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Neurobiology of Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560385/c-fos-mapping-of-brain-regions-activated-by-multi-modal-and-electric-foot-shock-stress
#1
Xiaoxiao Lin, Christy A Itoga, Sharif Taha, Ming H Li, Ryan Chen, Kirolos Sami, Fulvia Berton, Walter Francesconi, Xiangmin Xu
Real-world stressors are complex and multimodal, involving physical, psychological, and social dimensions. However, the brain networks that mediate stress responses to these stimuli need to be further studied. We used c-Fos mapping in mice to characterize brain circuits activated by exposure to a single episode of multimodal stress (MMS), and compared these to circuits activated by electric foot shocks (EFS). We focused on characterizing c-Fos activity in stress-relevant brain regions including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520369/two-models-of-inescapable-stress-increase-tph2-mrna-expression-in-the-anxiety-related-dorsomedial-part-of-the-dorsal-raphe-nucleus
#2
Nina C Donner, Kenneth H Kubala, James E Hassell, Margaret W Lieb, Kadi T Nguyen, Jared D Heinze, Robert C Drugan, Steven F Maier, Christopher A Lowry
Expression of TPH2, the rate-limiting enzyme for brain serotonin synthesis, is elevated in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) of depressed suicide victims. One hypothesis is that this increase in TPH2 expression is stress-induced. Here, we used an established animal model to address whether exposure to an acute stressor, inescapable tail shock (IS), increases tph2 mRNA and Tph2 protein expression, and if IS sensitizes the DR to a subsequent, heterotypic stressor. In Experiment 1 , we measured tph2 mRNA expression 4 h after IS or home cage (HC) control conditions in male rats, using in situ hybridization histochemistry...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511710/distinct-ccl2-ccl5-ccl11-ccl27-il-17-il-6-bdnf-serum-profiles-correlate-to-different-job-stress-outcomes
#3
Alessio Polacchini, Damiano Girardi, Alessandra Falco, Nunzia Zanotta, Manola Comar, Nicola Alberto De Carlo, Enrico Tongiorgi
Chronic psychosocial stress at workplace is an important factor in the development of physical and mental illness. Objective biological measures of chronic stress are still lacking, but inflammatory response and growth factors are increasingly considered as potential stress biomarkers. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between psychophysical strain and serum levels of 48 chemokines, cytokines and growth factors measured using a multiplex immunoassay, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) measured by ELISA...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276736/maternal-separation-stress-leads-to-resilience-against-neuropathic-pain-in-adulthood
#4
Julien Genty, Milène Tetsi Nomigni, Fernand Anton, Ulrike Hanesch
Early life stress (ELS) leads to a permanent reprogramming of biochemical stress response cascades that may also be relevant for the processing of chronic pain states such as neuropathy. Despite clinical evidence, little is known about ELS-related vulnerability for neuropathic pain and the possibly underlying etiology. In the framework of experimental studies aimed at investigating the respective relationships we used the established ELS model of maternal separation (MS). Rat dams and neonates were separated for 3 h/day from post-natal day 2-12...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255778/differential-impact-of-met-receptor-gene-interaction-with-early-life-stress-on-neuronal-morphology-and-behavior-in-mice
#5
Hanke Heun-Johnson, Pat Levitt
Early adversity in childhood increases the risk of anxiety, mood, and post-traumatic stress disorders in adulthood, and specific gene-by-environment interactions may increase risk further. A common functional variant in the promoter region of the gene encoding the human MET receptor tyrosine kinase (rs1858830 ' C' allele) reduces expression of MET and is associated with altered cortical circuit function and structural connectivity. Mice with reduced Met expression exhibit changes in anxiety-like and conditioned fear behavior, precocious synaptic maturation in the hippocampus, and reduced neuronal arbor complexity and synaptogenesis...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214188/the-effects-of-acute-stress-on-the-calibration-of-persistence
#6
Karolina M Lempert, Joseph T McGuire, Danielle B Hazeltine, Elizabeth A Phelps, Joseph W Kable
People frequently fail to wait for delayed rewards after choosing them. These preference reversals are sometimes thought to reflect self-control failure. Other times, however, continuing to wait for a delayed reward may be counterproductive (e.g., when reward timing uncertainty is high). Research has demonstrated that people can calibrate how long to wait for rewards in a given environment. Thus, the role of self-control might be to integrate information about the environment to flexibly adapt behavior, not merely to promote waiting...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520368/glial-and-tissue-specific-regulation-of-kynurenine-pathway-dioxygenases-by-acute-stress-of-mice
#7
Carlos R Dostal, Megan Carson Sulzer, Keith W Kelley, Gregory G Freund, Robert H McCusker
Stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune system eliciting changes in cognitive function, mood and anxiety. An important link between stress and altered behavior is stimulation of the Kynurenine Pathway which generates neuroactive and immunomodulatory kynurenines. Tryptophan entry into this pathway is controlled by rate-limiting indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (DOs: Ido1, Ido2, Tdo2). Although implicated as mediating changes in behavior, detecting stress-induced DO expression has proven inconsistent...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276735/circuit-and-synaptic-mechanisms-of-repeated-stress-perspectives-from-differing-contexts-duration-and-development
#8
REVIEW
Kevin G Bath, Scott J Russo, Kristen E Pleil, Eric S Wohleb, Ronald S Duman, Jason J Radley
The current review is meant to synthesize research presented as part of a symposium at the 2016 Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Irvine California. The focus of the symposium was "Stress and the Synapse: New Concepts and Methods" and featured the work of several junior investigators. The presentations focused on the impact of various forms of stress (altered maternal care, binge alcohol drinking, chronic social defeat, and chronic unpredictable stress) on synaptic function, neurodevelopment, and behavioral outcomes...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276734/stress-the-gut-brain-axis-regulation-by-the-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Jane A Foster, Linda Rinaman, John F Cryan
The importance of the gut-brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879214/chicken-domestication-changes-expression-of-stress-related-genes-in-brain-pituitary-and-adrenals
#10
Pia Løtvedt, Amir Fallahshahroudi, Lejla Bektic, Jordi Altimiras, Per Jensen
Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828396/metabolomics-reveals-distinct-neurochemical-profiles-associated-with-stress-resilience
#11
Brooke N Dulka, Allen K Bourdon, Catherine T Clinard, Mohan B K Muvvala, Shawn R Campagna, Matthew A Cooper
Acute social defeat represents a naturalistic form of conditioned fear and is an excellent model in which to investigate the biological basis of stress resilience. While there is growing interest in identifying biomarkers of stress resilience, until recently, it has not been feasible to associate levels of large numbers of neurochemicals and metabolites to stress-related phenotypes. The objective of the present study was to use an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify known and unknown neurochemicals in select brain regions that distinguish susceptible and resistant individuals in two rodent models of acute social defeat...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626787/5-ht2a-receptor-deficiency-alters-the-metabolic-and-transcriptional-but-not-the-behavioral-consequences-of-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#12
Minal Jaggar, Noelia Weisstaub, Jay A Gingrich, Vidita A Vaidya
Chronic stress enhances risk for psychiatric disorders, and in animal models is known to evoke depression-like behavior accompanied by perturbed neurohormonal, metabolic, neuroarchitectural and transcriptional changes. Serotonergic neurotransmission, including serotonin2A (5-HT2A) receptors, have been implicated in mediating specific aspects of stress-induced responses. Here we investigated the influence of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) on depression-like behavior, serum metabolic measures, and gene expression in stress-associated neurocircuitry of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus in 5-HT2A receptor knockout (5-[Formula: see text]) and wild-type mice of both sexes...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626786/interaction-between-estradiol-and-5-ht1a-receptors-in-the-median-raphe-nucleus-on-acquisition-of-aversive-information-and-association-to-the-context-in-ovariectomized-rats
#13
Telma Gonçalves Carneiro Spera de Andrade, João Victor Dos Santos Silva, Matheus Fitipaldi Batistela, Fernando Frei, Ana Beatriz Sant'Ana
The median raphe nucleus (MRN) is related to stress resistance and defensive responses, a crucial source of serotonergic neurons that project to prosencephalic structures related to stress and anxiety. Estrogen receptors were identified in this mesencephalic structure. It is possible that the estrogen action is related to serotonin effect on somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors, inhibiting the function of serotonergic neurons and thus preventing of the stress effect and inducing anxiolysis. So, in order to evaluate these aspects, female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and 21 days later were given a direct microinjection of estradiol benzoate (EB) (1200 ng) into the MRN, preceded by microinjections of saline or WAY100...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626785/blunted-amygdala-functional-connectivity-during-a-stress-task-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#14
Natasha E Wade, Claudia B Padula, Robert M Anthenelli, Erik Nelson, James Eliassen, Krista M Lisdahl
BACKGROUND: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540348/psychobiological-responses-to-critically-evaluated-multitasking
