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Open Forum Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638849/refractory-t-cell-anergy-and-rapidly-fatal-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-after-prolonged-ctla4-therapy
#1
Manon Dekeyser, Marie-Ghislaine de Goër de Herve, Houria Hendel-Chavez, Céline Labeyrie, David Adams, Ghaïdaa Adebs Nasser, Jacques Gasnault, Antoine Durrbach, Yassine Taoufik
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly demyelinating disease due to central nervous system replication of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) in immunosuppressed patients. The only effective therapeutic approach is to restore anti-JCV T-cell responses. In this study, we describe a case of rapidly fatal PML with JCV T-cell anergy in a renal transplant patient treated with CTLA4-Ig (belatacept, a CD28-B7 costimulation blocker and T-cell anergy inducer). T-cell anergy could not be reversed despite several therapeutic approaches...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638848/cytomegalovirus-infection-with-retinitis-after-brentuximab-vedotin-treatment-for-cd30-lymphoma
#2
Jean-Jacques Tudesq, Laure Vincent, Julie Lebrun, Yosr Hicheri, Ludovic Gabellier, Timothé Busetto, Corinne Merle, Nathalie Fegueux, Patrice Ceballos, Philippe Quittet, Robert Navarro, Dominique Hillaire-Buys, Guillaume Cartron
Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-conjugated chemotherapy targeting CD30 indicated in treatment of several lymphomas. We report the first 3 cases of cytomegalovirus severe infections with retinitis following this treatment. Evolution was favorable, but relapse occurred after treatment rechallenge. We suggest vigilance about cytomegalovirus in patients treated with brentuximab vedotin.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638847/spontaneous-clearance-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#3
Astrid M Newsum, Janke Schinkel, Thijs J W van de Laar, Jan T M van der Meer, Maria Prins
We assessed spontaneous clearance in 27 human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) who seroconverted for hepatitis C virus (HCV). In contrast with a recent estimate of 45.8%, we found a spontaneous clearance rate of 11.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.4-29.2). This finding suggests that treatment deferral to await spontaneous clearance might not be justified for MSM with sexually acquired HCV.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638846/the-pandemic-h30-subclone-of-sequence-type-131-st131-as-the-leading-cause-of-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-infections-in-the-united-states-2011-2012
#4
James R Johnson, Stephen Porter, Paul Thuras, Mariana Castanheira
BACKGROUND: Extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections are increasingly challenging due to emerging antimicrobial resistance, including resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones. Sequence type 131 (ST131) is a leading contributor. METHODS: Three hundred sixty E. coli clinical isolates from across the United States (2011-2012), selected randomly from the SENTRY collection within 3 resistance categories (extended-spectrum cephalosporin [ECS]-reduced susceptibility [RS]; fluoroquinolone-resistant, ESC-susceptible; and fluoroquinolone-susceptible, ESC-susceptible) were typed for phylogroup, sequence type complex (STc), subsets thereof, virulence genotype, O type, and beta-lactamase genes...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638845/detection-of-the-northeastern-african-rift-valley-fever-virus-lineage-during-the-2015-outbreak-in-mauritania
#5
Ndeye Sakha Bob, Hampâté Bâ, Gamou Fall, Elkhalil Ishagh, Mamadou Y Diallo, Abdourahmane Sow, Pape Mbacké Sembene, Ousmane Faye, Brahim El Kouri, Mohamed Lemine Sidi, Amadou Alpha Sall
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients. METHODS: An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638844/predictors-of-unplanned-hospitalization-in-patients-receiving-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-across-a-large-integrated-healthcare-network
#6
Monica Schmidt, Bevin Hearn, Michael Gabriel, Melanie D Spencer, Lewis McCurdy
BACKGROUND: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) prescribing has increased along with the trend toward early discharge of hospitalized patients who have infections. There is limited literature that assesses unplanned hospitalizations during OPAT. This study aims to elucidate the predictors of unplanned hospitalization in OPAT patients after discharge from acute-care facilities within Carolinas HealthCare System (CHS). Understanding these predictors may inform future interventions to improve treatment efficacy and patient outcomes...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638843/susceptibility-to-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-associated-with-idiopathic-cd4-lymphopenia-and-secondary-germline-or-acquired-defects
#7
Anil A Panackal, Lindsey B Rosen, Gulbu Uzel, Michael J Davis, Guowu Hu, Adebowale Adeyemo, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Andrea Lisco, Christopher Diachok, Jonathan D Kim, Dawn Shaw, Irini Sereti, Jennifer Stoddard, Julie Niemela, Sergio D Rosenzweig, John E Bennett, Peter R Williamson
