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Open Forum Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795078/erratum
#1
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofv190.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofv190.].
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795077/sensitive-molecular-diagnostics-for-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#2
Orli Sagi, Anat Berkowitz, Shlomi Codish, Victor Novack, Aviv Rashti, Fouad Akad, Yonat Shemer-Avni
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and identification of Leishmania species is highly important for the disease management. In Israel, CL is caused mainly by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica species. METHODS: We established an easy to handle point of care lesion-swabbing, combined with a highly sensitive multiplex real time PCR (multiplex qPCR) for accurate and rapid diagnosis of Leishmania species. RESULTS: Using three probes: one general for: Leishmania species, and two specific for L major, and L tropica, we screened 1783 clinical samples collected during two years...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761901/metagenomic-sequencing-of-an-echovirus-30-genome-from-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-a-patient-with-aseptic-meningitis-and-orchitis
#3
Anne Piantadosi, Shibani S Mukerji, Pooja Chitneni, Tracey A Cho, Lisa A Cosimi, Deborah T Hung, Marcia B Goldberg, Pardis C Sabeti, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Yonatan H Grad
Enteroviruses cause a wide spectrum of clinical disease. In this study, we describe the case of a young man with orchitis and aseptic meningitis who was diagnosed with enterovirus infection. Using unbiased "metagenomic" massively parallel sequencing, we assembled a near-complete viral genome, the first use of this method for full-genome viral sequencing from cerebrospinal fluid. We found that the genome belonged to the subgroup echovirus 30, which is a common cause of aseptic meningitis but has not been previously reported to cause orchitis...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761900/biphasic-zika-illness-with-rash-and-joint-pain
#4
Srilatha Edupuganti, Muktha S Natrajan, Nadine Rouphael, Lilin Lai, Yongxian Xu, Matthew Feldhammer, Charles Hill, Shital M Patel, Sara Jo Johnson, Mary Bower, Rodion Gorchakov, Rebecca Berry, Kristy O Murray, Mark J Mulligan
During the current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak, acute symptomatic ZIKV infection in adults appears to be a mild-to-moderate, self-limited illness. We present a case of ZIKV rash illness that improved and then relapsed without repeat exposure to ZIKV. Clinicians should be alert for relapses in patients with ZIKV infection.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761899/efficacy-and-safety-of-intravenous-peramivir-compared-with-oseltamivir-in-high-risk-patients-infected-with-influenza-a-and-b-viruses-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Shigeki Nakamura, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Kakeya, Yutaka Saisho, Katsunori Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies comparing the different neuraminidase inhibitors for treatment of at-risk patients with influenza have not been performed. To optimize such treatments, we assessed the efficacy and safety of intravenous peramivir compared with oral oseltamivir in treating seasonal influenza A or B virus infection. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted from December 2012 to May 2014 in high-risk patients infected with seasonal influenza...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761898/pleural-effusion-caused-by-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-immunotherapy-for-bladder-cancer
#6
Tara Rachakonda, Brian Kendall, Adam M Spivak, Jonathan Boltax
Intravesical bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) instillation has been used as immunotherapy for early stage bladder cancer for >40 years. Complications from this therapy are rare but may result in a spectrum of infectious sequelae. Here we describe the case of an elderly man who presented with a pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodule several years after treatment with BCG.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761897/the-dose-dependent-efficacy-of-cefepime-in-the-empiric-management-of-febrile-neutropenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Nikolaos Andreatos, Myrto Eleni Flokas, Anna Apostolopoulou, Michail Alevizakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Despite reports questioning its efficacy, cefepime remains a first-line option in febrile neutropenia. We aimed to re-evaluate the role of cefepime in this setting. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify randomized comparisons of (1) cefepime vs alternative monotherapy or (2) cefepime plus aminoglycoside vs alternative monotherapy plus aminoglycoside, published until November 28, 2016. RESULTS: Thirty-two trials, reporting on 5724 patients, were included...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752103/evaluation-of-viral-surrogate-markers-for-study-of-pathogen-dissemination-during-simulations-of-patient-care
#8
Heba Alhmidi, Amrita John, Thriveen C Mana, Sreelatha Koganti, Jennifer L Cadnum, Melissa B Shelton, Curtis J Donskey
