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Neurobiology of Stress

Golam M Khandaker, Stanley Zammit, Glyn Lewis, Peter B Jones
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest a role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of anxiety, but human studies of inflammatory markers and anxiety disorders are scarce. We report a study of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) from the general population-based ALSPAC birth cohort. METHODS: DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD was obtained from 5365 cohort members during face-to-face clinical assessment at age 16 years, of which 3392 also provided data on serum high sensitivity CRP levels...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
Shivon A Robinson, Bethany R Brookshire, Irwin Lucki
Both genetic background and pre-existing stress play critical roles in the effects of antidepressant drugs. The current studies showed this principal by demonstrating that exposure to the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) allowed behavioral and neurogenic effects to emerge following chronic treatment with fluoxetine of C57BL/6 mice, a strain ordinarily resistant to these effects. Adult male mice were implanted subcutaneously with 21-day slow-release CORT pellets (10 mg) or placebo and then co-treated with 5 mg/kg fluoxetine (b...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
Kelly M Moench, Mouna Maroun, Alexandra Kavushansky, Cara Wellman
Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
Bovorn Veerawatananan, Pornprom Surakul, Nuanchan Chutabhakdikul
The GABAergic synapse undergoes structural and functional maturation during early brain development. Maternal stress alters GABAergic synapses in the pup's brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults; however, the mechanism for this is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of maternal restraint stress on the development of Cation-Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) and the GABAA receptor α1 and α5 subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at different postnatal ages...
June 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
D P Holschneider, Y Guo, E A Mayer, Z Wang
Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for developing functional gastrointestinal disorders, and has been proposed to be related to a central amplification of sensory input and resultant visceral hyperalgesia. We sought to characterize ELS-related changes in functional brain responses during acute noxious visceral stimulation. Neonatal rats (males/females) were exposed to limited bedding (ELS) or standard bedding (controls) on postnatal days 2-9. Age 10-11 weeks, animals were implanted with venous cannulas and transmitters for abdominal electromyography (EMG)...
June 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
Carol A Shively, Stephen M Day
Overall health has been linked to socioeconomic status, with the gap between social strata increasing each year. Studying the impact of social position on health and biological functioning in nonhuman primates has allowed researchers to model the human condition while avoiding ethical complexities or other difficulties characteristic of human studies. Using female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), our lab has examined the link between social status and stress for 30 years. Female nonhuman primates are especially sensitive to social stressors which can deleteriously affect reproductive health, leading to harmful consequences to their overall health...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Brunno R Levone, John F Cryan, Olivia F O'Leary
There is a growing appreciation that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional and cognitive processes related to psychiatric disorders. Although many studies have investigated the effects of stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, most have not focused on whether stress-induced changes in neurogenesis occur specifically in animals that are more resilient or more susceptible to the behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of stress. Thus, in the present review we explore whether there is a clear relationship between stress-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, stress resilience and antidepressant-induced recovery from stress-induced changes in behaviour...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Russell D Romeo
Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Gretha J Boersma, Kellie L Tamashiro
Exposure to prenatal stress alters the phenotype of the offspring in adulthood. When the prenatal and adult environments do not match, these alterations may induce pathology risk. There are, however, large individual differences in the effects of prenatal stress. While some individuals seem vulnerable, others appear to be relatively resistant to its effects. In this review we discuss potential mechanisms underlying these individual differences with a focus on animal models. Differences between rodent models selected for stress coping traits are discussed...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Rita Valentino, Yvette Sheline, Bruce McEwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Johannes M H M Reul, Andrew Collins, Richard S Saliba, Karen R Mifsud, Sylvia D Carter, Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Xiaoxiao Qian, Astrid C E Linthorst
Glucocorticoid hormones play a pivotal role in the response to stressful challenges. The surge in glucocorticoid hormone secretion after stress needs to be tightly controlled with characteristics like peak height, curvature and duration depending on the nature and severity of the challenge. This is important as chronic hyper- or hypo-responses are detrimental to health due to increasing the risk for developing a stress-related mental disorder. Proper glucocorticoid responses to stress are critical for adaptation...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Chris Rudyk, Darcy Litteljohn, Shuaib Syed, Zach Dwyer, Shawn Hayley
A number of epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated the non-selective herbicide, paraquat, in the development of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). While preclinical research has focused mainly on elucidating the nigrostriatal effects of paraquat, relatively little data are available concerning non-motor brain systems and inflammatory immune processes (which have been implicated in PD). Hence, in the present study, we sought to take a multi-system approach to characterize the influence of paraquat upon extra-nigrostriatal brain regions, as well ascertain whether the impact of the pesticide might be enhanced in the context of chronic intermittent stressor exposure...