Idiopathic CD4(+) lymphopenia (ICL) predisposes to opportunistic infections (OIs) but can often remain asymptomatic and does not have a strong association with monogenic mutations. Likewise, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, the most common OI in ICL, is not strongly associated with monogenic mutations. In this study, we describe 2 patients with ICL plus an additional immune defect: one from an E57K genetic mutation in the nuclear factor-κβ essential modulator, and the other with acquired autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638842/choosing-wisely-overnight-residents-approach-to-fever
#8
Jessica Howard-Anderson, Kristin Schwab, Roswell Quinn, Christopher J Graber
We surveyed internal medicine residents regarding how they approach febrile patients in cross-cover settings. Residents frequently use the term "full fever work-up," and rely on this for sign-out. Despite this, residents felt fever work-ups were not evidenced-based, and definitions of when and how to respond to a fever varied.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638841/economic-barriers-in-the-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-with-oral-vancomycin
#9
Kristen L Bunnell, Larry H Danziger, Stuart Johnson
Vancomycin is an increasingly important option for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection, but economic barriers to its use remain significant in the outpatient setting. Generic vancomycin capsules are still inexplicably expensive and not universally covered by insurers. This report highlights the potential adverse consequences of cost-related nonadherence to vancomycin therapy and the challenges that clinicians face when prescribing oral vancomycin.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616444/incidence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-outpatient-study-cohort-2000-2013
#10
Taraz Samandari, Ellen Tedaldi, Carl Armon, Rachel Hart, Joan S Chmiel, John T Brooks, Kate Buchacz
BACKGROUND: There are few recent studies of incident hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the United States. METHODS: We studied HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants seen in 9 HIV-specialty clinics who had ≥1 clinical encounter during 2000-2013 and ≥2 HCV-related tests, the first of which was a negative HCV antibody test (Ab). Hepatitis C virus incident cases were identified by first positive HCV Ab, viral load, or genotype...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616443/elevated-spontaneous-interferon-%C3%AE-secretion-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-persons
#11
Rachel Sparks, David M Koelle, Joshua E Stern, Shireesha Dhanireddy
Immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a well described phenomenon. We found that HIV patients have higher secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ compared with non-HIV subjects, as measured by the "nil" value in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test, even when viral loads are low. This may reflect ongoing immune activation, even with optimal HIV management.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616442/human-coronavirus-hku1-infection-among-adults-in-cleveland-ohio
#12
Anubhav Kanwar, Suresh Selvaraju, Frank Esper
BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (CoV) have been long recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract disease including severe respiratory tract illness. Coronavirus-HKU1 has been described predominantly among children less than 5 years of age in the United States with few studies characterizing the disease spectrum among adults. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal specimens of patients with respiratory symptoms were analyzed for CoV-HKU1 by NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel multiplex assay from February 7, 2016 to April 30, 2016...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596981/differentiating-nonoccupational-postexposure-prophylaxis-seroconverters-and-non-seroconverters-in-a-community-based-clinic-in-los-angeles-california
#13
Matthew R Beymer, Robert E Weiss, Robert K Bolan, Ryan M Kofron, Risa P Flynn, David L Pieribone, Sonali P Kulkarni, Raphael J Landovitz
BACKGROUND: Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is a 28-day regimen of antiretroviral medications taken within 72 hours of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure to prevent HIV acquisition. Although nPEP has been recommended since 1998, few studies have analyzed the characteristics that distinguish nPEP failures (seroconverters) and successes (non-seroconverters). METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed all nPEP courses prompted by sexual exposure that were prescribed at the Los Angeles LGBT Center between March 2010 and July 2014...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584857/evolving-failures-in-the-delivery-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-lessons-from-a-ugandan-meningitis-cohort-2006-2016
#14
Andrew G Flynn, David B Meya, Katherine Huppler Hullsiek, Joshua Rhein, Darlisha A Williams, Abdu Musubire, Bozena M Morawski, Kabanda Taseera, Alisat Sadiq, Liberica Ndyatunga, Mollie Roediger, Radha Rajasingham, Paul R Bohjanen, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: Because of investments in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care in sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people aware of their status and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased; however, HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality still remains high. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of 3 sequential prospective cohorts of HIV-infected Ugandan adults presenting with AIDS and meningitis from 2006 to 2009, 2010 to 2012, and 2013 to 2016...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584856/impact-of-an-electronic-medical-record-based-system-to-promote-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-c-virus-screening-in-public-hospital-primary-care-clinics
