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Open Forum Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876368/using-patient-risk-factors-to-identify-whether-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections-are-caused-by-carbapenemase-producing-organisms
#1
Patricia J Simner, Katherine E Goodman, Karen C Carroll, Anthony D Harris, Jennifer H Han, Pranita D Tamma
Evaluating all inpatient carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections over a 1-year period, 47% were caused by carbapenemase-producing (CP) organisms. Compared with non-CP-CRE patients, patients with CP-CRE had an 18-fold greater odds of a recent stay in a foreign health care facility and a 3-fold greater odds of transfer from a post-acute care facility.
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876367/management-practices-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-by-adult-infectious-diseases-physicians
#2
Natalie Banniettis, Susan E Beekmann, Philip M Polgreen, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, David Gilbert, John E Bennett, Margaret R Hammerschlag
To assess current use of vancomycin for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, we surveyed adult infectious disease physicians. Most respondents reported personal experience with infections failing to respond to vancomycin despite minimum inhibitory concentration data indicating susceptibility. In a hypothetical case of such an infection, most would change to daptomycin with or without other agents.
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876366/the-rapid-prediction-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-patients-with-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteremia-using-electronic-medical-record-data
#3
Timothy Sullivan, Osamu Ichikawa, Joel Dudley, Li Li, Judith Aberg
Background: The administration of active antibiotics is often delayed in cases of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteremia. Using electronic medical record (EMR) data to rapidly predict carbapenem resistance in patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia could help reduce the time to active therapy. Methods: All cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia at Mount Sinai Hospital from September 2012 through September 2016 were included. Cases were randomly divided into a "training set" and a "testing set...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876365/health-care-utilization-behaviors-predict-disengagement-from-hiv-care-a-latent-class-analysis
#4
Nwora Lance Okeke, Meredith E Clement, Mehri S McKellar, Jason E Stout
Background: The traditional definition of engagement in HIV care in terms of only clinic attendance and viral suppression provides a limited understanding of how persons living with HIV (PLWH) interact with the health care system. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with ≥1 HIV clinic visits at the Duke Adult Infectious Diseases Clinic between 2008 and 2013. Health care utilization was characterized by 4 indicators: clinic attendance in each half of the year (yes/no), number of emergency department (ED) visits/year (0, 1, or 2+), inpatient admissions/year (0, 1, 2+), and viral suppression (never, intermittent, always)...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876364/cytomegalovirus-cmv-disease-despite-weekly-preemptive-cmv-strategy-for-recipients-of-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
I P Lodding, C da Cunha Bang, S S Sørensen, F Gustafsson, M Iversen, N Kirkby, M Perch, A Rasmussen, H Sengeløv, A Mocroft, J D Lundgren
Background: Transplant recipients presenting with cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease at the time of diagnosis of CMV DNAemia pose a challenge to a preemptive CMV management strategy. However, the rate and risk factors of such failure remain uncertain. Methods: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients with a first episode of CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNAemia within the first year posttransplantation were evaluated (n = 335)...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876363/case-report-of-an-extensively-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-with-genomic-characterization-of-the-strain-and-review-of-similar-cases-in-the-united-states
#6
Fiorella Krapp, Egon A Ozer, Chao Qi, Alan R Hauser
Reports of extensively drug-resistant and pan-drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (XDR-KP and PDR-KP) cases are increasing worldwide. Here, we report a case of XDR-KP with an in-depth molecular characterization of resistance genes using whole-genome sequencing, and we review all cases of XDR-KP and PDR-KP reported in the United States to date.
