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Frontiers in Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536692/wistar-kyoto-female-rats-are-more-susceptible-to-develop-sugar-binging-a-comparison-with-wistar-rats
#1
Helena Papacostas-Quintanilla, Víctor Manuel Ortiz-Ortega, Carolina López-Rubalcava
The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB) and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W) and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#2
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534027/current-concepts-and-unresolved-questions-in-dietary-protein-requirements-and-supplements-in-adults
#3
REVIEW
Stuart M Phillips
Protein needs for otherwise healthy individuals older than 19 years are defined by the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) at 0.80 g protein/kg/day. There is no recommendation in the current RDA for subpopulations of older adults or people in various pathological situations. Despite the lack of a separate recommendation, there exists a growing body of evidence that is strongly suggestive of an increased need and/or benefit for protein in older persons. That is, intakes beyond the RDA are, in older persons, associated with benefits...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459051/bacterial-diversity-of-the-gastric-content-of-preterm-infants-during-their-first-month-of-life-at-the-hospital
#4
Laura Moles, Marta Gómez, Esther Jiménez, Gerardo Bustos, Javier de Andrés, Ana Melgar, Diana Escuder, Leónides Fernández, Rosa Del Campo, Juan Miguel Rodríguez
Studies focused on the stomach microbiota are relatively scarce, and most of them are focused on the adult population. The aim of this work is to describe the bacterial communities inhabiting the gastric content (GC) of preterm neonates. For that purpose, GC samples were collected weekly from a total of 13 preterm neonates during their first month of life within their hospital stay. Samples were analyzed by using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. The former allowed the isolation of bacteria belonging mainly to the genera Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Serratia, Klebsiella, and Escherichia...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459050/assessing-volumetric-absorptive-microsampling-coupled-with-stable-isotope-dilution-assay-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-as-potential-diagnostic-tool-for-whole-blood-5-methyltetrahydrofolic-acid
#5
Markus Kopp, Michael Rychlik
Volumetric absorptive microsamplers (VAMS) have been developed recently as a promising tool for clinical blood sampling. Compared to dried blood spot samples analyzed by accurate stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs), the new technique could provide further substantial miniaturizing of folate assays by eliminating hematocrit effects and uneven analyte distribution within the sample. Herein, we present a miniaturized SIDA coupled with LC-MS/MS measurement of 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid as main folate vitamer in whole blood (WB) using [(13)C5]-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid as internal standard...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443284/fecal-short-chain-fatty-acid-variations-by-breastfeeding-status-in-infants-at-4%C3%A2-months-differences-in-relative-versus-absolute-concentrations
#6
Sarah L Bridgman, Meghan B Azad, Catherine J Field, Andrea M Haqq, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, David S Wishart, Anita L Kozyrskyj
Our gut microbiota provide a number of important functions, one of which is the metabolism of dietary fiber and other macronutrients that are undigested by the host. The main products of this fermentation process are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and other intermediate metabolites including lactate and succinate. Production of these metabolites is dependent on diet and gut microbiota composition. There is increasing evidence for the role of SCFAs in host physiology and metabolic processes as well as chronic inflammatory conditions such as allergic disease and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396858/egg-consumption-and-incidence-of-heart-failure-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#7
Owais Khawaja, Hemindermeet Singh, Faraz Luni, Ameer Kabour, Syed S Ali, Mohammed Taleb, Hafeezuddin Ahmed, John Michael Gaziano, Luc Djoussé
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) remains a major health problem affecting 5.7 million adults in USA. Data on the association of egg consumption with incident HF have been inconsistent. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to assess the relation of egg consumption with incident HF in the general population. METHODS: Using extensive online search, we conducted a meta-analysis of new onset HF following exposure to egg consumption...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396857/proteome-profiles-of-digested-products-of-commercial-meat-sources
#8
Li Li, Yuan Liu, Guanghong Zhou, Xinglian Xu, Chunbao Li
