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Antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827853/antimicrobial-usage-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-animal-production-in-southeast-asia-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Nguyen T Nhung, Nguyen V Cuong, Guy Thwaites, Juan Carrique-Mas
Southeast Asia is an area of great economic dynamism. In recent years, it has experienced a rapid rise in the levels of animal product production and consumption. The region is considered to be a hotspot for infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We reviewed English-language peer-reviewed publications related to antimicrobial usage (AMU) and AMR in animal production, as well as antimicrobial residues in meat and fish from 2000 to 2016, in the region. There is a paucity of data from most countries and for most bacterial pathogens...
November 2, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740593/pectocin-m1-pcam1-inhibits-escherichia-coli-cell-growth-and-peptidoglycan-biosynthesis-through-periplasmic-expression
#2
Dimitri Chérier, Sean Giacomucci, Delphine Patin, Ahmed Bouhss, Thierry Touzé, Didier Blanot, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Hélène Barreteau
Colicins are bacterial toxins produced by some Escherichia coli strains. They exhibit either enzymatic or pore-forming activity towards a very limited number of bacterial species, due to the high specificity of their reception and translocation systems. Yet, we succeeded in making the colicin M homologue from Pectobacterium carotovorum, pectocin M1 (PcaM1), capable of inhibiting E. coli cell growth by bypassing these reception and translocation steps. This goal was achieved through periplasmic expression of this pectocin...
October 8, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649253/reconsultation-and-antimicrobial-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-male-and-female-patients-in-general-practice
#3
Meera Tandan, Sinead Duane, Martin Cormican, Andrew W Murphy, Akke Vellinga
Current antimicrobial prescribing guidelines indicate that male and female patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) should be treated with same antimicrobials but for different durations. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in reconsultations and antimicrobial prescribing for UTI for both males and females. A total of 2557 adult suspected UTI patients participating in the Supporting the Improvement and Management of Prescribing for urinary tract infection (SIMPle) study from 30 general practices were analyzed...
September 15, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626453/the-search-for-herbal-antibiotics-an-in-silico-investigation-of-antibacterial-phytochemicals
#4
Mary Snow Setzer, Javad Sharifi-Rad, William N Setzer
Recently, the emergence and spread of pathogenic bacterial resistance to many antibiotics (multidrug-resistant strains) have been increasing throughout the world. This phenomenon is of great concern and there is a need to find alternative chemotherapeutic agents to combat these antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. Higher plants may serve as a resource for new antimicrobials to replace or augment current therapeutic options. In this work, we have carried out a molecular docking study of a total of 561 antibacterial phytochemicals listed in the Dictionary of Natural Products, including 77 alkaloids (17 indole alkaloids, 27 isoquinoline alkaloids, 4 steroidal alkaloids, and 28 miscellaneous alkaloids), 99 terpenoids (5 monoterpenoids, 31 sesquiterpenoids, 52 diterpenoids, and 11 triterpenoids), 309 polyphenolics (87 flavonoids, 25 chalcones, 41 isoflavonoids, 5 neoflavonoids, 12 pterocarpans, 10 chromones, 7 condensed tannins, 11 coumarins, 30 stilbenoids, 2 lignans, 5 phenylpropanoids, 13 xanthones, 5 hydrolyzable tannins, and 56 miscellaneous phenolics), 30 quinones, and 46 miscellaneous phytochemicals, with six bacterial protein targets (peptide deformylase, DNA gyrase/topoisomerase IV, UDP-galactose mutase, protein tyrosine phosphatase, cytochrome P450 CYP121, and NAD⁺-dependent DNA ligase)...
September 12, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598215/from-erythromycin-to-azithromycin-and-new-potential-ribosome-binding-antimicrobials
#5
REVIEW
Dubravko Jelić, Roberto Antolović
Macrolides, as a class of natural or semisynthetic products, express their antibacterial activity primarily by reversible binding to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunits and by blocking nascent proteins' progression through their exit tunnel in bacterial protein biosynthesis. Generally considered to be bacteriostatic, they may also be bactericidal at higher doses. The discovery of azithromycin from the class of macrolides, as one of the most important new drugs of the 20th century, is presented as an example of a rational medicinal chemistry approach to drug design, applying classical structure-activity relationship that will illustrate an impressive drug discovery success story...
September 1, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571111/the-membrane-steps-of-bacterial-cell-wall-synthesis-as-antibiotic-targets
#6
REVIEW
Yao Liu, Eefjan Breukink
Peptidoglycan is the major component of the cell envelope of virtually all bacteria. It has structural roles and acts as a selective sieve for molecules from the outer environment. Peptidoglycan synthesis is therefore one of the most important biogenesis pathways in bacteria and has been studied extensively over the last twenty years. The pathway starts in the cytoplasm, continues in the cytoplasmic membrane and finishes in the periplasmic space, where the precursor is polymerized into the peptidoglycan layer...
