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Open Forum Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026872/top-questions-in-id-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv
#1
Douglas S Krakower, Stephanie E Cohen, Kenneth H Mayer
HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly efficacious at preventing HIV acquisition. This review discusses ways to identify candidates for PrEP, recommended PrEP regimens, baseline and follow-up evaluations, applications of PrEP for HIV-serodiscordant couples, resources to address financial barriers, investigational strategies for PrEP, and educational resources for clinicians and patients.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026871/tigecycline-as-a-second-line-agent-for-legionnaires-disease-in-severely-ill-patients
#2
Deepika Slawek, Diana Altshuler, Yanina Dubrovskaya, Eddie Louie
Treatment of Legionnaires' disease in severely ill or immunosuppressed patients presents a clinical challenge. Tigecycline (TG) achieves high concentrations intracellularly and has been shown to be effective against L. pneumophila in animal and cell models. We report our experience using TG as second-line therapy. Clinical response was seen in most patients after switching to TG alone or as a combination therapy.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026870/comparing-injecting-drug-users-with-others-receiving-outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy
#3
Pauline M Dobson, Mark R Loewenthal, Kellie Schneider, Katy Lai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026869/associations-between-antiretroviral-treatment-and-avascular-bone-necrosis-the-swiss-hiv-cohort-study
#4
Cornelia Bayard, Bruno Ledergerber, Markus Flepp, Thanh Lecompte, Estelle Moulin, Matthias Hoffmann, Rainer Weber, Cornelia Staehelin, Caroline Di Benedetto, Christoph A Fux, Philip E Tarr, Barbara Hasse
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have an increased risk of avascular bone necrosis (AVN). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and particularly protease inhibitors (PI) have been implicated as a risk factor. We aimed to study the associations of ART with the occurrence of AVN among Swiss HIV Cohort Study participants (SHCS). METHODS: We used incidence density sampling to perform a case control study within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) comparing prospectively collected AVN cases and controls by conditional logistic regression analysis...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026868/antifungal-susceptibility-testing-practices-at-acute-care-hospitals-enrolled-in-the-national-healthcare-safety-network-united-states-2011-2015
#5
Snigdha Vallabhaneni, Mathew Sapiano, Lindsey M Weiner, Shawn R Lockhart, Shelley Magill
We assessed availability of antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) at nearly 4000 acute care hospitals enrolled in the National Healthcare Safety Network. In 2015, 95% offered any AFST, 28% offered AFST at their own laboratory or at an affiliated medical center, and 33% offered reflexive AFST. Availability of AFST improved from 2011 to 2015, but substantial gaps exist in the availability of AFST.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026867/prevalence-of-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-the-united-states-predominated-by-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Bin Cai, Roger Echols, Glenn Magee, Juan Camilo Arjona Ferreira, Gareth Morgan, Mari Ariyasu, Takuko Sawada, Tsutae Den Nagata
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant (CR) Gram-negative pathogens are recognized as a major health concern. This study examined the prevalence of infections due to 4 CR Gram-negative species (Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli) in the United States and assessed their impact on hospital stays and mortality. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed infection due to any of the 4 Gram-negative pathogens were identified from the Premier Healthcare Database...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026866/a-prospective-observational-study-of-the-epidemiology-management-and-outcomes-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-due-to-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#7
Oryan Henig, Eric Cober, Sandra S Richter, Federico Perez, Robert A Salata, Robert C Kalayjian, Richard R Watkins, Steve Marshall, Susan D Rudin, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Andrea M Hujer, Kristine M Hujer, Yohei Doi, Scott Evans, Vance G Fowler, Robert A Bonomo, David van Duin, Keith S Kaye