This study was designed to characterize in vitro-digested products of proteins from four commercial meat products, including dry-cured ham, cooked ham, emulsion-type sausage, and dry-cured sausage. The samples were homogenized and incubated with pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility and particle sizes of digested products were measured. Nano-LC-MS/MS was applied to characterize peptides. The results showed the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size in dry-cured ham (P < 0.05), while the opposite was for cooked ham (P < 0...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386543/broccoli-microgreens-a-mineral-rich-crop-that-can-diversify-food-systems
#9
Carolyn F Weber
Current malnourishment statistics are high and are exacerbated by contemporary agricultural practices that damage the very environments on which the production of nutritious food depends. As the World's population grows at an unprecedented rate, food systems must be revised to provide adequate nutrition while minimizing environmental impacts. One specific nutritional problem that needs attention is mineral (e.g., Fe and Zn) malnutrition, which impacts over two-thirds of the World's people living in countries of every economic status...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377921/parental-feeding-practices-among-brazilian-school-aged-children-associations-with-parent-and-child-characteristics
#10
Laís Amaral Mais, Sarah Warkentin, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Susan Carnell, José Augusto Aguiar de Carrazedo Taddei
BACKGROUND: Children's eating behavior, food intake, and weight status are highly influenced by parents, who shape their food environment via parental feeding practices. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between sociodemographic, anthropometric, and behavioral/attitudinal characteristics of parents and their 5- to 9-year-old children and a range of positive ("healthy eating guidance," "monitoring") and potentially negative ("restriction for weight control," "restriction for health," "emotion regulation/food as reward," and "pressure") parental feeding practices...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373974/animal-models-for-the-study-of-the-relationships-between-diet-and-obesity-a-focus-on-dietary-protein-and-estrogen-deficiency
#11
REVIEW
Tristan Chalvon-Demersay, François Blachier, Daniel Tomé, Anne Blais
Obesity is an increasing major public health concern asking for dietary strategies to limit weight gain and associated comorbidities. In this review, we present animal models, particularly rats and mice, which have been extensively used by scientists to understand the consequences of diet quality on weight gain and health. Notably, modulation of dietary protein quantity and/or quality has been shown to exert huge effects on body composition homeostasis through the modulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolic pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367435/effect-of-underlying-renal-disease-on-nutritional-and-metabolic-profile-of-older-adults-with-reduced-renal-function
#12
Silvia Lai, Maria Ida Amabile, Silvia Altieri, Daniela Mastroluca, Carlo Lai, Paola Aceto, Massimiliano Crudo, Anna Rita D'Angelo, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Alessio Molfino
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is a common condition in the general population, particularly among older adults. Renal impairment is in turn associated with metabolic and nutritional derangements and with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. AIM: To compare the metabolic, nutritional, and cardiovascular impact of reduced kidney function between patients with and without known renal disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled consecutive outpatients (age ≥65 years) with reduced renal function who were divided into two groups: Group A with history of renal disease and Group B with unknown renal disease...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352628/neuroprotective-effects-of-selected-microbial-derived-phenolic-metabolites-and-aroma-compounds-from-wine-in-human-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells-and-their-putative-mechanisms-of-action
#13
A Esteban-Fernández, C Rendeiro, J P E Spencer, D Gigorro Del Coso, M D González de Llano, B Bartolomé, M V Moreno-Arribas
Moderate wine consumption has shown the potential to delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigates the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of wine-derived phenolic and aroma compounds in a neuroinflammation model based on SIN-1 stress-induced injury in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Cell pretreatment with microbial metabolites found in blood after wine consumption, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic (3,4-DHPA), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acids and salicylic β-d-O-glucuronide, at physiologically concentrations (0...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275609/the-domains-of-human-nutrition-the-importance-of-nutrition-education-in-academia-and-medical-schools
