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Lilith K Whittles, Peter J White, John Paul, Xavier Didelot
Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually-transmitted bacterial infections, globally and in the United Kingdom. The levels of antibiotic resistance in gonorrhoea reported in recent years represent a critical public health issue. From penicillins to cefixime, the gonococcus has become resistant to all antibiotics that have been previously used against it, in each case only a matter of years after introduction as a first-line therapy. After each instance of resistance emergence, the treatment recommendations have required revision, to the point that only a few antibiotics can reliably be prescribed to treat infected individuals...
July 13, 2018: Antibiotics
Victoria Dolange, Colin P Churchward, Myron Christodoulides, Lori A S Snyder
Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea is now a reality, as well as the consequences of untreatable infections. Gonococcal eye infections result in blindness if not properly treated; they accounted for the vast majority of infections in children in homes for the blind in the pre-antibiotic era. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infects the eyes of infants born to mothers with gonorrhea and can also infect the eyes of adults. Changes in sexual practices may account for the rise in adult gonococcal eye infections, although some cases seem to have occurred with no associated genital infection...
July 12, 2018: Antibiotics
Ranmini Kularatne, Venessa Maseko, Lindy Gumede, Tendesayi Kufa
BACKGROUND: In South Africa, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are managed through a syndromic approach at primary healthcare centres (PHCs). Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the predominant cause of male urethritis syndrome. We describe antimicrobial resistance patterns and trends in Neisseria gonorrhoeae during a ten-year surveillance period at a large PHC in Johannesburg. METHODS: Neisseria gonorrhoeae was cultured from genital discharge swab specimens obtained from consenting adult patients presenting at the Alexandra Health Centre in Johannesburg between 2008 and 2017...
July 12, 2018: Antibiotics
Inés Urbiztondo, Sandi Michele de Oliveira, Nieves Hernández-Flores, Lidia Caballero, Miguel Angel Suarez, Lars Bjerrum, Gloria Cordoba
As part of the quality improvement program “Health Alliance for Prudent Prescribing, Yield And Use of anti-microbial Drugs In the Treatment of respiratory tract infections” (HAPPY AUDIT) South America, we planned to implement an intervention based on the use of quality indicators as a means to influence General Practitioners’ (GPs) prescribing decision. Knowledge on the acceptability and applicability of an intervention is crucial to decide whether the intervention is suitable and will achieve the expected outcomes...
July 5, 2018: Antibiotics
Carlos São-José
The author wishes to make the following corrections to this paper [...].
July 4, 2018: Antibiotics
Mark A Isaacs, Brunella Barbero, Lee J Durndell, Anthony C Hilton, Luca Olivi, Christopher M A Parlett, Karen Wilson, Adam F Lee
Healthcare-associated infections and the rise of drug-resistant bacteria pose significant challenges to existing antibiotic therapies. Silver nanocomposites are a promising solution to the current crisis, however their therapeutic application requires improved understanding of underpinning structure-function relationships. A family of chemically and structurally modified mesoporous SBA-15 silicas were synthesized as porous host matrices to tune the physicochemical properties of silver nanoparticles. Physicochemical characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and porosimetry demonstrate that functionalization by a titania monolayer and the incorporation of macroporosity both increase silver nanoparticle dispersion throughout the silica matrix, thereby promoting Ag₂CO₃ formation and the release of ionic silver in simulated tissue fluid...
July 3, 2018: Antibiotics
Jocelyn Chai, Christine H Lee
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in the United States and Canada, and incidence rates have increased worldwide in recent decades. Currently, antibiotics are the mainstay treatments for both primary and recurrent CDI, but their efficacy is limited, prompting further therapies to be developed. Aim: This review summarizes current and emerging therapies in CDI management including antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, monoclonal antibodies, spore-based therapies, and vaccinations...
