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Frontiers in Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857943/approximate-time-to-steady-state-resting-energy-expenditure-using-indirect-calorimetry-in-young-healthy-adults
#1
Collin J Popp, Jocelyn J Tisch, Kenan E Sakarcan, William C Bridges, Elliot D Jesch
Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843913/quercetin-as-an-emerging-anti-melanoma-agent-a-four-focus-area-therapeutic-development-strategy
#2
REVIEW
Zoey Harris, Micah G Donovan, Gisele Morais Branco, Kirsten H Limesand, Randy Burd
Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase - a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables, and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840814/visualizing-alternative-phosphorus-scenarios-for-future-food-security
#3
Tina-Simone Neset, Dana Cordell, Steve Mohr, Froggi VanRiper, Stuart White
The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure, and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800480/post-exercise-rehydration-effect-of-consumption-of-beer-with-varying-alcohol-content-on-fluid-balance-after-mild-dehydration
#4
Annemarthe H C Wijnen, Jora Steennis, Milène Catoire, Floris C Wardenaar, Marco Mensink
PURPOSE: The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. METHODS: Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 years, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL kg min(-1)). Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60% of their maximal power output (Wmax) until mild dehydration (1% body mass loss)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800479/complementary-feeding-review-of-recommendations-feeding-practices-and-adequacy-of-homemade-complementary-food-preparations-in-developing-countries-lessons-from-ethiopia
#5
REVIEW
Motuma Adimasu Abeshu, Azeb Lelisa, Bekesho Geleta
Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6-23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777930/characterization-of-aqps-in-mouse-rat-and-human-colon-and-their-selective-regulation-by-bile-acids
#6
Jonathan Yde, Stephen Keely, Qi Wu, Johan F Borg, Natalia Lajczak, Aoife O'Dwyer, Peter Dalsgaard, Robert A Fenton, Hanne B Moeller
In normal individuals, the epithelium of the colon absorbs 1.5-2 l of water a day to generate dehydrated feces. However, in the condition of bile acid malabsorption (BAM), an excess of bile acids in the colon results in diarrhea. Several studies have attempted to address the mechanisms contributing to BAM induced by various bile acids. However, none have addressed a potential dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels, which are responsible for the majority of transcellular water transport in epithelial cells, as a contributing factor to the onset of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of BAM...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777929/mechanisms-of-comorbidities-associated-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-insights-from-the-jcr-la-cp-corpulent-rat-strain
#7
Abdoulaye Diane, W David Pierce, Sandra E Kelly, Sharon Sokolik, Faye Borthwick, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Rabban Mangat, Jesus Miguel Pradillo, Stuart McRae Allan, Megan R Ruth, Catherine J Field, Rebecca Hutcheson, Petra Rocic, James C Russell, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
Obesity and its metabolic complications have emerged as the epidemic of the new millennia. The use of obese rodent models continues to be a productive component of efforts to understand the concomitant metabolic complications of this disease. In 1978, the JCR:LA-cp rat model was developed with an autosomal recessive corpulent (cp) trait resulting from a premature stop codon in the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor. Rats that are heterozygous for the cp trait are lean-prone, while those that are homozygous (cp/cp) spontaneously display the pathophysiology of obesity as well as a metabolic syndrome (MetS)-like phenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774449/unsustainability-of-obesity-metabolic-food-waste
#8
Mauro Serafini, Elisabetta Toti
The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world's health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to "obesigen" consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766254/increased-cost-of-motor-activity-and-heat-transfer-between-non-shivering-thermogenesis-motor-activity-and-thermic-effect-of-feeding-in-mice-housed-at-room-temperature-implications-in-pre-clinical-studies
#9
Patrick C Even, Anne Blais
The components of energy expenditure, total metabolic rate (TMR), resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermogenic response to feeding (TEF), activity, and cost of activity were measured in fed and fasted mice housed at 22 and 30°C. Mice housed at 22°C had more than two times larger TMR and RMR. Mice at 22°C were less active when fasted but more active when fed. Cost of activity was nearly doubled in the fasted and in the fed state. Analysis of the short-term relation between TMR, RMR, and bouts of activity showed that, at 22°C, the bouts of activity induced a decrease in the intensity of RMR that reflected the reduced need for thermal regulation induced by the heat released from muscular contraction...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660754/porcine-milk-oligosaccharides-and-sialic-acid-concentrations-vary-throughout-lactation
#10
Austin T Mudd, Jaime Salcedo, Lindsey S Alexander, Stacey K Johnson, Caitlyn M Getty, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Daniela Barile, Ryan N Dilger
BACKGROUND: Milk oligosaccharides (OSs) are bioactive components known to influence neonatal development. These compounds have specific physiological functions acting as prebiotics, immune system modulators, and enhancing intestine and brain development. OBJECTIVES: The pig is a commonly used model for studying human nutrition, and there is interest in quantifying OS composition of porcine milk across lactation compared with human milk. In this study, we hypothesized that OS and sialic acid (SA) composition of porcine milk would be influenced by stage of lactation...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630989/lack-of-effects-of-a-single-high-fat-meal-enriched-with-vegetable-n-3-or-a-combination-of-vegetable-and-marine-n-3-fatty-acids-on-intestinal-peptide-release-and-adipokines-in-healthy-female-subjects