During patient care simulations, cauliflower mosaic virus DNA and bacteriophage MS2 performed similarly as surrogate markers of pathogen dissemination. These markers disseminated to the environment in a manner similar to Clostridium difficile spores but were more frequently detected on skin and clothing of personnel after personal protective equipment removal.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752102/acute-kidney-injury-and-urinary-biomarkers-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-cryptococcal-meningitis
#9
Charlotte Schutz, David R Boulware, Katherine Huppler-Hullsiek, Maximilian von Hohenberg, Joshua Rhein, Kabanda Taseera, Friedrich Thienemann, Conrad Muzoora, David B Meya, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is the most common etiology of adult meningitis in Africa. Amphotericin B deoxycholate remains paramount to treatment, despite toxicities, including acute kidney injury (AKI). We assessed the ability of the following urine markers to predict AKI in patients who received amphotericin B: urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C (CysC), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), and protein. METHODS: One hundred and thirty human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected participants with cryptococcal meningitis were enrolled and received amphotericin and fluconazole for 2 weeks...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752101/implementation-of-a-large-system-wide-hepatitis-c-virus-screening-and-linkage-to-care-program-for-baby-boomers
#10
Mariana Castrejón, Kara W Chew, Marjan Javanbakht, Romney Humphries, Sammy Saab, Jeffrey D Klausner
BACKGROUND: We implemented and evaluated a large health system-wide hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and linkage to care program for persons born between 1945 and 1965 ("baby boomers"). METHODS: An electronic health record (EHR) clinical decision support (CDS) tool for HCV screening for baby boomers was introduced in August 2015 for patients seen in the outpatient University of California, Los Angeles healthcare system setting. An HCV care coordinator was introduced in January 2016 to facilitate linkage to HCV care...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748198/abacavir-dolutegravir-lamivudine-triumeq-induced-liver-toxicity-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patient
#11
Erin S Christensen, Rupali Jain, Alison C Roxby
Drug-induced liver injury related to Triumeq (abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir) has not been reported in clinical trials. We report a case of hepatotoxicity related to Triumeq exposure in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Clinicians should remain aware of the risk for acute and late-onset hepatitis with these agents. Close monitoring is recommended.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748197/incidence-long-term-outcomes-and-healthcare-utilization-of-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-and-disseminated-mycobacterium-avium-complex-from-1992-2015
#12
Lauren F Collins, Meredith E Clement, Jason E Stout
BACKGROUND: Despite the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continue to develop late-stage complications including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC), and death. METHODS: We performed an observational retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults who developed DMAC in the Duke University Health System from 1992 to 2015 to determine the incidence, long-term outcomes, and healthcare utilization of this population at high risk for poor outcomes...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748196/developing-interactive-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-infection-prevention-curricula-for-diverse-learners-a-tailored-approach
#13
Priya Nori, Theresa Madaline, Iona Munjal, Shubha Bhar, Yi Guo, Susan K Seo, Andrea Porrovecchio, Elizabeth Gancher, Joshua Nosanchuk, Liise-Anne Pirofski, Belinda Ostrowsky
BACKGROUND: To impart principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) and infection prevention and control (IPC), we developed a curriculum tailored to the diverse aptitudes of learners at our medical center. METHODS: We integrated case-based modules, group learning activities, smartphone applications (apps), decision support tools, and prescription audit and feedback into curricula of the medical school, medicine residency program, infectious diseases (ID) fellowship program, and hospital medicine program operations...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730159/antibiotic-prescribing-for-adults-hospitalized-in-the-etiology-of-pneumonia-in-the-community-study
#14
Sara Tomczyk, Seema Jain, Anna M Bramley, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Chris Trabue, D Mark Courtney, Carlos G Grijalva, Grant W Waterer, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Lauri A Hicks
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) 2007 guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommend a respiratory fluoroquinolone or beta-lactam plus macrolide as first-line antibiotics for adults hospitalized with CAP. Few studies have assessed guideline-concordant antibiotic use for patients hospitalized with CAP after the 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines. We examine antibiotics prescribed and associated factors in adults hospitalized with CAP...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730158/a-rapid-epidemiological-tool-to-measure-the-burden-of-norovirus-infection-and-disease-in-resource-limited-settings
