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Clinical & Translational Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983404/functional-heterogeneity-of-gut-resident-regulatory-t-cells
#1
REVIEW
Maik Luu, Ulrich Steinhoff, Alexander Visekruna
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have a central role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by restraining inappropriate immune responses in the healthy gut. Although distinct intestinal immune cell populations have been described to exhibit regulatory activity, several genetic and functional studies provided a strong evidence for a pivotal role of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+)CD4(+) Treg cells in prevention of dysregulated mucosal immune reactions and development of chronic immunological disorders such as celiac disease, food allergies and inflammatory bowel disease...
September 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983403/autoimmunity-inflammation-in-a-monogenic-primary-immunodeficiency-cohort
#2
William Rae, Daniel Ward, Christopher J Mattocks, Yifang Gao, Reuben J Pengelly, Sanjay V Patel, Sarah Ennis, Saul N Faust, Anthony P Williams
Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are rare inborn errors of immunity that have a heterogeneous phenotype that can include severe susceptibility to life-threatening infections from multiple pathogens, unique sensitivity to a single pathogen, autoimmune/inflammatory (AI/I) disease, allergies and/or malignancy. We present a diverse cohort of monogenic PID patients with and without AI/I diseases who underwent clinical, genetic and immunological phenotyping. Novel pathogenic variants were identified in IKBKG, CTLA4, NFKB1, GATA2, CD40LG and TAZ as well as previously reported pathogenic variants in STAT3, PIK3CD, STAT1, NFKB2 and STXBP2...
September 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983402/regulatory-t-cell-heterogeneity-and-the-cancer-immune-response
#3
REVIEW
Kirsten A Ward-Hartstonge, Roslyn A Kemp
The frequency of circulating or tumour-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been associated with poor patient survival in many cancers including breast, melanoma and lung. It has been hypothesised that Tregs impact the anti-tumour function of effector T cells, resulting in worse outcomes for patients. However, high infiltrates of Tregs have been associated with a positive outcome of patients in a minority of cancers including colorectal, bladder and oesophageal. In addition, many studies have shown no impact of Tregs in patient outcome...
September 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868144/inhibition-of-il-17a-by-secukinumab-shows-no-evidence-of-increased-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infections
#4
Michael Kammüller, Tsen-Fang Tsai, Christopher Em Griffiths, Nidhi Kapoor, Pappachan E Kolattukudy, Dominique Brees, Salah-Dine Chibout, Jorge Safi, Todd Fox
Secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralizes interleukin-17A (IL-17A), has been shown to have significant efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Blocking critical mediators of immunity may carry a risk of increased opportunistic infections. Here we present clinical and in vitro findings examining the effect of secukinumab on Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We re-assessed the effect of secukinumab on the incidence of acute tuberculosis (TB) and reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) in pooled safety data from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trials in subjects with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis...
August 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791126/investigation-of-sphingosine-kinase-1-in-interferon-responses-during-dengue-virus-infection
#5
Amanda L Aloia, Julie K Calvert, Jennifer N Clarke, Lorena T Davies, Karla J Helbig, Stuart M Pitson, Jillian M Carr
Dengue virus (DENV) regulates sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 activity and chemical inhibition of SK1 reduces DENV infection. In primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (pMEFs) lacking SK1 however, DENV infection is enhanced and this is associated with induction of normal levels of interferon beta (IFN-β) but reduced levels of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We have further investigated this link between SK1 and type I IFN responses. DENV infection downregulates cell-surface IFN-alpha receptor (IFNAR)1 in both wild-type (WT) and SK1(-)(/-) pMEF, but, consistent with poor ISG responses, shows reduced induction of phosphorylated (p)-STAT1 and key IFN regulatory factors (IRF)1 and -7 in SK1(-/-) pMEF...
July 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791125/nkg2c-memory-like-nk-cells-contribute-to-the-control-of-hiv-viremia-during-primary-infection-optiprim-anrs-147
#6
Françoise Gondois-Rey, Antoine Chéret, Samuel Granjeaud, Françoise Mallet, Ghislain Bidaut, Camille Lécuroux, Mickaël Ploquin, Michaela Müller-Trutwin, Christine Rouzioux, Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Alessandro Moretta, Gilles Pialoux, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer, Daniel Olive
Natural-killer (NK) cells are important immune effectors during a viral infection. Latent CMV infection is widely spread and was demonstrated to shape the NK cell repertoire through the NKG2C receptor. An expansion of NKG2C(+) NK cells has been reported during primary HIV infection (PHI), but their role is not known. We previously found a correlation between the maturation state of the NK cell compartment and a lower viral load by studying patients from the ANRS 147 Optiprim trial. We investigated here extensively the NKG2C(+) NK cells at the time of PHI and its evolution after 3 months of early antiretroviral therapy (combination antiretroviral therapy (cART))...
July 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791124/combining-dendritic-cells-and-b-cells-for-presentation-of-oxidised-tumour-antigens-to-cd8-t-cells
#7
Melanie L Grant, Nicholas Shields, Silke Neumann, Katrin Kramer, Andrea Bonato, Christopher Jackson, Margaret A Baird, Sarah L Young
The dendritic cell (DC) is the foremost antigen-presenting cell (APC) for ex vivo expansion of tumour-specific patient T cells. Despite marked responses in some patients following reinfusion of DC-activated autologous or HLA-matched donor T cells, overall response rates remain modest in solid tumours. Furthermore, most studies aim to generate immune responses against defined tumour-associated antigens (TAA), however, meta-analysis reveals that those approaches have less clinical success than those using whole tumour cells or their components...
