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David Gómez-Ríos, Howard Ramírez-Malule, Peter Neubauer, Stefan Junne, Rigoberto Ríos-Estepa
Clavulanic acid (CA) is a β-lactam antibiotic inhibitor of β-lactamase enzymes, which confers resistance to bacteria against several antibiotics. CA is produced in submerged cultures by the filamentous Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus ; yield and downstream process are compromised by a degradation phenomenon, which is not yet completely elucidated. In this contribution, a study of degradation kinetics of CA at low temperatures (-80, -20, 4, and 25 °C) and pH 6.8 in chemically-defined fermentation broths is presented...
January 17, 2019: Antibiotics
Patrick K Arthur, Vincent Amarh, Precious Cramer, Gloria B Arkaifie, Ethel J S Blessie, Mohammed-Sherrif Fuseini, Isaac Carilo, Rebecca Yeboah, Leonard Asare, Brian D Robertson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen of global public health concern. This threat is exacerbated by the emergence of multidrug-resistant and extremely-drug-resistant strains of the pathogen. We have obtained two distinct clones of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium smegmatis after gradual exposure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc² 155 to increasing concentrations of erythromycin. The resulting resistant strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis exhibited robust viability in the presence of high concentrations of erythromycin and were found to be resistant to a wide range of other antimicrobials...
January 2, 2019: Antibiotics
Helena Legido-Quigley, Mishal S Khan, Anna Durrance-Bagale, Johanna Hanefeld
While antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has rapidly ascended the political agenda in numerous high-income countries, developing effective and sustainable policy responses in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is far from straightforward, as AMR could be described as a classic 'wicked problem'. Effective policy responses to combat AMR in LMIC will require a deeper knowledge of the policy process and its actors at all levels-global, regional and national-and their motivations for supporting or opposing policies to combat AMR...
December 24, 2018: Antibiotics
Annie Wilkinson, Ayako Ebata, Hayley MacGregor
This review identifies evidence on supply-side interventions to change the practices of antibiotic prescribers and gatekeepers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A total of 102 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 70 studies evaluated interventions and 32 provided insight into prescribing contexts. All intervention studies were from human healthcare settings, none were from animal health. Only one context study examined antibiotic use in animal health. The evidence base is uneven, with the strongest evidence on knowledge and stewardship interventions...
December 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Ramy M Hanna, Shih-Fan Sun, Pryce Gaynor
Carbapenem agents are advanced derivatives of cephalosporins that are active against bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL). These antibiotics are resistant to enzymatic cleavage, and have good central nervous system penetration. Given this fact, it is not surprising that these drugs have been reported to cause neurological side effects like seizures and encephalopathy. We report a case of a patient on hemodialytic support who had a notable change in mentation and vocal tremor. This was at first attributed to calcineurin toxicity, but after the finding of a normal tacrolimus level, ertapenem neurotoxicity was suspected...
December 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Raymond J Turner
The use of metal compounds as antimicrobial agents has been around since antiquity, only to be replaced by the introduction of organic antibiotics and antiseptics in the mid-20th century. [...].
December 19, 2018: Antibiotics
Suzanne E Edwards, Chantal M Morel, Reinhard Busse, Stephan Harbarth
The development of antibiotics needs to be supported through new financial stimuli, including help from the public sector. In exchange for public support, industry should be asked to do what is in their power to help curb the inappropriate use of antibiotics. This work discusses key areas through which industry has an important influence on antibiotic consumption and where agreements can be made alongside financial incentives, even those intended to stimulate very early research. As long as the traditional unit sale-based business model for antibiotics remains in place, profit-making incentives will likely undermine efforts to sell and utilize antibiotics in a sustainable manner...
December 18, 2018: Antibiotics
Günter Kampf
Biocidal agents used for disinfection are usually not suspected to enhance cross-resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate the effect of 13 biocidal agents at sublethal concentrations on antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative species. A medline search was performed for each biocidal agent on antibiotic tolerance, antibiotic resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and efflux pump. In cells adapted to benzalkonium chloride a new resistance was most frequently found to ampicillin (eight species), cefotaxime (six species), and sulfamethoxazole (three species), some of them with relevance for healthcare-associated infections such as Enterobacter cloacae or Escherichia coli ...
