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Open Forum Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101518/is-it-time-to-include-ct-reverse-halo-sign-and-qpcr-targeting-mucorales-in-serum-to-eortc-msg-criteria-for-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-mucormycosis-in-leukemia-patients
#1
Denis Caillot, Stéphane Valot, Ingrid Lafon, Louise Basmaciyan, Marie Lorraine Chretien, Marc Sautour, Laurence Million, Caroline Legouge, Alexandre Payssot, Frédéric Dalle
In 23 leukemia patients with proven (n = 17) or possible (n = 6) pulmonary mucormycosis (PM), the presence of reversed halo sign on computed tomography was strongly associated with the positivity of quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays targeting Mucorales in the serum, confirming the value of these two tools for the diagnosis of PM in this setting.
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066794/altered-monocyte-and-endothelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-expression-is-linked-to-vascular-inflammation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#2
Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Janelle Gabriel, Taylor Amburgy, Elizabeth Mayne, David A Zidar, Courtney Maierhofer, Abigail Norris Turner, Jose A Bazan, Susan L Koletar, Michael M Lederman, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk for vascular thrombosis, potentially driven by interactions between activated leukocytes and the endothelium. METHODS: Monocyte subsets (CD14(+)CD16(-), CD14(+)CD16(+), CD14(Dim)CD16(+)) from HIV negative (HIV(-)) and antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV positive (HIV(+)) participants (N = 19 and 49) were analyzed by flow cytometry for adhesion molecule expression (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1], macrophage-1 antigen [Mac-1], CD11c/CD18, very late antigen [VLA]-4) and the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1); these receptors recognize ligands (intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAMs], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM]-1, fractalkine) on activated endothelial cells (ECs) and promote vascular migration...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066793/characterizing-failure-to-establish-hepatitis-c-care-of-baby-boomers-diagnosed-in-the-emergency-department
#3
Ricardo A Franco, E Turner Overton, Ashutosh R Tamhane, Jordan M Forsythe, Joel B Rodgers, Julie K Schexnayder, Deanne Guthrie, Suneetha Thogaripally, Anne Zinski, Michael S Saag, Michael J Mugavero, Henry E Wang, James W Galbraith
BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (EDs) are high-yield sites for hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening, but data regarding linkage to care (LTC) determinants are limited. METHODS: Between September 2013 and June 2014, 4371 baby boomers unaware of their HCV status presented to the University of Alabama at Birmingham ED and underwent opt-out screening. A linkage coordinator facilitated referrals for positive cases. Demographic data, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes, and clinic visits were collected, and patients were (retrospectively) followed up until February 2015...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066792/a-quaternary-ammonium-disinfectant-containing-germinants-reduces-clostridium-difficile-spores-on-surfaces-by-inducing-susceptibility-to-environmental-stressors
#4
Michelle M Nerandzic, Curtis J Donskey
Exposing Clostridium difficile spores to germinants in a quaternary ammonium matrix was an effective method to reduce environmental contamination by sensitizing the spores, leaving them susceptible to ambient conditions and enhancing killing by acid, high-intensity visible light, and radiation.
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053996/zika-virus-causing-encephalomyelitis-associated-with-immunoactivation
#5
Rafael Mello Galliez, Mariana Spitz, Patricia Piazza Rafful, Marcelo Cagy, Claudia Escosteguy, Caroline Spósito Brito Germano, Elisa Sasse, Alessandro Luis Gonçalves, Paola Paz Silveira, Paula Pezzuto, Alice Maria de Magalhães Ornelas, Amilcar Tanuri, Renato Santana Aguiar, Fernanda Tovar Moll
Brazil has experienced a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak with increased incidence of congenital malformations and neurological manifestations. We describe a case of a 26-year-old Brazilian Caucasian man infected with ZIKV and diagnosed with encephalomyelitis. Brain and spinal cord images showed hyperintense lesions on T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid showed a remarkable increase of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. The observed pattern suggests immune activation during the acute phase, along with the neurological impairment, with normalization in the recovery phase...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018932/staphylococcus-epidermidis-protection-against-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-in-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-an-inner-city-outpatient-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Sean B Sullivan, Suneel Kamath, Thomas H McConville, Brett T Gray, Franklin D Lowy, Peter G Gordon, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) have been disproportionally affected by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and infection, in particular by clones USA300 and USA500. However, the contribution of epidemiological, bacterial, and immunological risk factors to the excess of S aureus in PLWH remain incompletely understood. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we determined the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S aureus colonization in 93 PLWH attending an urban human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018931/virologic-failure-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-drug-resistance-in-rural-cameroon-with-regard-to-the-unaids-90-90-90-treatment-targets