June 30, 2018: Antibiotics
Torben Hofeditz, Claudia Eva-Maria Unsin, Jutta Wiese, Johannes F Imhoff, Wolfgang Wohlleben, Stephanie Grond, Tilmann Weber
The structural repertoire of bioactive naphthacene quinones is expanded by engineering Streptomyces albus to express the lysolipin minimal polyketide synthase II (PKS II) genes from Streptomyces tendae Tü 4042 ( llpD-F ) with the corresponding cyclase genes llpCI-CIII . Fermentation of the recombinant strain revealed the two new polyaromatic tridecaketides lysoquinone-TH1 ( 7 , identified) and TH2 ( 8 , postulated structure) as engineered congeners of the dodecaketide lysolipin ( 1 ). The chemical structure of 7 , a benzo[a]naphthacene-8,13-dione, was elucidated by NMR and HR-MS and confirmed by feeding experiments with [1,2-13 C₂]-labeled acetate...
June 28, 2018: Antibiotics
Gabriela Lopes Fernandes, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Jackeline Gallo do Amaral, Luiz Fernando Gorup, Renan Aparecido Fernandes, Francisco Nunes de Souza Neto, José Antonio Santos Souza, Douglas Roberto Monteiro, Alessandra Marçal Agostinho Hunt, Emerson Rodrigues Camargo, Debora Barros Barbosa
Nanobiomaterials combining remineralization and antimicrobial abilities would bring important benefits to control dental caries. This study aimed to produce nanocompounds containing calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) and silver nanoparticles (AgNP) by varying the reducing agent of silver nitrate (sodium borohydride (B) or sodium citrate (C)), the concentration of silver (1% or 10%), and the CaGP forms (nano or commercial), and analyze its characterization and antimicrobial activity against ATCC Candida albicans (10231) and Streptococcus mutans (25175) by the microdilution method...
June 27, 2018: Antibiotics
Renan Aparecido Fernandes, Andresa Aparecida Berretta, Elina Cassia Torres, Andrei Felipe Moreira Buszinski, Gabriela Lopes Fernandes, Carla Corrêa Mendes-Gouvêa, Francisco Nunes de Souza-Neto, Luiz Fernando Gorup, Emerson Rodrigues de Camargo, Debora Barros Barbosa
The phytosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is nowadays attracting the increased attention of researchers and is much needed given the worldwide matter related to environmental contamination. The antimicrobial activity of colloidal and spray formulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by pomegranate peel extract against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus , and their cytotoxicity in mammalian cells were tested in the present study. Dry matter, pH, total phenolics, and ellagic acid in the extract were determined...
June 26, 2018: Antibiotics
Montserrat Lopez-Carrizales, Karla Itzel Velasco, Claudia Castillo, Andrés Flores, Martín Magaña, Gabriel Alejandro Martinez-Castanon, Fidel Martinez-Gutierrez
The increase in the prevalence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become one of the main health problems worldwide, thus threatening the era of antibiotics most frequently used in the treatment of infections. The need to develop new therapeutic strategies against multidrug resistant microorganisms, such as the combination of selected antimicrobials, can be considered as a suitable alternative. The in vitro activities of two groups of conventional antimicrobial agents alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated against a set of ten multidrug resistant clinical isolate and two references strains by MIC assays and checkerboard testing, as well as their cytotoxicity, which was evaluated on human fibroblasts by MTT assay at the same concentration of the antimicrobial agents alone and in combination...
June 19, 2018: Antibiotics
Beatriz Suay-García, María Teresa Pérez-Gracia
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease with a high morbidity burden. Incidence of this disease is rising due to the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant strains. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has shown an extraordinary ability to develop resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for its treatment. In fact, it was recently classified as a “Priority 2” microorganism in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Priority List of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to Guide Research, Discovery and Development of New Antibiotics...
June 15, 2018: Antibiotics
Liang-Chun Wang, Madeline Litwin, Zahraossadat Sahiholnasab, Wenxia Song, Daniel C Stein
Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) has become an emerging threat worldwide and heightens the need for monitoring treatment failures. N. gonorrhoeae , a gram-negative bacterium responsible for gonorrhea, infects humans exclusively and can form aggregates during infection. While minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests are often used for determining antibiotic resistance development and treatment, the knowledge of the true MIC in individual patients and how it relates to this laboratory measure is not known...
