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Open Forum Infectious Diseases

Jason A Trubiano, Olivia Smibert, Abby Douglas, Misha Devchand, Belinda Lambros, Natasha E Holmes, Kyra Y Chua, Elizabeth J Phillips, Monica A Slavin
Antibiotic allergies are reported by up to 1 in 4 cancer patients, almost 50% of which are considered low risk and precede the cancer diagnosis. We demonstrate the successful and safe implementation of a pilot oral penicillin challenge program for cancer patients with low-risk penicillin allergies, increasing the use of penicillin and narrow-spectrum beta-lactams post-testing.
December 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Katarina Trčko, Lea Hošnjak, Blanka Kušar, Tomaž Mark Zorec, Boštjan J Kocjan, Miljenko Križmarić, Katja Seme, Jovan Miljković, Boštjan Luzar, Mario Poljak
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) manifests as small, umbilicated papules caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). The extent of clinical misdiagnosis of MC is unknown. Combined clinical, histopathological, and virological evaluation of 203 consecutive patients with clinical diagnosis of MC treated at a university hospital during a 5-year period showed the correct clinical diagnosis in 188 of 203 (92.6%) patients. All 15 clinically misdiagnosed MC lesions were histopathologically and virologically confirmed as either common or anogenital warts caused by different human papillomaviruses...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Elliot L Rank, Thomas Lodise, Lisa Avery, Eve Bankert, Erica Dobson, Ghinwa Dumyati, Stephen Hassett, Marina Keller, Matthew Pearsall, Teresa Lubowski, Joseph J Carreno
International guidelines recommend using local susceptibility data to direct empiric therapy for acute uncomplicated cystitis. We evaluated outpatient urinary isolate susceptibility trends in New York State. Nitrofurantoin had the lowest resistance prevalence whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones had higher prevalences. This study highlights the need for local outpatient antimicrobial stewardship programs.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Marie-Laure Chaix, Isabelle Charreau, Claire Pintado, Constance Delaugerre, Nadia Mahjoub, Laurent Cotte, Catherine Capitant, François Raffi, Eric Cua, Gilles Pialoux, Cécile Tremblay, Laurence Meyer, Jean-Michel Molina
We evaluated the impact of on-demand oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1/2 incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the ANRS IPERGAY trial. Serum samples were tested at baseline and at the last visit for HSV-1/2 antibodies. Overall HSV-1 incidence was 11.7 per 100 person-years; 16.2 and 7.8 per 100 person-years in the TDF/FTC and placebo arm, respectively ( P = .19). Overall HSV-2 incidence was 7...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Corinne Willame, Marije Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Emilia Gvozdenović, Katrin Kochems, Anouk Oordt-Speets, Nicolas Praet, Rosa van Hoorn, Dominique Rosillon
Background: Gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus accounts for considerable morbidity in young children. We aimed to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the oral rotavirus vaccine Rotarix , as measured by laboratory-confirmed rotavirus infection after referral to hospital and/or emergency departments in children aged <5 years with gastroenteritis. Methods: We performed a systematic search for peer-reviewed studies conducted in real-life settings published between 2006 and 2016 and a meta-analysis to calculate the overall Rotarix VE, which was further discriminated through stratified analyses...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Lauren K Freeman, Jasmine N Lindsay, Sarah Elizabeth B Davis, Brian F Norman, April W Thompkins, Vera P Luther, Christopher A Ohl, P Brandon Bookstaver
We describe the proportion of pharmacist representation among current and corresponding prior editions of Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Pharmacist representation was 13% and 21% in previous and current editions, respectively, increasing significantly since 2011. We advocate for continued collaborations between IDSA and pharmacy organizations to enhance multidisciplinary representation in CPGs.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Meghan N Jeffres, Lauren R Biehle, Conan MacDougall
Background: The growing need for clinicians with antimicrobial stewardship (AS) skills has resulted in an examination of educational methods for pharmacy and medical learners. This study explores characteristics associated with student assessment of didactic infectious diseases (ID) education quality and variables associated with a career interest in ID and/or AS. Methods: Infectious diseases faculty from US pharmacy schools were sent a 15-question survey in September 2017...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofy063.].