#7
Charlotte Boullé, Emilande Guichet, Charles Kouanfack, Avelin Aghokeng, Benjamin Onambany, Catherine Massama Ikaka, Emile Ngock, Landry Tsoumsta, Philippe Msellati, Eitel Mpoudi-Ngolé, Martine Peeters, Eric Delaporte, Christian Laurent
BACKGROUND: In rural Africa, data on virologic effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) are not sufficient to assess the gap with the UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets. We investigated the prevalences of unsuppressed viral load and antiretroviral drug resistance and the profile of genotypic resistance mutations among patients routinely treated in rural Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2013-2014 among patients ≥15 years and on first-line ART for ≥6 months in a district hospital...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018930/intra-abdominal-infections-the-role-of-anaerobes-enterococci-fungi-and-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#8
Gil Marcus, Samuel Levy, Ghaleb Salhab, Bethlehem Mengesha, Oran Tzuman, Shira Shur, Erica Burke, Rebecca Cruz Mayeda, Lior Cochavi, Idan Perluk, Ronit Zaidenstein, Tsilia Lazarovitch, Mor Dadon, Dror Marchaim
BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) constitute a common reason for hospitalization. However, there is lack of standardization in empiric management of (1) anaerobes, (2) enterococci, (3) fungi, and (4) multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). The recommendation is to institute empiric coverage for some of these organisms in "high-risk community-acquired" or in "healthcare-associated" infections (HCAI), but exact definitions are not provided. METHODS: Epidemiological study of IAI was conducted at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (May-November 2013)...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018929/antiretroviral-therapy-as-prevention-of-%C3%A2-pneumococcal-infections
#9
Anaïs Lesourd, Jérémie Leporrier, Valérie Delbos, Guillemette Unal, Patricia Honoré, Manuel Etienne, Olivier Bouchaud, François Caron
BACKGROUND: Despite antiretroviral therapy, it is generally believed that the risk for pneumococcal infections (PnIs) is high among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, most studies in this field have been conducted before 2010, and the proportion of virologically suppressed patients has drastically increased in these latter years thanks to larger indications and more effective antiretroviral regimens. This study aimed to re-evaluate the current risk of PnI among adult patients infected with HIV...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018928/autochthonous-transmission-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-southern-california
#10
Salvador Hernandez, Carmen A Flores, Gracia M Viana, Daniel R Sanchez, Mahmoud I Traina, Sheba K Meymandi
Trypanosoma cruzi usually infects humans via triatomine insects in Latin America. Vector-borne transmission in the United States is exceedingly rare. We describe (1) the first case of probable autochthonous transmission reported in California in more than 30 years and (2) the first ever reported case in the greater Los Angeles area.
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018927/meningococcal-disease-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-review-of-cases-reported-through-active-surveillance-in-the-united-states-2000-2008
#11
Christine M Harris, Henry M Wu, Jianmin Li, H Irene Hall, Adria Lee, Elizabeth Zell, Lee H Harrison, Susan Petit, Monica M Farley, Ruth Lynfield, Lisa Miller, Megin Nichols, Arthur Reingold, William Schaffner, Ann Thomas, Jessica R MacNeil, Thomas A Clark, Amanda C Cohn
BACKGROUND: Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an established risk factor for several bacterial infections, the association between HIV infection and meningococcal disease remains unclear. METHODS: Expanded chart reviews were completed on persons with meningococcal disease and HIV infection reported from 2000 through 2008 from 9 US sites participating in an active population-based surveillance system for meningococcal disease. The incidence of meningococcal disease among patients meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance criteria was estimated using data from the National HIV Surveillance System for the participating sites...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018926/concurrent-systemic-chemoimmunotherapy-and-sofosbuvir-based-antiviral-treatment-in-a-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patient-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#12
Evan C Ewers, Phalgoon A Shah, Mark G Carmichael, Tomas M Ferguson
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the development of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. For aggressive lymphomas, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), treatment of HCV infection is typically deferred in treatment-naive patients until after completion of lymphoma therapy [1, 2]. We report a case of HCV-associated stage IV DLBCL successfully treated concurrently using chemoimmunotherapy and a sofosbuvir-based antiviral regimen.