June 15, 2018: Antibiotics
Marianna Iorio, Arianna Tocchetti, Joao Carlos Santos Cruz, Giancarlo Del Gatto, Cristina Brunati, Sonia Ilaria Maffioli, Margherita Sosio, Stefano Donadio
In screening for novel antibiotics, an attractive element of novelty can be represented by screening previously underexplored groups of microorganisms. We report the results of screening 200 strains belonging to the actinobacterial genus Actinoallomurus for their production of antibacterial compounds. When grown under just one condition, about half of the strains produced an extract that was able to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus . We report here on the metabolites produced by 37 strains. In addition to previously reported aminocoumarins, lantibiotics and aromatic polyketides, we described two novel and structurally unrelated polyethers, designated α-770 and α-823...
June 14, 2018: Antibiotics
Laís Salomão Arias, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Ana Paula Miranda Vieira, Taynara Maria Toito de Lima, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Douglas Roberto Monteiro
Medical applications and biotechnological advances, including magnetic resonance imaging, cell separation and detection, tissue repair, magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery, have strongly benefited from employing iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) due to their remarkable properties, such as superparamagnetism, size and possibility of receiving a biocompatible coating. Ongoing research efforts focus on reducing drug concentration, toxicity, and other side effects, while increasing efficacy of IONPs-based treatments...
June 9, 2018: Antibiotics
Yōko Takahashi, Takuji Nakashima
Global public health faces a desperate situation, due to the lack of effective antibiotics. Coordinated steps need to be taken, worldwide, to rectify this situation and protect the advances in modern medicine made over the last 100 years. Work at Japan's Kitasato Institute has been in the vanguard of many such advances, and work is being proactively tailored to promote the discovery of urgently needed antimicrobials. Efforts are being concentrated on actinomycetes, the proven source of most modern antibiotics...
May 24, 2018: Antibiotics
Joachim J Hug, Chantal D Bader, Maja Remškar, Katarina Cirnski, Rolf Müller
Actinomycetes have been proven to be an excellent source of secondary metabolites for more than half a century. Exhibiting various bioactivities, they provide valuable approved drugs in clinical use. Most microorganisms are still untapped in terms of their capacity to produce secondary metabolites, since only a small fraction can be cultured in the laboratory. Thus, improving cultivation techniques to extend the range of secondary metabolite producers accessible under laboratory conditions is an important first step in prospecting underexplored sources for the isolation of novel antibiotics...
May 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Jakhongir F Alidjanov, Kurt G Naber, Ulugbek A Abdufattaev, Adrian Pilatz, Florian M Wagenlehner
This study aimed to reevaluate the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS). The ACSS is a self-reporting questionnaire for the clinical diagnosis of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AC) and the assessment of symptomatic changes after therapy in female patients with AC. The part II of the present study was to reevaluate the utility of the different domains of the ACSS after therapy. The applicability of these domains in assessing changes in symptoms, as a function of time, in this population was investigated. The ACSS was evaluated in 48 female patients (mean age 31...
May 21, 2018: Antibiotics
Nanna Rørbo, Anita Rønneseth, Panos G Kalatzis, Bastian Barker Rasmussen, Kirsten Engell-Sørensen, Hans Petter Kleppen, Heidrun Inger Wergeland, Lone Gram, Mathias Middelboe
The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and inefficient vaccination at the larval stage of fish emphasizes the need for novel approaches, and phage therapy for controlling Vibrio pathogens has gained interest in the past few years. In this study, we examined the potential of the broad-host-range phage KVP40 to control four different V...
May 16, 2018: Antibiotics
Ángel Manteca, Paula Yagüe
Streptomyces is a diverse group of gram-positive microorganisms characterised by a complex developmental cycle. Streptomycetes produce a number of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds used in the clinic. Most screening campaigns looking for new bioactive molecules from actinomycetes have been performed empirically, e.g., without considering whether the bacteria are growing under the best developmental conditions for secondary metabolite production. These screening campaigns were extremely productive and discovered a number of new bioactive compounds during the so-called "golden age of antibiotics" (until the 1980s)...
May 14, 2018: Antibiotics
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