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Diane Ashiru-Oredope, Anne Doble, Mary Richard Akpan, Sejal Hansraj, Nada Atef Shebl, Raheelah Ahmad, Susan Hopkins
The aim of this study was to assess antimicrobial stewardship activities in Community Healthcare Organisations (CHOs) with focus on the implementation of the two national antimicrobial stewardship toolkits, TARGET (Treat Antibiotics Responsibly, Guidance, Education, Tools) and SSTF (Start Smart, then Focus). The study utilised a web-based survey comprising 34 questions concerning antimicrobial policies and awareness and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship toolkits. This was distributed to pharmacy teams in all 26 CHOs in England...
November 7, 2018: Antibiotics
Cátia Caneiras, Filipa Calisto, Gabriela Jorge da Silva, Luis Lito, José Melo-Cristino, Aida Duarte
Herein, we describe a case report of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates that were identified from the same patient at a Tertiary University Hospital Centre in Portugal. Antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular characterization of resistance and virulence determinants were performed. PCR screening identified the presence of the resistance genes bla KPC-3 , bla TEM-1 and bla SHV-1 in both isolates. The KPC-3 K. pneumoniae isolate belonged to the ST-14 high risk clone and accumulated an uncommon resistance and virulence profile additional to a horizontal dissemination capacity...
November 6, 2018: Antibiotics
Marco J Haenssgen, Thipphaphone Xayavong, Nutcha Charoenboon, Penporn Warapikuptanun, Yuzana Khine Zaw
Education and awareness raising are the primary tools of global health policy to change public behaviour and tackle antimicrobial resistance. Considering the limitations of an awareness agenda, and the lack of social research to inform alternative approaches, our objective was to generate new empirical evidence on the consequences of antibiotic-related awareness raising in a low-income country context. We implemented an educational activity in two Lao villages to share general antibiotic-related messages and also to learn about people's conceptions and health behaviours...
November 1, 2018: Antibiotics
Alla A Glukhova, Anna A Karabanova, Andrey V Yakushev, Irina I Semenyuk, Yuliya V Boykova, Natalia D Malkina, Tatiana A Efimenko, Tatiana D Ivankova, Larissa P Terekhova, Olga V Efremenkova
Because of the spread of drug resistance, it is necessary to look for new antibiotics that are effective against pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to analyse the species composition of actinobacteria isolated from the digestive tract of the millipedes Nedyopus dawydoffiae and to determine their antimicrobial properties. Species identification was carried out on the basis of the morphological and culture properties and the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Actinobacteria were grown in different liquid media...
October 29, 2018: Antibiotics
Wilson Sim, Ross T Barnard, M A T Blaskovich, Zyta M Ziora
The use of silver to control infections was common in ancient civilizations. In recent years, this material has resurfaced as a therapeutic option due to the increasing prevalence of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. This renewed interest has prompted researchers to investigate how the antimicrobial properties of silver might be enhanced, thus broadening the possibilities for antimicrobial applications. This review presents a compilation of patented products utilizing any forms of silver for its bactericidal actions in the decade 2007⁻2017...
October 26, 2018: Antibiotics
Soumya Ghosh, Emma Persad, Ting-Yun Shiue, Cindy Lam, Afsana Islam, Lauren G Mascibroda, Michael B Sherman, Thomas Smith, Naowarat Cheeptham
Bacteriophages screened and isolated from sewage water samples exhibited antibacterial activities against multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli strains. Five different water samples from Canadian habitats such as Kamloops Wastewater Treatment Center, Domtar, the Pacific Ocean, Bisaro Anima Cave, and alkali ponds, were used in this study. Four Enterobacteriaceae strains including one non-resistant and three clinical multi-drug Escherichia coli strains ( E. coli 15-102, E. coli 15-124, and E. coli 15-318) were selected as target bacteria to screen for the bacteriophages from these collected water samples...