#15
Mark A Wetherell, Olivia Craw, Kenny Smith, Michael A Smith
In order to understand psychobiological responses to stress it is necessary to observe how people react to controlled stressors. A range of stressors exist for this purpose; however, laboratory stressors that are representative of real life situations provide more ecologically valid opportunities for assessing stress responding. The current study assessed psychobiological responses to an ecologically valid laboratory stressor involving multitasking and critical evaluation. The stressor elicited significant increases in psychological and cardiovascular stress reactivity; however, no cortisol reactivity was observed...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462362/early-life-stress-leads-to-developmental-and-sex-selective-effects-on-performance-in-a-novel-object-placement-task
#16
Kevin G Bath, Arielle Schilit Nitenson, Ezra Lichtman, Chelsea Lopez, Whitney Chen, Meghan Gallo, Haley Goodwill, Gabriela Manzano-Nieves
Disruptions in early life care, including neglect, extreme poverty, and trauma, influence neural development and increase the risk for and severity of pathology. Significant sex disparities have been identified for affective pathology, with females having an increased risk of developing anxiety and depressive disorder. However, the effects of early life stress (ELS) on cognitive development have not been as well characterized, especially in reference to sex specific impacts of ELS on cognitive abilities over development...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377991/animal-models-in-psychiatric-research-the-rdoc-system-as-a-new-framework-for-endophenotype-oriented-translational-neuroscience
#17
REVIEW
Elmira Anderzhanova, Thomas Kirmeier, Carsten T Wotjak
The recently proposed Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) system defines psychopathologies as phenomena of multilevel neurobiological existence and assigns them to 5 behavioural domains characterizing a brain in action. We performed an analysis on this contemporary concept of psychopathologies in respect to a brain phylogeny and biological substrates of psychiatric diseases. We found that the RDoC system uses biological determinism to explain the pathogenesis of distinct psychiatric symptoms and emphasises exploration of endophenotypes but not of complex diseases...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377990/the-effect-of-an-adverse-psychological-environment-on-salivary-cortisol-levels-in-the-elderly-differs-by-5-httlpr-genotype
#18
Marie-Laure Ancelin, Jacqueline Scali, Joanna Norton, Karen Ritchie, Anne-Marie Dupuy, Isabelle Chaudieu, Joanne Ryan
BACKGROUND: An adverse psychological environment (e.g. stressful events or depression) has been shown to influence basal cortisol levels and cortisol response to stress. This differs depending on the adverse stimuli, but also varies across individuals and may be influenced by genetic predisposition. An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is a strong candidate in this regard. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how stressful life events and depression are associated with diurnal cortisol levels in community-dwelling elderly and determine whether this varies according to genetic variability in the 5-HTTLPR...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289693/ca-v-1-2-channels-mediate-persistent-chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-deficits-that-are-associated-with-prefrontal-cortex-activation-of-the-p25-cdk5-glucocorticoid-receptor-pathway
#19
Charlotte C Bavley, Delaney K Fischer, Bryant K Rizzo, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
Chronic stress is known to precipitate and exacerbate neuropsychiatric symptoms, and exposure to stress is particularly pathological in individuals with certain genetic predispositions. Recent genome wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene CACNA1C , which codes for the Cav 1.2 subunit of the L-type calcium channel (LTCC), as a common risk variant for multiple neuropsychiatric conditions. Cav 1.2 channels mediate experience-dependent changes in gene expression and long-term synaptic plasticity through activation of downstream calcium signaling pathways...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239631/early-adverse-life-events-are-associated-with-altered-brain-network-architecture-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#20
Arpana Gupta, Emeran A Mayer, Jonathan R Acosta, Kareem Hamadani, Carinna Torgerson, John D van Horn, Lin Chang, Bruce Naliboff, Kirsten Tillisch, Jennifer S Labus
INTRODUCTION: Early adverse life events (EALs) increase the risk for chronic medical and psychiatric disorders by altering early neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine associations between EALs and network properties of core brain regions in the emotion regulation and salience networks, and to test the influence of sex on these associations. METHODS: Resting-state functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging were obtained in healthy individuals (61 men, 63 women)...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
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