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Guro Haugen Fossum, Morten Lindbæk, Svein Gjelstad, Kari J Kværner
Antibiotics are the most frequent prescription drugs used by pregnant women. Our objective was to investigate if the dispensation of antibiotics and antiasthmatics in children less than 1 year of age is associated with prenatal antibiotic exposure. A secondary aim was to explore the incidence of dispensed antibiotics in pregnancy and dispensed antibiotics and antiasthmatics in children. We conducted an observational study using the Peer Academic Detailing study database to select patients eligible for match in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, a total of 7747 mother-and-child pairs...
September 17, 2018: Antibiotics
René Benndorf, Huijuan Guo, Elisabeth Sommerwerk, Christiane Weigel, Maria Garcia-Altares, Karin Martin, Haofu Hu, Michelle Küfner, Z Wilhelm de Beer, Michael Poulsen, Christine Beemelmanns
The chemical analysis of insect-associated Actinobacteria has attracted the interest of natural product chemists in the past years as bacterial-produced metabolites are sought to be crucial for sustaining and protecting the insect host. The objective of our study was to evaluate the phylogeny and bioprospecting of Actinobacteria associated with fungus-growing termites. We characterized 97 Actinobacteria from the gut, exoskeleton, and fungus garden (comb) of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis and used two different bioassays to assess their general antimicrobial activity...
September 13, 2018: Antibiotics
Carol H J Lee, Pauline Norris, Isabelle M Duck, Chris G Sibley
Patients' expectations of being prescribed antibiotics can have an important influence on inappropriate prescribing. Therefore, it is important to understand the drivers of patients' antibiotic expectations. The 2015/16 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study measured sense of entitlement to antibiotics in a nationally representative sample of New Zealanders ( n = 13,484). Participants were asked to rate their agreement with the statement "If I go to my doctor/GP with a minor illness (e.g., sore throat, cough, runny nose, etc...
September 5, 2018: Antibiotics
Philip Lawrence Skarpeid, Sigurd Høye
Most antibiotics are prescribed in primary care, and commonly for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Narrow-spectrum phenoxymethylpenicillin is the antibiotic of choice for RTIs in the Scandinavian countries, while broader spectrum amoxicillin is used in most other European countries. This review summarizes the knowledge of the effect of phenoxymethylpenicillin versus amoxicillin for infections treated in ambulatory care. We searched PubMed/Medline and Embase for trials comparing the clinical effect of phenoxymethylpenicillin and amoxicillin...
September 4, 2018: Antibiotics
Alexander Yu Vasil'kov, Ruslan I Dovnar, Siarhei M Smotryn, Nikolai N Iaskevich, Alexander V Naumkin
In this article, a series of silver-containing dressings are prepared by metal-vapor synthesis (MVS), and their antibacterial properties are investigated. The antibacterial activity of the dressings containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Gram-positive, and Gram-negative microorganisms ( Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus haemolyticus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , Moraxella spp.) has been determined. Based on the plasmon resonance frequency of these nanoparticles, the frequency of laser irradiation of the dressing was chosen...
August 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Frédéric Barras, Laurent Aussel, Benjamin Ezraty
The therapeutic arsenal against bacterial infections is rapidly shrinking, as drug resistance spreads and pharmaceutical industry are struggling to produce new antibiotics. In this review we cover the efficacy of silver as an antibacterial agent. In particular we recall experimental evidences pointing to the multiple targets of silver, including DNA, proteins and small molecules, and we review the arguments for and against the hypothesis that silver acts by enhancing oxidative stress. We also review the recent use of silver as an adjuvant for antibiotics...
August 22, 2018: Antibiotics
Jiří Kratochvíl, Anna Kuzminova, Ondřej Kylián
Urgent need for innovative and effective antibacterial coatings in different fields seems to have triggered the development of numerous strategies for the production of such materials. As shown in this short overview, plasma based techniques arouse considerable attention that is connected with the possibility to use these techniques for the production of advanced antibacterial Ag/plasma polymer coatings with tailor-made functional properties. In addition, the plasma-based deposition is believed to be well-suited for the production of novel multi-functional or stimuli-responsive antibacterial films...
