epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the prevalence of depression is about 9% in the United States. World Health Organization has projected that depression will be leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. Growing evidence suggests that sedentary lifestyle is an important risk factor of depression among adults. The relationship between television watching/computer use and depression in US adults is still unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between television watching/computer use and depression...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jennifer L Gay, David M Buchner, Jessalyn Smith, Chunla He
Self-report data suggests a large proportion of total physical activity (PA) occurs at work. However, adults with higher levels of occupational PA may compensate by engaging in less non-occupational PA. The study aims were to 1) estimate the intensity, volume, and duration of PA in American adults that occurs at work, and 2) determine if those more active at work are less active outside of work. A cross-sectional sample of full-time employed adults (N = 510) was recruited from Georgia city and county governments in 2013-2015...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Amrik Singh Khalsa, Roohi Kharofa, Nicholas J Ollberding, Laurie Bishop, Kristen A Copeland
Obesity prevention guidelines recommend children eat ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables, view ≤ 2 h of screen time, participate in 1 h of physical activity, and consume 0 sugar-sweetened beverages daily, commonly known as '5-2-1-0'. We sought to determine: the extent to which preschool-aged children attending child care meet these guidelines, predictors of attainment, and associations of attainment with weight status. We analyzed in 2016, 24-hour dietary, physical activity, and screen time data collected in 2009-10 from 398 preschool-aged children in 30 child-care centers in Cincinnati, OH...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Karim Abu-Omar, Alfred Rütten, Ionuţ Burlacu, Valentin Schätzlein, Sven Messing, Marc Suhrcke
BACKGROUND: Despite growing recognition of the need to promote physical activity, the existing evidence base on the cost-effectiveness of relevant interventions appears scant and scattered. This systematic review of reviews set out to take stock of the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of physical activity interventions. METHODS: Ten literature databases were systematically searched for available reviews on the cost-effectiveness of physical activity interventions, complemented by a hand search...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Amy L Beck, Melvin Heyman, Cewin Chao, Janet Wojcicki
Consumption of non- or low-fat dairy products is recommended as a strategy to lower the risk of childhood obesity. However, recent evidence suggests that consumption of whole fat dairy products may, in fact, be protective against obesity. Our objective was to determine the association between milk fat consumption and severe obesity among three-year-old Latino children, a population with a disproportionate burden of obesity and severe obesity. 24-hour-dietary recalls were conducted to determine child intake in San Francisco based cohort recruited in 2006-7...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Jun Ma, Lan Xiao, Nan Lv, Lisa G Rosas, Megan A Lewis, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Elizabeth M Venditti, Mark B Snowden, Lenard Lesser, Elizabeth Ward
The objective of this study is to characterize profiles of obese depressed participants using baseline data collected from October 2014 through December 2016 for an ongoing randomized controlled trial (n = 409) in Bay Area, California, USA. Four comorbidity severity categories were defined by interaction of the binary levels of body mass index (BMI) and depression Symptom Checklist 20 (SCL20) scores. Sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and psychosocial characteristics were measured. Mean (SD) age was 51 (12...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Katherine B Gunter, Jennifer Jackson, Emily J Tomayko, Deborah H John
Among rural families, rates of both child obesity and household food insecurity (FI) are higher compared to non-rural families. These disparities result from a complex interplay of social and environmental conditions that influence behavior. The Transtheoretical Model suggests individual readiness to change underlies success in modifying obesity-preventing behaviors; however, whether an association between readiness to change obesity-related behaviors and FI status among rural families exists is unknown. We examined the association between readiness to change family-level nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors that predict child obesity and family FI status within a sample of rural families to better understand these relationships...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Anthony P Vanky, Santosh K Verma, Theodore K Courtney, Paolo Santi, Carlo Ratti
We examined the association between meteorological (weather) conditions in a given locale and pedestrian trips frequency and duration, through the use of locative digital data. These associations were determined for seasonality, urban microclimate, and commuting. We analyzed GPS data from a broadly available activity tracking mobile phone application that automatically recorded 247,814 trips from 5432 unique users in Boston and 257,697 trips from 8256 users in San Francisco over a 50-week period. Generally, we observed increased air temperature and the presence of light cloud cover had a positive association with hourly trip frequency in both cities, regardless of seasonality...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Binu Singh, Mary Hrywna, Olivia A Wackowski, Cristine D Delnevo, M Jane Lewis, Michael B Steinberg
Physicians are rated the most trustworthy source of information for smokers and thus play an increasing role in disseminating information on e-cigarettes to patients. Therefore, it is important to understand what is currently being communicated about e-cigarettes between physicians and patients. This study explored the knowledge, beliefs, communication, and recommendation of e-cigarettes among physicians of various specialties. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in early 2016 with 35 physicians across five different specialties...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Julie Fricke, Maria Sironi