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868623/transplantation-of-ccr5%C3%A2-32-homozygous-umbilical-cord-blood-in-a-child-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection
#7
Meghan Rothenberger, John E Wagner, Ashley Haase, Douglas Richman, Bartosz Grzywacz, Matthew Strain, Steven Lada, Jacob Estes, Courtney V Fletcher, Anthony T Podany, Jodi Anderson, Thomas Schmidt, Steve Wietgrefe, Timothy Schacker, Michael R Verneris
Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in a CCR5∆32 homozygous donor resulted in HIV cure. Understanding how allo-HCT impacts the HIV reservoir will inform cure strategies. Methods: A 12-year-old with perinatally acquired, CCR5-tropic HIV and acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent myeloablative conditioning and umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation from a CCR5∆32 homozygous donor. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the rectum were sampled pre- and post-transplant...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868622/the-cumulative-impact-of-harm-reduction-on-the-swiss-hiv-epidemic-cohort-study-mathematical-model-and-phylogenetic-analysis
#8
Alex Marzel, Katharina Kusejko, Rainer Weber, Philip Bruggmann, Andri Rauch, Jan A Roth, Enos Bernasconi, Alexandra Calmy, Matthias Cavassini, Matthias Hoffmann, Jürg Böni, Sabine Yerly, Thomas Klimkait, Matthieu Perreau, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger D Kouyos
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among injecting drug users (IDUs) is increasing in the United States due to the recent opioid epidemic and is the leading mode of transmission in Eastern Europe. Methods: To evaluate the overall impact of HIV harm reduction, we combined (1) data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and public sources with (2) a mathematical model expressed as a system of ordinary differential equations. The model reconstructs the national epidemic from the first case in 1980 until 2015...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780851/top-questions-in-uncomplicated-non-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#9
Jesse D Sutton, Sena Sayood, Emily S Spivak
The Infectious Diseases Society of America infection-specific guidelines provide limited guidance on the management of focal infections complicated by secondary bacteremias. We address the following 3 commonly encountered questions and management considerations regarding uncomplicated bacteremia not due to Staphylococcus aureus : the role and choice of oral antibiotics focusing on oral beta-lactams, the shortest effective duration of therapy, and the role of repeat blood cultures.
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780850/canada-wide-epidemic-of-emm74-group-a-streptococcus-invasive-disease
#10
Sarah Teatero, Allison McGeer, Gregory J Tyrrell, Linda Hoang, Hanan Smadi, Marc-Christian Domingo, Paul N Levett, Michael Finkelstein, Ken Dewar, Agron Plevneshi, Taryn B T Athey, Jonathan B Gubbay, Michael R Mulvey, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Background: The number of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infections due to hitherto extremely rare type emm74 strains has increased in several Canadian provinces since late 2015. We hypothesized that the cases recorded in the different provinces are linked and caused by strains of an emm74 clone that recently emerged and expanded explosively. Methods: We analyzed both active and passive surveillance data for iGAS infections and used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the emm74 strains responsible for these invasive infections country-wide...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780849/incidental-findings-on-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-persons
#11
Sara Reinschmidt, Teja Turk, Philip E Tarr, Roger Kouyos, Christoph Hauser, Patrick Schmid, Rainer Weber, Philipp Kaufmann, Ronny R Buechel, Helen Kovari
Background: Incidental findings on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) have a great impact on the benefits and costs of testing for cardiovascular disease. The number of incidental findings might be increased in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals compared with the general population. Data are limited regarding the association between incidental findings and HIV infection. Methods: We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with incidental findings among HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants ≥45 years undergoing CCTA...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780848/controlled-human-hookworm-infection-accelerating-human-hookworm-vaccine-development
#12
David Diemert, Doreen Campbell, Jill Brelsford, Caitlyn Leasure, Guangzhao Li, Jin Peng, Maria Zumer, Naji Younes, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Rojelio Mejia, David I Pritchard, John M Hawdon, Jeffrey M Bethony
Background: Controlled human hookworm infection (CHHI) is a central component of a proposed hookworm vaccination-challenge model (HVCM) to test the efficacy of candidate vaccines. Critical to CHHI is the manufacture of Necator americanus infective larvae ( Na L3) according to current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and the determination of an inoculum of Na L3 that is safe and reliably induces patent infection. Methods: cGMP-grade Na L3 were produced for a phase 1 trial in 20 healthy, hookworm-naïve adults in the United States, who received either 25 or 50 Na L3...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780847/community-acquired-respiratory-paramyxovirus-infection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-a-single-center-experience
#13
