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Clinical & Translational Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867517/protective-immunity-to-liver-stage-malaria
#1
REVIEW
Lauren E Holz, Daniel Fernandez-Ruiz, William R Heath
Despite decades of research and recent clinical trials, an efficacious long-lasting preventative vaccine for malaria remains elusive. This parasite infects mammals via mosquito bites, progressing through several stages including the relatively short asymptomatic liver stage followed by the more persistent cyclic blood stage, the latter of which is responsible for all disease symptoms. As the liver acts as a bottleneck to blood-stage infection, it represents a potential site for parasite and disease control...
October 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867516/autoantibodies-against-cd80-in-patients-with-copd
#2
Xu Min Luo, Xin Yan Liu, Ji Hong Tang, Wei Yang, Zhen Hua Ni, Qing Ge Chen, Xiongbiao Wang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammation disorder and possibly an autoimmune disease. The components of the autoimmune response in the circulatory system are of considerable interest to clinicians. Because aberrations of costimulation status have been noted in COPD, the presence of autoantibodies to B7 costimulatory factor CD80 were investigated in a cohort of patients. Recombinant rs1CD80 (lacking the transmembrane domain of CD80) was used for Western blot analysis and ELISA to investigate the presence of autoantibodies in sera of patients with stable COPD and in controls without COPD...
October 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867515/the-cd8-t-cell-response-during-tolerance-induction-in-liver-transplantation
#3
REVIEW
Yik Chun Wong, Geoffrey W McCaughan, David G Bowen, Patrick Bertolino
Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that the liver possesses unique tolerogenic properties. Liver allografts can be spontaneously accepted across complete major histocompatibility mismatch in some animal models. In addition, some liver transplant patients can be successfully withdrawn from immunosuppressive medications, developing 'operational tolerance'. Multiple mechanisms have been shown to be involved in inducing and maintaining alloimmune tolerance associated with liver transplantation. Here, we focus on CD8 T-cell tolerance in this setting...
October 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867514/hepatitis-c-virus-drives-the-pathogenesis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-immune-evasion-to-carcinogenesis
#4
Miriam Canavese, Danushka Wijesundara, Guy J Maddern, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Ehud Hauben
Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary malignancy of the liver with over half a million new cases diagnosed annually worldwide. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor and its activation by environmental chemicals and by its endogenous ligand kynurenine (Kyn) has been implicated in a variety of tumour-promoting processes such as transformation, tumorigenesis and in immunosuppression that enables tumour survival and growth...
October 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766148/expression-profile-of-novel-cell-surface-molecules-on-different-subsets-of-human-peripheral-blood-antigen-presenting-cells
#5
Daniela Damasceno, Martín Pérez Andrés, Wouter Bl van den Bossche, Juan Flores-Montero, Sandra de Bruin, Cristina Teodosio, Jacques Jm van Dongen, Alberto Orfao, Julia Almeida
Although major steps have been recently made in understanding the role of the distinct subsets of dendritic cells (DC)/antigen-presenting cells (APC), further studies are required to unravel their precise role, including in-depth immunophenotypic characterisation of these cells. Here, we used eight-colour flow cytometry to investigate the reactivity of a panel of 72 monoclonal antibodies (including those clustered in seven new Cluster of Differentiation, CD) on different subsets of APC in peripheral blood (PB) samples from five healthy adults...
September 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588204/role-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-group-b-streptococcus-colonisation
#6
Nicholas J Andreas, Asmaa Al-Khalidi, Mustapha Jaiteh, Edward Clarke, Matthew J Hyde, Neena Modi, Elaine Holmes, Beate Kampmann, Kirsty Mehring Le Doare
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The major risk factor for GBS disease is maternal and subsequent infant colonisation. It is unknown whether human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) protect against GBS colonisation. HMO production is genetically determined and linked to the Lewis antigen system. We aimed to investigate the association between HMOs and infant GBS colonisation between birth and postnatal day 90. Rectovaginal swabs were collected at delivery, as well as colostrum/breast milk, infant nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs at birth, 6 days and days 60-89 postpartum from 183 Gambian mother/infant pairs...
