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Neurobiology of Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540348/psychobiological-responses-to-critically-evaluated-multitasking
#1
Mark A Wetherell, Olivia Craw, Kenny Smith, Michael A Smith
In order to understand psychobiological responses to stress it is necessary to observe how people react to controlled stressors. A range of stressors exist for this purpose; however, laboratory stressors that are representative of real life situations provide more ecologically valid opportunities for assessing stress responding. The current study assessed psychobiological responses to an ecologically valid laboratory stressor involving multitasking and critical evaluation. The stressor elicited significant increases in psychological and cardiovascular stress reactivity; however, no cortisol reactivity was observed...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462362/early-life-stress-leads-to-developmental-and-sex-selective-effects-on-performance-in-a-novel-object-placement-task
#2
Kevin G Bath, Arielle Schilit Nitenson, Ezra Lichtman, Chelsea Lopez, Whitney Chen, Meghan Gallo, Haley Goodwill, Gabriela Manzano-Nieves
Disruptions in early life care, including neglect, extreme poverty, and trauma, influence neural development and increase the risk for and severity of pathology. Significant sex disparities have been identified for affective pathology, with females having an increased risk of developing anxiety and depressive disorder. However, the effects of early life stress (ELS) on cognitive development have not been as well characterized, especially in reference to sex specific impacts of ELS on cognitive abilities over development...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377991/animal-models-in-psychiatric-research-the-rdoc-system-as-a-new-framework-for-endophenotype-oriented-translational-neuroscience
#3
REVIEW
Elmira Anderzhanova, Thomas Kirmeier, Carsten T Wotjak
The recently proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) system defines psychopathologies as phenomena of multilevel neurobiological existence and assigns them to 5 behavioural domains characterizing a brain in action. We performed an analysis on this contemporary concept of psychopathologies in respect to a brain phylogeny and biological substrates of psychiatric diseases. We found that the RDoC system uses biological determinism to explain the pathogenesis of distinct psychiatric symptoms and emphasises exploration of endophenotypes but not of complex diseases...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377990/the-effect-of-an-adverse-psychological-environment-on-salivary-cortisol-levels-in-the-elderly-differs-by-5-httlpr-genotype
#4
Marie-Laure Ancelin, Jacqueline Scali, Joanna Norton, Karen Ritchie, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Isabelle Chaudieu, Joanne Ryan
BACKGROUND: An adverse psychological environment (e.g. stressful events or depression) has been shown to influence basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to stress. This differs depending on the adverse stimuli, but also varies across individuals and may be influenced by genetic predisposition. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is a strong candidate in this regard. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how stressful life events and depression are associated with diurnal cortisol levels in community-dwelling elderly and determine whether this varies according to genetic variability in the 5-HTTLPR...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289693/cav1-2-channels-mediate-persistent-chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-deficits-that-are-associated-with-prefrontal-cortex-activation-of-the-p25-cdk5-glucocorticoid-receptor-pathway
#5
Charlotte C Bavley, Delaney K Fischer, Bryant K Rizzo, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Chronic stress is known to precipitate and exacerbate neuropsychiatric symptoms, and exposure to stress is particularly pathological in individuals with certain genetic predispositions. Recent genome wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene CACNA1C, which codes for the Cav1.2 subunit of the L-type calcium channel (LTCC), as a common risk variant for multiple neuropsychiatric conditions. Cav1.2 channels mediate experience-dependent changes in gene expression and long-term synaptic plasticity through activation of downstream calcium signaling pathways...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239631/early-adverse-life-events-are-associated-with-altered-brain-network-architecture-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#6
Arpana Gupta, Emeran A Mayer, Jonathan R Acosta, Kareem Hamadani, Carinna Torgerson, John D van Horn, Lin Chang, Bruce Naliboff, Kirsten Tillisch, Jennifer S Labus
INTRODUCTION: Early adverse life events (EALs) increase the risk for chronic medical and psychiatric disorders by altering early neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine associations between EALs and network properties of core brain regions in the emotion regulation and salience networks, and to test the influence of sex on these associations. METHODS: Resting-state functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging were obtained in healthy individuals (61 men, 63 women)...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229114/the-trier-social-stress-test-principles-and-practice
#7
REVIEW
Andrew P Allen, Paul J Kennedy, Samantha Dockray, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke
Researchers interested in the neurobiology of the acute stress response in humans require a valid and reliable acute stressor that can be used under experimental conditions. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) provides such a testing platform. It induces stress by requiring participants to make an interview-style presentation, followed by a surprise mental arithmetic test, in front of an interview panel who do not provide feedback or encouragement. In this review, we outline the methodology of the TSST, and discuss key findings under conditions of health and stress-related disorder...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229113/social-stress-models-in-rodents-towards-enhanced-validity
#8
REVIEW
J M Koolhaas, S F de Boer, B Buwalda, P Meerlo
Understanding the role of the social environment in the development of stress related diseases requires a more fundamental understanding of stress. Stress includes not only the stimulus and the response but also the individual appraisal of the situation. The social environment is not only essential for survival it is at the same time an important source of stressors. This review discusses the social stress concept, how it has been studied in rodents in the course of time and some more recent insights into the appraisal process...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229112/chronic-psychosocial-stressors-in-adulthood-studies-in-mice-rats-and-tree-shrews
#9
REVIEW
Christopher R Pryce, Eberhard Fuchs
Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS). Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229111/the-chronic-mild-stress-cms-model-of-depression-history-evaluation-and-usage
#10
REVIEW
Paul Willner
