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Antibiotics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324718/screening-of-e-coli-%C3%AE-clamp-inhibitors-revealed-that-few-inhibit-helicobacter-pylori-more-effectively-structural-and-functional-characterization
#1
Preeti Pandey, Vijay Verma, Suman Kumar Dhar, Samudrala Gourinath
The characteristic of interaction with various enzymes and processivity-promoting nature during DNA replication makes β-clamp an important drug target. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have several unique features in DNA replication machinery that makes it different from other microorganisms. To find out whether difference in DNA replication proteins behavior accounts for any difference in drug response when compared to E. coli, in the present study, we have tested E. coli β-clamp inhibitor molecules against H...
January 11, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295515/establishing-a-system-for-testing-replication-inhibition-of-the-vibrio-cholerae-secondary-chromosome-in-escherichia-coli
#2
Nadine Schallopp, Sarah Milbredt, Theodor Sperlea, Franziska S Kemter, Matthias Bruhn, Daniel Schindler, Torsten Waldminghaus
Regulators of DNA replication in bacteria are an attractive target for new antibiotics, as not only is replication essential for cell viability, but its underlying mechanisms also differ from those operating in eukaryotes. The genetic information of most bacteria is encoded on a single chromosome, but about 10% of species carry a split genome spanning multiple chromosomes. The best studied bacterium in this context is the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae, with a primary chromosome (Chr1) of 3 M bps, and a secondary one (Chr2) of about 1 M bps...
December 23, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29267226/sperm-quality-during-storage-is-not-affected-by-the-presence-of-antibiotics-in-equiplus-semen-extender-but-is-improved-by-single-layer-centrifugation
#3
Ziyad Al-Kass, Joachim Spergser, Christine Aurich, Juliane Kuhl, Kathrin Schmidt, Anders Johannisson, Jane M Morrell
Contamination of semen with bacteria arises during semen collection and handling. This bacterial contamination is typically controlled by adding antibiotics to semen extenders but intensive usage of antibiotics can lead to the development of bacterial resistance and may be detrimental to sperm quality. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of antibiotics in a semen extender on sperm quality and to investigate the effects of removal of bacteria by modified Single Layer Centrifugation (MSLC) through a colloid...
December 21, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29267199/evidence-for-anti-pseudogymnoascus-destructans-pd-activity-of-propolis
#4
Soumya Ghosh, Robyn McArthur, Zhi Chao Guo, Rory McKerchar, Kingsley Donkor, Jianping Xu, Naowarat Cheeptham
White-nose syndrome (WNS) in bats, caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), is a cutaneous infection that has devastated North American bat populations since 2007. At present, there is no effective method for controlling this disease. Here, we evaluated the effect of propolis against Pd in vitro. Using Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) medium, approximately 1.7 × 10⁷ conidia spores of the Pd strain M3906-2/mL were spread on each plate and grown to form a consistent lawn. A Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay was employed using different concentrations of propolis (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), in plates incubated at 8 °C and 15 °C...
December 21, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261121/six-year-retrospective-review-of-hospital-data-on-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-skin-infections-from-a-single-institution-in-greece
#5
Christina Stefanaki, Alexandra Ieronymaki, Theoni Matoula, Chrysseis Caroni, Evaggelia Polythodoraki, Stella-Eugenia Chryssou, George Kontochristopoulos, Christina Antoniou
Objective: To determine the prevalence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) to various antibiotics. Material and Methods: All culture-positive results for S. aureus from swabs taken from patients presenting at one Greek hospital with a skin infection between the years 2010-2015 were examined retrospectively. Bacterial cultures, identification of S. aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed using the disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines and European Committee on Antimicrobial testing (EUCAST) breakpoints...
December 20, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240687/decreasing-inappropriate-use-of-antibiotics-in-primary-care-in-four-countries-in-south-america-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Inés Urbiztondo, Lars Bjerrum, Lidia Caballero, Miguel Angel Suarez, Monica Olinisky, Gloria Córdoba
High antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial resistance in patients attending primary care have been reported in South America. Very few interventions targeting general practitioners (GPs) to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing have been investigated in this region. This study assessed the effectiveness of online feedback on reducing antibiotic prescribing in patients with suspected respiratory tract infections (RTIs) attending primary care. The aim was to reduce antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute bronchitis and acute otitis media...