August 17, 2018: Antibiotics
Johan H Melendez, Justin Hardick, Mathilda Barnes, Kathleen R Page, Charlotte A Gaydos
The increasing rates of gonorrhea infections and the global emergence and spread of multi-drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) threaten the successful management of gonorrhea. In the era of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), surveillance projects are urgently needed to monitor prevalence and trends in the antimicrobial susceptibility of NG. In this study, we retrospectively determined the susceptibility profile of NG isolates to previously and currently prescribed antimicrobials. NG isolates collected in Baltimore, Maryland between January and October 2016 were evaluated by the E-test method and/or molecular methods for susceptibility to ceftriaxone, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and penicillin...
August 17, 2018: Antibiotics
Petruta Mihaela Matei, Jesús Martín-Gil, Beatrice Michaela Iacomi, Eduardo Pérez-Lebeña, María Teresa Barrio-Arredondo, Pablo Martín-Ramos
Phytophthora cinnamomi , responsible for "root rot" or "dieback" plant disease, causes a significant amount of economic and environmental impact. In this work, the fungicide action of nanocomposites based on silver nanoparticles and polyphenol inclusion compounds, which feature enhanced bioavailability and water solubility, was assayed for the control of this soil-borne water mold. Inclusion compounds were prepared by an aqueous two-phase system separation method through extraction, either in an hydroalcoholic solution with chitosan oligomers (COS) or in a choline chloride:urea:glycerol deep eutectic solvent (DES)...
August 16, 2018: Antibiotics
Nguyen V Cuong, Pawin Padungtod, Guy Thwaites, Juan J Carrique-Mas
Antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal production is a key contributor to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide. As consumption of animal protein and associated animal production is forecast to increase markedly over coming years in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), accurate monitoring of AMU has become imperative. We summarized data from 89 scientific studies reporting AMU data in animal production published in English since 1998, identified through the 'ISI Web of Knowledge' search engine. The aims were as follows: (a) to describe methodologies and metrics used to quantify AMU; (b) to summarize qualitative (on-farm prevalence of use) and quantitative (amounts of antimicrobial active principle) data, in order to identify food animal species at the highest risk of AMU; and (c) to highlight data gaps from LMICs...
August 15, 2018: Antibiotics
Yōko Takahashi, Takuji Nakashima
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...].
August 14, 2018: Antibiotics
Akebe Luther King Abia, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa, Chantelle Schmidt, Matthys Alois Dippenaar
Human burial in cemeteries facilitates the decomposition of corpses without posing a public health danger. However, the role of cemeteries as potential environmental reservoirs of drug-resistant pathogens has not been studied. Thus, we investigated cemeteries as potential environmental reservoirs of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogenic Escherichia coli . E. coli isolates were obtained from water samples (collected from surface water bodies and boreholes in three cemeteries) after isolation using the Colilert® 18 system...
August 14, 2018: Antibiotics
Stefan Ilic, Shira Cohen, Meenakshi Singh, Benjamin Tam, Adi Dayan, Barak Akabayov
The bacterial primase-an essential component in the replisome-is a promising but underexploited target for novel antibiotic drugs. Bacterial primases have a markedly different structure than the human primase. Inhibition of primase activity is expected to selectively halt bacterial DNA replication. Evidence is growing that halting DNA replication has a bacteriocidal effect. Therefore, inhibitors of DNA primase could provide antibiotic agents. Compounds that inhibit bacterial DnaG primase have been developed using different approaches...
August 13, 2018: Antibiotics
Marta Wanat, Sibyl Anthierens, Christopher C Butler, Judy M Wright, Naila Dracup, Sue H Pavitt, Jonathan A T Sandoe, Sarah Tonkin-Crine
About 10% of U.K. patients believe that they are allergic to penicillin and have a "penicillin allergy label" in their primary care health record. However, around 90% of these patients may be mislabelled. Removing incorrect penicillin allergy labels can help to reduce unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotic use. A rapid review was undertaken of papers exploring patient and/or clinician views and experiences of penicillin allergy testing (PAT) services and the influences on antibiotic prescribing behaviour in the context of penicillin allergy...