October 26, 2018: Antibiotics
Akiko Ogawa, Keito Takakura, Katsuhiko Sano, Hideyuki Kanematsu, Takehiko Yamano, Toshikazu Saishin, Satoshi Terada
Previously, we demonstrated that silver nanoparticle-dispersed silane-based coating could inhibit biofilm formation in conditions where seawater was used as a bacterial source and circulated in a closed laboratory biofilm reactor. However, it is still unclear whether the microbiome of a biofilm of silver nanoparticle-dispersed silane-based coating samples (Ag) differs from that of a biofilm of non-dispersed silane-based coating samples (Non-Ag). This study aimed to perform a microbiome analysis of the biofilms grown on the aforementioned coatings using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique...
October 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Kattia Núñez-Montero, Leticia Barrientos
The recent emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a critical public health problem. It is also a concern for industries, since multidrug-resistant microorganisms affect the production of many agricultural and food products of economic importance. Therefore, discovering new antibiotics is crucial for controlling pathogens in both clinical and industrial spheres. Most antibiotics have resulted from bioprospecting in natural environments. Today, however, the chances of making novel discoveries of bioactive molecules from various well-known sources have dramatically diminished...
October 19, 2018: Antibiotics
Jie Feng, Wanliang Shi, Judith Miklossy, Genevieve M Tauxe, Conor J McMeniman, Ying Zhang
Lyme disease is the most common vector borne-disease in the United States (US). While the majority of the Lyme disease patients can be cured with 2⁻4 weeks antibiotic treatment, about 10⁻20% of patients continue to suffer from persisting symptoms. While the cause of this condition is unclear, persistent infection was proposed as one possibility. It has recently been shown that B. burgdorferi develops dormant persisters in stationary phase cultures that are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics, and there is interest in identifying novel drug candidates that more effectively kill such forms...
October 16, 2018: Antibiotics
Dinesh Subedi, Ajay Kumar Vijay, Mark Willcox
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of disinfectant resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is on the rise. P. aeruginosa is the most common bacteria isolated from cases of microbial keratitis. Many multi-purpose contact lens disinfectant solutions are available to decontaminate contact lenses before use and to help reduce the incidence of infections. However, with increasing disinfectant resistance, the effect of multi-purpose disinfectant solutions may diminish. The goal of this study was to examine genes associated with disinfectant resistance in ocular isolates of P...
October 15, 2018: Antibiotics
Randolph Fish, Elizabeth Kutter, Daniel Bryan, Gordon Wheat, Sarah Kuhl
Infections involving diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a major public health problem and have a substantial negative impact on patient outcomes. Osteomyelitis in an ulcerated foot substantially increases the difficulty of successful treatment. While literature suggests that osteomyelitis in selected patients can sometimes be treated conservatively, with no, or minimal removal of bone, we do not yet have clear treatment guidelines and the standard treatment failure fallback remains amputation. The authors report on the successful treatment, with a long term follow up, of a 63 YO diabetic female with distal phalangeal osteomyelitis using bacteriophage, a form of treatment offering the potential for improved outcomes in this era of escalating antibiotic resistance and the increasingly recognized harms associated with antibiotic therapy...
October 2, 2018: Antibiotics
Cláudia M Vicente, Annabelle Thibessard, Jean-Noël Lorenzi, Mabrouka Benhadj, Laurence Hôtel, Djamila Gacemi-Kirane, Olivier Lespinet, Pierre Leblond, Bertrand Aigle
Specialized metabolites are of great interest due to their possible industrial and clinical applications. The increasing number of antimicrobial resistant infectious agents is a major health threat and therefore, the discovery of chemical diversity and new antimicrobials is crucial. Extensive genomic data from Streptomyces spp. confirm their production potential and great importance. Genome sequencing of the same species strains indicates that specialized metabolite biosynthetic gene cluster (SMBGC) diversity is not exhausted, and instead, a pool of novel specialized metabolites still exists...
October 2, 2018: Antibiotics
Olga Genilloud
The current spread of multi-drug resistance in a number of key pathogens and the lack of therapeutic solutions in development to address most of the emerging infections in the clinic that are difficult to treat have become major concerns. Microbial natural products represent one of the most important sources for the discovery of potential new antibiotics and actinomycetes have been one of the most relevant groups that are prolific producers of these bioactive compounds. Advances in genome sequencing and bioinformatic tools have collected a wealth of knowledge on the biosynthesis of these molecules...