#15
Daniel Olson, Molly M Lamb, Maria Renee Lopez, M Alejandra Paniagua-Avila, Alma Zacarias, Gabriela Samayoa-Reyes, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Edwin J Asturias
BACKGROUND: Rapid, cost-effective tools are needed to estimate the disease burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and norovirus (NoV) in resource-limited settings. METHODS: Households with children (6 weeks-17 years) in rural Guatemala were randomly enrolled into 2 parallel AGE surveillance systems: (1) a prospective cohort, which included an enrollment visit followed by 1 year of prospective observation using a smartphone-based weekly symptom diary; and (2) 2 sequential cross-sectional rapid active sampling (RAS) surveys...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730157/streptobacillus-moniliformis-bacteremia-in-a-pet-shop-employee-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Kiyozumi Suzuki, Yuji Hirai, Fujiko Morita, Ayako Nakamura, Yuki Uehara, Toshio Naito
A 39-year-old pet shop employee who sustained a bite from one of his store's rats developed fever and arthritis. Streptobacillus moniliformis was cultured from the patient's blood, confirming a diagnosis of rat-bite fever. Treatment with standard antibiotics was successful. Although rat-bite fever is commonly considered a zoonosis transmitted by wild or laboratory rats, our case emphasizes that it may be transmitted by pet animals as well.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730156/white-blood-cell-counts-alcoholism-and-cirrhosis-in-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#17
Julianna G Gardner, Divya R Bhamidipati, Adriana M Rueda, Duc T M Nguyen, Edward A Graviss, Daniel M Musher
BACKGROUND: An elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a characteristic finding in pneumococcal pneumonia. Very low WBC counts, occurring in some cases, are often associated with overwhelming pneumonia and have been attributed to alcohol-induced suppression of bone marrow. However, a systematic study of neutropenia, leukocytosis, alcohol ingestion, and cirrhosis in pneumococcal pneumonia has not been previously reported. METHODS: Using a database of patients with pneumococcal pneumonia at our medical center, we extracted data on WBC counts at admission, differential counts, alcohol ingestion, and cirrhosis, and we related these to 7-day and 30-day mortality...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730155/surveillance-study-of-influenza-occurrence-and-immunity-in-a-wisconsin-cohort-during-the-2009-pandemic
#18
Chia-Yun Lo, Susan L Strobl, Kimberly Dunham, Wei Wang, Lucy Stewart, Julia A Misplon, Mayra Garcia, Jin Gao, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Graeme E Price, Jose Navidad, Steve Gradus, Sanjib Bhattacharyya, Cecile Viboud, Maryna C Eichelberger, Carol D Weiss, Jack Gorski, Suzanne L Epstein
BACKGROUND: Antibody and T-cell immunity to conserved influenza virus antigens can protect animals against infection with diverse influenza strains. Although immunity against conserved antigens occurs in humans, whether such responses provide cross-protection in humans and could be harnessed as the basis for universal influenza vaccines is controversial. The 2009 pandemic provided an opportunity to investigate whether pre-existing cross-reactive immunity affected susceptibility to infection...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721354/diagnostic-outcomes-after-chest-radiograph-interpretation-in-patients-with-suspected-tuberculosis-and-negative-sputum-smears-in-a-high-burden-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-tuberculosis-setting
#19
Patrick G T Cudahy, Rodney Dawson, Brian W Allwood, Gary Maartens, Douglas Wilson
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of patients with suspected tuberculosis and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is challenging, especially in high human immunodeficiency virus coinfection settings where sputum smears have lower sensitivity for detecting AFB. METHODS: We examined the utility of chest radiographs for detecting smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Three hundred sixty sputum smear-negative patients who were referred from primary care clinics in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa were evaluated...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721353/hepatitis-e-virus-associated-meningoencephalitis-in-a-lung-transplant-recipient-diagnosed-by-clinical-metagenomic-sequencing
#20
Jamie A Murkey, Kara W Chew, Margrit Carlson, Chelsea L Shannon, Deepika Sirohi, Hannah A Sample, Michael R Wilson, Paul Vespa, Romney M Humphries, Steve Miller, Jeffrey D Klausner, Charles Y Chiu
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection uncommonly causes chronic hepatitis and neurologic disease. We describe a case of genotype 3a HEV meningoencephalitis diagnosed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing, illustrating the power of an unbiased molecular approach to microbial testing and the first reported case of HEV infection presumably acquired through lung transplantation.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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