August 6, 2018: Antibiotics
Sumudu R Perera, Ali Taheri, Nurul H Khan, Rajinder P Parti, Stephanie Stefura, Pauline Skiba, Jason P Acker, Irene Martin, Anthony Kusalik, Jo-Anne R Dillon
Eleven primer pairs were developed for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae . The sensitivity and specificity of these primers were evaluated by Real Time (RT)-PCR melt curve analyses with DNA from 145 N. gonorrhoeae isolates and 40 other Neisseria or non- Neisseria species. Three primer pairs were further evaluated in a hydrogel-based RT-PCR detection platform, using DNA extracted from 50 N. gonorrhoeae cultures. We observed 100% sensitivity and specificity in the hydrogel assay, confirming its potential as a point-of-care test (POCT) for N...
August 4, 2018: Antibiotics
Caio H N Barros, Stephanie Fulaz, Danijela Stanisic, Ljubica Tasic
Multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) are extremely dangerous and bring a serious threat to health care systems as they can survive an attack from almost any drug. The bacteria's adaptive way of living with the use of antimicrobials and antibiotics caused them to modify and prevail in hostile conditions by creating resistance to known antibiotics or their combinations. The emergence of nanomaterials as new antimicrobials introduces a new paradigm for antibiotic use in various fields. For example, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the oldest nanomaterial used for bactericide and bacteriostatic purposes...
August 2, 2018: Antibiotics
Mahsa Eshghi, Hamideh Vaghari, Yahya Najian, Mohammad Javad Najian, Hoda Jafarizadeh-Malmiri, Aydin Berenjian
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using Juglans regia ( J. regia ) leaf extract, as both reducing and stabilizing agents through microwave irradiation method. The effects of a 1% ( w / v ) amount of leaf extract (0.1⁻0.9 mL) and an amount of 1 mM AgNO₃ solution (15⁻25 mL) on the broad emission peak (λmax ) and concentration of the synthesized Ag NPs solution were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated the main functional groups existing in the J...
July 30, 2018: Antibiotics
Maria Chiara Sportelli, Margherita Izzi, Annalisa Volpe, Maurizio Clemente, Rosaria Anna Picca, Antonio Ancona, Pietro Mario Lugarà, Gerardo Palazzo, Nicola Cioffi
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known for their antimicrobial effects and several groups are proposing them as active agents to fight antimicrobial resistance. A wide variety of methods is available for nanoparticle synthesis, affording a broad spectrum of chemical and physical properties. In this work, we report on AgNPs produced by laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS), discussing the major features of this approach. Laser ablation synthesis is one of the best candidates, as compared to wet-chemical syntheses, for preparing Ag nano-antimicrobials...
July 28, 2018: Antibiotics
Pilar Domingo-Calap, Jennifer Delgado-Martínez
Despite their long success for more than half a century, antibiotics are currently under the spotlight due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The development of new alternative treatments is of particular interest in the fight against bacterial resistance. Bacteriophages (phages) are natural killers of bacteria and are an excellent tool due to their specificity and ecological safety. Here, we highlight some of their advantages and drawbacks as potential therapeutic agents. Interestingly, phages are not only attractive from a clinical point of view, but other areas, such as agriculture, food control, or industry, are also areas for their potential application...
July 27, 2018: Antibiotics
Jorge H Leitão, Silvia A Sousa, Silvestre A Leite, Maria Fernanda N N Carvalho
The emergence of bacterial resistance to available antimicrobials has prompted the search for novel antibacterial compounds to overcome this public health problem. Metal-based complexes have been much less explored than organic compounds as antimicrobials, leading to investigations of the antimicrobial properties of selected complexes in which silver may occupy the frontline due to its use as medicine since ancient times. Like silver, camphor has also long been used for medicinal purposes. However, in both cases, limited information exists concerning the mechanisms of their antimicrobial action...
July 26, 2018: Antibiotics
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