August 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588203/mait-cells-new-guardians-of-the-liver
#7
REVIEW
Ayako Kurioka, Lucy J Walker, Paul Klenerman, Christian B Willberg
The liver is an important immunological organ that remains sterile and tolerogenic in homeostasis, despite continual exposure to non-self food and microbial-derived products from the gut. However, where intestinal mucosal defenses are breached or in the presence of a systemic infection, the liver acts as a second 'firewall', because of its enrichment with innate effector cells able to rapidly respond to infections or tissue dysregulation. One of the largest populations of T cells within the human liver are mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a novel innate-like T-cell population that can recognize a highly conserved antigen derived from the microbial riboflavin synthesis pathway...
August 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588202/cti-special-feature-on-inflammatory-diseases-a-translational-perspective
#8
EDITORIAL
Connie Hy Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588201/cti-special-feature-on-innate-immune-responses-and-vaccine-design
#9
EDITORIAL
Christopher Sundling, Kerrie Sandgren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588200/conditions-for-the-generation-of-cytotoxic-cd4-th-cells-that-enhance-cd8-ctl-mediated-tumor-regression
#10
Kunyu Li, Margaret Baird, Jianping Yang, Chris Jackson, Franca Ronchese, Sarah Young
Adoptive cell therapies (ACTs) using tumor-reactive T cells have shown clinical benefit and potential for cancer treatment. While the majority of the current ACT are focused on using CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), others have shown that the presence of tumor-reactive CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells can greatly enhance the anti-tumor activity of CD8(+) CTL. However, difficulties in obtaining adequate numbers of CD4(+) Th cells through in vitro expansion can limit the application of CD4 Th cells in ACT. This study aims to optimize the culture conditions for mouse CD4 T cells to provide basic information for animal studies of ACT using CD4 T cells...
August 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588199/prospective-studies-of-infectious-mononucleosis-in-university-students
#11
Jennifer M Grimm, David O Schmeling, Samantha K Dunmire, Jennifer A Knight, Beth D Mullan, Julie A Ed, Richard C Brundage, Kristin A Hogquist, Henry H Balfour
We performed an intensive prospective study designed to obtain as much data as possible on the incubation and early illness periods of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Undergraduate students who lacked EBV antibody and oral EBV DNA (EBV-naive) were seen every 2 weeks during their freshman year. Clinical and behavioral data, oral washes and venous blood were obtained. EBV antibodies were quantified by enzyme immunoassay and viral loads by PCR. During a median 8 months of observation, 14/85 subjects experienced primary EBV infections (24 cases/100 person-years)...
August 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525067/understanding-natural-herpes-simplex-virus-immunity-to-inform-next-generation-vaccine-design
#12
REVIEW
Kerrie J Sandgren, Kirstie Bertram, Anthony L Cunningham
Incremental advances in our knowledge of how natural immune control of herpes simplex virus (HSV) develops have yielded insight as to why previous vaccine attempts have only been partially successful, however, our understanding of these pathways, particularly in humans, is still incomplete. Further elucidation of the innate immune events that are responsible for stimulating these effector responses is required to accurately inform vaccine design. An enhanced understanding of the mechanism of action of novel adjuvants will also facilitate the rational choice of adjuvant to optimise such responses...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525066/repertoire-comparison-of-the-b-cell-receptor-encoding-loci-in-humans-and-rhesus-macaques-by-next-generation-sequencing
#13
Vladimir Vigdorovich, Brian G Oliver, Sara Carbonetti, Nicholas Dambrauskas, Miles D Lange, Christina Yacoob, Will Leahy, Jonathan Callahan, Leonidas Stamatatos, D Noah Sather
Rhesus macaques (RMs) are a widely used model system for the study of vaccines, infectious diseases and microbial pathogenesis. Their value as a model lies in their close evolutionary relationship to humans, which, in theory, allows them to serve as a close approximation of the human immune system. However, despite their prominence as a human surrogate model system, many aspects of the RM immune system remain ill characterized. In particular, B cell-mediated immunity in macaques has not been sufficiently characterized, and the B-cell receptor-encoding loci have not been thoroughly annotated...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525065/experimental-design-considerations-in-microbiota-inflammation-studies
#14
REVIEW
Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
