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Clinical & Translational Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263117/upregulation-of-hla-e-by-dengue-and-not-zika-viruses
#1
Elena Drews, Awadalkareem Adam, Phone Htoo, Elizabeth Townsley, Anuja Mathew
Introduction: The most severe form of dengue virus (DENV) illness, dengue haemorrhagic fever, is characterised by plasma leakage and increased vascular permeability. Objectives: Given the critical role that endothelial cells play in the pathogenesis of DENV, we wanted to determine whether infection with DENV altered the expression of MHC class I related genes including HLA-E. Results: In this study, we provide evidence that HLA-E but not MICA/B or HLA-G is upregulated by all four serotypes of DENV in an endothelial cell line human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC)-1...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128152/erratum-genome-wide-association-studies-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Chris Cotsapas, Mitja Mitrovic
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/cti2.1018.].
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30128151/tryptophan-and-arginine-catabolic-enzymes-and-regulatory-cytokines-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-and-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Lilian Cha, Anderson P Jones, Stephanie Trend, Scott N Byrne, Marzena J Fabis-Pedrini, William M Carroll, Robyn M Lucas, Judith M Cole, David R Booth, Allan G Kermode, Prue H Hart
Objectives: Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is the earliest clinical episode in multiple sclerosis (MS). A study of circulating cells from patients with CIS may help us understand the transition to, and processes associated with, the development of MS. Methods: As immune cell activity can be determined by flux through metabolic pathways, the mRNA expression of l-tryptophan- and l-arginine-catabolising enzymes, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 1 and IDO2 and arginase (ARG) 1 and ARG2, respectively, was compared between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy controls, and patients with CIS and definite MS...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065836/platelets-regulate-leucocyte-responses-to-toll-like-receptor-stimulation
#4
Kathryn E Hally, Anne C La Flamme, Scott A Harding, Peter D Larsen
Objectives: Platelets are important regulators of vascular thrombosis and inflammation and are known to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Through TLRs, platelets mediate a number of responses by interacting with leucocytes. Here, we report the extent to which platelets modulate in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and granulocyte responses to TLR4, TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 stimulation in healthy subjects. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and granulocytes from 10 healthy volunteers were cultured alone or cocultured with platelets...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002828/endoplasmic-reticulum-and-oxidative-stress-in-immunopathology-understanding-the-crosstalk-between-cellular-stress-and-inflammation
#5
EDITORIAL
Sumaira Z Hasnain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928503/ten-years-of-genome-wide-association-studies-of-immune-related-diseases
#6
EDITORIAL
Manuel Ar Ferreira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928502/high-molecular-weight-hyaluronic-acid-a-two-pronged-protectant-against-infection-of-the-urogenital-tract
#7
Catherine A Mowbray, Syema Shams, Git Chung, Anna Stanton, Phillip Aldridge, Andrejus Suchenko, Robert S Pickard, Ased Sm Ali, Judith Hall
Objectives: Recurrent urinary tract infections are associated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) ascending and infecting the urinary tract. Antibiotics provide only symptomatic relief, not prevent recurrence. Clinical evidence suggests that intravesical glycosaminoglycan therapy, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), helps reduce UTI recurrence. This has been investigated here using in vitro systems modelling the urogenital tract tissues. Methods: RT4 bladder cells were preconditioned with high molecular weight HA (> 1500 kDa) at 2 mg mL-1 and challenged with UPEC to analyse barrier protection and bacterial adherence...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928501/oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-respiratory-disease
#8
REVIEW
Alice C-H Chen, Lucy Burr, Michael A McGuckin
Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are related states that can occur in cells as part of normal physiology but occur frequently in diseases involving inflammation. In this article, we review recent findings relating to the role of oxidative and ER stress in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic nonmalignant diseases of the lung, including infections, cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. We also explore the potential of drugs targeting oxidative and ER stress pathways to alleviate disease...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881546/genome-wide-association-studies-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Chris Cotsapas, Mitja Mitrovic
Large-scale genetic studies of multiple sclerosis have identified over 230 risk effects across the human genome, making it a prototypical common disease with complex genetic architecture. Here, after a brief historical background on the discovery and definition of the disease, we summarise the last fifteen years of genetic discoveries and map out the challenges that remain to translate these findings into an aetiological framework and actionable clinical understanding.
