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Frontiers in Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194398/sphincter-of-oddi-function-and-risk-factors-for-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Elham Afghani, Simon K Lo, Paul S Covington, Brooks D Cash, Stephen J Pandol
The sphincter of Oddi (SO) is a smooth muscle valve regulating the flow of biliary and pancreatic secretions into the duodenum, initially described in 1887 by the Italian anatomist, Ruggero Oddi. SO dysfunction (SOD) is a broad term referring to numerous biliary, pancreatic, and hepatic disorders resulting from spasms, strictures, and relaxation of this valve at inappropriate times. This review brings attention to various factors that may increase the risk of SOD, including but not limited to: cholecystectomy, opiates, and alcohol...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149839/soy-based-therapeutic-baby-formulas-testable-hypotheses-regarding-the-pros-and-cons
#2
Cara J Westmark
Soy-based infant formulas have been consumed in the United States since 1909, and currently constitute a significant portion of the infant formula market. There are efforts underway to generate genetically modified soybeans that produce therapeutic agents of interest with the intent to deliver those agents in a soy-based infant formula platform. The threefold purpose of this review article is to first discuss the pros and cons of soy-based infant formulas, then present testable hypotheses to discern the suitability of a soy platform for drug delivery in babies, and finally start a discussion to inform public policy on this important area of infant nutrition...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138437/commentary-thiamine-deficiency-in-tropical-pediatrics-new-insights-into-a-neglected-but-vital-metabolic-challenge
#3
COMMENT
Heitor Pons Leite, Lúcio Flávio Peixoto de Lima, Tulio Konstantyner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111625/flexitarian-diets-and-health-a-review-of-the-evidence-based-literature
#4
REVIEW
Emma J Derbyshire
A flexitarian or semi-vegetarian diet (SVD) is one that is primarily vegetarian with the occasional inclusion of meat or fish. Of late, there appears to be an increasing movement toward this practice. There has not been a recent update on these diets from a health perspective. Using the National Centre for Biotechnology Information PubMed database, a search was made for all studies published between 2000 and 2016 that met defined inclusion criteria. A total of 25 studies were located with 12 focusing on body weight and diet quality...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097121/the-gastrointestinal-tract-as-a-key-target-organ-for-the-health-promoting-effects-of-dietary-proanthocyanidins
#5
REVIEW
María José Cires, Ximena Wong, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Martin Gotteland
Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are polymers of flavan-3-ols abundant in many vegetable foods and beverages widely consumed in the human diet. There is increasing evidence supporting the beneficial impact of dietary PACs in the prevention and nutritional management of non-communicable chronic diseases. It is considered that PACs with a degree of polymerization >3 remain unabsorbed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and accumulate in the colonic lumen. Accordingly, the GI tract may be considered as a key organ for the healthy-promoting effects of dietary PACs...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066773/energy-expenditure-in-people-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Nathan Caron, Nicolas Peyrot, Teddy Caderby, Chantal Verkindt, Georges Dalleau
Physical activity (PA) is an important non-therapeutic tool in primary prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). To improve activity-based health management, patients need to quantify activity-related energy expenditure and the other components of total daily energy expenditure. This review explores differences between the components of total energy expenditure in patients with DM and healthy people and presents various tools for assessing the energy expenditure in subjects with DM. From this review, it appears that patients with uncontrolled DM have a higher basal energy expenditure (BEE) than healthy people which must be considered in the establishment of new BEE estimate equations...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066772/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-two-serotype-1-2b-listeria-monocytogenes-isolates-from-analogous-environmental-niches-demonstrates-the-influence-of-hypervariable-hotspots-in-defining-pathogenesis
#7
Aidan Casey, Kieran Jordan, Aidan Coffey, Edward M Fox, Olivia McAuliffe
The vast majority of clinical human listeriosis cases are caused by serotype 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b isolates of Listeria monocytogenes. The ability of L. monocytogenes to establish a systemic listeriosis infection within a host organism relies on a combination of genes that are involved in cell recognition, internalization, evasion of host defenses, and in vitro survival and growth. Recently, whole genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis have proven to be powerful tools for the identification of these virulence-associated genes in L...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066771/impact-of-the-consumption-of-tea-polyphenols-on-early-atherosclerotic-lesion-formation-and-intestinal-bifidobacteria-in-high-fat-fed-apoe-mice
#8
Zhen-Lin Liao, Ben-Hua Zeng, Wei Wang, Gui-Hua Li, Fei Wu, Li Wang, Qing-Ping Zhong, Hong Wei, Xiang Fang
There is an increasing interest in the effect of dietary polyphenols on the intestinal microbiota and the possible associations between this effect and the development of some cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis (AS). However, limited information is available on how these polyphenols affect the gut microbiota and AS development. This study was designed to evaluate the modulation of dietary tea polyphenols (TPs) on intestinal Bifidobacteria (IB) and its correlation with AS development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965963/transforming-beef-by-products-into-valuable-ingredients-which-spell-recipe-to-use
#9
Maeve Henchion, Mary McCarthy, Jim O'Callaghan
Satisfying the increasing global demand for protein results in challenges from a supply perspective. Increased use of animal proteins, through greater use of meat by-products, could form part of the solution, subject to consumer acceptance. This research investigates consumer evaluations of food products that incorporate ingredients derived from offals that have been produced through a range of food processing technologies. Using focus groups incorporating product stimuli representing various combinations of offals, processing, and carrier products, the research finds that the physical state and perceived naturalness of the ingredients influences acceptance...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965962/caffeine-consumption-and-general-health-in-secondary-school-children-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analysis