September 25, 2018: Antibiotics
Guro Haugen Fossum, Morten Lindbæk, Svein Gjelstad, Kari J Kværner
Antibiotics are the most frequent prescription drugs used by pregnant women. Our objective was to investigate if the dispensation of antibiotics and antiasthmatics in children less than 1 year of age is associated with prenatal antibiotic exposure. A secondary aim was to explore the incidence of dispensed antibiotics in pregnancy and dispensed antibiotics and antiasthmatics in children. We conducted an observational study using the Peer Academic Detailing study database to select patients eligible for match in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, a total of 7747 mother-and-child pairs...
September 17, 2018: Antibiotics
René Benndorf, Huijuan Guo, Elisabeth Sommerwerk, Christiane Weigel, Maria Garcia-Altares, Karin Martin, Haofu Hu, Michelle Küfner, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Michael Poulsen, Christine Beemelmanns
The chemical analysis of insect-associated Actinobacteria has attracted the interest of natural product chemists in the past years as bacterial-produced metabolites are sought to be crucial for sustaining and protecting the insect host. The objective of our study was to evaluate the phylogeny and bioprospecting of Actinobacteria associated with fungus-growing termites. We characterized 97 Actinobacteria from the gut, exoskeleton, and fungus garden (comb) of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis and used two different bioassays to assess their general antimicrobial activity...
September 13, 2018: Antibiotics
Carol H J Lee, Pauline Norris, Isabelle M Duck, Chris G Sibley
Patients' expectations of being prescribed antibiotics can have an important influence on inappropriate prescribing. Therefore, it is important to understand the drivers of patients' antibiotic expectations. The 2015/16 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study measured sense of entitlement to antibiotics in a nationally representative sample of New Zealanders ( n = 13,484). Participants were asked to rate their agreement with the statement "If I go to my doctor/GP with a minor illness (e.g., sore throat, cough, runny nose, etc...
September 5, 2018: Antibiotics
Philip Lawrence Skarpeid, Sigurd Høye
Most antibiotics are prescribed in primary care, and commonly for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Narrow-spectrum phenoxymethylpenicillin is the antibiotic of choice for RTIs in the Scandinavian countries, while broader spectrum amoxicillin is used in most other European countries. This review summarizes the knowledge of the effect of phenoxymethylpenicillin versus amoxicillin for infections treated in ambulatory care. We searched PubMed/Medline and Embase for trials comparing the clinical effect of phenoxymethylpenicillin and amoxicillin...
September 4, 2018: Antibiotics
Alexander Yu Vasil'kov, Ruslan I Dovnar, Siarhei M Smotryn, Nikolai N Iaskevich, Alexander V Naumkin
In this article, a series of silver-containing dressings are prepared by metal-vapor synthesis (MVS), and their antibacterial properties are investigated. The antibacterial activity of the dressings containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Gram-positive, and Gram-negative microorganisms ( Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus haemolyticus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , Moraxella spp.) has been determined. Based on the plasmon resonance frequency of these nanoparticles, the frequency of laser irradiation of the dressing was chosen...
August 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Frédéric Barras, Laurent Aussel, Benjamin Ezraty
The therapeutic arsenal against bacterial infections is rapidly shrinking, as drug resistance spreads and pharmaceutical industry are struggling to produce new antibiotics. In this review we cover the efficacy of silver as an antibacterial agent. In particular we recall experimental evidences pointing to the multiple targets of silver, including DNA, proteins and small molecules, and we review the arguments for and against the hypothesis that silver acts by enhancing oxidative stress. We also review the recent use of silver as an adjuvant for antibiotics...
August 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Jiří Kratochvíl, Anna Kuzminova, Ondřej Kylián
Urgent need for innovative and effective antibacterial coatings in different fields seems to have triggered the development of numerous strategies for the production of such materials. As shown in this short overview, plasma based techniques arouse considerable attention that is connected with the possibility to use these techniques for the production of advanced antibacterial Ag/plasma polymer coatings with tailor-made functional properties. In addition, the plasma-based deposition is believed to be well-suited for the production of novel multi-functional or stimuli-responsive antibacterial films...
August 17, 2018: Antibiotics
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