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868169/microbiota-and-immune-cell-crosstalk-dialogues-driving-health-and-disease
#10
EDITORIAL
Mubing Duan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713472/the-role-of-il-22-in-the-resolution-of-sterile-and-nonsterile-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Saleh Y Alabbas, Jakob Begun, Timothy H Florin, Iulia Oancea
In a broad sense, inflammation can be conveniently characterised by two phases: the first phase, which is a pro-inflammatory, has evolved to clear infection and/or injured tissue; and the second phase concerns regeneration of normal tissue and restitution of normal physiology. Innate immune cell-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines activate and recruit nonresident immune cells to the site of infection, thereby amplifying the inflammatory responses to clear infection or injury. This phase is followed by a cytokine milieu that promotes tissue regeneration...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713471/recent-novel-approaches-to-limit-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-diabetic-complications
#12
REVIEW
Raelene J Pickering, Carlos J Rosado, Arpeeta Sharma, Shareefa Buksh, Mitchel Tate, Judy B de Haan
Diabetes is considered a major burden on the healthcare system of Western and non-Western societies with the disease reaching epidemic proportions globally. Diabetic patients are highly susceptible to developing micro- and macrovascular complications, which contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality rates. Over the past decade, a plethora of research has demonstrated that oxidative stress and inflammation are intricately linked and significant drivers of these diabetic complications. Thus, the focus now has been towards specific mechanism-based strategies that can target both oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways to improve the outcome of disease burden...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670745/induction-of-immunity-following-vaccination-with-a-chemically-attenuated-malaria-vaccine-correlates-with-persistent-antigenic-stimulation
#13
Jennifer M Reiman, Sanjai Kumar, Ingrid B Rodriguez, Sedami Gnidehou, Koichi Ito, Danielle I Stanisic, Moses Lee, Virginia McPhun, Victoria Majam, Nicole M Willemsen, Michael R Batzloff, Amber I Raja, Brad Dooley, Stephen L Hoffman, Stephanie K Yanow, Michael F Good
Objectives: Blood stage malaria parasites attenuated with seco-cyclopropyl pyrrolo indole (CPI) analogues induce robust immunity in mice to homologous and heterologous malaria parasites and are being considered for the development of a human vaccine. However, it is not understood how attenuated parasites induce immunity. We showed that following vaccination, parasite DNA persisted in blood for several months, raising the possibility that ongoing immune stimulation may be critical. However, parasites were not seen microscopically beyond 24 h postvaccination...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29632667/immune-regulation-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-at-the-mucosal-barrier-in-viral-infection
#14
REVIEW
Ran Wang, Md Moniruzzaman, Eric Shuffle, Rohan Lourie, Sumaira Z Hasnain
Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is subject to stringent quality control. When protein secretion demand exceeds the protein folding capacity of the ER, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is triggered as a consequence of ER stress. Due to the secretory function of epithelial cells, UPR plays an important role in maintaining epithelial barrier function at mucosal sites. ER stress and activation of the UPR are natural mechanisms by which mucosal epithelial cells combat viral infections. In this review, we discuss the important role of UPR in regulating mucosal epithelium homeostasis...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610662/a-feasibility-study-association-between-gut-microbiota-enterotype-and-antibody-response-to-seasonal-trivalent-influenza-vaccine-in-adults
#15
Nick Shortt, Hazel Poyntz, Wayne Young, Angela Jones, Aurélie Gestin, Anna Mooney, Darmiga Thayabaran, Jenny Sparks, Tess Ostapowicz, Audrey Tay, Sally Poppitt, Sarah Elliott, Georgia Wakefield, Amber Parry-Strong, Jacqui Ralston, Olivier Gasser, Richard Beasley, Mark Weatherall, Irene Braithwaite, Elizabeth Forbes-Blom