December 14, 2018: Antibiotics
Rishika Mehta, Ashish Pathak
Antibiotic-resistant pathogens and nosocomial infections constitute common and serious problems for neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units worldwide. Chryseobacterium indologenes is a non-lactose-fermenting, gram-negative, health care-associated pathogen (HCAP). It is ubiquitous and intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics. Despite its low virulence, C. indologenes has been widely reported to cause life-threatening infections. Patients on chronic immunosuppressant drugs, harboring invasive devices and indwelling catheters become the nidus for C...
December 14, 2018: Antibiotics
Fernando Casado, Sitarama Arvind Mudunuru, Rabih Nasr
(1) Background: The use of intravenous antibiotics for severe infections is a common practice, either as inpatient or outpatient treatment. In the case of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), nafcillin is a commonly prescribed intravenous antibiotic, given its known efficacy to treat infections related to this organism effectively. However, it is not without side effects. (2) Methods: We present an interesting case of persistent hypokalemia in a patient after he was started on nafcillin infusion for an MSSA infection, which eventually resolved with the completion of the treatment...
December 12, 2018: Antibiotics
Pooja Mishra, Jaume Albiol-Chiva, Devasish Bose, Abhilasha Durgbanshi, Juan Peris-Vicente, Samuel Carda-Broch, Josep Esteve-Romero
Isoniazid is a drug that is widely used against tuberculosis. However, it shows high interpatient variability in metabolism kinetics and clinical effect, which complicates the prescription of the medication and jeopardizes the success of the therapy. Therefore, in a specific patient, the pharmacokinetics of the drug must be elucidated to decide the proper dosage and intake frequency to make the drug suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring. This can be performed by the quantification of the drug in urine as this process is non-invasive and allows the effects of long-time exposure to be inferred...
December 11, 2018: Antibiotics
Emily A F Holmes, Sharman D Harris, Alison Hughes, Noel Craine, Dyfrig A Hughes
More appropriate and measured use of antibiotics may be achieved using point-of-care (POC) C-reactive protein (CRP) testing, but there is limited evidence of cost-effectiveness in routine practice. A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of testing, compared with standard care, in adults presenting in primary care with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). Analyses considered (1) pragmatic use of testing, reflective of routine clinical practice, and (2) testing according to clinical guidelines...
December 7, 2018: Antibiotics
T Scott Brady, Christopher P Fajardo, Bryan D Merrill, Jared A Hilton, Kiel A Graves, Dennis L Eggett, Sandra Hope
Brevibacillus laterosporus is often present in beehives, including presence in hives infected with the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), Paenibacillus larvae . In this work, 12 B. laterosporus bacteriophages induced bactericidal products in their host. Results demonstrate that P. larvae is susceptible to antimicrobials induced from field isolates of the bystander, B. laterosporus . Bystander antimicrobial activity was specific against the pathogen and not other bacterial species, indicating that the production was likely due to natural competition between the two bacteria...
December 4, 2018: Antibiotics
Leah Carlisle, Julie Ann Justo, Majdi N Al-Hasan
An increasing number of reports describing Escherichia coli isolates with piperacillin/tazobactam resistance, despite retained cephalosporin susceptibility, suggest further emergence of this phenotypic resistance pattern. In this report, a patient with metastatic breast cancer presented to medical care after two days of chills, nausea, vomiting, reduced oral intake, and generalized weakness. Blood and urine cultures grew E. coli as identified by rapid diagnostics multiplex PCR and MALDI-TOF, respectively. The patient continued to manifest signs of sepsis with hypotension and tachypnea during the first three days of hospitalization despite empirical antimicrobial therapy with intravenous piperacillin/tazobactam...