July 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748091/the-tetravalent-formulation-of-domain-iii-capsid-proteins-recalls-memory-b-and-t-cell-responses-induced-in-monkeys-by-an-experimental-dengue-virus-infection
#8
Lázaro Gil, Laura Lazo, Iris Valdés, Edith Suzarte, Phuong Yen, Rosa Ramírez, Mayling Álvarez, Le T Dung, Karem Cobas, Ernesto Marcos, Yusleidi Pérez, María G Guzmán, Ngyen D Hien, Gerardo Guillén, Lisset Hermida
Tetra DIIIC is a vaccine candidate against dengue virus (DENV) composed by four chimeric proteins that fuse the domain III of the envelope protein of each virus to the corresponding capsid protein. Containing B- and T-cell epitopes, these proteins form aggregates after the incubation with an immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide, and their tetravalent formulation induces neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune response in mice and monkeys. Also, Tetra DIIIC protects mice after challenge with each DENV, and the monovalent formulation obtained from DENV-2 protects monkeys upon homologous viral challenge...
June 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748090/erratum-defective-t-cell-control-of-epstein-barr-virus-infection-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Michael P Pender, Peter A Csurhes, Jacqueline M Burrows, Scott R Burrows
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/cti.2016.87.].
June 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695923/erratum-the-circulating-life-of-a-memory-t-follicular-helper-cell
#10
Cindy S Ma, Elissa K Deenick
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/cti.2017.17.].
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695922/erratum-tracking-the-t-cell-repertoire-after-adoptive-therapy
#11
Thomas S Watkins, John J Miles
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/cti.2017.16.].
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690850/agammaglobulinaemia-despite-terminal-b-cell-differentiation-in-a-patient-with-a-novel-lrba-mutation
#12
Nashat Al Sukaiti, Khwater AbdelRahman, Jalila AlShekaili, Sumaya Al Oraimi, Aisha Al Sinani, Nasser Al Rahbi, Vicky Cho, Matt Field, Matthew C Cook
Mutations in lipopolysaccharide-responsive vesicle trafficking, beach and anchor-containing protein (LRBA) cause immune deficiency and inflammation. Here, we are reporting a novel homozygous mutation in LRBA allele in 7-year-old Omani boy, born to consanguineous parents. He presented with type 1 diabetes, autoimmune haematological cytopenia, recurrent chest infections and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease. The patient was treated with CTLA4-Ig (abatacept) with good outcome every 2 weeks for a period of 3 months...
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690849/altered-regulatory-t-cell-fractions-and-helios-expression-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-clues-to-the-development-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Anderson P Jones, Stephanie Trend, Scott N Byrne, Marzena J Fabis-Pedrini, Sian Geldenhuys, David Nolan, David R Booth, William M Carroll, Robyn M Lucas, Allan G Kermode, Prue H Hart
Development of multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently preceded by an acute or subacute neurological disturbance referred to as clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). The specific immunological disturbances present in CIS remain underexamined. This study analysed peripheral blood mononuclear cells from n=18 treatment-naive individuals with recently diagnosed CIS (<120 days) for disturbances in the phenotype of T regulatory (Treg), follicular T regulatory (Tfr), T helper (Th), follicular T helper (Tfh) and B cells...
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690848/corrigendum-a-generalized-quantitative-antibody-homeostasis-model-antigen-saturation-natural-antibodies-and-a-quantitative-antibody-network
#14
József Prechl
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/cti.2016.90.].
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690847/the-circulating-life-of-a-memory-t-follicular-helper-cell
#15
EDITORIAL
Cindy S Ma, Elissa K Deenick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690846/tracking-the-t-cell-repertoire-after-adoptive-therapy
#16
EDITORIAL
Thomas S Watkins, John J Miles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690845/diagnostic-autoantibodies-for-autoimmune-liver-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Ban-Hock Toh
Autoimmune liver diseases are conditions of low prevalence that comprise the triad of autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis (cirrhosis) and primary sclerosing cholangitis and their poorly characterised overlapping syndromes. Diagnostic autoantibodies are associated with autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis but not with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Autoantibodies are useful disease markers that facilitate early diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis and allow for therapeutic intervention to prevent progression to liver cirrhosis and associated complications...
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690844/pd1-functions-by-inhibiting-cd28-mediated-co-stimulation
#18
EDITORIAL
Jake S O'Donnell, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690843/the-role-of-pd-1-in-regulation-of-macrophage-apoptosis-and-its-subversion-by-leishmania-donovani
#19
Shalini Roy, Purnima Gupta, Shreyasi Palit, Moumita Basu, Anindita Ukil, Pijush K Das
Programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1) expressed in many immune cells is known to trigger T-cell exhaustion but the significance of macrophage-associated PD-1 in relevance to macrophage apoptosis is not known. This study is aimed to delineate whether PD-1 pathway has any role in eliciting macrophage apoptosis and, if so, then how the intra-macrophage parasite, Leishmania donovani modulates PD-1 pathway for protecting its niche. Resting macrophages when treated with H2O2 showed increased PD-1 expression and apoptosis, which was further enhanced on PD-1 agonist treatment...
May 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523126/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-a-master-regulator-of-the-gut-microbiota-and-immune-cell-interactions
#20
REVIEW
David Bauché, Julien C Marie
The relationship between host organisms and their microbiota has co-evolved towards an inter-dependent network of mutualistic interactions. This interplay is particularly well studied in the gastrointestinal tract, where microbiota and host immune cells can modulate each other directly, as well as indirectly, through the production and release of chemical molecules and signals. In this review, we define the functional impact of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) on this complex interplay, especially through its modulation of the activity of local regulatory T cells (Tregs), type 17 helper (Th17) cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and B cells...
April 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
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