December 14, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236070/lc-ms-ms-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-analysis-of-phenolic-compounds-and-pentacyclic-triterpenes-in-antifungal-extracts-of-terminalia-brownii-fresen
#7
Enass Y A Salih, Pia Fyhrquist, Ashraf M A Abdalla, Abdelazim Y Abdelgadir, Markku Kanninen, Marketta Sipi, Olavi Luukkanen, Mustafa K M Fahmi, Mai H Elamin, Hiba A Ali
Decoctions and macerations of the stem bark and wood of Terminalia brownii Fresen. are used in traditional medicine for fungal infections and as fungicides on field crops and in traditional granaries in Sudan. In addition, T. brownii water extracts are commonly used as sprays for protecting wooden houses and furniture. Therefore, using agar disc diffusion and macrodilution methods, eight extracts of various polarities from the stem wood and bark were screened for their growth-inhibitory effects against filamentous fungi commonly causing fruit, vegetable, grain and wood decay, as well as infections in the immunocompromised host...
December 13, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236038/adverse-effects-of-amoxicillin-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-primary-care-secondary-and-subgroup-analysis-of-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#8
Meera Tandan, Akke Vellinga, Robin Bruyndonckx, Paul Little, Theo Verheij, Chris C Butler, Herman Goossens, Samuel Coenen
A European placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) conducted in 16 primary care practices networks recruited participants between November 2007 and April 2010, and found adverse events (AEs) occurred more often in patients prescribed amoxicillin compared to placebo. This secondary analysis explores the causal relationship and estimates specific AEs (diarrhoea, nausea, rash) due to amoxicillin treatment for LRTI, and if any subgroup is at increased risk of any or a specific AE...
December 13, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231854/nisin-in-combination-with-cinnamaldehyde-and-edta-to-control-growth-of-escherichia-coli-strains-of-swine-origin
#9
Des Field, Inès Baghou, Mary C Rea, Gillian E Gardiner, R Paul Ross, Colin Hill
Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an economically important disease in pig production worldwide. Although antibiotics have contributed significantly to mitigate the economic losses caused by PWD, there is major concern over the increased incidence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria isolated from pigs. Consequently, suitable alternatives that are safe and effective are urgently required. Many naturally occurring compounds, including the antimicrobial peptide nisin and a number of plant essential oils, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective as antimicrobial agents against pathogenic microorganisms...
December 12, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215578/evaluation-of-antibiotic-residues-in-raw-meat-using-different-analytical-methods
#10
Tsepo Ramatla, Lubanza Ngoma, Modupeade Adetunji, Mulunda Mwanza
Antibiotic residue in meat is a serious public health concern due to its harmful effects on consumer health. This study aimed at estimating the residue levels of four commonly used antibiotics in meat samples using three analytical methods (ELISA, TLC and HPLC). A total of 150 samples of raw meat from sales points were analysed for ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulphanilamide residues. Overall, ELISA analysis showed that 56, 34, 18, and 25.3% of the samples tested positive for ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulphanilamide and tetracycline residues respectively while TLC and HPLC detected 21...
December 7, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211019/dual-regulation-of-the-small-rna-micc-and-the-quiescent-porin-ompn-in-response-to-antibiotic-stress-in-escherichia-coli
#11
Sushovan Dam, Jean-Marie Pagès, Muriel Masi
Antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a serious threat for public health. The permeation of antibiotics through their outer membrane is largely dependent on porin, changes in which cause reduced drug uptake and efficacy. Escherichia coli produces two major porins, OmpF and OmpC. MicF and MicC are small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) that modulate the expression of OmpF and OmpC, respectively. In this work, we investigated factors that lead to increased production of MicC. micC promoter region was fused to lacZ, and the reporter plasmid was transformed into E...
December 6, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206153/is-genetic-mobilization-considered-when-using-bacteriophages-in-antimicrobial-therapy
#12
Lorena Rodríguez-Rubio, Joan Jofre, Maite Muniesa
The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria has undermined our capacity to control bacterial infectious diseases. Measures needed to tackle this problem include controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance, designing new antibiotics, and encouraging the use of alternative therapies. Phage therapy seems to be a feasible alternative to antibiotics, although there are still some concerns and legal issues to overcome before it can be implemented on a large scale. Here we highlight some of those concerns, especially those related to the ability of bacteriophages to transport bacterial DNA and, in particular, antibiotic resistance genes...
December 5, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186026/antimicrobial-activity-of-bee-venom-and-melittin-against-borrelia-burgdorferi
#13
Kayla M Socarras, Priyanka A S Theophilus, Jason P Torres, Khusali Gupta, Eva Sapi
Lyme disease is a tick-borne, multi-systemic disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Though antibiotics are used as a primary treatment, relapse often occurs after the discontinuation of antimicrobial agents. The reason for relapse remains unknown, however previous studies suggest the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia round bodies, persisters and attached biofilm forms. Thus, there is an urgent need to find antimicrobial agents suitable to eliminate all known forms of B. burgdorferi...
