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Neurobiology of Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450391/what-does-the-fos-say-using-fos-based-approaches-to-understand-the-contribution-of-stress-to-substance-use-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Jayme R McReynolds, John P Christianson, Jordan M Blacktop, John R Mantsch
Despite extensive research efforts, drug addiction persists as a largely unmet medical need. Perhaps the biggest challenge for treating addiction is the high rate of recidivism. While many factors can promote relapse in abstinent drug users, the contribution of stress is particularly problematic, as stress is uncontrollable and pervasive in the lives of those struggling with addiction. Thus, understanding the neurocircuitry that underlies the influence of stress on drug seeking is critical for guiding treatment...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450390/alternations-in-functional-connectivity-of-amygdalar-subregions-under-acute-social-stress
#2
Jingjing Chang, Rongjun Yu
The amygdala has long been considered a vital region involved in acute and chronic stress responses. Extensive evidences from animal and human studies suggest that the functional connectivity of amygdalar subnuclei (basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA) and superficial amygdala (SFA)) undergo specific alterations in stress-related psychopathology. However, whether and how intrinsic functional connectivity within the amygdalar subcomponents is differently altered in the aftermath of an acute stressor remains unknown...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450389/mapping-stress-networks-using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-awake-animals
#3
REVIEW
David Dopfel, Nanyin Zhang
The neurobiology of stress is studied through behavioral neuroscience, endocrinology, neuronal morphology and neurophysiology. There is a shift in focus toward progressive changes throughout stress paradigms and individual susceptibility to stress that requires methods that allow for longitudinal study design and study of individual differences in stress response. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with the advantages of noninvasiveness and a large field of view, can be used for functionally mapping brain-wide regions and circuits critical to the stress response, making it suitable for longitudinal studies and understanding individual variability of short-term and long-term consequences of stress exposure...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450388/multimodal-canonical-correlation-reveals-converging-neural-circuitry-across-trauma-related-disorders-of-affect-and-cognition
#4
Daniel M Stout, Monte S Buchsbaum, Andrea D Spadoni, Victoria B Risbrough, Irina A Strigo, Scott C Matthews, Alan N Simmons
Trauma-related disorders of affect and cognition (TRACs) are associated with a high degree of diagnostic comorbidity, which may suggest that these disorders share a set of underlying neural mechanisms. TRACs are characterized by aberrations in functional and structural circuits subserving verbal memory and affective anticipation. Yet, it remains unknown how the neural circuitry underlying these multiple mechanisms contribute to TRACs. Here, in a sample of 47 combat Veterans, we measured affective anticipation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), verbal memory with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and grey matter volume with structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI)...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450387/leveraging-translational-neuroscience-to-inform-early-intervention-and-addiction-prevention-for-children-exposed-to-early-life-stress
#5
REVIEW
Leslie E Roos, Sarah Horn, Elliot T Berkman, Katherine Pears, Philip A Fisher
Substance use and addiction are disproportionately experienced by individuals with a history of exposure to early life stress (ELS), such as maltreatment, domestic violence and parent psychopathology. Unfortunately, extant interventions have mixed effectiveness at improving outcome trajectories for ELS-exposed children, who are often underserved by evidenced-based programs. Here, we employ a translational neuroscience framework to delineate how neuroscience can deepen our understanding of ELS-linked alterations in children's function to inform the development of more targeted, effective early intervention and addiction prevention programs...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450386/diminished-positive-affect-and-traumatic-stress-a-biobehavioral-review-and-commentary-on-trauma-affective-neuroscience
#6
REVIEW
Gregory A Fonzo
Post-traumatic stress manifests in disturbed affect and emotion, including exaggerated severity and frequency of negative valence emotions, e.g., fear, anxiety, anger, shame, and guilt. However, another core feature of common post-trauma psychopathologies, i.e. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression, is diminished positive affect, or reduced frequency and intensity of positive emotions and affective states such as happiness, joy, love, interest, and desire/capacity for interpersonal affiliation...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450385/elimination-of-vesicular-zinc-alters-the-behavioural-and-neuroanatomical-effects-of-social-defeat-stress-in-mice
#7
Brendan B McAllister, David K Wright, Ryan C Wortman, Sandy R Shultz, Richard H Dyck