December 1, 2018: Antibiotics
Elizabeth Cadavid, Sara M Robledo, Wiston Quiñones, Fernando Echeverri
Bacterial resistance is caused by several biochemical factors, the formation of biofilm being one of the main causes. This process is triggered by Quorum Sensing ( QS ), through the production of endogenous molecules, although other substances such as natural products can also do this. In this work, we aimed to determine whether some drugs are involved in the induction of biofilm formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13884, and thus, increase bacterial resistance. For this, the effect of 22 drugs on K. pneumoniae ATCC 13884 growth was determined at sub-plasmatic concentrations; the production of autoinducer lactones was established by HPLC and with a biosensor...
November 28, 2018: Antibiotics
Howard Ramirez-Malule
Clavulanic acid (CA), a potent inhibitor of the β-lactam, ase enzyme, is frequently co-formulated with a broad spectrum of antibiotics to treat infections caused by β-lactamase-producing pathogens. In order to evaluate the impact and the progress of CA studies in the last four decades, a bibliometric analysis of the global scientific production of CA was carried out. A total of 39,758 records in the field of CA were indexed in the Scopus database for a 43-year period of study (1975⁻2017). The results indicated that CA studies have grown, showing three phases (1975⁻1999, 2000⁻2003 and 2004⁻2017) based on records of publications; the results showed a sigmoidal profile...
November 26, 2018: Antibiotics
Cristina Howard-Varona, Dean R Vik, Natalie E Solonenko, Yueh-Fen Li, M Consuelo Gazitua, Lauren Chittick, Jennifer K Samiec, Aubrey E Jensen, Paige Anderson, Adrian Howard-Varona, Anika A Kinkhabwala, Stephen T Abedon, Matthew B Sullivan
Hemolytic⁻uremic syndrome is a life-threating disease most often associated with Shiga toxin-producing microorganisms like Escherichia coli (STEC), including E. coli O157:H7. Shiga toxin is encoded by resident prophages present within this bacterium, and both its production and release depend on the induction of Shiga toxin-encoding prophages. Consequently, treatment of STEC infections tend to be largely supportive rather than antibacterial, in part due to concerns about exacerbating such prophage induction...
November 16, 2018: Antibiotics
Abdulkader Masri, Ayaz Anwar, Dania Ahmed, Ruqaiyyah Bano Siddiqui, Muhammad Raza Shah, Naveed Ahmed Khan
This paper sets out to determine whether silver nanoparticles conjugation enhance the antibacterial efficacy of clinically approved drugs. Silver conjugated Cephradine and Vildagliptin were synthesized and thoroughly characterized by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic methods, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. Using antibacterial assays, the effects of drugs alone and drugs-conjugated with silver nanoparticles were tested against a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella pneumoniae , methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus pyogenes ...
November 15, 2018: Antibiotics
Anna N Berlina, Anastasia V Bartosh, Anatoly V Zherdev, Chuanlai Xu, Boris B Dzantiev
Determining antibiotic concentration in human blood provides useful pharmacokinetic information. Commonly used methods such as ELISA require a long time to obtain results and thus cannot be applied when information is needed immediately. In this study, a novel antibody-based lateral flow technique was developed for tetracycline detection in human serum. Contrary to tests developed to analyze food samples, the features of work with serum as analyzed probe were studied for the first time here. The application of labeled and unlabeled specific antibodies was compared...
November 13, 2018: Antibiotics
Eunice Ego Mgbeahuruike, Pia Fyhrquist, Heikki Vuorela, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Yvonne Holm
Piper guineense is a food and medicinal plant commonly used to treat infectious diseases in West-African traditional medicine. In a bid to identify new antibacterial compounds due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics, twelve extracts of P. guineense fruits and leaves, obtained by sequential extraction, as well as the piperine and piperlongumine commercial compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. HPLC-DAD and UHPLC/Q-TOF MS analysis were conducted to characterize and identify the compounds present in the extracts with promising antibacterial activity...
November 9, 2018: Antibiotics
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