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Open Forum Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450215/pulmonary-cavity-from-mycobacterium-malmoense-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-complicated-by-bronchopleural-fistula
#1
Eric Abston, Harrison Farber
We present a case of M. malmoense and HIV co-infection complicated by aspergilloma leading to bronchopleural fistula with intractable pneumothorax and pleural aspergillosis, ultimately requiring surgical intervention. Treatment guidelines for M. malmoense are reviewed, literature regarding M. malmoense and HIV co-infection is reviewed, and the epidemiology of M. malmoense in North America is discussed.
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450214/-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-infections-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Maroun Sfeir, Marissa Walsh, Rossana Rosa, Laura Aragon, Sze Yan Liu, Timothy Cleary, Marylee Worley, Corey Frederick, Lilian M Abbo
Background: Infections caused by Mycobacterium abscessus group strains are usually resistant to multiple antimicrobials and challenging to treat worldwide. We describe the risk factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients in 2 large academic medical centers in the United States. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adults with a positive culture for M. abscessus in Miami, Florida (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014). Demographics, comorbidities, the source of infection, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and clinical outcomes were analyzed...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450213/differential-regulation-of-pai-1-in-hantavirus-cardiopulmonary-syndrome-and-hemorrhagic-fever-with-renal-syndrome
#3
Carla Bellomo, Miša Korva, Anna Papa, Satu Mäkelä, Jukka Mustonen, Tatjana Avšič-Županc, Antti Vaheri, Valeria P Martinez, Tomas Strandin
We analyzed the levels of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in acute hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The levels of tPA commonly increased in both diseases, whereas PAI-1 correlated with disease severity in HCPS but not in HFRS.
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450212/fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-refractory-clostridium-difficile-infection-interrupts-25-year-history-of-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Tiffany Wang, Colleen S Kraft, Michael H Woodworth, Tanvi Dhere, Molly E Eaton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450211/-actinotignum-schaalii-infection-a-clandestine-cause-of-sterile-pyuria
#5
Lucy E Horton, Sanjay R Mehta, Lejla Aganovic, Joshua Fierer
Actinotignum schaalii is an underappreciated cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older adults. The diagnosis may be missed due to difficulty isolating and identifying the organism. Complications can result because the organism is intrinsically resistant to 2 commonly used drugs to treat UTI, as illustrated by this case.
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450210/sofosbuvir-based-direct-acting-antiviral-therapies-for-hcv-in-people-receiving-opioid-substitution-therapy-an-analysis-of-phase-3-studies
#6
Jason Grebely, Jordan J Feld, David Wyles, Mark Sulkowski, Liyun Ni, Joe Llewellyn, Heshaam M Mir, Nika Sajed, Luisa M Stamm, Robert H Hyland, John McNally, Diana M Brainard, Ira Jacobson, Stefan Zeuzem, Marc Bourlière, Graham Foster, Nezam Afdhal, Gregory J Dore
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antiviral therapy is effective among people receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST), but studies are limited by small numbers of nongenotype 1 (GT1) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment completion, adherence, SVR12, and safety of sofosbuvir-based therapies in HCV patients receiving and not receiving OST. Methods: Ten phase 3 studies of sofosbuvir-based regimens included ION (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir ± ribavirin for 8, 12, or 24 weeks in GT1), ASTRAL (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks in GT1-6), and POLARIS (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir in GT1-6)...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450209/creation-and-assessment-of-a-clinical-predictive-calculator-and-mortality-associated-with-candida-krusei-bloodstream-infections