Objective: We investigated the potential feasibility of a randomized controlled trial of a nutritional intervention that may alter human gut microbiota and support immune defence against respiratory tract infection in adults (Proposed Study). Methods: In total, 125 healthy adults aged 18-64 participated in a 6-month study that measured antibody response to the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. We assessed completion rates, procedure adherence rates and the influence of possible exclusion criteria on potential recruitment into the Proposed Study...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610661/regulatory-t-cell-heterogeneity
#16
EDITORIAL
Kirsten A Ward-Hartstonge, Ajithkumar Vasanthakumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497530/unravelling-the-molecular-basis-for-regulatory-t-cell-plasticity-and-loss-of-function-in-disease
#17
REVIEW
Timothy Sadlon, Cheryl Y Brown, Veronika Bandara, Christopher M Hope, John E Schjenken, Stephen M Pederson, James Breen, Alistair Forrest, Marc Beyer, Sarah Robertson, Simon C Barry
Regulatory T cells (Treg) are critical for preventing autoimmunity and curtailing responses of conventional effector T cells (Tconv). The reprogramming of T-cell fate and function to generate Treg requires switching on and off of key gene regulatory networks, which may be initiated by a subtle shift in expression levels of specific genes. This can be achieved by intermediary regulatory processes that include microRNA and long noncoding RNA-based regulation of gene expression. There are well-documented microRNA profiles in Treg and Tconv, and these can operate to either reinforce or reduce expression of a specific set of target genes, including FOXP3 itself...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484187/vaccinating-for-natural-killer-cell-effector-functions
#18
REVIEW
Helen R Wagstaffe, Jason P Mooney, Eleanor M Riley, Martin R Goodier
Vaccination has proved to be highly effective in reducing global mortality and eliminating infectious diseases. Building on this success will depend on the development of new and improved vaccines, new methods to determine efficacy and optimum dosing and new or refined adjuvant systems. NK cells are innate lymphoid cells that respond rapidly during primary infection but also have adaptive characteristics enabling them to integrate innate and acquired immune responses. NK cells are activated after vaccination against pathogens including influenza, yellow fever and tuberculosis, and their subsequent maturation, proliferation and effector function is dependent on myeloid accessory cell-derived cytokines such as IL-12, IL-18 and type I interferons...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484186/characterisation-of-anti-alpha-toxin-antibody-levels-and-colonisation-status-after-administration-of-an-investigational-human-monoclonal-antibody-medi4893-against-staphylococcus-aureus-alpha-toxin
#19
Alexey Ruzin, Yuling Wu, Li Yu, Xiang-Qing Yu, David E Tabor, Hoyin Mok, Christine Tkaczyk, Kathryn Jensen, Terramika Bellamy, Lorin Roskos, Mark T Esser, Hasan S Jafri
Objectives: MEDI4893 is a novel, long-acting human monoclonal antibody targeting Staphylococcus aureus (SA) alpha toxin (AT). This report presents the results of the exploratory analyses from a randomised phase 1 dose-escalation study in healthy human subjects receiving single intravenous MEDI4893 doses or placebo. Methods: Anti-AT antibodies and AT expression were measured as described previously. Nasal swabs were analysed by culture and PCR. Data were summarised by treatment groups and visits by using SAS System Version 9...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484185/accumulation-of-il-17-v%C3%AE-6-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-pregnant-mice-is-not-associated-with-spontaneous-abortion
#20
Barbara Polese, Virginie Gridelet, Sophie Perrier d'Hauterive, Chantal Renard, Carine Munaut, Henri Martens, David Vermijlen, Irah L King, Nathalie Jacobs, Vincent Geenen
Introduction: Pregnancy is an immune paradox. While the immune system is required for embryo implantation, placental development and progression of gestation, excessive inflammation is associated with pregnancy failure. Similarly, the cytokine IL-17A plays an important role in defence against extracellular pathogens, but its dysregulation can lead to pathogenic inflammation and tissue damage. Although expression of IL-17 has been reported during pregnancy, the cellular source of this cytokine and its relevance to gestation are not clear...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
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