Now 30 years old, the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression has been used in >1300 published studies, with a year-on-year increase rising to >200 papers in 2015. Data from a survey of users show that while a variety of names are in use (chronic mild/unpredictable/varied stress), these describe essentially the same procedure. This paper provides an update on the validity and reliability of the CMS model, and reviews recent data on the neurobiological basis of CMS effects and the mechanisms of antidepressant action: the volume of this research may be unique in providing a comprehensive account of antidepressant action within a single model...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229110/reliability-of-the-chronic-mild-stress-model-of-depression-a-user-survey
#11
Paul Willner
The chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression is considered by many to be the animal model of depression that has the greatest validity and translational potential, but it has often been criticized for a perceived lack of reliability. The aims of this study were to establish the extent to which the procedure is reproducible, and to identify experimental variables relevant to its reliability. Because failures to replicate frequently remain unpublished, a survey methodology was used. A questionnaire was circulated to 170 labs identified from a PubMed search as having published a CMS study in the years 2010 or 2015 (with no selection in respect of the results reported)...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229109/interaction-between-circadian-rhythms-and-stress
#12
REVIEW
C E Koch, B Leinweber, B C Drengberg, C Blaum, H Oster
Life on earth has adapted to the day-night cycle by evolution of internal, so-called circadian clocks that adjust behavior and physiology to the recurring changes in environmental conditions. In mammals, a master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus receives environmental light information and synchronizes peripheral tissues and central non-SCN clocks to geophysical time. Regulatory systems such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both being important for the regulation of stress responses, receive strong circadian input...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229108/how-age-sex-and-genotype-shape-the-stress-response
#13
REVIEW
Ashley Novais, Susana Monteiro, Susana Roque, Margarida Correia-Neves, Nuno Sousa
Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229107/translational-relevance-of-rodent-models-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-function-and-stressors-in-adolescence
#14
REVIEW
Cheryl M McCormick, Matthew R Green, Jonathan J Simone
Elevations in glucocorticoids that result from environmental stressors can have programming effects on brain structure and function when the exposure occurs during sensitive periods that involve heightened neural development. In recent years, adolescence has gained increasing attention as another sensitive period of development, a period in which pubertal transitions may increase the vulnerability to stressors. There are similarities in physical and behavioural development between humans and rats, and rats have been used effectively as an animal model of adolescence and the unique plasticity of this period of ontogeny...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229106/neonatal-corticosterone-administration-in-rodents-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-maternal-programming-of-emotional-and-immune-domains
#15
Simone Macrì
Neonatal experiences exert persistent influences on individual development. These influences encompass numerous domains including emotion, cognition, reactivity to external stressors and immunity. The comprehensive nature of the neonatal programming of individual phenotype is reverberated in the large amount of experimental data collected by many authors in several scientific fields: biomedicine, evolutionary and molecular biology. These data support the view that variations in precocious environmental conditions may calibrate the individual phenotype at many different levels...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229105/early-life-adversity-lasting-consequences-for-emotional-learning
#16
REVIEW
Harm J Krugers, J Marit Arp, Hui Xiong, Sofia Kanatsou, Sylvie L Lesuis, Aniko Korosi, Marian Joels, Paul J Lucassen
The early postnatal period is a highly sensitive time period for the developing brain, both in humans and rodents. During this time window, exposure to adverse experiences can lastingly impact cognitive and emotional development. In this review, we briefly discuss human and rodent studies investigating how exposure to adverse early life conditions - mainly related to quality of parental care - affects brain activity, brain structure, cognition and emotional responses later in life. We discuss the evidence that early life adversity hampers later hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions, while increasing amygdala activity, and the sensitivity to stressors and emotional behavior later in life...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229104/prenatal-stressors-in-rodents-effects-on-behavior
#17
REVIEW
Marta Weinstock
The current review focuses on studies in rodents published since 2008 and explores possible reasons for any differences they report in the effects of gestational stress on various types of behavior in the offspring. An abundance of experimental data shows that different maternal stressors in rodents can replicate some of the abnormalities in offspring behavior observed in humans. These include, anxiety, in juvenile and adult rats and mice, assessed in the elevated plus maze and open field tests and depression, detected in the forced swim and sucrose-preference tests...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229103/editorial-stressors-in-animals-and-humans-practical-issues-and-limitations
#18
EDITORIAL
Christopher R Pryce, Eberhard Fuchs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981196/social-defeat-stress-induces-depression-like-behavior-and-alters-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-male-c57bl-6-mice
#19
Sergio D Iñiguez, Antonio Aubry, Lace M Riggs, Jason B Alipio, Roseanna M Zanca, Francisco J Flores-Ramirez, Mirella A Hernandez, Steven J Nieto, David Musheyev, Peter A Serrano
Social stress, including bullying during adolescence, is a risk factor for common psychopathologies such as depression. To investigate the neural mechanisms associated with juvenile social stress-induced mood-related endophenotypes, we examined the behavioral, morphological, and biochemical effects of the social defeat stress model of depression on hippocampal dendritic spines within the CA1 stratum radiatum. Adolescent (postnatal day 35) male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to defeat episodes for 10 consecutive days...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981195/sex-differences-in-subcellular-distribution-of-delta-opioid-receptors-in-the-rat-hippocampus-in-response-to-acute-and-chronic-stress
#20
Sanoara Mazid, Baila S Hall, Shannon C Odell, Khalifa Stafford, Andreina D Dyer, Tracey A Van Kempen, Jane Selegean, Bruce S McEwen, Elizabeth M Waters, Teresa A Milner
Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs). Immediately after acute immobilization stress (AIS) or one-day after chronic immobilization stress (CIS), the brains of adult female and male rats were perfusion-fixed with aldehydes...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
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