2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Keith A Young, Peter M Thompson, Dianne A Cruz, Douglas E Williamson, Lynn D Selemon
Genetic variants of the immunophilin FKBP5 have been implicated in susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. We examined the relationship between mushroom, stubby, thin and filopodial spine densities measured with Golgi staining and FKBP5 gene expression in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (BA11) in individuals diagnosed with PTSD and normal controls (n = 8/8). ANCOVA revealed PTSD cases had a significantly elevated density of stubby spines (29%, P < 0...
2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Krista B Highland, Michelle Costanzo, Tanja Jovanovic, Seth D Norrholm, Rochelle Ndiongue, Brian Reinhardt, Barbara Rothbaum, Michael J Roy
The development of PTSD after military deployment is influenced by a combination of biopsychosocial risk and resilience factors. In particular, physiological factors may mark risk for symptom progression or resiliency. Research in civilian populations suggests elevated catecholamines after trauma are associated with PTSD months following the trauma. However, less is known regarding physiological markers of PTSD resilience among post-deployment service members (SM). We therefore assessed whether catecholamines obtained shortly after deployment were associated with combat-related PTSD symptoms three months later...
2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Dong Fang Zhao, Guillermo Becerril-Martinez, David Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Nicole Enman, Esther Sabban, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Jennifer E Khoury, Andrea Gonzalez, Robert D Levitan, Jens C Pruessner, Kevin Chopra, Vincenzo Santo Basile, Mario Masellis, Alasdair Goodwill, Leslie Atkinson
Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297), who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure...
2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Rachel D Moloney, Anna V Golubeva, Richard M O'Connor, Mikhail Kalinichev, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, exerts its effect through ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Of these, group III mGlu receptors (mGlu 4, 6, 7, 8) are among the least studied due to a lack of pharmacological tools. mGlu7 receptors, the most highly conserved isoform, are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in regions, such as the amygdala, known to be crucial for the emotional processing of painful stimuli. Visceral hypersensitivity is a poorly understood phenomenon manifesting as an increased sensitivity to visceral stimuli...
2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Marlene A Wilson, Claudia A Grillo, Jim R Fadel, Lawrence P Reagan
Neuroplasticity may be defined as the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to respond to changes in the internal and external environment and it is well established that some stimuli have the ability to facilitate or impair neuroplasticity depending on the pre-existing milieu. A classic example of a stimulus that can both facilitate and impair neuroplasticity is stress. Indeed, the ability of CNS to respond to acute stress is often dependent upon the prior stress history of the individual. While responses to acute stress are often viewed as adaptive in nature, stress reactivity in subjects with prior chronic stress experiences are often linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety...
January 2015: Neurobiology of Stress
Seth Varney, Keith F Polston, Tammy Jessen, Ana M D Carneiro
Recent studies indicate multiple roles for integrin αvβ3 in adult neurons, including response to pharmacological agents such as cocaine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this study, we examined the role of the integrin β3 gene (Itgb3) in the response to environmental stimuli by subjecting Itgb3 (+/+) and Itgb3 (-/-) mice to unpredictable chronic mild stressors. We found that genetic abrogation of integrin β3 expression elicits an exaggerated vulnerability to chronic unpredictable stress in the open field test...
2015: Neurobiology of Stress
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