#15
Matthew R Golden, Jeffery Duchin, Lisa D Chew, Jane H Huntington, Nancy Sugg, Sara Jackson, Aric Lane, Monica Pecha, Elizabeth Barash, John Scott
BACKGROUND: United States guidelines recommend that all adolescents and adults be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and that persons born between 1945 and 1965 be tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: We used electronic medical record (EMR) data to identify patients in 3 primary care clinics in Seattle, Washington who met national criteria for routine HCV or HIV testing and had no documented history of prior testing. Clinic staff received daily lists of untested patients with scheduled appointments...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584855/febrile-rhinovirus-illness-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-low-birth-weight-in-nepal
#16
Erin K Philpott, Janet A Englund, Joanne Katz, James Tielsch, Subarna Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Amalia S Magaret, Mark C Steinhoff, Helen Y Chu
BACKGROUND: Adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight (LBW), defined as <2500 grams, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and prematurity, contribute to 60%-80% of infant mortality worldwide and may be related to infections during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess whether febrile human rhinovirus (HRV) illness is associated with adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: Active household-based weekly surveillance was performed for respiratory illness episodes in pregnant women as part of a community-based, prospective, randomized trial of maternal influenza immunization in rural Nepal...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584854/lysinibacillus-massiliensis-panniculitis-masquerading-as-erythema-nodosum-a-case-report
#17
Jay J Jin, Phillip J Keith, Nathan W Cummins, Sunanda V Kane, Bobbi S Pritt, Joyce L Sanchez
Lysinibacillus massiliensis, formerly Bacillus massiliensis, is an environmental Gram-positive bacillus that is generally non-pathogenic. Rare case reports in immunosuppressed patients have described sepsis with this organism. In this study, we report a case of L massiliensis as a cause of infectious panniculitis mimicking erythema nodosum after infusion of autologous adipose-derived stem cells in an immunosuppressed patient with refractory Crohn's disease. This case highlights the importance of care providers to consider exposures and host factors when interpreting culture results with otherwise benign organisms...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584853/the-presence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-is-associated-with-a-lower-adherence-to-combined-antiretroviral-treatment
#18
Susan Kamal, Isabella Locatelli, Gilles Wandeler, Asemaneh Sehhat, Olivier Bugnon, Melanie Metral, Renaud Du Pasquier, Klemens Gutbrod, Matthias Cavassini, Marie P Schneider
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are defined according to their diagnostic degrees as follows: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, mild neurocognitive disorder, and HIV-associated dementia. Because high adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is required to maintain viral suppression among HIV-infected patients, it is important to investigate the impact of HAND on medication adherence. Our study hypothesis was that patients with HAND had a lower medication adherence than patients who did not have HAND...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584852/immunological-predictors-of-nonresponse-to-directly-acting-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-and-decompensated-cirrhosis
#19
Kate Childs, Elliot Merritt, Aisling Considine, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo, Kosh Agarwal, Marc Martinez-Llordella, Ivana Carey
BACKGROUND: Sustained virological response rates (SVRs) to directly acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are lower in decompensated cirrhosis. Markers of innate immunity predict nonresponse to interferon-based HCV treatment; however, whether they are associated with the response to DAAs in patients with decompensation is not known. METHODS: Information on demographics, adherence, viral kinetics, and resistance were gathered prospectively from a cohort with decompensated cirrhosis treated with 12 weeks of DAAs...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584851/successful-pre-and-posttransplant-sofosbuvir-based-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-in-persons-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#20
Giovanni Guaraldi, Roberto Rossotti, Gabriella Verucchi, Marcello Tavio, Luisa Pasulo, Barbara Beghetto, Giovanni Dolci, Giulia Nardini, Lorenzo Badia, Anna Magliano, Maria Cristina Moioli, Massimo Puoti
This retrospective study reports the data of sofosbuvir-based anti-hepatitis C virus treatment in 24 candidates and 24 recipients of liver transplantation coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Sustained virologic response was cumulatively 85% (90% and 100% in those treated with optimal schedules pre- and posttransplant, respectively).
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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