There is now convincing evidence that many inflammatory diseases are precipitated, or at least exacerbated, by unfavourable interactions of the host with the resident microbiota. The role of gut microbiota in the genesis and progression of diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes have been studied both in human and in animal, mainly rodent, models of disease. The intrinsic variation in microbiota composition, both within one host over time and within a group of similarly treated hosts, presents particular challenges in experimental design...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525064/elucidating-novel-disease-mechanisms-in-severe-asthma
#15
REVIEW
Richard Y Kim, Brittany Rae, Rachel Neal, Chantal Donovan, James Pinkerton, Lohis Balachandran, Malcolm R Starkey, Darryl A Knight, Jay C Horvat, Philip M Hansbro
Corticosteroids are broadly active and potent anti-inflammatory agents that, despite the introduction of biologics, remain as the mainstay therapy for many chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Significantly, there are cohorts of these patients with poor sensitivity to steroid treatment even with high doses, which can lead to many iatrogenic side effects. The dose-limiting toxicity of corticosteroids, and the lack of effective therapeutic alternatives, leads to substantial excess morbidity and healthcare expenditure...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525063/the-interplay-between-microbiota-and-inflammation-lessons-from-peritonitis-and-sepsis
#16
REVIEW
Leandro A Lobo, Claudia F Benjamim, Ana Carolina Oliveira
Mammals harbor a complex gut-associated microbiota, comprising bacteria that provide immunological, metabolic and neurological benefits to the host, and contribute to their well-being. However, dysregulation of the microbiota composition, known as dysbiosis, along with the associated mucosal immune response have a key role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), type 1 and type 2 diabetes, asthma, multiple sclerosis, among others. In addition, outside the gut lumen, bacteria from microbiota are the causative agent of peritoneal inflammation, abdominal sepsis and systemic sepsis...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525062/platelets-and-coagulation-in-infection
#17
REVIEW
Rachelle P Davis, Sarah Miller-Dorey, Craig N Jenne
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a frequent complication in sepsis that is associated with worse outcomes and higher mortality in patients. In addition to the uncontrolled generation of thrombi throughout the patient's vasculature, DIC often consumes large quantities of clotting factors leaving the patient susceptible to hemorrhaging. Owing to these complications, patients often receive anticoagulants to treat the uncontrolled clotting, often with mixed outcomes. This lack of success with the current array of anticoagulants can be partly explained by the fact that during sepsis clotting is often initiated by the immune system...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525061/characterizing-the-inflammatory-response-in-esophageal-mucosal-biopsies-in-children-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#18
Wael N Sayej, Antoine Ménoret, Anu S Maharjan, Marina Fernandez, Zhu Wang, Fabiola Balarezo, Jeffrey S Hyams, Francisco A Sylvester, Anthony T Vella
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging allergic, IgE- and non-IgE (Th2 cell)-mediated disease. There are major gaps in the understanding of the basic mechanisms that drive the persistence of EoE. We investigated whether esophageal biopsies from children with EoE demonstrate an inflammatory response that is distinct from normal controls. We prospectively enrolled 84 patients, of whom 77 were included in our analysis, aged 4-17 years (12.8±3.8 years; 81% males). Five esophageal biopsies were collected from each patient at the time of endoscopy...
July 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757227/new-insights-into-therapeutic-strategies-for-gut-microbiota-modulation-in-inflammatory-diseases
#19
Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Claudio Fukumori, Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira
The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757226/the-microbiota-and-chronic-kidney-diseases-a-double-edged-sword
#20
Raphael Jose Ferreira Felizardo, Angela Castoldi, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara
Recent findings regarding the influence of the microbiota in many inflammatory processes have provided a new way to treat diseases. Now, one may hypothesize that the origin of a plethora of diseases is related to the health of the gut microbiota and its delicate, although complex, interface with the epithelial and immune systems. The 'westernization' of diets, for example, is associated with alterations in the gut microbiota. Such alterations have been found to correlate directly with the increased incidence of diabetes and hypertension, the main causes of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs), which, in turn, have a high estimated prevalence...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
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