#7
Ryan Kronen, Kevin Hsueh, Charlotte Lin, William G Powderly, Andrej Spec
Background: Candida krusei bloodstream infection (CK BSI) is associated with high mortality, but whether this is due to underlying comorbidities in affected patients or the organism itself is unknown. Identifying patient characteristics that are associated with CK BSI is crucial for clinical decision-making and prognosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized patients with Candida BSI at our institution between 2002 and 2015. Data were collected on demographics, comorbidities, medications, procedures, central lines, vital signs, and laboratory values...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435471/hiv-1-drug-resistance-and-third-line-therapy-outcomes-in-patients-failing-second-line-therapy-in-zimbabwe
#8
Cleophas Chimbetete, David Katzenstein, Tinei Shamu, Adrian Spoerri, Janne Estill, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser
Objectives: To analyze the patterns and risk factors of HIV drug resistance mutations among patients failing second-line treatment and to describe early treatment responses to recommended third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a national referral HIV clinic in Zimbabwe. Methods: Patients on boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimens for more than 6 months with treatment failure confirmed by 2 viral load (VL) tests >1000 copies/mL were genotyped, and susceptibility to available antiretroviral drugs was estimated by the Stanford HIVdb program...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423424/what-will-it-take-to-reduce-hiv-incidence-in-the-united-states-a-mathematical-modeling-analysis
#9
Allison Perry, Parastu Kasaie, David W Dowdy, Maunank Shah
Background: The National HIV/AIDS Strategy has set ambitious goals to improve the epidemic in the United States. However, there is a paucity of usable program-level benchmarks tied to population-level epidemiologic goals. Our objective was to define tangible benchmarks for annual rates along the care continuum that are likely to translate to meaningful reductions in incidence. Methods: We used a validated mathematical model of HIV transmission and care engagement to characterize care continuum parameters that would translate into 50% reductions in incidence by 2025, compared with a base case scenario of the current US care continuum...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423423/rapid-reversal-of-complete-binocular-blindness-with-high-dose-corticosteroids-and-lumbar-drain-in-a-solid-organ-transplant-recipient-with-cryptococcal-meningitis-and-immune-reconstitution-syndrome-first-case-study-and-literature-review
#10
Zoe Weiss, Nihaal Mehta, Su Nandar Aung, Michael Migliori, Dimitrios Farmakiotis
Blindness is a rare, devastating, usually permanent complication of cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We present the first case of complete vision loss in a solid organ transplant recipient with CM treated with placement of a lumbar drain who had a dramatic visual recovery that started after 3 doses of high-dose steroids.
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423422/acute-appendicitis-as-the-initial-clinical-presentation-of-primary-hiv-1-infection
#11
Mariane H Schleimann, Steffen Leth, Astrid R Krarup, Jesper Mortensen, Bente Barstad, Matthias Zaccarin, Paul W Denton, Rajesh Mohey
We report a case of an adolescent who presented at our emergency department with acute abdominal pain. While the initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis, a secondary and coincidental diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection was made. Concurrent and subsequent clinical and molecular biology findings form the basis of our argument that primary HIV-1 infection was the cause of acute appendicitis in this individual.