Chronic stress can have deleterious effects on mental health, increasing the risk of developing depression or anxiety. But not all individuals are equally affected by stress; some are susceptible while others are more resilient. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to these differing outcomes has been a focus of considerable research. One unexplored mechanism is vesicular zinc - zinc that is released by neurons as a neuromodulator. We examined how chronic stress, induced by repeated social defeat, affects mice that lack vesicular zinc due to genetic deletion of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3)...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450384/a-review-of-nonhuman-primate-models-of-early-life-stress-and-adolescent-drug-abuse
#8
REVIEW
Alison G P Wakeford, Elyse L Morin, Sara N Bramlett, Leonard L Howell, Mar M Sanchez
Adolescence represents a developmental stage in which initiation of drug use typically occurs and is marked by dynamic neurobiological changes. These changes present a sensitive window during which perturbations to normative development lead to alterations in brain circuits critical for stress and emotional regulation as well as reward processing, potentially resulting in an increased susceptibility to psychopathologies. The occurrence of early life stress (ELS) is related to a greater risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) during adolescence...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450383/the-social-defeat-overcrowding-murine-psychosocial-stress-model-results-in-a-pharmacologically-reversible-body-weight-gain-but-not-depression-related-behaviours
#9
Ryan J Keenan, Jacky Chan, Paul S Donnelly, Kevin J Barnham, Laura H Jacobson
Depression is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder, yet its etiology is not well understood. The validation of animal models is therefore a critical step towards advancing knowledge about the neurobiology of depression. Psychosocial stress has been promoted as a prospective animal model of depression, however, different protocols exist with variable responses, and further investigations are therefore required. We aimed to characterise the behavioural and body weight responses to the social defeat/overcrowding (SD/OC) model and to explore the effects of the antidepressant fluoxetine and the peroxynitrite scavenger, CuII (atsm), therein...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450382/on-the-safety-of-repeated-ketamine-infusions-for-the-treatment-of-depression-effects-of-sex-and-developmental-periods
#10
REVIEW
C E Strong, Mohamed Kabbaj
In this review, we will discuss the safety of repeated treatments with ketamine for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), a condition in which patients with major depression do not show any clinical improvements following treatments with at least two antidepressant drugs. We will discuss the effects of these treatments in both sexes at different developmental periods. Numerous small clinical studies have shown that a single, low-dose ketamine infusion can rapidly alleviate depressive symptoms and thoughts of suicidality in patients with TRD, and these effects can last for about one week...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450381/social-defeat-stress-and-escalation-of-cocaine-and-alcohol-consumption-focus-on-crf
#11
REVIEW
Emily L Newman, Michael Z Leonard, Danielle T Arena, Rosa M M de Almeida, Klaus A Miczek
Both the ostensibly aversive effects of unpredictable episodes of social stress and the intensely rewarding effects of drugs of abuse activate the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. Significant neuroadaptations in interacting stress and reward neurocircuitry may underlie the striking connection between stress and substance use disorders. In rodent models, recurring intermittent exposure to social defeat stress appears to produce a distinct profile of neuroadaptations that translates most readily to the repercussions of social stress in humans...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450380/neuroendocrine-and-immune-pathways-from-pre-and-perinatal-stress-to-substance-abuse
#12
REVIEW
Sarah R Horn, Leslie E Roos, Elliot T Berkman, Philip A Fisher
Early life adversity is a documented risk factor for substance abuse and addiction. The pre- and perinatal period (i.e., from implantation, through pregnancy, to 6 months of age) is a critical period marked by high biological plasticity and vulnerability, making perinatal stress a particularly robust form of adversity. The neuroendocrine and immune systems are key mechanisms implicated in the transmission of addiction risk. We review animal and human studies that provide preliminary evidence for links between perinatal stress, neuroendocrine and immune dysregulation, and risk for substance abuse and addiction...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450379/stress-reactivity-and-the-developmental-psychopathology-of-adolescent-substance-use
#13
REVIEW
Tara M Chaplin, Claire Niehaus, Stefanie F Gonçalves
Adolescence represents a period of risk for initiation of substance use and the development of substance use disorders (SUDs). In addition, during adolescence, there is rapid development of stress reactivity systems. This paper describes a conceptual model of the role of stress reactivity in the development of substance use in adolescence. It is proposed that some children develop maladaptive patterns of emotional, physiological, and neural reactivity to stressful situations that are either too high or too low and that their patterns of reactivity interact with increased stressful life events during adolescence to lead to potential for substance use and SUDs...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450378/stress-alters-social-behavior-and-sensitivity-to-pharmacological-activation-of-kappa-opioid-receptors-in-an-age-specific-manner-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#14