#14
Lorenzo M Donini, Francesco Leonardi, Mariangela Rondanelli, Giuseppe Banderali, Maurizio Battino, Enrico Bertoli, Alessandra Bordoni, Furio Brighenti, Riccardo Caccialanza, Giulia Cairella, Antonio Caretto, Hellas Cena, Manuela Gambarara, Maria Gabriella Gentile, Marcello Giovannini, Lucio Lucchin, Pietro Migliaccio, Francesco Nicastro, Fabrizio Pasanisi, Luca Piretta, Danilo Radrizzani, Carla Roggi, Giuseppe Rotilio, Luca Scalfi, Roberto Vettor, Federico Vignati, Nino C Battistini, Maurizio Muscaritoli
Human nutrition encompasses an extremely broad range of medical, social, commercial, and ethical domains and thus represents a wide, interdisciplinary scientific and cultural discipline. The high prevalence of both disease-related malnutrition and overweight/obesity represents an important risk factor for disease burden and mortality worldwide. It is the opinion of Federation of the Italian Nutrition Societies (FeSIN) that these two sides of the same coin, with their sociocultural background, are related to a low "nutritional culture" secondary, at least in part, to an insufficient academic training for health-care professionals (HCPs)...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194398/sphincter-of-oddi-function-and-risk-factors-for-dysfunction
#15
REVIEW
Elham Afghani, Simon K Lo, Paul S Covington, Brooks D Cash, Stephen J Pandol
The sphincter of Oddi (SO) is a smooth muscle valve regulating the flow of biliary and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum, initially described in 1887 by the Italian anatomist, Ruggero Oddi. SO dysfunction (SOD) is a broad term referring to numerous biliary, pancreatic, and hepatic disorders resulting from spasms, strictures, and relaxation of this valve at inappropriate times. This review brings attention to various factors that may increase the risk of SOD, including but not limited to: cholecystectomy, opiates, and alcohol...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149839/soy-based-therapeutic-baby-formulas-testable-hypotheses-regarding-the-pros-and-cons
#16
Cara J Westmark
Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138437/commentary-thiamine-deficiency-in-tropical-pediatrics-new-insights-into-a-neglected-but-vital-metabolic-challenge
#17
COMMENT
Heitor Pons Leite, Lúcio Flávio Peixoto de Lima, Tulio Konstantyner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111625/flexitarian-diets-and-health-a-review-of-the-evidence-based-literature
#18
REVIEW
Emma J Derbyshire
A flexitarian or semi-vegetarian diet (SVD) is one that is primarily vegetarian with the occasional inclusion of meat or fish. Of late, there appears to be an increasing movement toward this practice. There has not been a recent update on these diets from a health perspective. Using the National Centre for Biotechnology Information PubMed database, a search was made for all studies published between 2000 and 2016 that met defined inclusion criteria. A total of 25 studies were located with 12 focusing on body weight and diet quality...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097121/the-gastrointestinal-tract-as-a-key-target-organ-for-the-health-promoting-effects-of-dietary-proanthocyanidins
#19
REVIEW
María José Cires, Ximena Wong, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Martin Gotteland
Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are polymers of flavan-3-ols abundant in many vegetable foods and beverages widely consumed in the human diet. There is increasing evidence supporting the beneficial impact of dietary PACs in the prevention and nutritional management of non-communicable chronic diseases. It is considered that PACs with a degree of polymerization >3 remain unabsorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accumulate in the colonic lumen. Accordingly, the GI tract may be considered as a key organ for the healthy-promoting effects of dietary PACs...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066773/energy-expenditure-in-people-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Nathan Caron, Nicolas Peyrot, Teddy Caderby, Chantal Verkindt, Georges Dalleau
Physical activity (PA) is an important non-therapeutic tool in primary prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To improve activity-based health management, patients need to quantify activity-related energy expenditure and the other components of total daily energy expenditure. This review explores differences between the components of total energy expenditure in patients with DM and healthy people and presents various tools for assessing the energy expenditure in subjects with DM. From this review, it appears that patients with uncontrolled DM have a higher basal energy expenditure (BEE) than healthy people which must be considered in the establishment of new BEE estimate equations...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
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