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to characterize the epidemiology, management, and outcomes of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and colonization due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). METHODS: Patients from the Consortium on Resistance Against Carbapenem in Klebsiella and Other Enterobacteriaceae (CRACKLE-1) from December 24, 2011 to October 1, 2014 with wound cultures positive for CRE were included in the study. Predictors of surgical intervention were analyzed...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979922/clinic-based-urinary-lipoarabinomannan-as-a-biomarker-of-clinical-disease-severity-and-mortality-among-antiretroviral-therapy-naive-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-in-south-africa
#8
Paul K Drain, Elena Losina, Sharon M Coleman, Janet Giddy, Douglas Ross, Jeffrey N Katz, Kenneth A Freedberg, Ingrid V Bassett
BACKGROUND: Urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) has limited sensitivity for diagnosing active human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) disease, but LAM screening at HIV diagnosis might identify adults with more severe clinical disease or greater risk of mortality. METHODS: We enrolled antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected adults from 4 clinics in Durban. Nurses performed urine LAM testing using a rapid assay (Determine TB LAM) graded from low (1+) to high (≥3+) intensity...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979921/chlamydia-infection-between-men-and-women-a-cross-sectional-study-of-heterosexual-partnerships
#9
Sarah Huffam, Eric P F Chow, Charussri Leeyaphan, Christopher K Fairley, Jane S Hocking, Samuel Phillips, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Clare Bellhouse, Catriona S Bradshaw, Glenda Fehler, Suzanne M Garland, Marcus Y Chen
BACKGROUND: Studies of sexual partnerships can further our understanding of the sexual transmission of chlamydia, which is important for informing public health interventions and clinical management. The aim of this study was to ascertain among heterosexual dyads the proportion concordantly infected with chlamydia and factors associated with infection between partners. METHODS: This study was conducted at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between January 2006 and March 2015...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959701/disabling-dactylitis-and-tenosynovitis-due-to-mycobacterium-haemophilum-in-a-patient-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome
#10
Michael H Woodworth, Carina Marquez, Henry Chambers, Anne Luetkemeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959700/advanced-human-immunodeficiency-virus-disease-at-diagnosis-in-mozambique-and-swaziland
#11
Stephanie A Kujawski, Matthew R Lamb, Maria Lahuerta, Margaret L McNairy, Laurence Ahoua, Fatima Abacassamo, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Averie Gachuhi, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Batya Elul
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a prerequisite to maximizing individual and societal benefits of antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Adults ≥18 years of age testing HIV positive at 10 health facilities in Mozambique and Swaziland received point-of-care CD4(+) cell count testing immediately after diagnosis. We examined median CD4(+) cell count at diagnosis, the proportion diagnosed with advanced HIV disease (CD4(+) cell count ≤350 cells/μL) and severe immunosuppression (CD4(+) cell count ≤100 cells/μL), and determinants of the latter 2 measures...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948186/erratum
#12
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx122.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofx122.].
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948185/erratum
#13
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofw263.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofw263.].
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948184/acute-liver-failure-due-to-echovirus-9-associated-with-persistent-b-cell-depletion-from-rituximab
#14
Kristina L Bajema, Paul D Simonson, Alex L Greninger, Basak Çoruh, Paul S Pottinger, Renuka Bhattacharya, Iris W Liou, Florencia G Jalikis, Corinne L Fligner, Robert M Rakita
We describe a case of fatal acute liver failure due to echovirus 9 in the setting of persistent B-cell depletion and hypogammaglobulinemia 3 years after rituximab therapy. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing further specified the etiologic agent. Early recognition may provide an opportunity for interventions including intravenous immunoglobulin and liver transplantation.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948183/infliximab-biosimilars-a-promising-but-unusual-treatment-for-mycobacterial-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients
#15
Jesús Troya, Guillermo Cuevas, Pablo Ryan, Victorino Díez, Elsa Izquierdo, Ismael Escobar, Javier Solís
