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Journal of Medical Imaging

Mia K Markey, Tamara Miner Haygood, Elizabeth A Krupinski
This guest editorial introduces the special section on Medical Image Perceptions and Observer Performance.
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Elizabeth A Krupinski
Reducing dose increases noise impacting image quality but can be offset by increasing display luminance. Two contrast detail mammography images were obtained at 26 kV and the same distance between detectors, at 45 and 50 mAs resulting in entrance surface doses of 7.09 and 7.88 mGy, respectively. They were processed to make average gray level of the background independent of the dose level while maintaining original SNR. Eight radiologists viewed the images at 420, <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>1000</mml:mn> <mml:mtext>  </mml:mtext> <mml:mi>cd</mml:mi> <mml:mo>/</mml:mo> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>m</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> , and SpotView™ a tool that resulted in an average display luminance of <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Lifeng Yu, Liqiang Ren, Zhoubo Li, Shuai Leng, Cynthia H McCollough
Energy-resolved photon-counting-detector CT (PCD-CT) is promising for material decomposition with multiple contrast agents using two or more energy bins. However, corrections for nonidealities of PCDs are required, which are still active research topics. In addition, PCD-CT is also likely to have a very high cost due to the current lack of mass production capabilities. We proposed an alternative approach to perform multienergy CT (MECT), which is achieved by acquiring triple or quadruple x-ray beam measurements on a dual-source CT scanner...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Ke Yan, Xiaosong Wang, Le Lu, Ronald M Summers
Extracting, harvesting, and building large-scale annotated radiological image datasets is a greatly important yet challenging problem. Meanwhile, vast amounts of clinical annotations have been collected and stored in hospitals' picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). These types of annotations, also known as bookmarks in PACS, are usually marked by radiologists during their daily workflow to highlight significant image findings that may serve as reference for later studies. We propose to mine and harvest these abundant retrospective medical data to build a large-scale lesion image dataset...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Sivaramakrishnan Rajaraman, Kamolrat Silamut, Md A Hossain, I Ersoy, Richard J Maude, Stefan Jaeger, George R Thoma, Sameer K Antani
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have become the architecture of choice for visual recognition tasks. However, these models are perceived as black boxes since there is a lack of understanding of the learned behavior from the underlying task of interest. This lack of transparency is a serious drawback, particularly in applications involving medical screening and diagnosis since poorly understood model behavior could adversely impact subsequent clinical decision-making. Recently, researchers have begun working on this issue and several methods have been proposed to visualize and understand the behavior of these models...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Andreu Badal, Matthew Clark, Bahaa Ghammraoui
Mammography is currently the standard imaging modality used to screen women for breast abnormalities, and, as a result, it is a tool of great importance for the early detection of breast cancer. Physical phantoms are commonly used as surrogates of breast tissue to evaluate some aspects of the performance of mammography systems. However, most phantoms do not reproduce the anatomic heterogeneity of real breasts. New fabrication technologies, such as three-dimensional (3-D) printing, have created the opportunity to build more complex, anatomically realistic breast phantoms that could potentially assist in the evaluation of mammography systems...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Lonie R Salkowski, Rosemary Russ
The ability to correlate anatomical knowledge and medical imaging is crucial to radiology and as such, should be a critical component of medical education. However, we are hindered in our ability to teach this skill because we know very little about what expert practice looks like, and even less about novices' understanding. Using a unique simulation tool, this research conducted cognitive clinical interviews with experts and novices to explore differences in how they engage in this correlation and the underlying cognitive processes involved in doing so...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Weijie Chen, Qi Gong, Brandon D Gallas
The widely used multireader multicase ROC study design for comparing imaging modalities is the fully crossed (FC) design: every reader reads every case of both modalities. We investigate paired split-plot (PSP) designs that may allow for reduced cost and increased flexibility compared with the FC design. In the PSP design, case images from two modalities are read by the same readers, thereby the readings are paired across modalities. However, within each modality, not every reader reads every case. Instead, both the readers and the cases are partitioned into a fixed number of groups and each group of readers reads its own group of cases-a split-plot design...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Tamara Miner Haygood, Barry Mullins, Jia Sun, Behrang Amini, Priya Bhosale, Hyunseon C Kang, Tara Sagebiel, Bilal Mujtaba
Frequently, the consensus conclusion after quality assurance conferences in radiology is that whatever mistake was made could have been avoided if more prior images or documents had been consulted. It is generally assumed that anything that was not specifically cited in the report had not been consulted. Is it actually safe to assume that an image or document that is not cited was also not consulted? It is this question that this investigation addresses. In this Institutional Review Board-approved study, one observer watched the board-certified radiologists while they interpreted imaging studies and issued reports...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Folami Alamudun, Paige Paulus, Hong-Jun Yoon, Georgia Tourassi
Prior research has shown that physicians' medical decisions can be influenced by sequential context, particularly in cases where successive stimuli exhibit similar characteristics when analyzing medical images. This type of systematic error is known to psychophysicists as sequential context effect as it indicates that judgments are influenced by features of and decisions about the preceding case in the sequence of examined cases, rather than being based solely on the peculiarities unique to the present case...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
William F Auffermann, Elizabeth A Krupinski, Srini Tridandapani
The goal of this research was to examine whether search pattern training for central line positioning on chest radiographs (CXRs) improves the ability of healthcare trainees and practitioners to identify malpositioned central venous catheters. Two sets of CXRs with central catheters were shown; half of the images contained catheters that were appropriately positioned, half that were malpositioned. Subjects were asked to: mark the tip of the catheter using the simulated radiology workstations, indicate their confidence in tip localization, and state whether the catheter was appropriately positioned or malpositioned...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Trafton Drew, Lauren H Williams, Booth Aldred, Marta E Heilbrun, Satoshi Minoshima
