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Neurobiology of Stress

Mark K Greenwald
Stress-related substance use is a major challenge for treating substance use disorders. This selective review focuses on emerging pharmacotherapies with potential for reducing stress-potentiated seeking and consumption of nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and opioids (i.e., key phenotypes for the most commonly abused substances). I evaluate neuropharmacological mechanisms in experimental models of drug-maintenance and relapse, which translate more readily to individuals presenting for treatment (who have initiated and progressed)...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Elisabeth Conradt, Sheila E Crowell, Barry M Lester
Prenatal opioid exposure has reached epidemic proportions. In the last 10 years, there has been a 242% increase in the number of babies born with the drug withdrawal syndrome known as Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS). Developmental outcome studies of infants with prenatal opioid exposure are limited by methodological issues including small sample sizes and lack of control for confounding variables such as exposure to poverty and maternal psychopathology. Thus, there is a critical gap in the literature that limits our ability to predict short-term effects of opioid exposure...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Gina L Forster, Eden M Anderson, Jamie L Scholl, Jodi L Lukkes, Michael J Watt
Early-life adversity is associated with increased risk for substance abuse in later life, with women more likely to report past and current stress as a mediating factor in their substance use and relapse as compared to men. Preclinical models of neonatal and peri-adolescent (early through late adolescence) stress all support a direct relationship between experiences of early-life adversity and adult substance-related behaviors, and provide valuable information regarding the underlying neurobiology. This review will provide an overview of these animal models and how these paradigms alter drug and alcohol consumption and/or seeking in male and female adults...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Laura D Straus, Sonya B Norman, Victoria B Risbrough, Dean T Acheson, Sean P A Drummond
Background: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with a number of negative physical and mental health consequences. Fear conditioning plays an important mechanistic role in PTSD, and PTSD patients also show deficits in safety signal learning. Sleep, particularly REM sleep, is linked to improved safety learning and extinction processes in animal models and healthy humans. No studies have examined the link between REM sleep and safety signal learning or extinction memory in clinical populations...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Deseree M Eudave, McKenna N BeLow, Elizabeth I Flandreau
Stress increases risk for psychopathology, and diet may moderate the impact of stress on mental health. A "Western" diet has been linked to psychopathology in humans; animal studies also show that diet can influence negative valence behavior in the presence or absence of stress, but findings are inconsistent. Contradictions in existing studies may result from differences in macronutrient content of diets and presence of metabolic syndrome. The present study exposed mice to 10 days of high fat or high sucrose diet concurrent with social defeat stress exposure and examined negative valence behavior at acute (<five days) and long-term (>30 days) time points after stress/diet exposure...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Kanchan Bisht, Kaushik Sharma, Marie-Ève Tremblay
Microglia are the predominant immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that exert key physiological roles required for maintaining CNS homeostasis, notably in response to chronic stress, as well as mediating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The repeated exposure to stress confers a higher risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). While microglia have been causally linked to amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation, tau pathology, neurodegeneration, and synaptic loss in AD, they were also attributed beneficial roles, notably in the phagocytic elimination of Aβ...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Sven Vanneste, Kathleen Joos, Jan Ost, Dirk De Ridder
Background: In this study we are using source localized neurofeedback to moderate tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that up-training alpha and down-training beta and gamma activity in the posterior cingulate cortex has a moderating effect on tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network and other functionally connected brain areas...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Jeremy D Coplan, Anna V Rozenboym, Sasha L Fulton, Venkatesh Panthangi, Jean Tang, Lakshmi Thiramangalakdi, Tarique D Perera, Yang Liu, Haroon Kamran, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Leonard A Rosenblum, John G Kral, Louis Salciccioli, Jason Lazar
Background: Early life stress (ELS) in macaques in the form of insecure maternal attachment putatively induces epigenetic adaptations resulting in a "thrifty phenotype" throughout the life cycle. For instance, ELS induces persistent increases in insulin resistance, hippocampal and corpus callosum atrophy and reduced "behavioral plasticity", which, taken together, engenders an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders in humans but also a putative sparing of calories...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Jo A Archer, Annie Lee, Anqi Qiu, Shen-Hsing Annabel Chen
Experimental imaging studies on the effects of acute stress have revealed functional changes in the amygdalae, hippocampi and medial frontal cortices. However, much less is known about the association between perceived stress and neurological function which may have implications for the development of stress related disorders. Participants completed a working-memory task and an inhibition task whilst undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Task related and resting-state fMRI data from 22 women and 24 men were analysed to investigate changes in task activations and functional connectivity associated with perceived stress over the past month...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Lianne Hoeijmakers, Sylvie L Lesuis, Harm Krugers, Paul J Lucassen, Aniko Korosi
Stress experienced early in life (ES), in the form of childhood maltreatment, maternal neglect or trauma, enhances the risk for cognitive decline in later life. Several epidemiological studies have now shown that environmental and adult life style factors influence AD incidence or age-of-onset and early-life environmental conditions have attracted attention in this respect. There is now emerging interest in understanding whether ES impacts the risk to develop age-related neurodegenerative disorders, and their severity, such as in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by cognitive decline and extensive (hippocampal) neuropathology...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Carla M Yuede, Benjamin F Timson, Jane C Hettinger, Kayla M Yuede, Hannah M Edwards, Justin E Lawson, Scott D Zimmerman, John R Cirrito
