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Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders

Cynthia El Rahi, James Eldin Cox, Romelia May, George Carrum, Gloria Obi Anyadike, Audrey Scholoff, Rammurti Kamble
Background: When used for hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, plerixafor was originally recommended to be administered 11 hours prior to apheresis based on the peak effect of 10 to 14 hours translating into an administration time of 10 to 11 pm. Reports of post-plerixafor anaphylactic reactions mandated labeling change by the Food and Drug Administration with recommendation of monitoring patients after administration. Based on data suggesting sustained plerixafor activity at 18 hours, we changed our administration time to 4 pm at our center...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Jacqueline N Poston, Russell Dorer, David M Aboulafia
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare variant of DLBCL. The natural history of this subtype is poorly understood. Incomplete literature in the era of rituximab suggests that patients with EBV-positive DLBCL have similar outcomes to patients with EBV-negative DLBCL when treated with rituximab and anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens; however, there are few prospective studies on this subtype and little is known about the risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse with EBV-positive DLBCL...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Denise C Cornelius
Preeclampsia (PE) affects 5% to 7% of pregnant women each year worldwide, accounts for up to 18% of maternal deaths in the United States each year, and is the number 1 cause of premature births. Preeclampsia is associated with hypertension after the 20th week of gestation with or without proteinuria, in conjunction with fetal growth restriction, maternal endothelial dysfunction, and chronic immune activation. The mechanisms leading to the development of PE are unclear. However, it is thought that shallow trophoblast invasion and insufficient remodeling of uterine spiral arteries result in placental ischemia...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Terry Golombick, Terrence H Diamond, Arumugam Manoharan, Rajeev Ramakrishna, Vladimir Badmaev
Background: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by dysplastic and ineffective hematopoiesis and peripheral cytopenias. Elevated serum ferritin (SF) is often observed in nontransfused, lower risk MDS. It has been reported that ineffective erythropoiesis enhances iron absorption in MDS through downregulation of hepcidin and its prohormones such that SF rises. Aim: To determine the effect of 6-shogaol, a dehydration derivative of ginger, known to have hepatoprotective and chemotherapeutic activity, on 6 early-stage, transfusion-independent patients with MDS, 3 of whom had raised levels of SF...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Afaf H Al Battah, Einas A Al Kuwari, Zsolt Hascsi, Abdulqadir J Nashwan, Halima Elomari, Hisham Elsabah, Safa Al Azawi, Samah Kohla, Dina Soliman, Mohamed A Yassin
Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is a rare disease, and few clinicohistopathologic features of the disease have been discussed in previous studies. It represents 2.2% of extranodal lymphomas and constitutes 0.04% to 0.5% of malignant breast neoplasms, despite the clinical and radiographic similarities between breast lymphoma and carcinoma, the prognosis, as reported in the literature, varies. No consensus exists on the best way to treat PBL. However, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were used alone or in combination to treat various cases of PBL...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Cat Hildyard, S Shiekh, Jab Browning, G P Collins
T-cell and natural killer-cell lymphomas are a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of diseases that are difficult to treat and usually have poor outcomes. To date, therapeutic interventions are of limited efficacy and there is a pressing need to find better treatments. In recent years, advances in molecular biology have helped to elucidate the underlying genetic complexity of this group of diseases and to identify mutations and signaling pathways involved in lymphomagenesis. In this review, we highlight the unique biological characteristics of some of the different subtypes and discuss how these may be targeted to provide more individualized and effective treatment approaches...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Chidambharam Choccalingam, Rajesh Kanna Nandagopal Radha, Nadella Snigdha
The platelet count, mean platelet volume, and other hematological parameters were compared in blood samples anticoagulated with MgSO4 and EDTA. A total of 15 samples were taken, and the platelet counts were observed to be significantly high in MgSO4-anticoagulated blood samples ranging from 53 × 10(3) to 499 × 10(3)/μL, whereas in EDTA-anticoagulated blood samples, the counts ranged from 10 × 10(3) to 353 × 10(3)/μL. This increased platelet count was also statistically significant with the P value being ...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Daniel Caldeira, Filipe B Rodrigues, Fausto J Pinto, Joaquim J Ferreira, João Costa
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal complication of orthopedic surgery, and until recently, few antithrombotic compounds were available for postoperative thromboprophylaxis. The introduction of the non-vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants (NOAC), including apixaban, has extended the therapeutic armamentarium in this field. Therefore, estimation of NOAC net clinical benefit in comparison with the established treatment is needed to inform clinical decision making...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Feryal Abbas Ibrahim Hilmi, Ahmad Al-Sabbagh, Dina Sameh Soliman, Hesham Al Sabah, Omar Mohammad Ismail, Mohamed Yassin, Halima El-Omri
Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a condition associated with clonal neoplastic proliferation of mast cells. In up to 40% of systemic mastocytosis cases, an associated clonal hematological disease of non-mast cell lineage, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), is diagnosed before, simultaneously with, or after the diagnosis of SM. Herein, we report a case of a 30-year-old man diagnosed with AML with inv(16) (p13;q22) CBFB:MYH11. Associated mastocytosis was not noted at diagnosis and was only detected in the bone marrow at time of remission after successful chemotherapy...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Priya Mahajan, Judith Margolin, Ionela Iacobas
Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) is a rare consumptive coagulopathy associated with specific vascular tumors, kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, and tufted angioma. Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, characterized by profound thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, elevated fibrin split products, and rapid tumor growth, can be life-threatening. Severe symptomatic anemia may also be present. With prompt diagnosis and management, KMP can resolve and vascular tumors have been shown to regress. This review highlights the clinical presentation, histopathology, management, and treatment of KMP associated with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, and less frequently tufted angioma...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Alessandra Iurlo, Daniele Cattaneo
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a BCR-ABL1 -negative myeloproliferative neoplasm that is mainly characterised by reactive bone marrow fibrosis, extramedullary haematopoiesis, anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, constitutional symptoms, leukaemic progression, and shortened survival. As such, this malignancy is still orphan of curative treatments; indeed, the only treatment that has a clearly demonstrated impact on disease progression is allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but only a minority of patients are eligible for such intensive therapy...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Alina M Bischin, Russell Dorer, David M Aboulafia
Most commonly, histologic transformation (HT) from follicular lymphoma (FL) manifests as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL, NOS). Less frequently, HT may result in a high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL) with MYC and B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (BCL2) and/or BCL6 gene rearrangements, also known as "double-hit" or "triple-hit" lymphomas. In the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms, the category B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable was eliminated due to its vague criteria and limiting diagnostic benefit...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Fnu Nutan, Nagesh S Gollahalli
Sickle cell disease and Sarcoidosis are conditions that are more common in the African American population. In this report we share an unfortunate patient who had hepatic sarcoidosis but could not receive steroids since that precipitated acute liver failure. We have discussed potential therapy options but we need more options that improve mortality.
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Samira Moradi, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar
The 21st century is challenging for human beings. Increased population growth, population aging, generation of new infectious agents, and natural disasters are some threatening factors for the current state of blood transfusion. However, it seems that science and technology not only could overcome these challenges but also would turn many human dreams to reality in this regard. Scientists believe that one of the future evolutionary innovations could be artificial blood substitutes that might pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Aida Sabaté-Llobera, Montserrat Cortés-Romera, Santiago Mercadal, Javier Hernández-Gañán, Helena Pomares, Eva González-Barca, Cristina Gámez-Cenzano
Computed tomography (CT) has been used as the reference imaging technique for the initial staging of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma until recent days, when the introduction of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging as a hybrid technique has become of routine use. However, the performance of both examinations is still common. The aim of this work was to compare the findings between low-dose 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT and full-dose contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) in 28 patients with localized diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to PET/CT findings, in order to avoid the performance of ceCT...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Dina S Soliman, Shehab Fareed, Einas Alkuwari, Halima El-Omri, Ahmad Al-Sabbagh, Amna Gameel, Mohamed Yassin
Discordant lymphoma is rare condition in which different types of malignant lymphomas occurring in different anatomic sites. The two diseases may present clinically as concurrent or sequential disease (10). Herein we are reporting a Pakistani female in her 60s, a carrier of hepatitis B virus with multiple comorbidities presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, diagnosed as Hodgkin's lymphoma, mixed cellularity. During the staging workup, the patient was discovered to have extensive bone marrow (BM) involvement by Burkitt leukaemia/lymphoma (BL)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Shosaku Nomura
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired hemorrhagic condition characterized by the accelerated clearance of platelets caused by antiplatelet autoantibodies. A platelet count in peripheral blood <100 × 10(9)/L is the most important criterion for the diagnosis of ITP. However, the platelet count is not the sole diagnostic criterion, and the diagnosis of ITP is dependent on additional findings. ITP can be classified into three types, namely, acute, subchronic, and persistent, based on disease duration...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Anthony A Oyekunle, Muheez A Durosinmi, Ramoni A Bolarinwa, Temilola Owojuyigbe, Lateef Salawu, Norah O Akinola
OBJECTIVES: The advent of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors has markedly changed the prognostic outlook for patients with Ph(+) and/or BCR-ABL1 (+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This study was designed to assess the overall survival (OS) of Nigerian patients with CML receiving imatinib therapy and to identify the significant predictors of OS. METHODS: All patients with CML receiving imatinib from July 2003 to June 2013 were studied. The clinical and hematological parameters were studied...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Costan G Magnussen, Kylie J Smith
A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Samah A Kohla, Ahmad Al Sabbagh, Halima El Omri, Firyal A Ibrahim, Ivone B Otazu, Hessa Alhajri, Mohamed A Yassin
Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is considered as a rare type of leukemia with an incidence of less than 4% of all acute leukemia based on the most recent 2008 WHO classification. Common subtypes are the B/myeloid and T/myeloid; B/T and trilineage MPAL being extremely rare. We present a case of a male in his 20s, whose peripheral blood smears showed 34% blast cells and bone marrow with 70% blasts. Immunophenotyping by multiparametric flow cytometry showed two populations of blasts, the major one with B-lineage and the minor one with T-lineage...
2015: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
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