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Frontiers in Nutrition

Jacob P Beckerman, Queen Alike, Erika Lovin, Martha Tamez, Josiemer Mattei
Food preferences are a primary determinant of dietary intake and behaviors, and they persist from early childhood into later life. As such, establishing preferences for healthy foods from a young age is a promising approach to improving diet quality, a leading contributor to cardiometabolic health. This narrative review first describes the critical period for food preference development starting in utero and continuing through early childhood. Infants' innate aversion to sour and bitter tastes can lead them to initially reject some healthy foods such as vegetables...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Rozenn Gazan, Florent Vieux, Nicole Darmon, Matthieu Maillot
Background: Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are used to estimate the usual food and nutrient intakes over a period of time. Such estimates can suffer from measurement errors, either due to bias induced by respondent's answers or to errors induced by the structure of the questionnaire (e.g., using a limited number of food items and an aggregated food database with average portion sizes). The "structural validation" presented in this study aims to isolate and quantify the impact of the inherent structure of a FFQ on the estimation of food and nutrient intakes, independently of respondent's perception of the questionnaire...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Matthew L Tomlinson, Eugenio Butelli, Cathie Martin, Simon R Carding
Flavonoids are a diverse group of plant secondary metabolites, known to reduce inflammatory bowel disease symptoms. How they achieve this is largely unknown. Our study focuses on the gut epithelium as it receives high topological doses of dietary constituents, maintains gut homeostasis, and orchestrates gut immunity. Dysregulation leads to chronic gut inflammation, via dendritic cell (DC)-driven immune responses. Tomatoes engineered for enriched sets of flavonoids (anthocyanins or flavonols) provided a unique and complex naturally consumed food matrix to study the effect of diet on chronic inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Mauro Serafini, Emilio Jirillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sarah J Clements, Monica Maijo, Kamal Ivory, Claudio Nicoletti, Simon R Carding
Introduction: Aging is accompanied by increased susceptibility to infection and age-associated chronic diseases. It is also associated with reduced vaccine responses, which is often attributed to immunosenescence and the functional decline of the immune system. Immunosenescence is characterized by a chronic, low-grade, inflammatory state termed inflammaging. Habitants of Mediterranean (MED) regions maintain good health into old age; often attributed to MED diets. Hypothesis: Adoption of a MED-diet by elderly subjects, in Norfolk (UK), may improve immune responses of these individuals and in particular, dendritic cell (DC) function...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Jeffrey E Packer, Denise J Wooding, Hiroyuki Kato, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Paul B Pencharz, Daniel R Moore
Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sihui Ma, Koichi Yada, Hyunjin Lee, Youichi Fukuda, Akira Iida, Katsuhiko Suzuki
Aim of study: Taheebo polyphenols (TP) are water extracts of Tabebuia spp. (Bignoniaceae), taken from the inner bark of the Tabebuia avellanedae tree, used extensively as folk medicine in Central and South America. Some anti-inflammatory drugs act by inhibiting both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-1 enzymes. COX-2 syntheses prostaglandin (PG) E2, which is a species of endogenous pain-producing substance, whereas COX-1 acts as a house-keeping enzyme. Inhibiting both COX-1 and -2 simultaneously can have side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Micah G Donovan, Ornella I Selmin, Tom C Doetschman, Donato F Romagnolo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sani Saidu, Chinedum Ogbonnaya Eleazu, David Ebuka, Anthony Ikechukwu, Montalto Blessing, Nwoye Chibuike, Chukwu Chukwuma
The effect of cooking on starch hydrolysis, polyphenol contents, and in vitro α-amylase inhibitory properties of mushrooms (two varieties Russula virescens and Auricularia auricula-judae), sweet potato (Ipomea batatas), and potato (Solanum tuberosum) was investigated. The total, resistant, and digestible starch contents of the raw and cooked food samples (FS) ranged from 6.4 to 64.9; 0 to 10.1; and 6.4 to 62.7 g/100 g, respectively, while their percentages of starch digestibility (DS values expressed as percentages of total starch hydrolyzed) ranged from 45...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Patrick C Even, Sam Virtue, Nicholas M Morton, Gilles Fromentin, Robert K Semple
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Ariana M Chao, Sindhu K Srinivas, Stacia K Studt, Lisa K Diewald, David B Sarwer, Kelly C Allison
Objective: Overweight/obesity and excess weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Few interventions have been effective in limiting gestational weight gain among women with overweight or obesity. This pilot, randomized clinical trial compared treatment as usual (TAU) to a lifestyle modification program delivered via phone for the prevention of excess gestational weight gain in women who had overweight or obesity. Methods: Participants included 41 pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 (mean age = 28...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Allie Brown, Danielle Anderson, Kenneth Racicot, Sarah J Pilkenton, Emmanouil Apostolidis