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018925/parasite-clearance-and-artemether-pharmacokinetics-parameters-over-the-course-of-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-for-malaria-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infected-and-hiv-uninfected-ugandan-children
#13
Richard Kajubi, Liusheng Huang, Moses Were, Sylvia Kiconco, Fangyong Li, Florence Marzan, David Gingrich, Myaing M Nyunt, Joshua Ssebuliba, Norah Mwebaza, Francesca T Aweeka, Sunil Parikh
BACKGROUND: Artemisinins are primarily responsible for initial parasite clearance. Antimalarial pharmacokinetics (PK), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and antiretroviral therapy have been shown to impact treatment outcomes, although their impact on early parasite clearance in children has not been well characterized. METHODS: Parasite clearance parameters were generated from twice-daily blood smears in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Ugandan children treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL)...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018924/h1n1-induced-venous-thromboembolic-events-results-of-a-single-institution-case-series
#14
Evangelos Dimakakos, Dimitra Grapsa, Ioannis Vathiotis, Aggeliki Papaspiliou, Meropi Panagiotarakou, Emmanouil Manolis, Konstantinos Syrigos
We describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of 7 cases with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed novel influenza A H1N1 virus (pH1N1) infection who developed venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) while being hospitalized for influenza pneumonia. Pulmonary embolism (PE) without deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was observed in 6 of 7 cases (85.7%); PE with underlying DVT was found in 1 patient (14.3%).
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018923/spinal-epidural-abscess-in-adults-a-10-year-clinical-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-academic-medical-center
#15
Andrew W Artenstein, Jennifer Friderici, Adam Holers, Deirdre Lewis, Jan Fitzgerald, Paul Visintainer
Background.  Delayed recognition of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) contributes to poor outcomes from this highly morbid and potentially lethal infection. We performed a case-control study in a regional, high-volume, tertiary care, academic medical center over the years 2005-2015 to assess the potential changing epidemiology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and course of this disorder and to identify factors that might lead to early identification of SEA. Methods.  Diagnostic billing codes consistent with SEA were used to identify inpatient admissions for abstraction...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975076/the-role-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-the-clinical-microbiology-laboratory-stepping-up-to-the-plate
#16
Shawn H MacVane, John M Hurst, Lisa L Steed
We report the development of a collaborative relationship between antimicrobial stewardship and clinical microbiology that incorporates stewardship practices into daily laboratory rounds. Antimicrobial stewardship involvement on rounds was a welcomed and effective initiative with substantial rates of intervention. New opportunities to positively impact use of antimicrobials and laboratory resources were realized.
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975075/retrospective-study-investigating-the-seroprevalence-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-in-manitoba-canada-2011-2014
#17
Kamran Kadkhoda, Ainsley Gretchen
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis is currently not nationally notifiable in Canada. This for the most part accounts for gross under-estimation of true incidence and prevalence of HGA and would potentially culminate in clinical missed opportunities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the seroprevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a Canadian jurisdiction with known established black-legged tick populations.
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975074/imported-case-of-lassa-fever-in-sweden-with-encephalopathy-and-sensorineural-hearing-deficit
#18
Anna Grahn, Andreas Bråve, Martin Lagging, Leif Dotevall, David Ekqvist, Helena Hammarström, Helen Karlberg, Nina Lagerqvist, Martina Sansone, Anders Tegnell, Peter Ulleryd, Marie Studahl
We describe an imported case of Lassa fever with both encephalopathy and bilateral sensorineural hearing deficit. Absence of fever during hospitalization, initially nonspecific symptoms, and onset of hearing deficit in a late stage of disease probably contributed to delayed diagnosis (14 days after admittance to hospital). The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations of Lassa fever is poorly understood and no specific treatment was given. A total of 118 personnel had close contact with the patient, but no secondary cases occurred...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975073/postsplenectomy-prophylaxis-a-persistent-failure-to-meet-standard
#19
Alexander David Jones, Mashuk Khan, James Cheshire, Douglas Bowley
A retrospective case review of patients that underwent emergency splenectomy or splenic preservation from May 2003 to April 2014 was undertaken at a single center. The results highlight failures in administration of postsplenectomy vaccination for emergency splenectomy patients. In this study, we highlight methods to improve postsplenectomy care.
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957506/use-of-nucleic-acid-amplification-tests-in-tuberculosis-patients-in-california-2010-2013
#20
Gianna Peralta, Pennan Barry, Lisa Pascopella
BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been used as a diagnostic tool for tuberculosis (TB) in the United States for many years. We sought to assess NAAT use in TB patients in California during a period of time when NAAT availability increased throughout the world. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of surveillance data from 6051 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB who were reported to the California TB registry during 2010-2013...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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