Yasmin Spahr, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Veronika Baettig, Francesca Compagno, Michael Tamm, Jörg Halter, Sabine Gerull, Jakob Passweg, Hans H Hirsch, Nina Khanna
Background: Paramyxoviruses include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), and human metapneumovirus (MPV), which may cause significant respiratory tract infectious disease (RTID) and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, clinical data regarding frequency and outcome are scarce. Methods: We identified all paramyxovirus RTIDs in allogeneic HCT recipients diagnosed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction between 2010 and 2014...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766019/abacavir-use-and-risk-for-myocardial-infarction-and-cardiovascular-events-pooled-analysis-of-data-from-clinical-trials
#14
Cassandra Nan, Mark Shaefer, Rimgaile Urbaityte, James Oyee, Judy Hopking, Leigh Ragone, Teodora Perger, Beta Win, Harald Vangerow, Cynthia McCoig, Vani Vannappagari
Background: Some observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have suggested an association between abacavir (ABC) use and myocardial infarction (MI), whereas others have not. Methods: This pooled analysis of 66 phase II-IV RCTs estimates exposure-adjusted incidence rates (IRs) and relative rates (RRs) of MI and cardiovascular events (CVEs) in participants receiving ABC- and non-ABC-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The primary analysis of MI included ABC-randomized trials with ≥48-week follow-up...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766018/usefulness-of-simultaneous-screening-for-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-specific-antibodies-and-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-by-capillary-based-multiplex-immunochromatographic-rapid-test-to-strengthen-prevention-strategies-and-linkage-to-care-in-childbearing-aged-women
#15
Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Zita Aleyo Nodjikouambaye, Damtheou Sadjoli, Ali Mahamat Moussa, Chatte Adawaye, Donato Koyalta, Laurent Bélec
Childbearing-aged women (n = 266) attending a gynecological clinic in Chad were subjected to multiplex immunochromatographic rapid test for HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Ten (3.7%) and 8 (3.0%) were seropositive for HIV and HCV, respectively, and 20 (7.5%) for HBV surface antigen, allowing diagnosis of chronic viral infections in 1 of 7 (14.3%) women.
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766017/outcomes-according-to-discharge-location-for-persons-who-inject-drugs-receiving-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy
#16
Helen T D'Couto, Gregory K Robbins, Kevin L Ard, Sarah E Wakeman, Justin Alves, Sandra B Nelson
Background: Opioid use disorder poses a significant public health risk. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) suffer from high mortality and morbidity secondary to serious infectious diseases, often requiring prolonged courses of outpatient parenteral antibiotics. The goal of this study was to determine the outcomes of PWID discharged to home or to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility (SNF/rehab) with parenteral antibiotic treatment under an outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) program...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740593/outpatient-infection-prevention-a-practical-primer
#17
Fozia Steinkuller, Kristofer Harris, Karen J Vigil, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner
As more patients seek care in the outpatient setting, the opportunities for health care-acquired infections and associated outbreaks will increase. Without uptake of core infection prevention and control strategies through formal initiation of infection prevention programs, outbreaks and patient safety issues will surface. This review provides a step-wise approach for implementing an outpatient infection control program, highlighting some of the common pitfalls and high-priority areas.
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732382/common-variation-in-nlrp3-is-associated-with-early-death-and-elevated-inflammasome-biomarkers-among-advanced-hiv-tb-co-infected-patients-in-botswana
#18
Shruthi Ravimohan, Kebatshabile Nfanyana, Neo Tamuhla, Caroline T Tiemessen, Drew Weissman, Gregory P Bisson
Background: Elevated inflammation is associated with early mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the sources of immune activation are unclear. We hypothesized that common variation in innate immune genes contributes to excessive inflammation linked to death. As single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammasome pathway genes can increase risk for inflammatory diseases, we investigated their association with early mortality among a previously described cohort of HIV/TB patients initiating ART in Botswana...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733079/erratum
#19
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofy063.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofy063.].
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732381/asymptomatic-prenatal-zika-virus-infection-and-congenital-zika-syndrome
#20
Enny S Paixao, Wei-Yee Leong, Laura C Rodrigues, Annelies Wilder-Smith
To investigate to what extent asymptomatic vs symptomatic prenatal Zika virus infections contribute to birth defects, we identified 3 prospective and 8 retrospective studies. The ratio varied greatly in the retrospective studies, most likely due to recruitment and recall bias. The prospective studies revealed a ratio of 1:1 for asymptomatic vs symptomatic maternal Zika infections resulting in adverse fetal outcomes.
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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