Green tea (GT), cranberry (CR), and tart cherry extracts were evaluated for their ability to inhibit yeast α-glucosidase, relevant to glucose uptake. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and in vitro inhibitory activity of yeast α-glucosidase were examined for the extracts in the present study. GT had higher TPC and antioxidant activity, but CR demonstrated a greater α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, on phenolic basis. CR was fractionated using LH-20 column chromatography into two fractions: 30% methanol (CME) and 70% acetone (CAE)...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Shweta Khanna, Kumar Sagar Jaiswal, Bhawna Gupta
Self-help by means of dietary interventions can help in management of various disorders including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a debilitating autoimmune disease. Dietary interventions necessitate a widespread appeal for both patients as well as clinicians due to factors including affordability, accessibility, and presence of scientific evidences that demonstrate substantial benefits in reducing disease symptoms such as pain, joint stiffness, swelling, tenderness and associated disability with disease progression...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Chad M Cook, Courtney N McCormick, Mandi Knowles, Valerie N Kaden
Objective: To examine changes in weight and related outcomes in response to a commercial weight loss program compared to a self-directed diet in adults with overweight or obesity. Design: Participants were randomly assigned [stratified by body mass index (BMI) and age] to a commercial weight loss program (n = 38) or to a self-directed Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet (n = 40) for a 16-week period. Daily energy intake goals were 1,500 kcal/d for men and 1,200 kcal/d for women, except for the first week of the commercial program (1,000 kcal/d)...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Søren D Nielsen, Robert L Beverly, David C Dallas
Human milk contains active proteases that initiate hydrolysis of milk proteins within the mammary gland. Milk expressed at the beginning of feeding is known as foremilk and that at the end of feeding is known as hindmilk. As hindmilk contains higher fat, vitamins A and E, and higher calories than foremilk, feeding only hindmilk initially and reserving foremilk for later are practiced in some neonatal intensive care units. This study investigated the difference in peptide profiles, predicted milk protease activities, and bioactive peptides between foremilk and hindmilk...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Ines Banjari, Andreja Misir, Katarina Šavikin, Stela Jokić, Maja Molnar, H K S De Zoysa, Viduranga Y Waisundara
Diabetes is a global pandemic which warrants urgent attention due to its rising prevalence and economic burden. Thus, many alternative therapies are being researched for antidiabetic properties, given the inefficacy of current medicinal treatments. From this perspective, Aronia melanocarpa or black chokeberry has been investigated for its therapeutic properties in many studies, especially for its ability to combat hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and the macrovascular complications of diabetes including cardiovascular disease...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Laura Steenbergen, Lorenza S Colzato
The prevalence of weight problems is increasing worldwide. There is growing evidence that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with frontal lobe dysfunction and deficits in cognitive control. The present study aims to clarify the association between weight status and the degree of impairment in cognitive flexibility, i.e., the ability to efficiently switch from one task to another, by disentangling the preparatory and residual domains of task switching. Twenty-six normal weight (BMI < 25, five males) and twenty-six overweight (BMI ≥ 25, seven males) university students performed a task-switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of proactive vs...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Paolo Orlandoni, Claudia Venturini, Nikolina Jukic Peladic, Annarita Costantini, Mirko Di Rosa, Claudia Cola, Natascia Giorgini, Redenta Basile, Donata Fagnani, Debora Sparvoli, Serenella David
Objective: To assess the prevalence of malnutrition according to the new ESPEN definition in a population of geriatric hospital patients and to determine how malnutrition affects the length of hospital stay (LOS) and hospital mortality. Design: A retrospective analysis of data gathered during nutritional screening surveys carried out three consecutive years, from 2012 to 2014, in an Italian geriatric research hospital (INRCA, Ancona) was performed. On the day of the study, demographic data, data on clinical conditions and the nutritional status of newly admitted patients were collected...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Claire Watkins, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan, R Paul Ross
Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Monique E Francois, Jenna B Gillen, Jonathan P Little
Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
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