#10
Gareth Richards, Andrew P Smith
Although caffeine is sometimes associated with beneficial effects in adults, the substance may be dangerous if intake is too high. This concern is particularly relevant in regards to children and adolescents, as consumption of energy drinks may be particularly high in such populations. For this reason, the current study examined data from the Cornish Academies Project to determine whether caffeine intake in secondary school children was related to responses to a single-item measure of general health. Two cross-sections of data were available: questionnaires were completed by 2030 at baseline, by 2307 at 6-month follow-up, and by 1660 at both time-points...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933297/exhibitionist-eating-who-wins-eating-competitions
#11
Brian Wansink, Kevin M Kniffin
OBJECTIVE: How and why does competition and spectator involvement influence eating behaviors? The primary objective of this article is to explore the nature of competitive eating with the goal of identifying implications for other social situations. DESIGN: Study 1 investigated how many chicken wings were eaten by men and women in a 30-min eating competition when cheering spectators either were or were not present (compared to a control condition). The second study sought to explain Study 1's findings through a survey of 93 students who rated male or female competitive eaters (in randomized order) based on intelligence, attractiveness, health, strength, and how romantic they expected the eaters to be...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933296/modeling-diet-induced-obesity-with-obesity-prone-rats-implications-for-studies-in-females
#12
REVIEW
Erin D Giles, Matthew R Jackman, Paul S MacLean
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857943/approximate-time-to-steady-state-resting-energy-expenditure-using-indirect-calorimetry-in-young-healthy-adults
#13
Collin J Popp, Jocelyn J Tisch, Kenan E Sakarcan, William C Bridges, Elliot D Jesch
Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) necessitate a stable measurement period or steady state (SS). There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843913/quercetin-as-an-emerging-anti-melanoma-agent-a-four-focus-area-therapeutic-development-strategy
#14
REVIEW
Zoey Harris, Micah G Donovan, Gisele Morais Branco, Kirsten H Limesand, Randy Burd
Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase - a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables, and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840814/visualizing-alternative-phosphorus-scenarios-for-future-food-security
#15
Tina-Simone Neset, Dana Cordell, Steve Mohr, Froggi VanRiper, Stuart White
The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure, and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800480/post-exercise-rehydration-effect-of-consumption-of-beer-with-varying-alcohol-content-on-fluid-balance-after-mild-dehydration
#16
Annemarthe H C Wijnen, Jora Steennis, Milène Catoire, Floris C Wardenaar, Marco Mensink
PURPOSE: The effects of moderate beer consumption after physical activity on rehydration and fluid balance are not completely clear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of beer consumption, with varying alcohol content, on fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. METHODS: Eleven healthy males were included in this cross over study (age 24.5 ± 4.7 years, body weight 75.4 ± 3.3 kg, VO2max 58.3 ± 6.4 mL kg min(-1)). Subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 45 min at 60% of their maximal power output (Wmax) until mild dehydration (1% body mass loss)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800479/complementary-feeding-review-of-recommendations-feeding-practices-and-adequacy-of-homemade-complementary-food-preparations-in-developing-countries-lessons-from-ethiopia
#17
REVIEW
Motuma Adimasu Abeshu, Azeb Lelisa, Bekesho Geleta
Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6-23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777930/characterization-of-aqps-in-mouse-rat-and-human-colon-and-their-selective-regulation-by-bile-acids
#18
Jonathan Yde, Stephen Keely, Qi Wu, Johan F Borg, Natalia Lajczak, Aoife O'Dwyer, Peter Dalsgaard, Robert A Fenton, Hanne B Moeller
In normal individuals, the epithelium of the colon absorbs 1.5-2 l of water a day to generate dehydrated feces. However, in the condition of bile acid malabsorption (BAM), an excess of bile acids in the colon results in diarrhea. Several studies have attempted to address the mechanisms contributing to BAM induced by various bile acids. However, none have addressed a potential dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels, which are responsible for the majority of transcellular water transport in epithelial cells, as a contributing factor to the onset of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of BAM...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777929/mechanisms-of-comorbidities-associated-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-insights-from-the-jcr-la-cp-corpulent-rat-strain
#19
REVIEW
Abdoulaye Diane, W David Pierce, Sandra E Kelly, Sharon Sokolik, Faye Borthwick, Miriam Jacome-Sosa, Rabban Mangat, Jesus Miguel Pradillo, Stuart McRae Allan, Megan R Ruth, Catherine J Field, Rebecca Hutcheson, Petra Rocic, James C Russell, Donna F Vine, Spencer D Proctor
Obesity and its metabolic complications have emerged as the epidemic of the new millennia. The use of obese rodent models continues to be a productive component of efforts to understand the concomitant metabolic complications of this disease. In 1978, the JCR:LA-cp rat model was developed with an autosomal recessive corpulent (cp) trait resulting from a premature stop codon in the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor. Rats that are heterozygous for the cp trait are lean-prone, while those that are homozygous (cp/cp) spontaneously display the pathophysiology of obesity as well as a metabolic syndrome (MetS)-like phenotype...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774449/unsustainability-of-obesity-metabolic-food-waste
#20
Mauro Serafini, Elisabetta Toti
The obesity burden, with 1.5 billion overweight (OW) and 500 million obese (OB) worldwide, significantly increased the risk of degenerative diseases. Excessive consumption of foods that are energy dense lead to obesity, which represents a titanic cost for not only the world's health systems but also a substantial ecological cost to the environment. The waste of resources and the unnecessary green house gas emissions (GHGs) emission, due to "obesigen" consumption of foods, have been ignored so far in practical assessments of ecological impacts...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
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