Physical activity and stress are both environmental modifiers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Animal studies of physical activity in AD models have largely reported positive results, however benefits are not always observed in either cognitive or pathological outcomes and inconsistencies among findings remain. Studies using forced exercise may increase stress and mitigate some of the benefit of physical activity in AD models, while voluntary exercise regimens may not achieve optimal intensity to provide robust benefit...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Tiffany C Ho, Emily L Dennis, Paul M Thompson, Ian H Gotlib
Exposure to stress, particularly in periods of rapid brain maturation such as adolescence, can profoundly influence developmental processes that undergird the organization of structural and functional brain networks and that may mediate the association between stressful experiences and maladaptive outcomes. While studies in translational developmental neuroscience often focus on how specific brain regions or targeted connections are altered by stress and psychiatric disease, the emerging field of network science may be especially valuable for elucidating the impact of stress on the intricate connectomics of the adolescent brain...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Timothy J McDermott, Namik Kirlic, Robin L Aupperle
The emotional stress response is relevant to a number of psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in particular. Research using neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe stress-related neural processing have provided some insights into psychiatric disorders. Treatment providers and individual patients would benefit from clinically useful fMRI paradigms that provide information about patients' current brain state and responses to stress in order to inform the treatment selection process...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Nicholas J Justice
Stress is critically involved in the development and progression of disease. From the stress of undergoing treatments to facing your own mortality, the physiological processes that stress drives have a serious detrimental effect on the ability to heal, cope and maintain a positive quality of life. This is becoming increasingly clear in the case of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases involve the devastating loss of cognitive and motor function which is stressful in itself, but can also disrupt neural circuits that mediate stress responses...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Yan Yan, Sky Dominguez, Daniel W Fisher, Hongxin Dong
Clinical studies indicate that Alzheimer's disease (AD) disproportionately affects women in both disease prevalence and severity, but the mechanisms underlying this sex divergence are unknown. Though some have suggested this difference in risk is a reflection of known differences in longevity between men and women, mounting clinical and preclinical evidence supports women also having intrinsic susceptibilities towards the disease. While a number of potential risk factors have been hypothesized to affect these differences in risks, none have been definitively verified...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Divya Mehta, Dagmar Bruenig, Bruce Lawford, Wendy Harvey, Tania Carrillo-Roa, Charles P Morris, Tanja Jovanovic, Ross McD Young, Elisabeth B Binder, Joanne Voisey
Accelerated epigenetic aging, the difference between the DNA methylation-predicted age (DNAm age) and the chronological age, is associated with a myriad of diseases. This study investigates the relationship between epigenetic aging and risk and protective factors of PTSD. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed in 211 individuals including combat-exposed Australian veterans (discovery cohort, n = 96 males) and trauma-exposed civilian males from the Grady Trauma Project (replication cohort, n = 115 males)...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Rebecca C Hendrickson, Murray A Raskind, Steven P Millard, Carl Sikkema, Garth E Terry, Kathleen F Pagulayan, Ge Li, Elaine R Peskind
Background: Increases in the quantity or impact of noradrenergic signaling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This increased signaling may result from increased norepinephrine (NE) release, from altered brain responses to NE, or from a combination of both factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Veterans reporting a history of trauma exposure would show an increased association between brain NE and mental health symptoms commonly observed after trauma, as compared to Veterans who did not report a history of trauma exposure, consistent with the possibility of increased brain reactivity to NE after traumatic stress...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Jessica L Bolton, Christina M Ruiz, Neggy Rismanchi, Gissell A Sanchez, Erik Castillo, Jeff Huang, Christopher Cross, Tallie Z Baram, Stephen V Mahler
Early-life adversity increases the risk for emotional disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Anhedonia, thought to be a core feature of these disorders, is provoked by our naturalistic rodent model of childhood adversity (i.e., rearing pups for one week in cages with limited bedding and nesting, LBN). Drug use and addiction are highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders featuring anhedonia, yet effects of LBN on drug-seeking behavior and the reward and stress-related circuits that underlie it remain unknown...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Giorgio Bergamini, Jonas Mechtersheimer, Damiano Azzinnari, Hannes Sigrist, Michaela Buerge, Robert Dallmann, Robert Freije, Afroditi Kouraki, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry, Erich Seifritz, Boris Ferger, Tobias Suter, Christopher R Pryce
Psychosocial stress is a major risk factor for depression, stress leads to peripheral and central immune activation, immune activation is associated with blunted dopamine (DA) neural function, DA function underlies reward interest, and reduced reward interest is a core symptom of depression. These states might be inter-independent in a complex causal pathway. Whilst animal-model evidence exists for some specific steps in the pathway, there is currently no animal model in which it has been demonstrated that social stress leads to each of these immune, neural and behavioural states...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Matthew Randesi, Yan Zhou, Sanoara Mazid, Shannon C Odell, Jason D Gray, J Correa da Rosa, Bruce S McEwen, Teresa A Milner, Mary Jeanne Kreek
Opioid peptides and their receptors re-organize within hippocampal neurons of female, but not male, rats following chronic immobilization stress (CIS) in a manner that promotes drug-related learning. This study was conducted to determine if there are also sex differences in gene expression in the hippocampus following CIS. Adult female and male rats were subjected to CIS (30 min/day) for 10 days. Twenty-four hours after the last stressor, the rats were euthanized, the brains were harvested and the medial (dentate gyrus/CA1) and lateral (CA2/CA3) dorsal hippocampus were isolated...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
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