What are the costs and consequences of interruptions during diagnostic radiology? The cognitive psychology literature suggests that interruptions lead to an array of negative consequences that could hurt patient outcomes and lead to lower patient throughput. Meanwhile, observational studies have both noted a strikingly high rate of interruptions and rising number of interruptions faced by radiologists. There is some observational evidence that more interruptions could lead to worse patient outcomes: Balint et al...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Morteza Modarresi Asem, Iman Sheikh Oveisi, Mona Janbozorgi
Retinal blood vessels indicate some serious health ramifications, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Thanks to modern imaging technology, high-resolution images provide detailed information to help analyze retinal vascular features before symptoms associated with such conditions fully develop. Additionally, these retinal images can be used by ophthalmologists to facilitate diagnosis and the procedures of eye surgery. A fuzzy noise reduction algorithm was employed to enhance color images corrupted by Gaussian noise...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Ehsan Samei, Marthony Robins, Baiyu Chen, Greeshma Agasthya
Volume of lung nodules is an important biomarker, quantifiable from computed tomography (CT) images. The usefulness of volume quantification, however, depends on the precision of quantification. Experimental assessment of precision is time consuming. A mathematical estimability model was used to assess the quantification precision of CT nodule volumetry in terms of an index ([Formula: see text]), incorporating image noise and resolution, nodule properties, and segmentation software. The noise and resolution were characterized in terms of noise power spectrum and task transfer function...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Taylor Brunton Smith, Justin Solomon, Ehsan Samei
This study's purpose was to develop and validate a method to estimate patient-specific detectability indices directly from patients' CT images (i.e., in vivo ). The method extracts noise power spectrum (NPS) and modulation transfer function (MTF) resolution properties from each patient's CT series based on previously validated techniques. These are combined with a reference task function (10-mm disk lesion with [Formula: see text] HU contrast) to estimate detectability indices for a nonprewhitening matched filter observer model...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Brendan Kelly, Louise A Rainford, Mark F McEntee, Eoin C Kavanagh
Identifying if participants with differing diagnostic accuracy and visual search behavior during radiologic tasks also differ in nonradiologic tasks is investigated. Four clinician groups with different radiologic experience were used: a reference expert group of five consultant radiologists, four radiology registrars, five senior house officers, and six interns. Each of the four clinician groups is known to have significantly different performance in the identification of pneumothoraces in chest x-ray. Each of the 20 participants was shown 6 nonradiologic images (3 maps and 3 sets of geometric shapes) and was asked to perform search tasks...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Fumin Guo, Dante Capaldi, Miranda Kirby, Khadija Sheikh, Sarah Svenningsen, David G McCormack, Aaron Fenster, Grace Parraga
We designed and generated pulmonary imaging biomarker pipelines to facilitate high-throughput research and point-of-care use in patients with chronic lung disease. Image processing modules and algorithm pipelines were embedded within a graphical user interface (based on the .NET framework) for pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and x-ray computed-tomography (CT) datasets. The software pipelines were generated using C++ and included: (1) inhaled <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mmultiscripts> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>He</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mprescripts/> <mml:none/> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>3</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> </mml:mmultiscripts> <mml:mo>/</mml:mo> <mml:mmultiscripts> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>Xe</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mprescripts/> <mml:none/> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>129</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> </mml:mmultiscripts> <mml:mtext> </mml:mtext> <mml:mi>MRI</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> ventilation and apparent diffusion coefficients, (2) CT-MRI coregistration for lobar and segmental ventilation and perfusion measurements, (3) ultrashort echo-time <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Jessica Kishimoto, Aaron Fenster, David S C Lee, Sandrine de Ribaupierre
Dilatation of the cerebral ventricles is a common condition in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage. This posthemorrhagic ventricle dilatation (PHVD) can lead to lifelong neurological impairment through ischemic injury due to increased intracranial pressure, and without treatment can lead to death. Two-dimensional ultrasound (US) through the fontanelles of the patients is serially acquired to monitor the progression of PHVD. These images are used in conjunction with clinical experience and physical exams to determine when interventional therapies such as needle aspiration of the built up cerebrospinal fluid (ventricle tap, VT) might be indicated for a patient; however, quantitative measurements of the ventricles size are often not performed...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Marco Pavoni, Yongjun Chang, Sang-Ho Park, Orjan Smedby
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) uses x-ray images, which may give high radiation dose and high concentrations of contrast media, leading to the risk of radiation-induced injury and nephropathy. These drawbacks can be reduced by using lower doses of x-rays and contrast media, with the disadvantage of noisier PCI images with less contrast. Vessel-edge-preserving convolutional neural networks (CNN) were designed to denoise simulated low x-ray dose PCI images, created by adding artificial noise to high-dose images...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Huifeng Guan, Charlotte Klara Hagen, Alessandro Olivo, Mark A Anastasio
It is well known that properly designed image reconstruction methods can facilitate reductions in imaging doses and data-acquisition times in tomographic imaging. The ability to do so is particularly important for emerging modalities, such as differential x-ray phase-contrast tomography (D-XPCT), which are currently limited by these factors. An important application of D-XPCT is high-resolution imaging of biomedical samples. However, reconstructing high-resolution images from few-view tomographic measurements remains a challenging task due to the high-frequency information loss caused by data incompleteness...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
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