August 26, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537922/exploring-experiences-of-delayed-prescribing-and-symptomatic-treatment-for-urinary-tract-infections-among-general-practitioners-and-patients-in-ambulatory-care-a-qualitative-study
#7
Sinead Duane, Paula Beatty, Andrew W Murphy, Akke Vellinga
"Delayed or back up" antibiotic prescriptions and "symptomatic" treatment may help to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in the future. However, more research needs to be conducted in this area before these strategies can be readily promoted in practice. This study explores General Practitioner (GP) and patient attitudes and experiences regarding the use of delayed or back-up antibiotic and symptomatic treatment for UTI. Qualitative face to face interviews with General Practitioners (n = 7) from one urban and one rural practice and telephone interviews with UTI patients (n = 14) from a rural practice were undertaken...
August 15, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463729/biotin-protein-ligase-is-a-target-for-new-antibacterials
#8
REVIEW
Jiage Feng, Ashleigh S Paparella, Grant W Booker, Steven W Polyak, Andrew D Abell
There is a desperate need for novel antibiotic classes to combat the rise of drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Inhibitors of the essential metabolic enzyme biotin protein ligase (BPL) represent a promising drug target for new antibacterials. Structural and biochemical studies on the BPL from S. aureus have paved the way for the design and development of new antibacterial chemotherapeutics. BPL employs an ordered ligand binding mechanism for the synthesis of the reaction intermediate biotinyl-5'-AMP from substrates biotin and ATP...
July 25, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384588/non-response-to-antibiotic-treatment-in-adolescents-for-four-common-infections-in-uk-primary-care-1991-2012-a-retrospective-longitudinal-study
#9
Ellen Berni, Laura A Scott, Sara Jenkins-Jones, Hanka De Voogd, Monica S Rocha, Chris C Butler, Christopher Ll Morgan, Craig J Currie
We studied non-response rates to antibiotics in the under-reported subgroup of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old, using standardised criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure. Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Annual, non-response rates by antibiotics and by indication were determined. We identified 824,651 monotherapies in 415,468 adolescents: 368,900 (45%) episodes for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), 89,558 (11%) for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), 286,969 (35%) for skin/soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and 79,224 (10%) for acute otitis media (AOM)...
July 4, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690121/resistance-to-%C3%AE-lactams-in-neisseria-ssp-due-to-chromosomally-encoded-penicillin-binding-proteins
#10
André Zapun, Cécile Morlot, Muhamed-Kheir Taha
Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are human pathogens that cause a variety of life-threatening systemic and local infections, such as meningitis or gonorrhoea. The treatment of such infection is becoming more difficult due to antibiotic resistance. The focus of this review is on the mechanism of reduced susceptibility to penicillin and other β-lactams due to the modification of chromosomally encoded penicillin-binding proteins (PBP), in particular PBP2 encoded by the penA gene. The variety of penA alleles and resulting variant PBP2 enzymes is described and the important amino acid substitutions are presented and discussed in a structural context...
2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690120/discrepancy-in-vancomycin-auc-mic-ratio-targeted-attainment-based-upon-the-susceptibility-testing-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Seenae Eum, Robert L Bergsbaken, Craig L Harvey, J Bryan Warren, John C Rotschafer
This study demonstrated a statistically significant difference in vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus between a common automated system (Vitek 2) and the E-test method in patients with S. aureus bloodstream infections. At an area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) threshold of 400 mg∙h/L, we would have reached the current Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Society of Health System Pharmacists (ASHP)/Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) guideline suggested AUC/MIC target in almost 100% of patients while using the Vitek 2 MIC data; however, we could only generate 40% target attainment while using E-test MIC data (p < 0...
2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669322/the-peptidoglycan-pattern-of-staphylococcus-carnosus-tm300-detailed-analysis-and-variations-due-to-genetic-and-metabolic-influences
#12
Julia Deibert, Daniel Kühner, Mark Stahl, Elif Koeksoy, Ute Bertsche
The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus (S. carnosus) TM300 is an apathogenic staphylococcal species commonly used in meat starter cultures. As with all Gram-positive bacteria, its cytoplasmic membrane is surrounded by a thick peptidoglycan (PGN) or murein sacculus consisting of several layers of glycan strands cross-linked by peptides. In contrast to pathogenic staphylococci, mainly Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), the chemical composition of S. carnosus PGN is not well studied so far. UPLC/MS analysis of enzymatically digested S...
2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669321/the-novel-aminomethylcycline-omadacycline-has-high-specificity-for-the-primary-tetracycline-binding-site-on-the-bacterial-ribosome
#13
Corina G Heidrich, Sanya Mitova, Andreas Schedlbauer, Sean R Connell, Paola Fucini, Judith N Steenbergen, Christian Berens
Omadacycline is an aminomethylcycline antibiotic with potent activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including strains carrying the major efflux and ribosome protection resistance determinants. This makes it a promising candidate for therapy of severe infectious diseases. Omadacycline inhibits bacterial protein biosynthesis and competes with tetracycline for binding to the ribosome. Its interactions with the 70S ribosome were, therefore, analyzed in great detail and compared with tigecycline and tetracycline...