#11
Ingunn Narverud, Mari C W Myhrstad, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Toni Karhu, Tuva B Dahl, Bente Halvorsen, Stine M Ulven, Kirsten B Holven
Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622186/a-consensus-proposal-for-nutritional-indicators-to-assess-the-sustainability-of-a-healthy-diet-the-mediterranean-diet-as-a-case-study
#12
Lorenzo M Donini, Sandro Dernini, Denis Lairon, Lluis Serra-Majem, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Valeria Del Balzo, Anna-Maria Giusti, Barbara Burlingame, Rekia Belahsen, Giuseppe Maiani, Angela Polito, Aida Turrini, Federica Intorre, Antonia Trichopoulou, Elliot M Berry
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of the multiple effects of diets on public health nutrition, society, and environment. Sustainability and food security are closely interrelated. The traditional Mediterranean Diet (MD) is recognized as a healthier dietary pattern with a lower environmental impact. As a case study, the MD may guide innovative inter-sectorial efforts to counteract the degradation of ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, and homogeneity of diets due to globalization through the improvement of sustainable healthy dietary patterns...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617261/potential-impact-of-dietary-choices-on-phosphorus-recycling-and-global-phosphorus-footprints-the-case-of-the-average-australian-city
#13
Geneviève S Metson, Dana Cordell, Brad Ridoutt
Changes in human diets, population increases, farming practices, and globalized food chains have led to dramatic increases in the demand for phosphorus fertilizers. Long-term food security and water quality are, however, threatened by such increased phosphorus consumption, because the world's main source, phosphate rock, is an increasingly scarce resource. At the same time, losses of phosphorus from farms and cities have caused widespread water pollution. As one of the major factors contributing to increased phosphorus demand, dietary choices can play a key role in changing our resource consumption pathway...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597946/the-psychological-effects-of-short-term-fasting-in-healthy-women
#14
Ellen Watkins, Lucy Serpell
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate affective responses to 18-h fasting in healthy controls. In particular, the study focused on self-reported mood, irritability, sense of achievement, reward, pride, and control. METHOD: Participants were a non-clinical sample of 52 women with a mean age of 25. A repeated-measures design was used, whereby participants provided diary measures of psychological variables throughout both 18-h fasting and non-fasting periods. RESULTS: Fasting led to increased irritability, and also to positive affective experiences of increased sense of achievement, reward, pride, and control...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588287/greater-food-reward-sensitivity-is-associated-with-more-frequent-intake-of-discretionary-foods-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-young-adults
#15
Tonja R Nansel, Leah M Lipsky, Miriam H Eisenberg, Denise L Haynie, Danping Liu, Bruce Simons-Morton
Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of U.S. young adults. Participants (n = 2202) completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579302/bioavailability-of-glucosinolates-and-their-breakdown-products-impact-of-processing
#16
REVIEW
Francisco J Barba, Nooshin Nikmaram, Shahin Roohinejad, Anissa Khelfa, Zhenzhou Zhu, Mohamed Koubaa
Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites with nutritional effects, and are mainly found in cruciferous plants. After ingestion, glucosinolates could be partially absorbed in their intact form through the gastrointestinal mucosa. However, the largest fraction is metabolized in the gut lumen. When cruciferous are consumed without processing, myrosinase enzyme present in these plants hydrolyzes the glucosinolates in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract to various metabolites, such as isothiocyanates, nitriles, oxazolidine-2-thiones, and indole-3-carbinols...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574604/assessment-of-caregiver-s-knowledge-complementary-feeding-practices-and-adequacy-of-nutrient-intake-from-homemade-foods-for-children-of-6-23%C3%A2-months-in-food-insecure-woredas-of-wolayita-zone-ethiopia
#17
Motuma Adimasu Abeshu, Abdulaziz Adish, Gulelat D Haki, Azeb Lelisa, Bekesho Geleta
Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574603/mindfulness-as-a-weight-loss-treatment-for-veterans
#18
Michael V Stanton, Justin Matsuura, Jennifer Kaci Fairchild, Jessica A Lohnberg, Peter J Bayley
Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570766/putative-role-of-red-wine-polyphenols-against-brain-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Mario Caruana, Ruben Cauchi, Neville Vassallo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders and hence pose remarkable socio-economical burdens to both families and state. Although AD and PD have different clinical and neuropathological features, they share common molecular mechanisms that appear to be triggered by multi-factorial events, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress (OS), and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Currently, there are no established and validated disease-modifying strategies for either AD or PD...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570765/plant-oils-as-potential-sources-of-vitamin-d
#20
Anja C Baur, Corinna Brandsch, Bettina König, Frank Hirche, Gabriele I Stangl
To combat vitamin D insufficiency in a population, reliable diet sources of vitamin D are required. The recommendations to consume more oily fish and the use of UVB-treated yeast are already applied strategies to address vitamin D insufficiency. This study aimed to elucidate the suitability of plant oils as an alternative vitamin D source. Therefore, plant oils that are commonly used in human nutrition were first analyzed for their content of vitamin D precursors and metabolites. Second, selected oils were exposed to a short-term UVB irradiation to stimulate the synthesis of vitamin D...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
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