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Francesca Colavita, Serena Vita, Eleonora Lalle, Fabrizio Carletti, Licia Bordi, Donatella Vincenti, Irene Pozzetto, Massimo Aiuti, Francesco Vairo, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Miriam Lichtner, Concetta Castilletti
Chikungunya fever is caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and is generally considered a self-limiting disease. However, severe clinical presentations with a high mortality rate have been reported in association with underlying medical conditions. This study reports the molecular characterization of the virus and an abnormal pattern of circulating cytokines in a unique lethal CHIKV case during the 2017 outbreak in Italy, which involved an elderly patient with underlying cardiac disease. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines revealed a strong increase of interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-β, as well as interleukin-6, suggesting a possible role of type-I IFN in the cytokine storm, which may be correlated with unfavorable prognosis of CHIKV infection...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
John A Woller Iii, Victoria L Walsh, Chad Robichaux, Vinod H Thourani, Jesse T Jacob
Background: The use of valve surgery for infective endocarditis (IE) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients may be different than in the general population. We assessed predictors of early surgery in ESRD patients with IE. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among dialysis patients with left-sided IE between 2005 and 2015. Indications for surgery were based on current endocarditis guidelines. Patients were categorized as early valve replacement surgery or delayed/no surgery...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Tinzar Basein, Bradley J Gardiner, Gabriela M Andujar Vazquez, Andrew S Joel Chandranesan, Arthur R Rabson, Shira Doron, David R Snydman
Broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is increasingly used in patients with culture-negative infections; however, few studies have assessed the diagnostic utility of this test in this context. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who had clinical specimens sent for broad-range PCR, aiming to evaluate performance and determine impact on patient management. Organisms were identified in 21/71 samples. High numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on Gram stain (odds ratio [OR], 4.17; P = ...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Andrej Spec, Carlos Mejia-Chew, William G Powderly, Oliver A Cornely
Cryptococcocis is an opportunistic fungal infection with high morbidity and mortality. Guidelines to aid clinicians regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment can be extensive and challenging to comply with. There is no tool to measure guideline adherence. To create such a tool, we reviewed current guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the World Health Organization, the American Society of Transplantation, and recent significant publications to select the strongest recommendations as vital components of our scoring tool...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Kara S McGee, Nwora Lance Okeke, Christopher B Hurt, Mehri S McKellar
Transmitted drug resistance to the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) class of antiretrovirals is very rare. We present a case of a treatment-naive female patient with human immunodeficiency virus harboring resistance to all INSTIs, including bictegravir and dolutegravir.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Lingpeng Shan, Abdus Sattar, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
Background: This study was conducted to explore the associations between serum albumin and markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. Methods: We conducted a nested study within in the SATURN-HIV trial in which 147 HIV+ adults on stable antiretroviral therapy were (1) virally suppressed, (2) had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level <130 mg/dL, and (3) were randomized to 10 mg daily rosuvastatin or placebo...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Catherine E Oldenburg, Ali Sié, Boubacar Coulibaly, Lucienne Ouermi, Clarisse Dah, Charlemagne Tapsoba, Till Bärnighausen, Kathryn J Ray, Lina Zhong, Susie Cummings, Elodie Lebas, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan, Thuy Doan
Background: Exposure to antibiotics may result in alterations to the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, few trials have been conducted, and observational studies are subject to confounding by indication. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of 3 commonly used pediatric antibiotics on the intestinal microbiome in healthy preschool children. Methods: Children aged 6-59 months were randomized (1:1:1:1) to a 5-day course of 1 of 3 antibiotics, including amoxicillin (25 mg/kg/d twice-daily doses), azithromycin (10 mg/kg dose on day 1 and then 5 mg/kg once daily for 4 days), cotrimoxazole (240 mg once daily), or placebo...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Lediya T Cheru, Elli A Park, Charles F Saylor, Tricia H Burdo, Kathleen V Fitch, Sara Looby, Jeffrey Weiner, Jake A Robinson, Jane Hubbard, Martin Torriani, Janet Lo
Background: Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) has been shown to be a marker of intestinal damage among people living with HIV. We hypothesized that I-FABP would be increased in chronically HIV-infected patents more than elite controllers and would relate to specific nutrient intake and body composition. Methods: In an observational study, serum I-FABP was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anthropometric measurements, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-slice abdominal computed tomography were obtained to assess body composition, as well as visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas (VAT and SAT)...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Alex Studemeister, Marcos N Alvarez, Lucy Studemeister
A 30-year-old woman presenting with hemoptysis followed by acute respiratory distress developed a diagnostic pulmonary radiographic finding, called the sign of the camalote, indicative of ruptured hydatid cyst. Her computed tomography scan demonstrated the characteristic detached parasitic membrane floating on cystic fluid, reminiscent of Amazonian camalote leaves. She was managed successfully surgically. Ruptured hydatid cysts may present as a diagnostic challenge, in which the sign of the camalote may provide an important clue for this serious complication...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Christina R Vargas, Anubhav Kanwar, Khalid M Dousa, Marion J Skalweit, David Rowe, James Gatherwright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Judith M Martin, Raghunandan Avula, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Chyongchiou Jeng Lin, William T Horne, Uma R Chandran, Jennifer P Nagg, Richard K Zimmerman, Kelly S Cole, John F Alcorn
Background: The reasons for differences in vaccine effectiveness between live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) are not clear. Methods: Blood samples were obtained before vaccination and at days 7 and 21 postvaccination with 2015-2016 quadrivalent IIV or LAIV. Serologic response to the vaccine was measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Targeted RNA sequencing and serum cytokine analysis were performed. Paired analyses were used to determine gene expression and were compared between IIV and LAIV recipients...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Laura N Walti, Julia Steinrücken, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
Although the use of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a new prodrug of tenofovir, was safe and efficacious in clinical trials, real-world data from multimorbid individuals are scarce. Among 10 persons living with HIV with previous tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-induced nephrotoxicity, renal function remained stable, and proteinuria decreased in several patients after the switch to TAF.
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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