2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367739/ribosomal-antibiotics-contemporary-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Tamar Auerbach-Nevo, David Baram, Anat Bashan, Matthew Belousoff, Elinor Breiner, Chen Davidovich, Giuseppe Cimicata, Zohar Eyal, Yehuda Halfon, Miri Krupkin, Donna Matzov, Markus Metz, Mruwat Rufayda, Moshe Peretz, Ophir Pick, Erez Pyetan, Haim Rozenberg, Moran Shalev-Benami, Itai Wekselman, Raz Zarivach, Ella Zimmerman, Nofar Assis, Joel Bloch, Hadar Israeli, Rinat Kalaora, Lisha Lim, Ofir Sade-Falk, Tal Shapira, Leena Taha-Salaime, Hua Tang, Ada Yonath
Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision...
June 29, 2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348012/techniques-for-screening-translation-inhibitors
#15
REVIEW
Ilya A Osterman, Alexey A Bogdanov, Olga A Dontsova, Petr V Sergiev
The machinery of translation is one of the most common targets of antibiotics. The development and screening of new antibiotics usually proceeds by testing antimicrobial activity followed by laborious studies of the mechanism of action. High-throughput methods for new antibiotic screening based on antimicrobial activity have become routine; however, identification of molecular targets is usually a challenge. Therefore, it is highly beneficial to combine primary screening with the identification of the mechanism of action...
2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338489/sub-optimal-treatment-of-bacterial-biofilms
#16
REVIEW
Tianyan Song, Marylise Duperthuy, Sun Nyunt Wai
Bacterial biofilm is an emerging clinical problem recognized in the treatment of infectious diseases within the last two decades. The appearance of microbial biofilm in clinical settings is steadily increasing due to several reasons including the increased use of quality of life-improving artificial devices. In contrast to infections caused by planktonic bacteria that respond relatively well to standard antibiotic therapy, biofilm-forming bacteria tend to cause chronic infections whereby infections persist despite seemingly adequate antibiotic therapy...
2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314398/choline-binding-proteins-from-streptococcus-pneumoniae-a-dual-role-as-enzybiotics-and-targets-for-the-design-of-new-antimicrobials
#17
REVIEW
Beatriz Maestro, Jesús M Sanz
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is an important pathogen responsible for acute invasive and non-invasive infections such as meningitis, sepsis and otitis media, being the major cause of community-acquired pneumonia. The fight against pneumococcus is currently hampered both by insufficient vaccine coverage and by rising antimicrobial resistances to traditional antibiotics, making necessary the research on novel targets. Choline binding proteins (CBPs) are a family of polypeptides found in pneumococcus and related species, as well as in some of their associated bacteriophages...
2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271676/chloramphenicol-derivatives-as-antibacterial-and-anticancer-agents-historic-problems-and-current-solutions
#18
REVIEW
George P Dinos, Constantinos M Athanassopoulos, Dionissia A Missiri, Panagiota C Giannopoulou, Ioannis A Vlachogiannis, Georgios E Papadopoulos, Dionissios Papaioannou, Dimitrios L Kalpaxis
Chloramphenicol (CAM) is the D-threo isomer of a small molecule, consisting of a p-nitrobenzene ring connected to a dichloroacetyl tail through a 2-amino-1,3-propanediol moiety. CAM displays a broad-spectrum bacteriostatic activity by specifically inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis. In certain but important cases, it also exhibits bactericidal activity, namely against the three most common causes of meningitis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Resistance to CAM has been frequently reported and ascribed to a variety of mechanisms...
2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258317/insights-into-the-stress-response-triggered-by-kasugamycin-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Christian Müller, Lena Sokol, Oliver Vesper, Martina Sauert, Isabella Moll
The bacteriostatic aminoglycoside antibiotic kasugamycin inhibits protein synthesis at an initial step without affecting translation elongation. It binds to the mRNA track of the ribosome and prevents formation of the translation initiation complex on canonical mRNAs. In contrast, translation of leaderless mRNAs continues in the presence of the drug in vivo. Previously, we have shown that kasugamycin treatment in E. coli stimulates the formation of protein-depleted ribosomes that are selective for leaderless mRNAs...
2016: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240412/ribosome-assembly-as-antimicrobial-target
#20
Rainer Nikolay, Sabine Schmidt, Renate Schlömer, Elke Deuerling, Knud H Nierhaus
Many antibiotics target the ribosome and interfere with its translation cycle. Since translation is the source of all cellular proteins including ribosomal proteins, protein synthesis and ribosome assembly are interdependent. As a consequence, the activity of translation inhibitors might indirectly cause defective ribosome assembly. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects, and because assembly is probably a target in its own right, concepts are needed to identify small molecules that directly inhibit ribosome assembly...
2016: Antibiotics
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