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423421/an-updated-review-of-iclaprim-a-potent-and-rapidly-bactericidal-antibiotic-for-the-treatment-of-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-and-nosocomial-pneumonia-caused-by-gram-positive-including-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#12
REVIEW
David B Huang, Catherine D Strader, James S MacDonald, Mark VanArendonk, Richard Peck, Thomas Holland
New antibiotics are needed because of the increased morbidity and mortality associated with multidrug-resistant bacteria. Iclaprim, a bacterial dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, not currently approved, is being studied for the treatment of skin infections and nosocomial pneumonia caused by Gram-positve bacteria, including multidrug-resistant bacteria. Iclaprim showed noninferiority at -10% to linezolid in 1 of 2 phase 3 studies for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections with a weight-based dose (0...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423420/trends-in-kindergarten-rates-of-vaccine-exemption-and-state-level-policy-2011-2016
#13
Saad B Omer, Rachael M Porter, Kristen Allen, Daniel A Salmon, Robert A Bednarczyk
Background: Kindergarten-entry vaccination requirements have played an important role in controlling vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Forty-eight states and the District of Colombia offer nonmedical exemptions to vaccines, ranging in stringency. Methods: We analyzed state-level exemption data from 2011 to 2012 through 2015 to 2016 school years. States were categorized by exemption ease and type of exemption allowed. We calculated nonmedical exemption rates for each year in the sample and stratified by exemption ease, type, and 2 trend categories: 2011-12 through 2012-13 and 2013-14 through 2015-16 school years...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410975/low-levels-of-immunoglobulins-and-mannose-binding-lectin-are-not-associated-with-etiology-severity-or-outcome-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#14
William W Siljan, Jan C Holter, Ståle H Nymo, Einar Husebye, Thor Ueland, Lillemor Skattum, Vidar Bosnes, Peter Garred, Stig S Frøland, Tom E Mollnes, Pål Aukrust, Lars Heggelund
Background: Disease severity and outcome in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) depend on the host and on the challenge of the causal microorganism(s). We measured levels of immunoglobulins (Igs) and complement in 257 hospitalized adults with CAP and examined the association of low levels of Igs or complement to microbial etiology, disease severity, and short-term and long-term outcome. Methods: Serum Igs were analyzed in blood samples obtained at admission and at 6 weeks postdischarge if admission levels were low...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410974/bacteremia-and-septic-arthritis-due-to-a-nontoxigenic-strain-of-clostridium-difficile-in-a-patient-with-sickle-cell-disease
#15
Emilie Hill, Adrienne D Workman, Francesca Lee, Rita Hollaway, Dominick Cavuoti, Bonnie C Prokesch
A 22-year-old female with sickle cell disease presented with fevers, bilateral knee pain, and lethargy. Laboratory data revealed a leukocytosis and lactic acidosis. Blood and synovial fluid cultures grew a non-toxin-producing strain of Clostridium difficile. This case highlights the fact that nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile can cause significant disease.
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404380/erratum
#16
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx156.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx156.].
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404379/erratum
#17
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx073.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx073.].
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399598/long-acting-lipoglycopeptides-for-gram-positive-bacteremia-at-the-end-of-life-to-facilitate-hospice-care-a-report-of-3-cases
#18
Rupak Datta, Dayna McManus, Jeffrey Topal, Manisha Juthani-Mehta
Administering and monitoring intravenous antimicrobials may cause discomfort in patients at the end of life and delay transition to hospice. We describe 3 patients with terminal cancer with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus gallolyticus , and Granulicatella adiacens bacteremia who were managed with the long-acting lipoglycopeptide oritavancin to facilitate discharge to hospice.
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399597/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-a-20-year-old-man-with-fever-rash-and-chest-pain
#19
Michelle C Sabo, Jim Boonyaratanakornkit, Robert Cybulski, Noam E Kopmar, Rosario V Freeman, Ferric C Fang, Susan M Graham
Infection with Helicobacter cinaedi can encompass a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including fever, rash, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and meningitis. The present case demonstrates the ability of H cinaedi to masquerade as acute rheumatic fever and represents the first reported case of cardiac tamponade caused by H cinaedi.
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399596/cost-effectiveness-of-who-recommended-algorithms-for-tb-case-finding-at-ethiopian-hiv-clinics
#20
Max W Adelman, Deborah A McFarland, Mulugeta Tsegaye, Abraham Aseffa, Russell R Kempker, Henry M Blumberg
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends active tuberculosis (TB) case finding and a rapid molecular diagnostic test (Xpert MTB/RIF) to detect TB among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in high-burden settings. Information on the cost-effectiveness of these recommended strategies is crucial for their implementation. Methods: We conducted a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis comparing 2 algorithms for TB screening and diagnosis at Ethiopian HIV clinics: (1) WHO-recommended symptom screen combined with Xpert for PLHIV with a positive symptom screen and (2) current recommended practice algorithm (CRPA; based on symptom screening, smear microscopy, and clinical TB diagnosis)...
January 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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