We examined associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) and sleep disturbance among young adults in the United States. Using Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (respondents aged 24-32, N = 14,334), we ran multivariate logistic regressions to estimate the probability of reporting trouble falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and short sleep duration, based on specific sexual orientation categories. Results after controlling for mental health indicate that these categories are more likely to have trouble falling asleep: women who identify as "bisexual" (OR = 1...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Kimihiro Hino, Jung Su Lee, Yasushi Asami
People's year-round interpersonal step count variations according to meteorological conditions are not fully understood, because complete year-round data from a sufficient sample of the general population are difficult to acquire. This study examined the associations between meteorological conditions and objectively measured step counts using year-round data collected from a large cohort (N = 24,625) in Yokohama, Japan from April 2015 to March 2016. Two-piece linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between the monthly median daily step count and three meteorological indices (mean values of temperature, temperature-humidity index (THI), and net effective temperature (NET))...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Daniel Aggio, Benjamin Gardner, Justin Roberts, James Johnstone, Brendon Stubbs, Genevieve Williams, Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez, Lee Smith
Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play. Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7 years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no) as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Juliana Kain, Bárbara Leyton, Fernando Concha, Michael Close, Johana Soto-Sánchez, Gabriela Salazar
Chile's Physical Activity Report Card graded the overall index on PA behavior with an F The Ministry of Sports is implementing since 2014 "Jardín Activo" (JA program) which recommends 3 weekly teacher-led PE lessons for preschool children, on half or full day attendance. We determined the effectiveness of the JA program (contribution to MVPA during school time) and assessed if effectiveness varied according to schedule. 596 five y olds, (50% boys) were selected from 66 schools; 52.9% attended half day and 47...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Taylor E Wyatt, Vikash Pernenkil, Tomi F Akinyemiju
The aim of this study is examine trends in breast and colorectal cancer screening in the U.S. by race, healthcare coverage, and socio-economic status (SES) before the Great Recession (2003-2005), during the recession (2007-2009), and post-recession/Affordable Care Act (ACA) period (2010 - 2012). Data on a representative sample of U.S. adults was obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Breast and colorectal cancer screening were defined in line with U.S. Preventative Services Task Force guidelines, and survey weighted statistical methods were utilized to analyze trends in cancer screening among 1,858,572 BRFSS participants...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Anne C Lusk, Albert Anastasio, Nicholas Shaffer, Juan Wu, Yanping Li
This paper examines if, in a lower-income minority neighborhood, bicycling practices and bicycle-environment preferences of Blacks and Hispanics were different from Whites. During the summer of 2014, surveys were mailed to 1537 households near a proposed cycle track on Malcolm X Boulevard in Roxbury, MA. On the Boulevard, intercept surveys were distributed to cyclists and observations noted about passing cyclist's characteristics. Data were analyzed from 252 returned-mailed surveys, 120 intercept surveys, and 709 bicyclists...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Richard A Crosby, Michael E Hagensee, Rebecca Fisher, Lindsay R Stradtman, Tom Collins
OBJECTIVES: To determine the post-procedure acceptability of self-collecting a vaginal swab for HPV testing among a highly impoverished and geographically isolated population of medically underserved Black women residing in the Mississippi Delta. Further, to test correlates of reporting that self-collection is preferred over Pap testing. Finally, to determine the prevalence of any of 13 high-risk HPV types among this population and the correlates of testing positive. METHODS: Eighty-eight women were recruited from two churches located in different towns of the Mississippi Delta...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Yvonne G Ellis, Dylan P Cliff, Xanne Janssen, Rachel A Jones, John J Reilly, Anthony D Okely
The aim of this study was to report patterns of sitting, standing and physical activity (PA) and compliance with Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations for sedentary behavior (SB) and PA among children aged 1 to 5 years at childcare, and examine sociodemographic variations. Sitting, standing and PA time was assessed using an activPAL inclinometer over a period of 1 to 5 days in 301 children (49% boys; mean age = 3.7 ± 1.0 years) across 11 childcare services in Illawarra, NSW, Australia. Breaks and bouts of sitting and standing were calculated and categorized...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Britta L Anderson, Ellen Peters, Michael F Fialkow, Laura H Taouk, Jay Schulkin
As the primary healthcare providers for women, obstetrician-gynecologists' (OB/GYNs) experiences with and opinions about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) are important to understand. An online survey was sent to 1000 randomly selected OB/GYNs who were members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) in 2014. Of those, 523 opened the email and 163 responded (31% participation rate). Data were collected August 2014-October 2014 and analyzed in 2015-2016. Support for the ACA was widely distributed, with the largest subset of the sample (about 21%) in the "very supportive" category...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
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