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome can present as a paradoxical reaction after initiation of antiretroviral treatment in patients with severe immunosuppression and underlying infections. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has often been associated with mycobacteria, and the clinical response to traditional treatment with corticosteroids is not always satisfactory. Consequently, administration of an infliximab biosimilar could lead to an improvement in the clinical status of these patients.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948182/postdischarge-outcomes-of-pyogenic-liver-abscesses-single-center-experience-2007-2012
#16
Megan C Gallagher, Mary-Margaret Andrews
BACKGROUND: Pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) are increasingly managed by percutaneous treatment instead of surgery, but there are limited data about postdischarge outcomes. Postdischarge services and factors predicting poor outcomes have not been described. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, descriptive case series at a single center assessing treatment and outpatient follow-up for patients treated for PLA from 2007 to 2012. We reviewed the electronic medical record for patient characteristics and outcomes...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948181/liver-cirrhosis-as-a-risk-factor-for-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-failure-in-real-life-hepatitis-c-virus-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection
#17
Christoph Boesecke, Patrick Ingiliz, Florian Berger, Thomas Lutz, Knud Schewe, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Axel Baumgarten, Stefan Christensen, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Stefan Mauss
Current hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment guidelines recommend treating HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected individuals similar to HCV-monoinfected individuals. Recently inferior response rates to direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in HCV/HIV coinfection have been reported. Our German hepatitis C cohort (GECCO) cohort data show that coinfected patients with liver cirrhosis are less likely to achieve viral eradication.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948180/safety-and-efficacy-of-ombitasvir-paritaprevir-with-ritonavir-%C3%A2-dasabuvir-with-or-without-ribavirin-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-and-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-or-genotype-4-coinfection-turquoise-i-part-2
#18
Jürgen K Rockstroh, Chloe Orkin, Rolando M Viani, David Wyles, Anne F Luetkemeyer, Adriano Lazzarin, Ruth Soto-Malave, Mark R Nelson, Sanjay R Bhagani, Hartwig H F Klinker, Giuliano Rizzardini, Pierre-Marie Girard, Cristina Tural, Nancy S Shulman, Niloufar Mobashery, Yiran B Hu, Linda M Fredrick, Tami Pilot-Matias, Roger Trinh, Edward Gane
BACKGROUND: Ombitasvir, paritaprevir with ritonavir, and dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV) ±ribavirin (RBV) are approved to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 4 infection. Here, we investigate the safety and efficacy of OBV/PTV/r + DSV ±RBV for HCV genotype 1, and OBV/PTV/r + RBV for HCV genotype 4, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 coinfected patients with or without compensated cirrhosis. METHODS: TURQUOISE-I, Part 2 is a phase 3 multicenter study...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948179/plasmodium-falciparum-histidine-rich-protein-2-plasma-concentrations-are-higher-in-retinopathy-negative-cerebral-malaria-than-in-severe-malarial-anemia
#19
Gregory S Park, Robert O Opoka, Estela Shabani, Alexis Wypyszynski, Benjamin Hanisch, Chandy C John
BACKGROUND: Malaria retinopathy has been proposed as marker of "true" cerebral malaria (CM), ie, coma due to Plasmodium falciparum vs coma due to other causes, with incidental P falciparum parasitemia. Plasma P falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) concentrations distinguish retinopathy-positive (RP) from retinopathy-negative (RN) CM but have not been compared between RN CM and other forms of severe malaria or asymptomatic parasitemia (AP). METHODS: We compared plasma PfHRP2 concentrations in 260 children with CM (247 examined for retinopathy), 228 children with severe malarial anemia (SMA), and 30 community children with AP...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948178/snowshoe-hare-virus-causing-meningoencephalitis-in-a-young-adult-from-northern-manitoba-canada
#20
Lawrence Lau, Beverly Wudel, Kamran Kadkhoda, Yoav Keynan
We describe a dramatic presentation of meningoencephalitis, in a young Aboriginal male from Northern Manitoba, due to infection with the Snowshoe hare virus, a member of the California serogroup viruses. Snowshoe hare virus represents a rare cause of meningoencephalitis, and, to date, few Canadian cases have been described in the literature.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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