November 29, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186015/establishing-genotype-to-phenotype-relationships-in-bacteria-causing-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-a-prelude-to-the-application-of-clinical-metagenomics
#14
REVIEW
Etienne Ruppé, Abdessalam Cherkaoui, Vladimir Lazarevic, Stéphane Emonet, Jacques Schrenzel
Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referred to as the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to clinical samples, is a promising tool for the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). Indeed, CMg allows identifying pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), thereby providing the information required for the optimization of the antibiotic regimen. Hence, provided that CMg would be faster than conventional culture, the probabilistic regimen used in HAP could be tailored faster, which should lead to an expected decrease of mortality and morbidity...
November 29, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165345/activity-in-vitro-of-clotrimazole-against-canine-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius
#15
Sian-Marie Frosini, Ross Bond
Emergence of multidrug-resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) has increased interest in topical therapy as an alternative to systemic antibiotics in canine pyoderma. The antifungal imidazole, clotrimazole, is contained in numerous licensed canine ear preparations. Its in vitro activity against SP has not been evaluated, although previous studies have shown that the related imidazole, miconazole, has significant anti-staphylococcal efficacy. We therefore determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clotrimazole amongst 50 SP isolates (25 methicillin-resistant [MR]SP and susceptible [MS]SP) collected from dogs in Germany during 2010-2011 using an agar dilution method (CLSI VET01-A4)...
November 22, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160808/interplay-between-colistin-resistance-virulence-and-fitness-in-acinetobacter-baumannii
#16
REVIEW
Gabriela Jorge Da Silva, Sara Domingues
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen often resistant to multiple antibiotics classes. Colistin, an "old" antibiotic, is now considered a last-line treatment option for extremely resistant isolates. In the meantime, resistance to colistin has been reported in clinical A. baumannii strains. Colistin is a cationic peptide that disrupts the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin resistance is primarily due to post-translational modification or loss of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules inserted into the outer leaflet of the OM...
November 21, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117107/bacteriophages-in-the-dairy-environment-from-enemies-to-allies
#17
REVIEW
Lucía Fernández, Susana Escobedo, Diana Gutiérrez, Silvia Portilla, Beatriz Martínez, Pilar García, Ana Rodríguez
The history of dairy farming goes back thousands of years, evolving from a traditional small-scale production to the industrialized manufacturing of fermented dairy products. Commercialization of milk and its derived products has been very important not only as a source of nourishment but also as an economic resource. However, the dairy industry has encountered several problems that have to be overcome to ensure the quality and safety of the final products, as well as to avoid economic losses. Within this context, it is interesting to highlight the role played by bacteriophages, or phages, viruses that infect bacteria...
November 8, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112154/ubiquitous-nature-of-fluoroquinolones-the-oscillation-between-antibacterial-and-anticancer-activities
#18
REVIEW
Temilolu Idowu, Frank Schweizer
Fluoroquinolones are synthetic antibacterial agents that stabilize the ternary complex of prokaryotic topoisomerase II enzymes (gyrase and Topo IV), leading to extensive DNA fragmentation and bacteria death. Despite the similar structural folds within the critical regions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic topoisomerases, clinically relevant fluoroquinolones display a remarkable selectivity for prokaryotic topoisomerase II, with excellent safety records in humans. Typical agents that target human topoisomerases (such as etoposide, doxorubicin and mitoxantrone) are associated with significant toxicities and secondary malignancies, whereas clinically relevant fluoroquinolones are not known to exhibit such propensities...
November 7, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112122/identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-anaerobic-bacteria-rubik-s-cube-of-clinical-microbiology
#19
REVIEW
Márió Gajdács, Gabriella Spengler, Edit Urbán
Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically...
November 7, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088074/exploring-patient-awareness-and-perceptions-of-the-appropriate-use-of-antibiotics-a-mixed-methods-study
#20
Marion E Davis, Tsai-Ling Liu, Yhenneko J Taylor, Lisa Davidson, Monica Schmid, Traci Yates, Janice Scotton, Melanie D Spencer
In the outpatient setting, estimates suggest that 30% of the antibiotics prescribed are unnecessary. This study explores patient knowledge and awareness of appropriate use of antibiotics and expectations regarding how antibiotics are used for their treatment in outpatient settings. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of patients, parents, and caregivers (n = 190) at seven primary care clinics and two urgent care locations. Fisher's exact tests compared results by patient characteristics. Although 89% of patients correctly believed that antibiotics work well for treating infections from bacteria, 53% incorrectly believed that antibiotics work well for treating viral infections...
October 31, 2017: Antibiotics
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