Elena I Varlinskaya, Linda Patia Spear, Marvin R Diaz
The dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (DYN/KOR) system has been identified as a primary target of stress due to behavioral effects, such as dysphoria, aversion, and anxiety-like alterations that result from activation of this system. Numerous adaptations in the DYN/KOR system have also been identified in response to stress. However, whereas most studies examining the function of the DYN/KOR system have been conducted in adult rodents, there is growing evidence suggesting that this system is ontogenetically regulated...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450377/contradictory-effects-of-erythropoietin-on-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-left-and-right-prelimbic-cortex-of-mice
#15
Andre Dik, Roja Saffari, Mingyue Zhang, Weiqi Zhang
Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to improve cognitive function in mammals as well as in patients of psychiatric diseases by directly acting on the brain. In addition, EPO attenuates the synaptic transmission and enhances short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in hippocampus of mice, although there are still many discrepancies between different studies. It has been suggested that the divergences of different studies take root in different in-vivo application schemata or in long-term trophic effects of EPO...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450376/tauopathy-and-neurodegeneration-a-role-for-stress
#16
REVIEW
Jorge A Sierra-Fonseca, Kristin L Gosselink
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by an irreversible and progressive loss of neuronal structure and function. While many alterations to normal cellular processes occur during neurodegeneration, a pathological accumulation of aggregated proteins constitutes a hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer's disease, specifically, is pathologically defined by the formation of amyloid plaques and tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Stress has emerged as an important factor in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450375/neuroendocrine-and-neuroimmune-adaptation-to-chronic-escalating-distress-ced-a-novel-model-of-chronic-stress
#17
Dennis F Lovelock, Terrence Deak
Acute and chronic stress challenges have a profound influence on the development and expression of subsequent affective disorders, alcohol use disorders, and natural aging processes. These experiments examined adaptation in neuroimmune and neuroendocrine responses that occurred as a result of exposure to a novel model of chronic stress, termed chronic escalating distress (CED). This model involves exposure to highly predictable daily stress challenges involving a systematic escalation in both the intensity and length of daily stress challenges, and has recently been shown to profoundly alter alcohol sensitivity...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450374/the-potential-of-calibrated-fmri-in-the-understanding-of-stress-in-eating-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Christina E Wierenga, Jason M Lavender, Chelsea C Hays
Eating disorders (ED), including Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), are medically dangerous psychiatric disorders of unknown etiology. Accumulating evidence supports a biopsychosocial model that includes genetic heritability, neurobiological vulnerability, and psychosocial factors, such as stress, in the development and maintenance of ED. Notably, stress hormones influence appetite and eating, and dysfunction of the physiological stress response has been implicated in ED pathophysiology...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450373/distinctive-stress-sensitivity-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-female-mice-strain-differences-matter
#19
Renata Cristina Nunes Marchette, Maíra Assunção Bicca, Evelyn Cristina da Silva Santos, Thereza Christina Monteiro de Lima
Epidemiologic studies have shown that the prevalence of stress-related mood disorders is higher in women, which suggests a different response of neuroendocrine circuits involved in the response to stressful events, as well as a genetic background influence. The aim of this study was to investigate the baseline differences in anxiety-like behaviors of females of two commonly used mice strains. Secondly, we have also aimed to study their behavioral and biochemical alterations following stress. Naïve 3-4 months-old Swiss and C57BL/6 female mice were evaluated in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and in the acoustic startle response (ASR) for anxiety-like behaviors...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30450372/exercise-the-diurnal-cycle-of-cortisol-and-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#20
REVIEW
J Tortosa-Martínez, C Manchado, J M Cortell-Tormo, I Chulvi-Medrano
Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of developing Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease as well as to improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired individuals. However, the mechanisms of these benefits are not well understood. The stress hypothesis suggests that the cognitive benefits attributed to exercise may partially be mediated by changes in the cortisol secretion pattern. Chronic stress may increase the risk of AD and exacerbate the cognitive deficits and brain pathology characteristic of the condition while physical activity has been shown to attenuate most of stress consequences and risk factors for AD...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
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